(19)
(11)EP 3 415 396 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 17175836.0

(22)Date of filing:  13.06.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B61D 15/06(2006.01)
B61F 19/04(2006.01)
B61D 17/06(2006.01)

(54)

RAIL VEHICLE BODY AND RAIL VEHICLE PROVIDED WITH A SET OF NON- DEFORMABLE OBSTACLE-REMOVING RAMS

MIT EINEM SET AN NICHTVERFORMBAREN HINDERNISRÄUMUNGSRAMMEN AUSGESTATTETE SCHIENENFAHRZEUGKAROSSERIE UND SCHIENENFAHRZEUG

CORPS DE VÉHICULE FERROVIAIRE ET VÉHICULE FERROVIAIRE ÉQUIPÉ D'UN ENSEMBLE DE VÉRINS ANTI-OBSTACLES NON DÉFORMABLES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(43)Date of publication of application:
19.12.2018 Bulletin 2018/51

(73)Proprietor: Bombardier Transportation GmbH
10785 Berlin (DE)

(72)Inventor:
  • LAIB, Ahmed
    59510 Hem (FR)

(74)Representative: Alatis 
109 Bd Haussmann
75008 Paris
75008 Paris (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 888 946
EP-A1- 1 930 226
WO-A1-2014/195177
CN-A- 105 151 075
EP-A1- 1 215 098
WO-A1-2010/029188
WO-A1-2016/194364
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to a rail vehicle body and a rail vehicle with improved crashworthiness.

    BACKGROUND ART



    [0002] Crashworthiness standards for railway vehicle bodies define a series of collision scenarios and identify common methods of providing passive safety that may be adopted to suit individual vehicle requirements. European Standard EN 15227:2008+A1:2010 also specifies the characteristics of reference obstacles for use in the design collision scenarios. Some of the scenarios deal with rigid or massive obstacles and others with deformable obstacles, leading to potentially conflicting optimisation strategies.

    [0003] A rail vehicle comprising a rigid chassis extending under the driver's cab is known from EP 1 215 098 A1. It comprises a protection shield, located in front of the cab, provided with a rigid structure. The shield rests on the chassis and is connected to the chassis by an energy absorbing element interposed between the shield and the chassis.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0004] The invention aims to provide improved response to a collision scenario dealing with a deformable obstacle without negatively impacting the response to a collision scenario dealing with an identical train unit.

    [0005] According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a rail vehicle body having a longitudinal vertical median plane and comprising:
    • an end structure facing a longitudinal forward direction, wherein the end structure comprises a non-deformable structural framework defining a vertical transversal reference plane of the rail vehicle body perpendicular to the longitudinal forward direction,
    • a set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams integral with the non-deformable structural framework and protruding from the vertical transversal reference plane in the longitudinal forward direction, and
    • a set of one or more free spaces, each corresponding to a corresponding one of the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams, wherein each of the free spaces has a location and dimensions such as to contain at least a symmetric image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram obtained by rotating an external surface of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram by 180° about a vertical line of symmetry located at an intersection between the longitudinal vertical median plane and the vertical transversal reference plane.


    [0006] The non-deformable obstacle-removing rams provide means for removing a deformable obstacle without deforming the end structure of the rail vehicle body. The corresponding free spaces ensure that in a collision scenario involving an identical train unit, the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams will not collide first with the obstacle. In the whole application the terms "non-deformable" with reference to the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams shall mean that the rams are able to withstand without plastic deformation an impact with the specific deformable obstacle defined in the European Standard EN 15227:2008+A1:2010 in the conditions specified in the Standard. More generally, it shall mean that the rams are able to withstand without plastic deformation an impact with an obstacle which has the following characteristics: a mass of 15 000 kg, a centre of mass at 1 750 mm above rail level, no friction to the ground and a stiffness of less than 6430 kN/mm.

    [0007] Preferably, each of the free spaces has a width measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal vertical median plane, which is greater than a width of the symmetric image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram, preferably with a transverse clearance greater than 100mm, most preferably greater than 200mm. The transverse clearance will compensate potential misalignments between two identical colliding rail vehicles on a straight track. Such misalignment may result, in particular, from the lateral clearance between the car body and the running gear and from the lateral clearance between the wheels and the track.

