(19)
(11)EP 3 426 351 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
09.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/50

(21)Application number: 17709956.1

(22)Date of filing:  09.03.2017
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61P 35/00  (2006.01)
C07D 401/12  (2006.01)
A61K 31/451  (2006.01)
A61K 31/496  (2006.01)
A61K 31/553  (2006.01)
A61P 7/06  (2006.01)
A61K 31/444  (2006.01)
A61K 31/4725  (2006.01)
A61K 31/5377  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2017/055537
(87)International publication number:
WO 2017/153520 (14.09.2017 Gazette  2017/37)

(54)

BENZOPIPERIDINE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR USE IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER AND HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

BENZOPIPERIDINDERIVATE UND DEREN VERWENDUNG IN DER BEHANDLUNG VON KREBS UND HÄMOGLOBINPATHIEN

DÉRIVÉS DE BENZOPIPÉRIDINE ET LEUR UTILISATION DANS LE TRAITEMENT DU CANCER ET DES HÉMOGLOBINOPATHIES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.03.2016 GB 201604030

(43)Date of publication of application:
16.01.2019 Bulletin 2019/03

(73)Proprietor: CTxT Pty Ltd
Parkville, VIC 3052 (AU)

(72)Inventors:
  • BERGMAN, Ylva Elisabet
    Parkville Victoria 3052 (AU)
  • CAMERINO, Michelle Ang
    Parkville Victoria 3052 (AU)
  • STUPPLE, Paul Anthony
    Parkville Victoria 3052 (AU)

(74)Representative: Mewburn Ellis LLP 
Aurora Building Counterslip
Bristol BS1 6BX
Bristol BS1 6BX (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2016/034671
WO-A1-2016/034675
WO-A1-2016/034673
WO-A2-2014/100719
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention relates to C-alkyl bicyclic amines and their use as pharmaceuticals, and in particular, in treating cancer and hemoglobinopathies.

    Background to the Invention



    [0002] Post-translational modification of proteins is a hallmark of signal transduction where cells are able to react quickly to changes or events in the cellular environment. Post-translational modification of proteins expands the structural and functional diversity of the proteome. The role of acetylation and phosphorylation of proteins has been extensively studied as highly reversible reactions for fine-tuning responses to external stimuli or changes in the environmental conditions. Recently, the importance of other types of protein modifications, including ubiquitination and methylation has begun to be recognized.

    [0003] The methylathion of proteins and the enzymes that carry out these reactions has increased the dimensions of gene regulation by marking genes that are transcriptionally active or silenced. Protein methylation can occur on amino acids such as lysine, arginine, histidine, or proline, and on carboxy groups.

    [0004] Arginine methylation of mainly nuclear proteins is an important post-translational modification process involved in structural remodelling of chromatin, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, translation, gene transcription, DNA repair, RNA processing, or mRNA splicing.

    [0005] Methylation of proteins at arginine residues is catalysed by Protein Arginine Methyltransferase enzymes. The Protein Arginine Methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes are evolutionarily conserved between organisms but differ in the number of members in different organisms.

    [0006] There are eleven members of the human PRMT family, eight of which have known enzymatic activity and target substrates. With the exception of PRMT2 and two recently identified putative PRMT genes (PRMT10 and PRMT11), all remaining proteins of the family possess enzymatic arginine methylation activity.

    [0007] PRMTs are subdivided into two types based on the methylation that they catalyse at the guanidinium group of arginine residues of substrate proteins. There are three nitrogens in the guanidinium group, potentially all of which could be methylated; the two Ψ-guanidino nitrogen atoms and the internal δ-guanidino nitrogen atom. Mono-methylation and dimethylation of arginine (MMA and DMA) is found in mammalian cells at one or both of the two Ψ-guanidino nitrogen atoms; dimethylation may be either symmetric or asymmetric. The third methylated arginine is generated by monomethylation of the internal δ-guanidino nitrogen atom of arginine and has so far been documented only in yeast proteins. Type I PRMT enzymes catalyse the formation of MMA and asymmetric dimethylarginine by di-methylating the same nitrogen atom of the guanidinium group, whereas Type II PRMT enzymes catalyse the formation of MMA and symmetric di-methylarginine by mono-methylating each of the terminal nitrogen atoms. Type III enzymes methylate the internal δ-guanidino nitrogen atom. Of the eight well characterised human PRMTs, PRMT1, 3, 4, 6 and 8 are Type I enzymes, and PRMT5, 7 and 9 are Type II enzymes.

    [0008] PRMTs catalyse the methylation of the guanidino nitrogen atoms of arginine residues through the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). A by-product of the enzymatic methylation step is S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy), which is hydrolyzed to adenosine and homocysteine by AdoHcy hydrolase (Krause et al., Pharmacol. Ther. 2007, 113, 50-87).

    PRMT5



    [0009] PRMT5 (aka JBP1, SKB1, IBP72, SKB1his and HRMTIL5) is a Type II arginine methyltransferase, and was first identified in a two-hybrid search for proteins interacting with the Janus tyrosine kinase (Jak2) (Pollack et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1999, 274, 31531-31542). PRMT5 plays a significant role in control and modulation of gene transcription. Inter alia, PRMT5 is known to methylate histone H3 at Arg-8 (a site distinct from that methylated by PRMT4) and histone H4 at Arg-3 (the same site methylated by PRMT1) as part of a complex with human SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling components BRG1 and BRM.

