(19)
(11)EP 3 414 505 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.01.2021 Bulletin 2021/02

(21)Application number: 17707969.6

(22)Date of filing:  10.02.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F26B 3/18(2006.01)
F26B 17/20(2006.01)
F26B 3/24(2006.01)
F26B 23/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IS2017/050002
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/138025 (17.08.2017 Gazette  2017/33)

(54)

A MECHANICAL VAPOUR RECOMPRESSION APPARATUS

EIN MECHANISCHES BRÜDENVERDICHTUNGSGERÄT

UN DISPOSITIF DE RECOMPRESSION MÉCANIQUE DE LA VAPEUR


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 10.02.2016 IS 50142

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.12.2018 Bulletin 2018/51

(73)Proprietor: Hedinn Hf.
221 Hafnarfjordur (IS)

(72)Inventor:
  • PALSSON, Gunnar
    IS-107 Reykjavík (IS)

(74)Representative: Arnason Faktor 
Intellectual Property Consulting Gudridarstig 2-4
113 Reykjavik
113 Reykjavik (IS)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 553 368
CN-A- 103 708 697
WO-A1-2015/189864
US-A- 4 581 829
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Field



    [0001] The present invention relates to a new device for drying material, such as organic material. More specifically the present invention relates to a dryer apparatus with disks and scrapers for heat exchange and evaporation of the water phase from any material.

    Introduction



    [0002] Prior art steam dryers are generally designed as a cylinder having a steam heated jacket throughout and a steam heated rotor, with hollow flights on the rotor. Material sticking to heat exchange surfaces makes control of drying problematic. These devices need to be cleaned very frequently, which is time consuming and prevents continuous use.

    [0003] The problems with such device are insufficient scraping to prevent material build-up on the heating surface and material can burn thereon. Furthermore, it tends to be structurally heavy and expensive with a high resistance to rotation necessary for this application.

    [0004] FR2712076 discloses a dryer for wet products comprising a row of parallel hollow circular discs spaced along the length of a chamber. The discs are fixed to the walls of the chamber and a heat-exchange fluid flows through these discs during the drying process. Plates, which are fixed to a rotating shaft containing scrapers for scraping the surfaces of the discs are arranged between the discs.

    [0005] The MVR method (Mechanical Vapour Recompression) is well known in process industry normally used in falling film tube evaporators. The MVR technology tasks steam from evaporators and uses high pressure fans in a duct to increase the pressure and the temperature of the steam before introducing it back into the system to facilitate further evaporation in the system. The method is extremely energy economical compared with traditional multi-stage evaporation. It is however limited in that it is difficult and expensive to increase the pressure/temperature mechanically of more than a few degrees, which means that relatively big heating surfaces are needed for each kg evaporated.

    [0006] CN103708697 discloses a traditional evaporation apparatus with discs on an axis where the heat exchange media enters the axis at one end and flows into the discs and out at the other end. A duct leading from the end where steam, which is used as a heat exchange media, exits the axis is directed in a duct via an MVR device and then back to the intake end of the axis. The problem with such a device is that new steam needs to be feed into the system as well to initiate the process. Furthermore, the middle part of the axis and the discs will eventually contain gases which reduces the heat exchange capacity of the system.

    [0007] US 4,581,829 discloses a chamber device for removing the water phase from material in two operational sections and having separate surrounding jackets as heat exchange elements for each section in the chamber.

    [0008] WO 2015/189864 a dryer device with a plurality of parallel arranged hollow semi-cylindrical disc-shaped heat exchange elements arranged in a chamber having a corresponding semi-cvlindrical cross section, where the hollow semi-cvlindrical disc-shaped heat exchange elements connect to a jacket surrounding the chamber for circulation heat exchange medium through the jacket and the disc-shaped heat exchange elements.

    Summary



    [0009] Removal of the water phase from material, such as organic material in the production of high quality low-heat generated meal, is usually done by an evaporation process. The present invention provides a new device for both cooking and drying any material having a water phase.