    [0008] According to one embodiment, the non-deformable structural framework includes a set of non-deformable beams extending in the vertical transversal reference plane and supporting the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams, and the set of non-deformable beams preferably includes a transverse beam and one or more vertical beams extending between a subframe of the non-deformable structural framework and the transverse beam, each of the one or more vertical beams supporting one of the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams.

    [0009] According to one embodiment, the forward end of each of the one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams has a slanted shape.

    [0010] Preferably, a set of shock absorbing elements in a non-deformed state, which protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane in the longitudinal forward direction at a vertical distance Z below the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams, wherein the shock absorbing elements are deformable in a deformed state upon impact with an obstacle. In the collision scenario against an identical train unit, the shock-absorbing elements will be the first to collide with the obstacle.

    [0011] The shock-absorbing elements should preferably not be involved in the collision scenario against the deformable obstacle and should therefore preferably be at a substantial distance below the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams. Preferably, the vertical distance Z is more than 400 mm, preferably more than 500 mm, most preferably more than 600 mm. Preferably, the shock absorbing elements have a front end which, in the deformed state of the shock absorbing elements, is tangent to a rearward vertical transverse plane, which is in front of, or coplanar with, the vertical transversal reference plane.

    [0012] The shock-absorbing elements should preferably be dimensioned such as to absorb a significant part of the collision energy in the collision scenario with an identical train. Preferably, the rail vehicle body has a mass M and the shock absorbing elements are such as to absorb an energy greater than ½ MV2 with V=110km/h when deformed from the non-deformed state to the deformed state.

    [0013] The non-deformable obstacle removing rams should preferably be dimensioned such that, in a collision scenario with a 80t wagon provided with elastomeric buffers as defined in the European Standard EN 15227:2008+A1:2010, they never contact the obstacle. Therefore, the shock absorbing elements have a front end which, in the non-deformed state of the shock absorbing elements, is at a predetermined distance Y1 in front of the vertical transversal reference plane, and



    [0014] The non-deformable obstacle removing rams should preferably be dimensioned such that they contact and possibly remove the deformable obstacle before it reaches the shock-absorbing elements. According to one embodiment, the forward end of the obstacle-removing rams is located at a predetermined distance Y2 from the vertical transversal reference plane, and



    [0015] Referring to the specific deformable obstacle defined in the European Standard EN 15227:2008+A1:2010, the following inequality holds true:



    [0016] According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided a rail vehicle comprising the rail vehicle body as described hereinbefore and a set of running gears for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body along a track, wherein the running gears define a track level, wherein the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane in the longitudinal forward direction at a predetermined height Z2 above the track level and the set of shock absorbing elements protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane in the longitudinal forward direction at a predetermined height Z1 above the track level, wherein:



    [0017] The obstacle-removing rams are specifically located at a height that will collide with a deformable obstacle, whereas the shock absorbing elements are located below the deformable part of the obstacle. Preferably:



    [0018] According to a most preferred embodiment:



    [0019] In order to ensure that the non-deformable obstacle removing rams contact and possibly remove the deformable obstacle before it reaches the shock-absorbing elements, the following should preferably hold true:



    [0020] According to a another aspect of the invention, there is provided a rail vehicle comprising the rail vehicle body as described hereinbefore and a set of running gears for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body along a track, in particular a rail vehicle as described hereinbefore, wherein the running gears are such that the vehicle body has a given lateral clearance relative to a mid-path defined by the track in a transverse direction perpendicular to the longitudinal vertical median plane, and each of the free spaces has a location and dimensions such as to contain a second image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram which results from a translation of the symmetric image in the transverse direction with an amplitude equal to the lateral clearance.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



    [0021] Other advantages and features of the invention will then become more clearly apparent from the following description of a specific embodiment of the invention given as non-restrictive examples only and represented in the accompanying drawings in which:
    • figure 1 is an isometric view of an end structure of a vehicle body of a rail vehicle according to one embodiment of the invention;
    • figure 2 is a side view of the end structure of figure 1 in front of a deformable obstacle;
    • figure 3 is a side view of the end structure of figure 1 after collision with the deformable obstacle;
    • figure 4 is a top view of illustrating two end structures of two vehicle bodies according to the embodiment of figure 1, facing one another;
    • figure 5 is a top view of illustrating one end structure of a vehicle body according to the embodiment of figure 1, after a frontal collision with a similar vehicle.


