(19)
(11)EP 3 421 948 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
27.01.2021 Bulletin 2021/04

(21)Application number: 18182670.2

(22)Date of filing:  29.01.2016
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01F 1/684  (2006.01)
F16K 37/00  (2006.01)
G05D 7/06  (2006.01)
G01F 15/00  (2006.01)
F16K 1/22  (2006.01)

(54)

SYSTEM FOR GAS DISTRIBUTION AND MASS FLOW MEASUREMENT

GASVERTEILUNGSSYSTEM UND MASSENSTROMMESSUNG

SYSTÈME DE DISTRIBUTION DE GAZ ET DE MESURE DE DÉBIT MASSIQUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 02.02.2015 US 201514611448

(43)Date of publication of application:
02.01.2019 Bulletin 2019/01

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
16153442.5 / 3051193

(73)Proprietor: Honeywell International Inc.
Morris Plains, NJ 07950 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • SHEORAN, Yogendra Yogi
    Morris Plains, NJ New Jersey 07950 (US)
  • FACINELLI, William
    Morris Plains, NJ New Jersey 07950 (US)
  • KANG, Alan
    Morris Plains, NJ New Jersey 07950 (US)
  • EARL, Andrew
    Morris Plains, NJ New Jersey 07950 (US)
  • ISOBE, Jun
    Morris Plains, NJ New Jersey 07950 (US)

(74)Representative: Houghton, Mark Phillip 
Patent Outsourcing Limited 1 King Street
Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1DZ
Bakewell, Derbyshire DE45 1DZ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-B1- 1 264 160
WO-A2-2012/012769
US-A1- 2011 048 564
WO-A1-2014/075905
US-A1- 2005 262 937
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention generally relates to distribution of gas and sensors for measurement of mass of gas flow in a duct. More particularly, the invention relates to achieving and maintaining accuracy of flow measurement as the gas flow undergoes varying configurations of flow patterns.

    [0002] In some distribution systems for a gas such as air, a flow control valve may be positioned within a duct through which the air is distributed. For example, the control valve may be a butterfly valve. A flow sensor may be positioned downstream from the valve and signals from the sensor may be employed to vary an angle of opening of the butterfly valve. By varying the angle of opening of the valve responsively to the flow sensor, a desired mass flow of air may be maintained irrespective of air pressure that may develop upstream of the valve. One of the prior art systems is disclosed in International Publication Number WO 2012/012769 A2 (the WO 2012/012769 A2) entitled "Shield for heat restriction for high flow rate use in a thermal floe rate sensor". European Patent EP 1264160B1 discloses a gas mass flow sensor or probe of an air flow sensing and control system based upon hot-wire type devices.

    [0003] A flow control valve may introduce variations of flow configuration as air passes through it. In a butterfly valve, for example, a clockwise swirl pattern may be introduced at a large valve angle opening, while at a smaller valve angle opening, a counterclockwise swirl pattern may be introduced. Additionally, a degree of turbulence in the flow downstream of the valve may vary as a function of valve angle opening.

    [0004] A typical mass gas flow sensor may employ a heated sensing device which may transfer heat into gas passing the sensing device. The heated sensing device may be maintained at a desired temperature with an adjacent electrical heater. Determination of magnitude of mass flow passing the sensing device may be achieved by measuring an amount of current needed to maintain the heated sensing device at the desired temperature.

    [0005] Typically the heated sensing device is housed within a thermally conductive shell. As flow configuration varies, more or less gas may impinge on various locations on the shell, thus producing variations in an amount of heat transferred from the shell into the passing gas flow. This may lead to reductions in accuracy of the mass gas flow sensor.

    [0006] As can be seen, there may be a need for a mass gas flow sensor that can produce accurate results irrespective of a presence of variations in gas flow configuration.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0007] The present invention in its various aspects is as set out in the appended claims.

    [0008] In one aspect of the present invention, a gas mass flow sensor i comprises: an ambient temperature sensor partially surrounded by a first housing, a flow sensing device including a temperature-sensitive resistive element surrounded by a thermally conductive shell, wherein the flow sensing device is partially surrounded by a second housing, wherein the second housing partially surrounding the thermally conductive shell comprises flow guidance elements coupled to the second housing and positioned to provide a flow path focused on a leading surface of the thermally conductive shell, wherein the leading surface is oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of a gas flow, and a thermal insulator positioned on a non-leading surface of the shell so that heat transfer from the thermally conductive shell is focused through the leading surface of the thermally conductive shell.