    [0010] The present invention is a device according to claim 1 and a method according to claim 5. The present invention provides thus a device and a method to overcome or ameliorate the aforementioned drawbacks of the prior art and to provide an improved and/or alternative and/or additional method or device for heating or removing a water phase from any material. The present invention provides a device with a simple and robust design with a large area for heat exchange and instead of moving the material in circles during rotation of the axis, the material is stirred with scrapers that scrape both the discs and the inner surface of the container. The present invention provides a faster process of cooking and drying and it prevents the material from burning on the surfaces of the device during the process. The heat exchange surface is therefore more efficient and the device easier to control. The present invention provides a device and a method where due to the fact that the discs do not connect to the whole circumference of the cylindrical portion of the container, in addition to the space above the discs, the organic material can travel easily from one space to another from the in-feed end to the out-feed end of the container. The present invention provides a device and a method where mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) technology is used to increase the temperature of the steam generated in the device and to use that steam to heat up at least a part of the heat exchange surfaces of the device. In a system and apparatus such as the one of the present invention, where steam from a boiler as well as secondary steam from the material being dried is used as heat exchange media, the secondary steam will always contain a large amount og light and heavy gases which will make the heat exchange process less efficient. By using individual discs which open into jackets surrounding the chamber, it is possible to use a set of discs for different jackets and thereby have different temperature and function in the part of the chamber with the different sets of discs and jackets. Furthermore, as the discs are connected to the jackets, it is possible to vent out the gases from the jackets during the process.

    [0011] The present invention provides a new design which also provides a new type of dryer apparatus, where the function of dryer is divided into three or more areas of the dryer chamber. One area is defined by a separate jacket arranged around a part of the chamber of the dryer and conducting heating media from an outside source into the respective discs for that function area in the chamber. A second area is defined by a separate jacket arranged around a part of the chamber using the MVR technology to take steam from the chamber and introducing the steam into the jacket for this function area. A third chamber is defined by a separate jacket arranged around a part of the chamber and conducting steam from the chamber directly into the jacket arranged around this third function area of the dryer and thereby into the respective discs of that function area. The increased thermal conductivity, compared with conventional steam dryers, requires smaller heating surfaces to evaporate/dry a certain amount of moisture with relatively low temperature difference between sides.

    [0012] It is the combination of a) the large area for heat exchange, b) the use of two or more sets of discs and jackets to divide the chamber into separate functional areas, and c) the use of the MVR technology to increase the temperature of the steam generated in the device and to use that steam to heat up at least a part of the heat exchange surfaces of the device, which provides the improved device resulting in an improved energy economical device and method for drying material. Furthermore, the device and the process provided by the present invention used for drying wet material only needs regulation by adjusting the amount of steam from a steam boiler into the first jacket to maintain a relatively constant low pressure inside the chamber. The new device also makes better use of the entire surface of the discs in the dryer. By using the MVR technology and effective large heat exchange surfaces obtained by individual discs connected to separate jackets, the apparatus of the present invention reduces considerably the energy usage in evaporation or drying of sticky liquid or of wet material. The object(s) underlying the present invention is (are) particularly solved by the features defined in the independent claims. The dependent claims relate to preferred embodiments of the present invention. Further additional and/or alternative embodiments are discussed below.

    [0013] The present invention provides an apparatus for heating or removing a water phase from material. The apparatus comprises a chamber for receiving material for drying, where the chamber further comprises an inlet for the material, a lower drying compartment with a cylindrical or semi-cylindrical shape, an upper steam portion for receiving steam from the lower drying compartment and an outlet for delivering or exiting dried material from the apparatus. The where the chamber is divided into at least a first and a second section, where the first section and the second section each comprise a set of heat exchange elements. The set of heat exchange elements comprises i) a first and second jacket arranged around their corresponding section, and ii) a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments, arranged parallel with space between them in the lower portion of the chamber, each cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartment comprising hollow protrusions connecting the disc-shaped hollow compartments to the corresponding jacket through connection openings. The apparatus further comprises an axis arranged centrally within the container and scrapers attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments. The apparatus further comprises: a) a first duct leading to the first jacket of the first section for feeding steam under pressure from external source into the heat exchange elements of the first section, b) a second duct leading from the upper portion of the chamber to the jacket of the second section for feeding steam generated in the chamber into the heat exchange elements of the second section, wherein one or more high pressure fans in the duct between the upper steam portion and the jacket for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam before injecting it into jacket and its corresponding disc-shaped hollow compartments.

    [0014] According to the invention, the chamber is divided into three sections and the third section comprises third jacket receiving steam directly from the upper steam portion of the chamber through a duct.

    [0015] The present invention also provides a system for heating or removing a water phase from material using the apparatus of the present invention. The system comprises feeding material comprising a water phase into a chamber, removing the water phase from the material using a heat exchange system which generates steam in the upper portion of the chamber, where a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments arranged parallel with space between them in the chamber comprise hollow protrusions connecting the disc-shaped hollow compartments to a jacket through connection openings in the lower drying compartment. The cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into two sets of disks, where i) a duct provides steam through with increased temperature at increased pressure from an external source to the first jacket and the corresponding disc-shaped hollow compartments receiving, and ii) a duct between the upper steam portion and a second jacket having one or more high pressure fans is arranged in the duct the for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam from the upper portion of the chamber and feeding steam at a temperature above 100°C into the second jacket and the corresponding cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments. The system further comprises scraping the outer surface of disc-shaped hollow compartments and the inner surface of the lower drying compartment using scrapers attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis within the container between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments and feeding the dried material out of the chamber through the outlet.