    [0022] Corresponding reference numerals refer to the same or corresponding parts in each of the figures.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS



    [0023] With reference to Figures 1, 2 and 4, an end structure 10 of a vehicle body 12 of a rail vehicle 14 comprises a non-deformable structural framework 16 defining a vertical transversal reference plane 100 of the rail vehicle body 12 perpendicular to a longitudinal forward direction 200, and to a longitudinal vertical median plane 300 of the vehicle body 12. The non-deformable structural framework 16 includes a subframe 18, a transverse beam 20, which constitutes a window sill for a windshield opening 22 of the rail vehicle 16, vertical beams 24, 26 extending in the vertical transversal reference plane 100 between the subframe 18 and the transverse beam 20 and slanted side posts 28, 30 extending between the transverse beam 20 and a roof structure 32 of the vehicle body 12. Remarkably, the longitudinal vertical median plane 300 is not a plane of symmetry for the vertical beams 24, 26, i.e. the vertical beam 24 on one side of the longitudinal vertical median plane is not at the same distance from the plane 300 as the vertical beam 26 on the other side.

    [0024] The rail vehicle body 12 further comprises a set of shock absorbing elements 34, 36 protruding from the vertical transversal reference plane 100 in the longitudinal forward direction 200. The shock absorbing elements 34, 36 are such as to absorb an energy greater than ½ MV2 when crushed from the non-deformed state to a crushed state, where V=110km/h and M is the mass of rail vehicle body. The shock absorbing elements 34, 36 have a front end 34F, 36F, which, in a non-deformed state of the shock absorbing elements, is at a predetermined distance Y1 in front of the vertical transversal reference plane 100. Each shock absorbing element 34 on one side of the longitudinal vertical median plane 300 as a corresponding symmetric shock absorbing element 36 on the other side of the longitudinal vertical median plane.

    [0025] As illustrated in figure 2, the rail vehicle 14 comprises a set of running gears 38 for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body 12 along a track 40. The running gears 38 define a track level 400, and the set of shock absorbing elements are at a predetermined height Z1 above the track level 400. Preferably,



    [0026] The rail vehicle body 12 further comprises a set of two non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 integral with the non-deformable structural framework 16 and protruding from the vertical transversal reference plane 100 in the longitudinal forward direction 200. The non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, resp. 44 are supported at their rear end by one of the vertical beams 24, resp. 26 and have a protruding slanted front end 42F, resp. 44F. As best illustrated in figure 4, the two non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 are at different distances from the longitudinal vertical median plane 300. As a result, the rail vehicle body 12 further comprises two free spaces 46, resp. 48, one on each side of the longitudinal vertical median plane 300, each at the same distance from the longitudinal vertical median plane 300 as the non-deformable obstacle-removing ram 44, resp. 42 on the other side of the longitudinal vertical median plane 300.

    [0027] The non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 protrude from the vertical transversal reference plane 100 in the longitudinal forward direction 200 at a predetermined height Zz above the track level and above the shock absorbing elements 36, 38, such that:



    [0028] Preferably, the height Z2 is such that:



    [0029] As best depicted in Figure 4, each of the free spaces 46, resp. 48 has a location and dimensions such as to contain a symmetric image 544, resp. 542 of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram 44, resp. 42 obtained by rotating an external surface of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram by 180° about a vertical line of symmetry 500 located at an intersection between the longitudinal vertical median plane 300 and a forward plane 600 parallel to the vertical transversal reference plane 100 and tangent to the forward end 44F, 42F of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle removing ram 44, resp. 42.

    [0030] In other words, assuming that the end structure 10 of the rail vehicle 14 faces an identical end structure 10' of another rail vehicle as depicted in figure 4, each non-deformable obstacle-removing ram 42, 44, 42', 44' faces one of the free spaces 48', 46', resp. 48, 46 of the opposite end structure 10'. If the two end structures 10, 10' collide, each non-deformable obstacle-removing ram 42, 44, resp. 42', 44' will enter the opposite free space 48', 46', resp. 48, 46. In a collision scenario involving two identical train units, the shock absorbing elements 36, 38, 36', 38' will start collapsing before the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44, resp. 42', 44' collide with the non-deformable structural framework 16', 16 of the opposite vehicle.