    [0009] In another aspect of the present invention, a gas distribution system comprises the aforementioned gas mass flow sensor.

    [0010] These and other features, aspects and advantages of the present invention will become better understood with reference to the following drawings, description and claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] 

    Figure 1 is a perspective view of a gas distribution system according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 2 is a sectional view, taken along the lines 2-2 of Figure 1, showing a gas mass flow sensor according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 3 is a sectional view of the gas mass flow sensor of Figure 2, taken along the lines 3-3 of Figure 2, according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 4 is a detailed partial view of the gas mass flow sensor shown in Figure 3 according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 5 is a sectional view of a gas mass flow sensor according to a second example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 6 is a sectional view of a gas mass flow sensor according to a first exemplary embodiment of the present invention;

    Figure 7 is a sectional view of a gas mass flow sensor according to an example not forming part of the claimed invention;

    Figure 8 is a sectional view of a gas mass flow sensor according to a second exemplary embodiment of the present invention; and

    Figure 9 is graph showing exemplary comparative performance characteristics of the gas mass flow sensor of Figure 1.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0012] The following detailed description is of the best currently contemplated modes of carrying out the invention. The description is not to be taken in a limiting sense, but is made merely for the purpose of illustrating the general principles of the invention, since the scope of the invention is best defined by the appended claims.

    [0013] Various inventive features are described below that can each be used independently of one another or in combination with other features. However, any single inventive feature may not address any of the problems discussed above or may only address one of the problems discussed above. Further, one or more of the problems discussed above may not be fully addressed by any of the features described below.

    [0014] The present invention generally provides a gas mass flow sensor which may provide accurate flow sensing independently of variations in patterns of flow configuration. Moreover, the present invention may provide a gas distribution system that may utilize a butterfly valve for flow control and in which a gas mass flow sensor may be employed to accurately control position of the butterfly valve.

    [0015] Referring now to Figure 1, an exemplary duct system 100 is illustrated with a gas flow control valve 102 positioned to control a rate of gas flow through a duct 104. In the example of Figure 1, the gas flow control valve 102 may be a butterfly valve. A gas mass flow sensor 106 may be positioned downstream from the valve 102. The gas mass flow sensor 106 may be provided with a sensor control unit 108 which may receive temperature signals 110 from the gas mass flow sensor 106. The sensor control unit 108 may also provide electrical current to the gas mass flow sensor 106. A valve control unit 112 may receive sensing signals 114 from the sensor control unit 108 and provide corresponding valve positioning signals 116 to the valve 102.

    [0016] Referring now to Figures 2 and 3, there is illustrated an example of the gas mass flow sensor 106, not forming part of the claimed invention. The gas mass flow sensor 106 may include an ambient temperature sensor 120 and a flow sensing device 122. The ambient temperature sensor 120 may be partially surrounded by a housing 124. The flow sensing device 122 may be partially surrounded by a housing 126.

    [0017] The flow sensing device 122 may include a thermally-conductive outer shell 128, a temperature-sensitive resistive element 130 and an electrical heater 132, both of which may be embedded in a heat-conducting material within the outer shell 128. The ambient temperature sensor 120 may be a temperature-sensitive resistive element. The gas mass flow sensor 106 may be configured so that the heater 132, during operation, maintains a desired temperature within the resistive element 130. The desired temperature may be established as a temperature that is a desired level above the ambient temperature as determined by the ambient temperature sensor 120. For example, the desired temperature for the resistive element 130 may be selected as about 40° C greater than the ambient temperature. Gas flowing past the flow sensing device 122 may result in heat transfer from the resistive element 130, through the outer shell 128 and into the flowing gas. The heater 132 may supply heat to the resistive element 130 to offset the heat transfer and thus maintain the desired temperature within the resistive element 130. An amount of current needed to produce the requisite heating may be indicative of the rate of gas mass flow past the flow sensing device 122. For example, rapid cooling of the resistive element 130 may occur when gas flow rate is high. In that case, current supplied to the heater 132 may be correspondingly high. Conversely, when flow rate is low, current to the heater 132 may be correspondingly low. The control units 108 and 112 of Figure 1 may operate collectively to control angular positioning of the valve 102 and thereby regulate gas mass flow through the duct 104.