    [0016] According to the invention, the system for heating or removing a water phase from material using the apparatus of the invention chamber is divided into three sections, where the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into three sets of disks and wherein a third duct between the upper steam portion and a third jacket for feeding evaporation from the upper steam portion to a third jacket and the corresponding disc-shaped hollow compartments to warm up and start drying or cooking the material.

    [0017] Therefore, each set of discs is connected to a corresponding jacket and receives steam from that corresponding jacket. The system further comprises scraping the outer surface of disc-shaped hollow compartments and the inner surface of the lower drying compartment using scrapers attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis within the container between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments. Finally the dried material is feed out of the chamber through the outlet. The present invention also provides a method for heating or removing a water phase from material using the apparatus of the present invention. The method comprises the steps of i) feeding material comprising a water phase into a chamber, ii) removing the water phase from the material using a heat exchange system, where the heat exchange system of the apparatus is a two phase system and where the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into two sets of disks, wherein: in a first jacket, positioned around the first part of the lower drying compartment (near the inlet): iii) guiding steam from the upper steam portion 5 through a duct between the upper steam portion and the first jacket, iv) using one or more high pressure fans arranged in the duct the for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam the first jacket, and v) introducing steam at a temperature above 100°C into the first jacket and into the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments. The method further comprises in a second jacket, positioned around the second part of the chamber near the outlet: vi) receiving steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from an external source, and vii) introducing steam at a temperature above 100°C into the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments into the second jacket 6a for drying the material, wherein each set of discs receive steam from each of the three different jackets, viii) scraping the outer surface of disc-shaped hollow compartments and the inner surface of the lower drying compartment using scrapers attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis within the container between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments, and ix) feeding the dried material out of the chamber through the outlet.

    [0018] According to the invention, the method for heating or removing a water phase from material uses the apparatus of the present invention. The method further comprising the steps of: removing the water phase from the material where the heat exchange system of the apparatus is a three phase system and where the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into three sets of disks, where in a third jacket, positioned around the first part of the lower drying compartment the method involves feeding evaporation from the upper steam portion to the disc-shaped hollow compartments to warm up and start drying the material, wherein each set of discs receive steam from each of the three different jackets.

    [0019] In the present context the terms "semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments" and "discs" refers to the same item, namely the discs that are inserted into the container. The disks are not fully cylindrical as they contain connection members to connect to the jacket and a recess for receiving the axle rotating the scrapers. The discs may also have a relatively flat upper side. The connection members are also referred to as hollow protrusions.

    [0020] In the present context, the bottom portion of the container is cylindrical so that the scrapers, which are arranged on the rotating axis, can scrape the inner side of the container as well as the discs. The upper portion may have any shape such as, but not limited to oval, cylindrical, square (as shown in the drawings) etc. as long as it does allow room the scrapers to rotate a whole circle around the axis. The upper portion forms an upper chamber to "loft" the stirred material and to collect the vapour or steam as a result of the heat exchange process.

    [0021] All embodiments and definitions relate to the apparatus and the method of the invention. In the present context the apparatus, the system and method relate to a device for drying material such as organic material for the production of fish-meal or meat-meal or for removing the water phase from salt for example, where the device can either be used as a cooker or a dryer/evaporator.

    [0022] In an embodiment of the present invention, the scrapers extend fully to the inner surface of the container. Furthermore, the arm of each scrape has a spring element to push the scrape closer to the inner surface of the container when possible.

    [0023] In an embodiment of the present invention, the container is raised at the in-feed end above the out-feed end of the container. This is to facilitate the material to slowly migrate from the in-feed end towards the out-feed end of the container.

    [0024] In an embodiment of the present invention, the blade of the scrapers is shaped to direct the organic material over to the next space between two parallel and interspace arranged disc-shaped hollow compartments, from the in-feed end and towards the out-feed end of the container.

    [0025] In an embodiment of the present invention, the inner surface of the container comprises vertical recesses leading to the connection openings in the side of the container.

    [0026] In an embodiment of the present invention, the heating media within the jacket is a steam or vapour.

    [0027] In an embodiment of the present invention, the apparatus is a cooker and/or a dryer.

    [0028] In an embodiment of the present invention, an MVR device, connected in a duct between the upper steam portion of the device and a jacket, receives steam at 100°C and increases the pressure in the duct resulting in a temperature increase in the steam to 105 - 115°C when introduced into the discs through the jacket.