    [0031] Taking now into consideration the deformation of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36 of the end structure 10 in a collision scenario with a vehicle having a similar end structure 10', a reward vertical transverse plane 600' tangent to the front end 34F, 36F of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36 in their deformed state has been illustrated in figure 5. In Figure 5, only the end structure 10 has been shown. The reward vertical transverse plane 600' is located slightly in front of the vertical transversal reference plane 100, which ensures that in a collision scenario involving two identical train units, the shock absorbing elements 36, 38, 36', 38' will have completely collapsed before the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44, resp. 42', 44' collide with the non-deformable structural framework 16', 16 of the opposite vehicle.

    [0032] The set of running gears 38 for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body 12 along the track 40 are such that the vehicle body 12 has a given lateral clearance relative to a mid-path defined by the track in a transverse direction perpendicular to the longitudinal vertical median plane 300. This lateral clearance is partly related to the freedom of motion of the rail vehicle body 12 relative to the wheelsets of the running gear 38 allowed by the suspension, and partly related to the hunting oscillation of the wheelsets. Preferably, each of the free spaces 46, 48, has a location and dimensions such as to contain a second image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram which results from a translation of the symmetric image in the transverse direction with an amplitude equal to the lateral clearance. Preferably, each of the free spaces 46, 48 has a width measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal vertical median plane, which is greater than a width of the symmetric image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram, preferably with a transverse clearance greater than 100mm, most preferably greater than 200mm.

    [0033] The non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 are located at a vertical distance Z above the shock absorbing elements, which is more than 400 mm, preferably more than 500 mm, most preferably more than 600 mm. The obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 have a front end 42F, 44F, which is located at a predetermined distance Y2 from the vertical transversal reference plane, such that in a collision scenario with a standardised equivalent deformable obstacle 700 depicted in figure 3, they will collide with the obstacle 700 before the shock absorbing elements 34, 36 do.

    [0034] The equivalent obstacle 700 of figure 3 is defined by the European Standard EN 15227:2008+A1:2010 and is representative of a large heavy obstacle at a level crossing. During the impact, the upper protruding part 710 of the deformable obstacle 700 collapses and absorbs a substantial part of the kinetic energy, as illustrated in figure 3. The lower part 720 of the deformable obstacle 700 starts moving together with the upper part 710 in the forward direction 200 of the rail vehicle 14 even before it is pushed by the shock absorbing elements 34, 36. When, finally, the contact between the shock absorbing elements 34, 36 and the lower part 720 of the standard deformable obstacle 700 takes place, a substantial amount of energy has already been absorbed by the deformation and acceleration of the upper part 710 of the obstacle 700.

    [0035] To achieve the desired sequence of events, the distance Y1 between the vertical transverse plane 100 and the front end 34F, 36F of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36, i.e. the operative length of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36, and the distance Y2 between the vertical transversal reference plane 100 and the front end 42F, 44F of the obstacle removing rams 42, 44 are preferably such that:



    [0036] Preferably, the distances Y1 and Y2 are related to the height Z1 of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36 above the track 40 as follows:



    [0037] Preferably, the distances Y1 and Y2 are related to the height Zz of the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44 above the track as follows:



    [0038] Remarkably, the stiffness of the non-deformable beams 20, 24, 26 should be such that the non-deformable structural framework 16 does not substantially deform upon impact with the standard equivalent deformable obstacle 700, as illustrated in figure 3.

    [0039] The rail vehicle body 12 further comprises a train coupler 50, which is centrally located between the shock absorbing elements 34, 36, at a height Z3 above the track, which is in the same range as the height Z1 of the shock absorbing elements 34, 36, i.e. such that:



    [0040] However, the influence of the train coupler 50 in the collision scenarios discussed hereinbefore can be omitted. It is therefore not relevant whether the train coupler 50 will reach the standard equivalent deformable obstacle 700 before or after the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44. This is the reason why the train coupler 50 was not illustrated in figures 2 and 3.

    [0041] Obviously, the invention can be generalised to structural framework with more than two non-deformable obstacle-removing rams 42, 44.