    [0018] Referring now to Figure 4, it may be seen that the housing 126 may be provided with flow guidance elements 134. The flow guidance elements 134 may be formed integrally with the housing 126 or, alternatively, the elements 134 may be formed separately and then attached to the housing 126. The flow guidance elements 134 may be spaced apart from one another to form a flow path 150 with a width W, which width W may be about the same as a width of a leading surface 136 of the shell 128. The flow guidance elements 134 may have curved leading surfaces 138 The leading surfaces 138 may be shaped as arc segments or as segments of an ellipse. In general shape of the leading surface may enable flow-vector stability, flow concentration, and enough mass flow to achieve a desired sensor sensitivity.

    [0019] In operation, gas flow entering the housing 126 may be guided so that it is concentrated onto the leading surface 136 of the shell 128. The leading surface 136 may be oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of the gas flow. After striking the leading surface 136, the flow may be driven outwardly toward inner surfaces 146 of the housing 126. In that regard the flow may be considered to be "lifted away" from an inboard surface 140 and an outboard surface 142 of the shell 128. As a consequence of this beneficial flow lifting, heat may transfer from the resistive elements 130 to the flow, principally through the leading surface 136. Heat transfer through the inboard and outboard surfaces 140 and 142 may be negligible. In other words, the flow guidance elements 134 may be considered to be heat-transfer control elements positioned to focus heat transfer from the resistive element 130 through the leading surface 136 of the shell 128 so that a rate of heat transfer, at areas other than the leading surface 136, may be independent from the variations in flow configuration.

    [0020] If the flow guidance elements 134 were not present on the housing 126, incoming gas flow might not be lifted away from the inboard and the outboard surfaces 140 and 142 of the shell 128 and may instead envelop the surfaces 140 and 142. Such envelopment might be asymmetrical or otherwise non-uniform because the gas flow may experience any one of numerous possible variations of flow patterns that may have been introduced when the gas passed through the valve 102 of Figure 1. Under such circumstances, heat transfer from the resistive element 130 to the gas flow might be non-uniform. Indeed, the heat transfer might vary as a function of angular positioning of the valve 102 because, for example, gas flow may swirl in a clockwise direction (when viewed in the direction of lines 2-2 of Figure 1) at large valve opening angles, while at small valve opening angles, gas flow may swirl in a counterclockwise direction (when viewed in the direction of lines 2-2 of Figure 1).

    [0021] Referring now to Figure 5, an example of a gas mass flow sensor 206 not forming part of the claimed invention, may include a housing 224, a housing 226, ambient temperature sensor 220 and a flow sensing device 222. The gas mass flow sensor 206 may differ from the sensor 106 of Figures 3 and 4 in that there may be no flow guidance elements attached to the housing 226. Additionally the sensor 206 may differ from the sensor 106 in that an outer shell 228 may be provided with thermal insulators 244 along its inboard surface 240 and its outboard surface 242. The inboard and outboard surfaces 240 and 242 may be considered to be non-leading surfaces of the shell 228. The thermal insulators 244 may provide the beneficial effect of precluding heat transfer from the resistive element 230 to the gas flow through the inboard and outboard surfaces 240 and 242 of the shell 228. In other words, the thermal insulators 244 may be considered to be heat-transfer control elements positioned to focus heat transfer from the resistive element 230 through a leading surface 236 of the shell 228, which leading surface 236 may be oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of gas flow. Consequently, a rate of heat transfer may be independent from the variations in flow configuration.

    [0022] Referring now to Figure 6, an exemplary embodiment of a gas mass flow sensor 306 according to the claimed invention is shown. The sensor 306 may differ from the sensor 206 of Figure 5 in that the sensor 306 is provided with flow guidance elements 336. The sensor 306 may differ from the sensor 106 of Figures 3 and 4 in that an outer shell 328 is provided with thermal insulators 344 along its inboard surface 340 and its outboard surface 342. The gas mass flow sensor includes a housing 324, a housing 326, ambient temperature sensor 320, a flow sensing device 322 and flow guidance elements 334. The thermal insulators 344, in combination with the flow guidance elements 334, may provide the beneficial effect of precluding heat transfer from the resistive element 330 to the gas flow through the inboard and outboard surfaces 340 and 342 of the shell 328. In other words, the thermal insulators 344 and the flow guidance elements may be considered to be heat-transfer control elements positioned to focus heat transfer from the resistive element 330 through a leading surface 336 of the shell 328, which leading surface 336 is oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of gas flow. Consequently a rate of heat transfer may be independent from the variations in flow configuration.