    [0029] In an embodiment of the present invention, the apparatus further comprises second jacket receiving steam through an inlet in the jacket from an outside source. The temperature of the steam from an outside source is in the range of 105-130°C, such as 110-120, or 115-125, or 120-130. It is possible to introduce steam of higher temperature, but that my result in the material burning against the disc surface during the heat exchange.

    [0030] In an embodiment of the present invention, the number of the one or more high pressure fans in the duct between the upper steam portion and the jacket for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam before injecting it into the disc-shaped hollow compartments surrounded by the jacket can be any applicable number such as, but not limited to one, two, three, four or five high pressure fans.

    [0031] In an embodiment of the present invention, the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into three sets of disks, where each set is connected to their respective jacket.

    [0032] In an embodiment of the present invention, the first jacket is positioned around the part of the lower drying compartment near the outlet receiving steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from an external source to continue drying the material.

    [0033] In an embodiment of the present invention, a second jacket is positioned around the middle part of the lower drying compartment to feed steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from one or more fans to introduce heat into the apparatus and the system to continue drying the material.

    [0034] In an embodiment of the present invention, a third jacket is positioned around the first part of the lower drying compartment, near the inlet, to feed evaporation from the upper steam portion to the disc-shaped hollow compartments to warm up and start drying the material or cooking the material.

    [0035] In an embodiment of the present invention, the device further comprises valves in the top and bottom portion of each at least two jackets for releasing light and heavy gasses respectively from the jackets.

    [0036] According to the invention, the chamber is divided into three sections and the third section comprises third jacket receiving steam directly from the upper steam portion of the chamber through a duct.

    [0037] In an embodiment of the present invention, the amount of steam under pressure injected into the first jacket of the chamber can be adjusted to maintain the pressure in the dryer at a predefined range.

    Description of various embodiments



    [0038] In the following, exemplary embodiments of the invention will be described, referring to the figures. The embodiments shown in the drawings are explained with reference numbers. These examples are provided to provide further understanding of the invention, without limiting its scope. The skilled person will understand that the drawings, described below, are for illustration purposes only. The drawings are not intended to limit the scope of the present teachings in any way.

    [0039] In the following description, a series of steps are described. The skilled person will appreciate that unless required by the context, the order of steps is not critical for the resulting configuration and its effect. Further, it will be apparent to the skilled person that irrespective of the order of steps, the presence or absence of time delay between steps, can be present between some or all of the described steps.

    [0040] Figure 1 shows a simplified embodiment of the MVR function, where a dryer has a single jacket 9 connected to the upper steam portion 5 of the chamber where a high pressure fan 15 is arranged in the duct 14 between the upper steam portion 5 and the jacket 9. The disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 are shown parallel arranged with space between them in the lower drying compartment 4, where a connection portion on each side of the upper side of the disc sits in a recess on each side of the inner side of the lower drying compartment 4. Upon assembly, the upper side of the container 5 is open and therefore the various components of the device, such as discs, axis and scrapers can be arranged and adjusted within the container before it is closed. The discs 10 are not connected directly as the axis 11 is not connected to the discs but merely has the function of rotating the scrapers 12. The figure shows that the scrapers in each space between two disc-shaped hollow compartments can be in a different position as compared to the scrapers in the next space between two disc-shaped hollow compartments. The figure also shows that the discs 10 do not connect to the whole circumference of the cylindrical portion of the container, but connect to the inner surface of the container through connection members 22 in the disc-shaped hollow compartments on each upper side and one centrally in the bottom of the container. This provides open spaces between connection members 22 where part of the material flows through from the inlet towards the outlet side of the chamber.

    [0041] Figure 2 shows an apparatus which is not part of the present invention for heating or removing a water phase from hydrous material. The apparatus comprises a chamber 1 for receiving material. The chamber has an inlet (not shown in this drawing) for the material to be dried, a lower drying compartment 4 with a cylindrical shape, an upper steam portion 5 for receiving steam from the lower drying compartment and an outlet (not shown in this fig) for delivering the dried material. The dryer shown in Fig. 2 is divided into two dryer sections 6, 7 having two jackets 8, 9 arranged around the container 1 and a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 comprise hollow protrusions 22 which connect a set of disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 to their respective jacket 8, 9 of each section 6, 7. The connection from each disc-shaped hollow compartment 10 to a respective jacket 8, 9 is through connection openings (20) in the lower drying compartment 4. An outlet 3 is shown at one end of the container.