    Claims

    1. A rail vehicle body (12) having a longitudinal vertical median plane (300) and comprising an end structure (10) facing a longitudinal forward direction (200), wherein the end structure (10) comprises a non-deformable structural framework (16) defining a vertical transversal reference plane (100) of the rail vehicle body (12) perpendicular to the longitudinal forward direction (200), characterised in that the rail vehicle body (12) further comprises

    - a set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44) integral with the non-deformable structural framework (16) and protruding from the vertical transversal reference plane (100) in the longitudinal forward direction (200), and

    - a set of one or more free spaces (48, 46), each corresponding to a corresponding one of the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44), wherein each of the free spaces (48, 46) has a location and dimensions such as to contain at least a symmetric image (542, 544) of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram (42, 44) obtained by rotating an external surface of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram (42, 44) by 180° about a vertical line of symmetry (500) located at an intersection between the longitudinal vertical median plane (300) and the vertical transversal reference plane (100).


     
    2. The rail vehicle body of claim 1, wherein each of the free spaces (48, 46) has a width measured perpendicularly to the longitudinal vertical median plane (300), which is greater than a width of the symmetric image (542, 544) of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram (42, 44), preferably with a transverse clearance greater than 100mm, most preferably greater than 200mm.
     
    3. The rail vehicle body of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the non-deformable structural framework (16) includes a set of non-deformable beams (20, 24, 26) extending in the vertical transversal reference plane (100) and supporting the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44), and the set of non-deformable beams (20, 24, 26) preferably includes a transverse beam (20) and one or more vertical beams (24, 26) extending between a subframe (18) of the non-deformable structural framework (16) and the transverse beam (20), each of the one or more vertical beams (24, 26) supporting one of the non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44).
     
    4. The rail vehicle body of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the forward end (42F, 44F) of each of the one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44) has a slanted shape.
     
    5. The rail vehicle body of any one of the preceding claims, further comprising a set of shock absorbing elements (34, 36) in a non-deformed state, which protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane (100) in the longitudinal forward direction (200) at a vertical distance Z below the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44), wherein the shock absorbing elements (34, 36) are deformable in a deformed state upon impact with an obstacle.
     
    6. The rail vehicle body of claim 5, wherein the shock absorbing elements (34, 36) have a front end (34F, 36F) which, in the deformed state of the shock absorbing elements (34, 36), is tangent to a rearward vertical transverse plane (600'), which is in front of, or coplanar with, the vertical transversal reference plane (100).
     
    7. The rail vehicle body of any one of claims 5 to 6, wherein the rail vehicle body (12) has a mass M and the shock absorbing elements (34, 36) are such as to absorb an energy greater than ½ MV2 with V=110km/h when deformed from the non-deformed state to the deformed state.
     
    8. The rail vehicle body of any one of claims 5 to 7, wherein the shock absorbing elements (34, 36) have a front end (34F, 36F) which, in the non-deformed state of the shock absorbing elements (34, 36), is at a predetermined distance Y1 in front of the vertical transversal reference plane (100), and


     
    9. The rail vehicle body of claim 8, wherein the forward end (42F, 46F) of the obstacle-removing rams (42, 44) is located at a predetermined distance Y2 from the vertical transversal reference plane (100), and


     
    10. The rail vehicle body of claim 9, wherein


     
    11. A rail vehicle comprising the rail vehicle body of any one of claims 5 to 10 and a set of running gears (38) for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body (12) along a track (40), wherein the running gears (38) define a track level (40), wherein the set of one or more non-deformable obstacle-removing rams (42, 44) protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane (100) in the longitudinal forward direction at a predetermined height Z2 above the track level and the set of shock absorbing elements (34, 36) protrudes from the vertical transversal reference plane (100) in the longitudinal forward direction at a predetermined height Z1 above the track level, wherein:


     
    12. The rail vehicle of claim 11, wherein


     
    13. The rail vehicle of any one of claims 11 to 12, wherein:


     
    14. The rail vehicle of any one of claims 11 to 13, wherein the rail vehicle body (100) is according to any one of claims 8 to 10 and