    [0023] Referring now to Figure 7, an example not forming part of the claimed invention of a gas mass flow sensor 406 that differs from the gas mass flow sensors 106, 206 and 306 in that a leading surface 436 is longer than the leading surfaces 136, 236 and 336 of the sensors 106, 206 and 306 respectively. The gas mass flow sensor 406 may include a housing 424, a housing 426, ambient temperature sensor 420, a flow sensing device 422, flow guidance elements 434 and a shell 428. A flow opening or flow path 450 between the flow guidance elements 434 may have a width W2 that is about 50% of a length of the leading surface 436 of the shell 428. The leading surface 436 may be oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of gas flow. Trailing surfaces 448 of the flow guidance elements 434 may be shaped as first arc segments. An inner surface 446 of the housing 426 may shaped as a second arc segment that is a continuation of the trailing surface 448 of an adjacent one of the flow guidance elements 434. A leading surface 436 of the shell 428 may be shaped as a third arc segment with a radius R1. The first and second arc segments may have a common radius R2 and may be concentric with the third arc segments. Gas flow entering the housing 426 may be initially directed to the leading surface 436 of the shell 428. The gas flow may then accelerate so that it tends to follow the trailing surfaces 448 of the flow guidance elements 434 and the inner surface 446 of the housing 426. Consequently, the gas flow may effectively "lift away" from the inboard and outboard surfaces 440 and 442 of the shell 428. Beneficial focusing of heat transfer through the leading surface 436 of the shell 428 may result.

    [0024] Referring now to Figure 8, an exemplary embodiment of a gas mass flow sensor 506 according to the claimed invention may have a configuration similar to the gas mass flow sensor 406 of Figure 7. The sensor 506 may differ from the sensor 406 in that a thermal insulator 550 surrounds a trailing surface 552 and portions of an inboard surface 540 and outboard surface 542 of a shell 528. Just as in the sensor 406, gas flow entering a housing 526 is initially directed to a leading surface 536 of the shell 528. The gas flow may then accelerate so that it tends to follow trailing surfaces 548 of the flow guidance elements 534 and an inner surface 546 of a truncated housing 526. The gas flow may effectively "lift away" from inboard and outboard surfaces 540 and 542 of the shell 528. Beneficial focusing of heat transfer through the leading surface 536 of the shell results. Further beneficial focusing of heat transfer is provided by presence of the thermal insulator 550.

    [0025] Figure 9 illustrates some comparative data that demonstrates the efficacy of employing the flow guidance elements 134 on the gas mass flow sensor 106 of Figures 3 and 4. A graph curve 902 illustrates an amount of current applied to the heater 132 in order to maintain a desired temperature in the resistive element 130 while maintain a constant flow rate of 60 pounds per minute (ppm). The current varies slightly as a function of angle of opening of the valve 102 of Figure 1. Graph curve 904 illustrates a condition in which the flow guidance elements are removed from the sensor 106. The curve 904 shows an amount of current applied to the heater 132 in order to maintain a desired temperature in the resistive element 130 while maintaining a constant flow rate of 60 ppm. The current of curve 904 varies substantially as a function of angle of opening of the valve 102 of Figure 1. Current variation may be particularly acute at valve opening angles less than about 50 degrees. For example, the current variation of curve 902 may be about six times smaller than the current variation of curve 904 at a valve openings of 30 degrees.

    [0026] In normal operation of a mass gas flow sensor, such as the sensor 106, variations in current going to the heater 132 of Figure 3 would be perceived as indicators of variations in gas mass flow. In the constant flow rate context of the graphs 902 and 904, variations of current are indicative of sensor inaccuracy. Current variation during constant flow rate conditions provides a false indication of variation in flow rate when, in fact, no such variation is occurring. In other words, the measured current variations shown in graphs 902 and 904 are reflective of a degree of accuracy of the sensors which are the subjects of graphs 902 and 904.

    [0027] It should be understood, of course, that the foregoing relates to exemplary embodiments of the invention and that modifications may be made without departing from the invention as set forth in the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A gas mass flow sensor (306, 506) comprising:

    an ambient temperature sensor (320) partially surrounded by a first housing (324),

    a flow sensing device (322) including a temperature-sensitive resistive element (330) surrounded by a thermally conductive shell (328, 528), wherein the flow sensing device (322) is partially surrounded by a second housing (326, 526),

    wherein the second housing (326, 526) partially surrounding the thermally conductive shell (328, 528) comprises flow guidance elements (334, 534) coupled to the second housing (326, 526) and positioned to provide a flow path focused on a leading surface (336, 536) of the thermally conductive shell (328, 528), wherein the leading surface (336, 536) is oriented substantially orthogonal to a direction of a gas flow, and

    a thermal insulator (344, 550) positioned on a non-leading surface (340, 342, 540, 542, 552) of the shell (328, 528) so that heat transfer from the thermally conductive shell (328, 528) is focused through the leading surface (336, 536) of the thermally conductive shell (328, 528).