    [0042] Figure 3 shows an apparatus according to the present invention for heating or removing a water phase from hydrous material. The apparatus comprises a chamber 1 for receiving material. The chamber has an inlet 2 for the material to be dried, a lower drying compartment 4 with a cylindrical shape, an upper steam portion 5 for receiving steam from the lower drying compartment and an outlet (not shown in this drawing) for exiting the dried material. The chamber of the apparatus is divided into three sections 6, 7 and 17, having three jackets 8, 9, 18 arranged around the container 1 and a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 comprise hollow protrusions 22 which connect a set of disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 to their respective jacket 8, 9, 18 of each section 6, 7, 17.The connection from each disc-shaped hollow compartment 10 to a respective jacket is through a connection between hollow protrusions 22 in the discs and connection openings 20 in the lower drying compartment 3. Fig. 3 also shows valves 16 for exiting heavy and light gases from the steam.

    [0043] Figure 4 outlines the heat exchange mechanism of an apparatus according to the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, where the apparatus has 3 different jackets and three different means for providing the heating media. The apparatus comprises a chamber 1 for receiving material having an inlet 2, a lower drying compartment 3 with a cylindrical shape, an upper steam portion 4 for receiving steam from the lower drying compartment and an outlet 5. The chamber of the apparatus is divided into three sections 6, 7 and 17, where section 17 can either be a dryer section or a cooker section. The dryer apparatus shown in Fig 4 has three jackets 8, 9, 18 arranged around the cylindrical lower part of the container 1 and a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 comprise hollow protrusions 22 which connect a set of disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 to their respective jacket 8, 9, 18. Therefore, the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 are divided into 3 sets of disks, where each set is connected to their respective jacket 8, 9, 18. The connection from each disc-shaped hollow compartment 10 to a respective jacket 6 is through connection openings (as explained above) in the lower drying compartment 4. In this embodiment the first jacket 8 is positioned around the part of the lower drying compartment 3, near the outlet for the material. The first jacket 8 receives steam with increased temperature at increased pressure through a duct 13 from an outside source to initiate the drying process and bringing energy into the system. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, a steam of 130°C is introduced into first jacket 8 at a 2-3 bar pressure. The second jacket 9 is arranged around the middle portion of the lower drying compartment 4. A steam duct 14 leads from the upper steam portion 5 into the second jacket 9 with one high pressure fan 15 arranged in the duct 12 between the upper steam portion 5 and the second jacket 9 for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam taken from the upper steam portion 5 before injecting it into the respective disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 surrounded by the second jacket 9. The third jacket 18 is positioned around the first part of the of the lower drying compartment 4 (near the inlet) to feed evaporation or waste energy from the upper steam portion 5 directly, through a third steam duct 19, to the respective set of disc-shaped hollow compartments 10 to warm up and start drying or cooking the material.


    Claims

    1. An apparatus for heating or removing a water phase from material, the apparatus comprising:

    - a chamber (1),

    - an inlet (2),

    - an outlet (3),
    where the chamber has a lower portion (4) with a cylindrical or semi- shape and an upper portion (5) closing the chamber and where the chamber is divided into at least three sections (6), (7) and (17),
    wherein each section comprises a set of heat exchange elements, said set of heat exchange elements comprising:

    • a first (8), a second (9) and a third jacket (18) arranged around their corresponding section, and

    • a plurality of cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments (10), arranged parallel with space between them in the lower portion of the chamber, each cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartment comprising hollow protrusions (22) connecting the disc-shaped hollow compartments to the corresponding jacket through connection openings (20),

    wherein the device further comprises:

    - an axis (11) arranged centrally within the container, and

    - scrapers (12) attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis (11) between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments (10),

    - a first duct (13) leading to the first jacket (8) of the first section (6) for feeding steam under pressure from externals source into the heat exchange elements of the first section (7),

    - a second duct (14) leading from the upper portion (5) of the chamber (1) to the jacket (9) of the second section (7) for feeding steam generated in the chamber into the heat exchange elements of the second section,

    - the third jacket (18) receiving steam directly from the upper portion (5) of the chamber through a duct (19), and

    - one or more high pressure fans (15) in the duct (14) between the upper portion (5) and the jacket (9) for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam before injecting it into jacket (9) and its corresponding disc-shaped hollow compartments (10).


     
    2. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising valves (16) in the top and bottom portion of each at least two jackets for releasing light and heavy gasses respectively from the jackets.
     
    3. The apparatus according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the apparatus is a cooker and/or a dryer.
     
    4. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein

    - the first jacket (8) is positioned around the part of the lower drying compartment (4) receiving steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from an external source to continue drying the material, and

    - the second jacket (9) is positioned around the middle part of the lower drying compartment (4) to feed steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from the fans (15) to warm up and start drying the material and to continue drying the material,

    - the third jacket (18) is positioned around the first part of the lower drying compartment (4) to feed evaporation from the upper portion (5) to the disc-shaped hollow compartments (10) to cook or warm up and start drying the material.