     
    15. A rail vehicle comprising the rail vehicle body (12) of any one of claims 1 to 10 and a set of running gears (38) for carrying and guiding the rail vehicle body (12) along a track (40), preferably the rail vehicle of any one of claims 11 to 14, wherein the running gears (38) are such that the vehicle body (12) has a given lateral clearance relative to a mid-path defined by the track (40) in a transverse direction perpendicular to the longitudinal vertical median plane (300), and each of the free spaces (48, 46) has a location and dimensions such as to contain a second image of the corresponding non-deformable obstacle-removing ram (32, 34) which results from a translation of the symmetric image in the transverse direction with an amplitude equal to the lateral clearance.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper (12) mit einer länglichen, vertikalen, medianen Ebene (300) und umfassend eine Endstruktur (10) gegenüber einer Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung (200), wobei die Endstruktur (10) einen nicht verformbaren Strukturrahmen (16) umfasst, der eine vertikale, transversale Referenzebene (100) des Schienenfahrzeugkörpers (12) lotrecht zu der Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung (200) umfasst, dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Schienenfahrzeug-Körper (12) weiterhin umfasst:

    - einen Satz von einer oder mehreren nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme(n) (42, 44), die fester Bestandteil des nicht verformbaren Strukturrahmens (16) sind aus der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) in der Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung (200) hervorstehen, und

    - einen Satz aus einem freien Raum oder mehreren freien Räumen (48, 46), von denen jeder einem entsprechenden der nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Rammen (42, 44) entspricht, wobei jeder der freien Räume (48, 46) einen Standort und Abmessungen derart aufweist, dass er wenigstens ein symmetrisches Bild (542, 544) der entsprechenden, nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme (42, 44)enthält, die durch Drehen einer externen Oberfläche der entsprechenden, nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme (42, 44) um 180° um eine vertikale Symmetrieachse (500) erhalten ist, die an einem Schnittpunkt zwischen der länglichen, vertikalen, medianen Ebene (300) und der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) angeordnet ist.


     
    2. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß Anspruch 1, wobei jeder der freien Räume (48, 46) eine Breite lotrecht zu der länglichen, vertikalen, medianen Ebene (300) gemessen aufweist, die größer ist als eine Breite des symmetrischen Bildes (542, 544) der entsprechenden nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme (42, 44), bevorzugt mit einer transversalen Lücke, die größer ist als 100 mm, weiter bevorzugt größer als 200 mm.
     
    3. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß einem der voranstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der nicht verformbare Strukturrahmen (16) einen Satz nicht verformbarer Holme (20, 24, 26) aufweist, die sich in der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) erstrecken und den Satz aus einer oder mehreren, nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme(n) (42, 44) abstützen und der Satz nicht verformbarer Holme (20, 24, 26) bevorzugt einen transversalen Holm (20) und einen oder mehrere vertikale (n) Holm(e) (24, 26) enthält, der / die sich zwischen einem Teilrahmen (18) des nicht verformbaren Strukturrahmens (16) und dem transversalen Holm (20) erstreckt / erstrecken, wobei jeder des einen oder der mehreren Holm(e) (24, 26) einen der nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Rammen (42, 44) abstützt.
     
    4. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß irgendeinem der voranstehenden Ansprüche, wobei das nach vorn gerichtete Ende (42F, 44F) jede der einen oder mehreren nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme(n) (42, 44) eine abgeschrägte Form aufweist.
     
    5. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß irgendeinem der voranstehenden Ansprüche, weiterhin umfassend einen Satz aus Stoßfänger-Elementen (34, 36) in einem nicht verformbaren Zustand, der aus der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) in der Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung (200) in einer vertikalen Ebene Z unterhalb des Satzes von einer oder mehreren nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme(n) (42, 44) hervorsteht, wobei die Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) in einem bei Aufprall auf ein Hindernis verformten Zustand verformbar sind.
     
    6. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß Anspruch 5, wobei die Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) ein vorderes Ende (34F, 36F) aufweisen, das im verformten Zustand der Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) in einer nach rückwärts ausgerichteten, vertikalen, transversalen Ebene (600') anliegend ist, die vor der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) oder koplanar mit ihr angeordnet ist.
     
    7. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 5 bis 6, wobei der Schienenfahrzeug-Körper (12) eine Masse M aufweist und die Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) derart sind, dass sie eine Energie von mehr als 1/2 MV2 absorbieren, wenn sie bei V = 100 k/h von dem nicht verformten Zustand in den verformten Zustand verformt werden.
     
    8. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 5 bis 7, wobei die Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) ein vorderes Ende (34F, 36F) aufweisen, das im nicht verformten Zustand der Stoßfänger-Elemente (34, 36) in einer vorbestimmten Entfernung Y1 vor der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) und Y1 ≤ 105mm ist.
     