     
    2. The gas mass flow sensor (506) of claim 1 wherein the thermal insulator (550) surrounds a trailing surface (552) of the shell (528) and at least portions of the non-leading surface (540, 542) of the shell (528).
     
    3. The gas mass flow sensor (506) of claim 2:

    wherein the second housing (526) partially surrounding the thermally conductive shell (528) includes an inner surface spaced apart from the shell (528), and

    wherein at least one of the flow guidance elements (534) has a trailing surface that is shaped as a first arc segment,

    wherein at least a portion of the inner surface of the second housing (526), adjacent the trailing surface of the at least one flow guidance element (534), is shaped as a second arc segment that is a continuation of the first arc segment,

    wherein the leading surface of the shell (528), is shaped as a third arc segment; and

    wherein the first and second arc segments are concentric with the third arc segment.


     
    4. The gas mass flow sensor (506) of claim 2 wherein a flow path between the flow guidance elements (534) has a width W2 that is about 50% of a width of the leading surface of the shell (528).
     
    5. The gas mass flow sensor (506) of claims 2-4 wherein the thermal insulator (550) and the flow guidance elements (534) are positioned to focus heat transfer from the resistive element through the leading surface (536) of the shell (528).
     
    6. The gas mass flow sensor (306, 506) of claim 1 wherein the temperature-sensitive resistive element (330) and an electrical heater are embedded in a heat-conducting material within the shell (328, 528).
     
    7. A gas distribution system (100) comprising the gas mass flow sensor (306, 506) of claim 1.
     
    8. A gas distribution system (100) comprising the gas mass flow sensor (506) of claim 3.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Gasmassenstromsensor (306, 506), umfassend:

    einen Umgebungstemperatursensor (320), der teilweise von einem ersten Gehäuse (324) umgeben ist,

    eine Durchflusserfassungsvorrichtung (322), die ein temperaturempfindliches Widerstandselement (330) beinhaltet, das von einer Wärme leitenden Hülle (328, 528) umgeben ist, wobei die Durchflusserfassungsvorrichtung (322) teilweise von einem zweiten Gehäuse (326, 526) umgeben ist,

    wobei das zweite Gehäuse (326, 526), das die Wärme leitende Hülle (328, 528) teilweise umgibt, Strömungsführungselemente (334, 534), die mit dem zweiten Gehäuse (326, 526) gekoppelt und positioniert sind, um einen Strömungsweg bereitzustellen, der auf eine vordere Oberfläche (336, 536) der Wärme leitenden Hülle (328, 528) fokussiert ist, umfasst, wobei die vordere Oberfläche (336, 536) im Wesentlichen orthogonal zu einer Richtung eines Gasstroms ausgerichtet ist, und

    einen Wärmeisolator (344, 550), der auf einer nicht vorderen Oberfläche (340, 342, 540, 542, 552) der Hülle (328, 528) derart positioniert ist, dass die Wärmeübertragung von der Wärme leitenden Hülle (328, 528) durch die vordere Oberfläche (336, 536) der Wärme leitenden Hülle (328, 528) fokussiert wird ist.


     
    2. Gasmassenstromsensor (506) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Wärmeisolator (550) eine hintere Oberfläche (552) der Hülle (528) und mindestens Abschnitte der nicht vorderen Oberfläche (540, 542) der Hülle (528) umgibt.
     
    3. Gasmassenstromsensor (506) nach Anspruch 2:

    wobei das zweite Gehäuse (526), das die Wärme leitende Hülle (528) teilweise umgibt, eine innere Oberfläche beinhaltet, die von der Hülle (528) beabstandet ist, und

    wobei mindestens eines der Strömungsführungselemente (534) eine hintere Oberfläche aufweist, die als ein erstes Bogensegment geformt ist,

    wobei mindestens ein Abschnitt der inneren Oberfläche des zweiten Gehäuses (526), der an die hintere Oberfläche des mindestens einen Strömungsführungselements (534) angrenzt, als ein zweites Bogensegment geformt ist, das eine Fortsetzung des ersten Bogensegments ist,

    wobei die vordere Oberfläche der Hülle (528) als drittes Bogensegment geformt ist; und

    wobei das erste und das zweite Bogensegment zu dem dritten Bogensegment konzentrisch sind.