     
    5. A method for heating or removing a water phase from material using the apparatus of claim 4, the method comprising:

    - feeding material comprising a water phase into a chamber (1),

    - removing the water phase from the material using a heat exchange system, where the heat exchange system of the apparatus is a three phase system and where the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments are divided into three sets of disks, wherein:

    - in a first jacket (8), positioned around the part of the chamber near the outlet for the material:

    - receiving steam with increased temperature at increased pressure from an external source, and

    - introducing steam at a temperature above 100°C into the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments into the first jacket (8) for drying the material,

    - in a second jacket (9), positioned around the middle part of the lower drying compartment (4):

    - guiding steam from the upper portion through a duct (14) between the upper portion and the second jacket (8),

    - using one or more high pressure fans (15) arranged in the duct (14) the for increasing the pressure and the temperature of the steam the second jacket (9), and

    - introducing steam at a temperature above 100°C into the second jacket (9) and into the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments and

    - in a third jacket, positioned around the first part of the lower drying compartment:

    - feeding evaporation from the upper portion to the disc-shaped hollow compartments to warm up and start drying the material,

    - wherein each set of discs receive steam from each of the three different jackets,

    - scraping the outer surface of disc-shaped hollow compartments and the inner surface of the lower drying compartment using scrapers (12) attached to, and rotating on the centrally arranged axis (11) within the container between the cylindrical or semi-cylindrical disc-shaped hollow compartments,

    - feeding the dried material out of the chamber through the outlet (3).


     
    6. A method according to claim 5 further comprising automatically adjusting the amount of steam under pressure injected into the first jacket (8) of the chamber to maintain the pressure in the first dryer at a predefined range.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Vorrichtung zum Erhitzen oder Entfernen einer Wasserphase aus einem Material, wobei die Vorrichtung umfasst:

    - eine Kammer (1),

    - einen Einlass (2),

    - einen Auslass (3),
    wobei die Kammer einen unteren Teil (4) mit einer zylindrischen oder halben Form und einen oberen, die Kammer verschließenden Teil (5) aufweist und wobei die Kammer in mindestens drei Abschnitte (6), (7) und (17) unterteilt ist,
    wobei jeder Abschnitt einen Satz von Wärmetauschelementen umfasst, wobei der Satz von Wärmetauschelementen umfasst:

    • einen ersten (8), einen zweiten (9) und einen dritten Mantel (18), die um ihren entsprechenden Abschnitt angeordnet sind, und

    • mehrere zylindrische oder halbzylindrische scheibenförmige Hohlräume (10), die parallel zu einem Raum zwischen ihnen in dem unteren Teil der Kammer angeordnet sind, wobei jeder zylindrische oder halbzylindrische scheibenförmige Hohlraum hohle Vorsprünge (22) umfasst, die die scheibenförmigen Hohlräume mit dem entsprechenden Mantel über Verbindungsöffnungen (20) verbindet,

    wobei die Einrichtung ferner umfasst:

    - eine Achse (11), die mittig in dem Behälter angeordnet ist, und

    - Abstreifer (12), die an einer mittig angeordneten Achse (11) zwischen den zylindrischen oder halbzylindrischen scheibenförmigen Hohlräumen (10) angebracht sind und auf dieser rotieren,

    - einen ersten Kanal (13), der zu dem ersten Mantel (8) des ersten Abschnitts (6) führt, zum Speisen von Dampf unter Druck von externen Quellen in die Wärmetauschelemente des ersten Abschnitts (7),

    - einen zweiten Kanal (14), der von dem oberen Teil (5) der Kammer (1) zu dem Mantel (9) des zweiten Abschnitts (7) führt, zum Speisen von in der Kammer erzeugtem Dampf in die Wärmetauschelemente des zweiten Abschnitts,

    - wobei der dritte Mantel (18) Dampf direkt von dem oberen Teil (5) der Kammer über einen Kanal (19) aufnimmt, und

    - einen oder mehrere Hochdruckventilatoren (15) in dem Kanal (14) zwischen dem oberen Teil (5) und dem Mantel (9) zum Erhöhen des Drucks und der Temperatur des Dampfs vor Einspritzen davon in den Mantel (9) und seine entsprechenden scheibenförmigen Hohlräume (10) .


     
    2. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend Ventile (16) in dem oberen und unteren Teil jedes von mindestens zwei Mänteln zum Ablassen von leichten bzw. schweren Gasen aus den Mänteln.
     