    9. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß Anspruch 8, wobei das nach vorn gerichtete Ende (42F, 46F) der Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Rammen (42, 44) in einer vorbestimmten Entfernung Y2 von der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) und

    ist.
     
    10. Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß Anspruch 9, wobei


     
    11. Schienenfahrzeug, umfassend den Schienenfahrzeug-Körper gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 5 bis 10 und einen Satz von Fahrwerken (38) zum Tragen und Führen des Schienenfahrzeug-Körpers (12) entlang eines Gleises (40), wobei die Fahrwerke (38) ein Gleisniveau (40) definieren, wobei der Satz von einer Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme(n) (42, 44) aus der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) in der Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung in einer vorbestimmten Höhe Z2 oberhalb des Gleisniveaus hervorsteht und der Satz von Stoßfänger-Elementen (34, 26) aus der vertikalen, transversalen Referenzebene (100) in der Längs-Vorwärtsrichtung in einer vorbestimmten Höhe Zi oberhalb des Gleisniveaus hervorsteht, wobei:


     
    12. Schienenfahrzeug gemäß Anspruch 11, wobei
    0,800 m ≤ Z1
     
    13. Schienenfahrzeug gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 11 bis 12, wobei:
    1,70m ≤ Z2 ≤ 2,20m
     
    14. Schienenfahrzeug gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 11 bis 13, wobei der Schienenfahrzeug-Körper (100) gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 8 bis 10 und

    ist
     
    15. Schienenfahrzeug, umfassend den Schienenfahrzeug-Körper (12) gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 1 bis 10 und einen Satz von Fahrwerken (38) zum Tragen und Führen des Schienenfahrzeug-Körpers (12) entlang eines Gleises (40), bevorzugt das Schienenfahrzeug gemäß irgendeinem der Ansprüche 11 bis 14, wobei die Fahrwerke (38) derart sind, dass der Fahrzeugkörper (12) eine bestimmte seitliche Lücke in Bezug auf einen mittleren Pfad, der von dem Gleis (40) in einer transversalen Richtung lotrecht zu der länglichen, vertikalen, medianen Ebene (300) aufweist, und jeder der freien Räume (48, 46) einen Standort und Abmessungen derart aufweist, dass sie ein zweites Bild der entsprechenden nicht verformbaren, Hindernisse beiseite räumenden Ramme (32, 34) enthält, das aus einer Translation des symmetrischen Bildes in der transversalen Richtung mit einer Amplitude resultiert, die gleich der seitlichen Lücke ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) ayant un plan médian vertical longitudinal (300) et comprenant une structure d'extrémité (10) faisant face à une direction longitudinale vers l'avant (200), dans laquelle la structure d'extrémité (10) comprend une ossature structurelle non déformable (16) définissant un plan de référence transversal vertical (100) de la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) perpendiculaire à la direction longitudinale vers l'avant (200), caractérisée en ce que la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) comprend en outre

    - un ensemble d'un ou de plusieurs bélier(s) d'élimination d'obstacles non déformable(s) (42, 44) faisant partie intégrante de l'ossature structurelle non déformable (16) et faisant saillie du plan de référence transversal vertical (100) dans la direction longitudinale vers l'avant (200), et

    - un ensemble d'un ou plusieurs espace(s) libre(s) (48, 46), chacun correspondant à l'un correspondant des béliers d'élimination d'obstacles non déformables (42, 44), dans lequel chacun des espaces libres (48, 46) a un emplacement et des dimensions tels qu'ils contiennent au moins une image symétrique (542, 544) du bélier d'élimination d'obstacles non déformable (42, 44) correspondant obtenu par rotation d'une surface externe du bélier d'élimination d'obstacles non déformable (42, 44) correspondant de 180° autour d'une ligne de symétrie verticale (500) située à une intersection entre le plan médian vertical longitudinal (300) et le plan de référence transversal vertical (100).


     
    2. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle chacun des espaces libres (48, 46) présente une largeur mesurée perpendiculairement au plan médian vertical longitudinal (300), qui est supérieure à une largeur de l'image symétrique (542, 544) du bélier d'élimination d'obstacles (42, 44) non déformable correspondant, de préférence avec un jeu transversal supérieur à 100 mm, plus de préférence supérieur à 200 mm.
     