     
    4. Gasmassenströmungssensor (506) nach Anspruch 2, wobei ein Strömungsweg zwischen den Strömungsführungselementen (534) eine Breite W2 aufweist, die etwa 50 % einer Breite der vorderen Oberfläche der Hülle (528) beträgt.
     
    5. Gasmassenströmungssensor (506) nach den Ansprüchen 2 bis 4, wobei der Wärmeisolator (550) und die Strömungsführungselemente (534) positioniert sind, um die Wärmeübertragung von dem Widerstandselement durch die vordere Oberfläche (536) der Hülle (528) zu fokussieren.
     
    6. Gasmassenstromsensor (306, 506) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das temperaturempfindliche Widerstandselement (330) und eine elektrische Heizung in ein Wärme leitendes Material innerhalb der Hülle (328, 528) eingebettet sind.
     
    7. Gasverteilungssystem (100), das den Gasmassenstromsensor (306, 506) nach Anspruch 1 umfasst.
     
    8. Gasverteilungssystem (100), das den Gasmassenstromsensor (506) nach Anspruch 3 umfasst.
     


    Revendications

    1. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (306, 506) comprenant :

    un capteur de température ambiante (320) partiellement entouré par un premier boîtier (324),

    un dispositif de détection de débit (322) comprenant un élément résistif sensible à la température (330) entouré par une coque thermoconductrice (328, 528), le dispositif de détection de débit (322) étant partiellement entouré par un second boîtier (326, 526),

    dans lequel le second boîtier (326, 526) entourant partiellement la coque thermoconductrice (328, 528) comprend des éléments de guidage d'écoulement (334, 534) accouplés au second boîtier (326, 526) et positionnés pour fournir une voie d'écoulement focalisée sur une surface d'attaque (336, 536) de la coque thermoconductrice (328, 528), la surface d'attaque (336, 536) étant orientée sensiblement orthogonalement à la direction d'un écoulement de gaz, et

    un isolant thermique (344, 550) positionné sur une surface non d'attaque (340, 342, 540, 542, 552) de la coque (328, 528), de sorte que le transfert de chaleur de la coque thermoconductrice (328, 528) soit focalisé à travers la surface d'attaque (336, 536) de la coque thermoconductrice (328, 528).


     
    2. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (506) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'isolant thermique (550) entoure une surface de fuite (552) de la coque (528) et au moins des parties de la surface non d'attaque (540, 542) de la coque (528).
     
    3. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (506) selon la revendication 2 :

    dans lequel le second boîtier (526) entourant partiellement la coque thermoconductrice (528) comprend une surface intérieure espacée de la coque (528), et

    dans lequel au moins un des éléments de guidage d'écoulement (534) présente une surface de fuite ayant la forme d'un premier segment d'arc,

    dans lequel au moins une partie de la surface intérieure du second boîtier (526), adjacente à la surface de fuite de l'au moins un élément de guidage d'écoulement (534), a la forme d'un deuxième segment d'arc qui est un prolongement du premier segment d'arc,

    dans lequel la surface d'attaque de la coque (528) a la forme d'un troisième segment d'arc ; et

    dans lequel les premier et deuxième segments d'arc sont concentriques avec le troisième segment d'arc.


     
    4. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (506) selon la revendication 2, dans lequel une voie d'écoulement entre les éléments de guidage d'écoulement (534) a une largeur W2 d'environ 50 % d'une largeur de la surface d'attaque de la coque (528).
     
    5. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (506) selon les revendications 2 à 4, dans lequel l'isolant thermique (550) et les éléments de guidage d'écoulement (534) sont positionnés pour focaliser le transfert de chaleur de l'élément résistif à travers la surface d'attaque (536) de la coque (528).
     
    6. Capteur de débit massique de gaz (306, 506) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'élément résistif sensible à la température (330) et un élément chauffant électrique sont noyés dans un matériau thermoconducteur à l'intérieur de la coque (328, 528).
     
    7. Système de distribution de gaz (100) comprenant le capteur de débit massique de gaz (306, 506) selon la revendication 1.
     
    8. Système de distribution de gaz (100) comprenant le capteur de débit massique de gaz (506) selon la revendication 3.
     




    Drawing





















    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description