    3. Vorrichtung nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, wobei die Vorrichtung ein Kocher und/oder ein Trockner ist.
     
    4. Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 1, wobei

    - der erste Mantel (8) um das Teilstück des unteren Trockenraums (4) positioniert ist, das Dampf mit erhöhter Temperatur bei erhöhtem Druck von einer externen Quelle zum weiteren Trocknen des Materials aufnimmt, und

    - der zweite Mantel (9) um das mittlere Teilstück des unteren Trockenraums (4) positioniert ist, um Dampf mit erhöhter Temperatur bei erhöhtem Druck von den Ventilatoren (15) zum Erwärmen und Beginnen eines Trocknens des Materials und zum weiteren Trocknen des Materials zu speisen,

    - der dritte Mantel (18) um das erste Teilstück des unteren Trockenraums (4) positioniert ist, um Verdampfung von dem oberen Teil (5) zu den scheibenförmigen Hohlräumen (10) zum Kochen oder Erwärmen oder Beginnen eines Trocknens des Materials zu speisen.


     
    5. Verfahren zum Erhitzen oder Entfernen einer Wasserphase aus einem Material mithilfe der Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 4, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    - Speisen von Material mit einer Wasserphase in eine Kammer (1),

    - Entfernen der Wasserphase aus dem Material mithilfe eines Wärmetauschsystems, wobei das Wärmetauschsystem der Vorrichtung ein dreiphasiges System ist und wobei die zylindrischen oder halbzylindrischen scheibenförmigen Hohlräume in drei Sätze von Scheiben unterteilt sind, wobei:

    - in einem ersten Mantel (8), der um das Teilstück der Kammer nahe des Auslasses für das Material positioniert ist:

    - Aufnehmen von Dampf mit erhöhter Temperatur bei erhöhtem Druck von der externen Quelle, und

    - Einbringen von Dampf bei einer Temperatur über 100 °C in die zylindrischen oder halbzylindrischen scheibenförmigen Hohlräume in den ersten Mantel (8) zum Trocknen des Materials,

    - in einem zweiten Mantel (9), der um das mittlere Teilstück des unteren Trockenraums (4) positioniert ist:

    - Führen von Dampf von dem oberen Teil durch einen Kanal (14) zwischen dem oberen Teil und dem zweiten Mantel (8),

    - Verwenden eines oder mehrerer Hochdruckventilatoren (15), die in dem Kanal (14) angeordnet sind, zum Erhöhen des Drucks und der Temperatur des Dampfs des zweiten Mantels (9), und

    - Einbringen von Dampf bei einer Temperatur über 100 °C in den zweiten Mantel (9) und in die zylindrischen oder halbzylindrischen scheibenförmigen Hohlräume, und

    - in einem dritten Mantel, der um das erste Teilstück des unteren Trockenraums positioniert ist:

    - Speisen von Verdampfung von dem oberen Teil zu den scheibenförmigen Hohlräumen zum Erwärmen und Beginnen eines Trocknens des Materials,

    - wobei jeder Satz von Scheiben Dampf von jedem der drei verschiedenen Mäntel aufnimmt,

    - Abstreifen der Außenfläche der scheibenförmigen Hohlräume und der Innenfläche des unteren Trockenraums mithilfe von Abstreifern (12), die an einer mittig angeordneten Achse (11) in dem Behälter zwischen den zylindrischen oder halbzylindrischen scheibenförmigen Hohlräumen angebracht sind und auf dieser rotieren,

    - Speisen des getrockneten Materials aus der Kammer durch den Auslass (3).


     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 5, ferner umfassend automatisches Anpassen der Menge an Dampf unter Druck, die in den ersten Mantel (8) der Kammer eingespritzt wird, um den Druck in dem ersten Trockner in einem vordefinierten Bereich zu halten.
     


    Revendications

    1. Appareil pour chauffer ou éliminer une phase aqueuse d'un matériau, l'appareil comprenant :

    - une chambre (1),

    - une entrée (2),

    - une sortie (3),
    la chambre ayant une partie inférieure (4) de forme cylindrique ou semi-circulaire et une partie supérieure (5) fermant la chambre et la chambre étant divisée en au moins trois sections (6), (7) et (17),
    chaque section comprenant un ensemble d'éléments d'échange de chaleur, ledit ensemble d'éléments d'échange de chaleur comprenant :

    • une première (8), une deuxième (9) et une troisième enveloppe (18) agencées autour de leur section correspondante, et

    • une pluralité de compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique (10), agencés parallèlement avec un espace entre eux dans la partie inférieure de la chambre, chaque compartiment creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique comprenant des saillies creuses (22) reliant les compartiments creux en forme de disque à l'enveloppe correspondante par des ouvertures de raccordement (20),

    le dispositif comprenant en outre :