    3. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle l'ossature structurelle non déformable (16) comprend un ensemble de poutres non déformables (20, 24, 26) s'étendant dans le plan de référence transversal vertical (100) et supportant l'ensemble d'un ou plusieurs bélier(s) d'élimination d'obstacle non déformable(s) (42, 44), et l'ensemble de poutres non déformables (20, 24, 26) comprend de préférence une poutre transversale (20) et une ou plusieurs poutre(s) verticale(s) (24, 26) s'étendant entre un sous-châssis (18) de l'ossature structurelle non déformable (16) et la poutre transversale (20), chacune des une ou plusieurs poutre(s) verticale(s) (24, 26) supportant l'un des béliers d'élimination d'obstacles non déformables (42, 44).
     
    4. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle l'extrémité avant (42F, 44F) de chacun des un ou plusieurs bélier(s) d'élimination d'obstacles non déformable(s) (42, 44) a une forme en biais.
     
    5. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un jeu d'éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) dans un état non déformé, qui fait saillie du plan de référence transversal vertical (100) dans la direction longitudinale vers l'avant (200) à une distance verticale Z au-dessous du jeu d'un ou plusieurs bélier(s) d'élimination d'obstacles (42, 44) non déformable(s), dans laquelle les éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) sont déformables dans un état déformé lors d'un impact avec un obstacle.
     
    6. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon la revendication 5, dans laquelle les éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) présentent une extrémité avant (34F, 36F) qui, dans l'état déformé des éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36), est tangente à un plan transversal vertical arrière (600'), qui est situé devant le plan de référence transversal vertical (100) ou coplanaire à celui-ci.
     
    7. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 6, dans laquelle la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) a une masse M et les éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) sont tels qu'ils absorbent une énergie supérieure à 1/2 MV2 avec V = 110 km/h lorsqu'ils sont déformés de l'état non déformé à l'état déformé.
     
    8. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 7, dans laquelle les éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) présentent une extrémité avant (34F, 36F) qui, dans l'état non déformé des éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36), se trouve à une distance prédéterminée Y1 devant le plan de référence transversal vertical (100), et


     
    9. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon la revendication 8, dans laquelle l'extrémité avant (42F, 46F) des béliers d'élimination d'obstacles (42, 44) est située à une distance prédéterminée Y2 du plan de référence transversal vertical (100), et


     
    10. Caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon la revendication 9, dans laquelle


     
    11. Véhicule ferroviaire comprenant la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 10 et ensemble d'organes de roulement (38) pour porter et guider la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) le long d'une voie (40), dans lequel les organes de roulement (38) définissent un niveau de voie (40), dans lequel l'ensemble d'un ou plusieurs bélier(s) d'élimination d'obstacles non déformables(42, 44) fait saillie du plan de référence transversal vertical (100) dans la direction longitudinale vers l'avant à une hauteur prédéterminée Y2 au-dessus du niveau de la voie et le jeu d'éléments d'absorption de chocs (34, 36) fait saillie du plan de référence transversal vertical (100) dans la direction longitudinale vers l'avant à une hauteur prédéterminée Zi au-dessus du niveau de la voie, dans lequel :


     
    12. Véhicule ferroviaire selon la revendication 11, dans lequel


     
    13. Véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 12, dans lequel


     
    14. Véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 13, dans lequel la caisse du véhicule ferroviaire (100) est selon l'une quelconque des revendications 8 à 10 et


     
    15. Véhicule ferroviaire comprenant la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 10 et ensemble d'organes de roulement (38) pour porter et guider la caisse de véhicule ferroviaire (12) le long d'une voie (40), de préférence le véhicule ferroviaire selon l'une quelconque des revendications 11 à 14, dans lequel les organes de roulement (38) sont tels que la caisse de véhicule (12) présente un jeu latéral donné par rapport à une trajectoire médiane définie par la voie (40) dans une direction transversale perpendiculaire au plan médian vertical longitudinal (300), et chacun des espaces libres (48, 46) a un emplacement et des dimensions tels qu'il contient une seconde image du bélier d'élimination d'obstacle non déformable (32, 34) correspondant qui résulte d'une translation de l'image symétrique dans la direction transversale avec une amplitude égale au jeu latéral.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description