    - un axe (11) agencé au centre du conteneur, et

    - des racleurs (12) fixés à l'axe central (11) et tournant sur celui-ci entre les compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique (10),

    - un premier conduit (13) menant à la première enveloppe (8) de la première section (6) pour alimenter en vapeur sous pression provenant d'une source externe les éléments d'échange de chaleur de la première section (7),

    - un deuxième conduit (14) menant de la partie supérieure (5) de la chambre (1) à l'enveloppe (9) de la deuxième section (7) pour alimenter en vapeur générée dans la chambre les éléments d'échange de chaleur de la deuxième section,

    - la troisième enveloppe (18) recevant la vapeur directement de la partie supérieure (5) de la chambre par un conduit (19), et

    - un ou plusieurs ventilateurs à haute pression (15) dans le conduit (14) entre la partie supérieure (5) et l'enveloppe (9) pour augmenter la pression et la température de la vapeur avant de l'injecter dans l'enveloppe (9) et ses compartiments creux en forme de disque correspondants (10).


     
    2. Appareil selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre des soupapes (16) dans la partie supérieure et la partie inférieure de chacune d'au moins deux enveloppes pour libérer respectivement les gaz légers et lourds des enveloppes.
     
    3. Appareil selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, l'appareil étant une cuisinière et/ou un séchoir.
     
    4. Appareil selon la revendication 1,

    - la première enveloppe (8) étant placée autour de la partie du compartiment de séchage inférieur (4) recevant de la vapeur avec une température accrue et à pression accrue provenant d'une source externe pour poursuivre le séchage du matériau, et

    - la deuxième enveloppe (9) étant placée autour de la partie centrale du compartiment de séchage inférieur (4) pour alimenter en vapeur avec une température accrue et à pression accrue provenant des ventilateurs (15) afin de réchauffer et de commencer le séchage du matériau et de poursuivre le séchage du matériau,

    - la troisième enveloppe (18) étant placée autour de la première partie du compartiment de séchage inférieur (4) pour alimenter l'évaporation à partir de la partie supérieure (5) vers les compartiments creux en forme de disque (10) pour cuire ou réchauffer et commencer le séchage du matériau.


     
    5. Procédé pour chauffer ou éliminer une phase aqueuse d'un matériau en utilisant l'appareil selon la revendication 4, le procédé comprenant :

    - l'introduction d'un matériau comprenant une phase aqueuse dans une chambre (1),

    - l'élimination de la phase aqueuse du matériau à l'aide d'un système d'échange de chaleur, le système d'échange de chaleur de l'appareil étant un système à trois phases et les compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique étant divisés en trois ensembles de disques,

    - dans une première enveloppe (8), placée autour de la partie de la chambre proche de la sortie du matériau :

    - la réception de vapeur avec une température accrue et à pression accrue provenant d'une source externe, et

    - l'introduction de vapeur à une température supérieure à 100 °C dans les compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique dans la première enveloppe (8) pour le séchage du matériau,

    - dans une deuxième enveloppe (9), placée autour de la partie centrale du compartiment de séchage inférieur (4) :

    - le guidage de la vapeur de la partie supérieure à travers un conduit (14) entre la partie supérieure et la deuxième enveloppe (8),

    - l'utilisation d'un ou plusieurs ventilateurs à haute pression (15) agencés dans le conduit (14) augmentant ainsi la pression et la température de la vapeur de la deuxième enveloppe (9), et

    - l'introduction de vapeur à une température supérieure à 100 °C dans la deuxième enveloppe (9) et dans les compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique, et

    - dans une troisième enveloppe, placée autour de la première partie du compartiment de séchage inférieur :

    - l'alimentation en évaporation à partir de la partie supérieure vers les compartiments creux en forme de disque pour réchauffer et commencer le séchage du matériau,

    - chaque ensemble de disques recevant de la vapeur à partir de chacune des trois différentes enveloppes,

    - le raclage de la surface extérieure des compartiments creux en forme de disque et la surface intérieure du compartiment de séchage inférieur à l'aide de racleurs (12) fixés à l'axe (11) agencé au centre du récipient entre les compartiments creux en forme de disque cylindrique ou semi-cylindrique, et tournant sur cet axe,

    - l'alimentation en matière séchée hors de la chambre par la sortie (3).


     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 5, comprenant en outre l'ajustement automatique de la quantité de vapeur sous pression injectée dans la première enveloppe (8) de la chambre pour maintenir la pression dans le premier séchoir à une plage prédéfinie.
     




    Drawing

















    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description