    [0010] In addition to direct repressive histone marks induced by PRMT5, the enzyme's role in gene silencing is also mediated through the formation of multiprotein repressor complexes that include NuRD components, HDACs, MDB proteins and DNA methyltransferases, (Rank et al., Blood 2010, 116, 1585-1592; Le Guezennec et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 2006, 26, 843-851; Pal et al., Mol Cell. Biol. 2003, 23, 7475-7487).

    [0011] PRMT5 is involved in the methylation and functional modulation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. See (Berger, Nat. Cell Biol. 2008, 10, 1389-1390; Durant et al., Cell Cycle 2009, 8, 801-802; Jansson et al., Nat. Cell Biol. 2008, 10, 1431-1439; Scoumanne et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 2009, 37, 4965-4976). Most of the physiological functions of p53 are attributable to its role as a transcriptional activator, responding to agents that damage DNA. p53 status is wild type in approximately half of human cancer cases. These include 94% in cervix, 87% in blood malignancies, 85% in bones and endocrine glands, and 75% of primary breast cancer. Restoration of p53 in cancer cells harbouring wild type p53, by way of inhibiting mechanisms that suppress its function leads to growth arrest and apoptosis, and is regarded as a potentially effective means of tumour suppression.

    [0012] p53 target genes have two alternative downstream effects: either they pause the cell cycle, allowing the DNA to be repaired, or, if repair is not possible, they activate processes leading to apoptosis (programmed cell death). How p53 'chooses' between these distinct outcomes is a central question in the field of tumour biology.

    [0013] p53 is replete with post-translational modifications. Phosphorylation was one of the first post-translational modifications to be clearly defined on p53. In the last decade it has become additionally clear that p53 is modified not only by phosphorylation, but that it is extensively modified by lysine acetylation and methylation, among other modifications. Indeed, besides histone proteins p53 is the most common protein substrate known for these post-translational modifications. However, despite the plethora of post-translational modifications, p53 has not been identified, until recently, as a substrate for arginine methylation.

    [0014] Jansson et al (Jansson et al., Nat. Cell Biol. 2008, 10, 1431-1439) discovered that PRMT5 is physically associated with a p53 cofactor called Strap. A co-factor complex that contains Strap et al binds to p53 in response to DNA damage. Jansson et al demonstrated that PRMT5 methylates p53 in vitro, and mapped the sites of methylation (R333, R335 and R337). They developed an antibody that specifically detects p53 methylated on these sites and confirmed that p53 is methylated in vivo. Jansson et al went on to show that p53 methylation requires PRMT5 and is increased in response to etoposide, a DNA damaging agent.

    [0015] The role of PRMT5 and p53 arginine methylation on cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response have been explored by both Jansson et al and Scoumanne et al (Jansson et al., Nat. Cell Biol. 2008, 10, 1431-1439; Scoumanne et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 2009, 37, 4965-4976). Although some differences are evident between the results from the two groups in respect of cell cycle regulation in unperturbed cells (which may be ascribed to cell type specific effects and/or the actual nature of the experimental arrangements), both groups report similar results with respect to the DNA damage response.

    [0016] In response to DNA damage, caused by a variety of agents, including doxorubicin, camptothecin and UV light, and also in response to treatment with Nutlin-3, knockdown of PRMT5 results in an increase in sub-G1 population and concomitant reduction in G1 cells and, in the presence of p53, a significant increase in apoptosis. Knockdown of PRMT5 also resulted in a reduced level of p21, a key p53 target gene that regulates cell cycle arrest during the p53 response and MDM2, a p53 E3 ubiquitin ligase, but not PUMA, NOXA, AIP1 & APAF1, p53 target genes linked to apoptosis.

    [0017] Knockdown of PRMT5 (but not PRMT1 or CARM1/PRMT4) results in decreased p53 stabilisation, decreased basal p53 levels, and decreased p53 oligomerisation, and also decreased expression of eIF4E, a major component of translational machinery involved in ribosome binding to mRNA. Indeed, eIF4E is a potent oncogene, which has been shown to promote malignant transformation in vitro and human cancer formation.

    [0018] Knockdown of PRMT5 would be expected to lead to a reduction in the level of arginine methylated p53. Consistent with arginine methylation status of p53 influencing the p53 response (reduced arginine methylation biasing the response to proapoptotic), Jansson et al showed that a p53 mutant in which each of the three critical arginine residues were substituted with lysine (p53KKK) retained the ability to induce apoptosis but its cell cycle arrest activity was significantly compromised.

    [0019] Moreover, p53KKK also has a significantly reduced ability to induce transcription of p21, by contrast with APAF1. The promoter binding specificity of wild-type p53 to key target genes is also significantly affected by arginine methylating status. Knockdown of PRMT5 results in decreased p53 binding to the promoter regions of the p21 and (intriguingly) PUMA genes, but does not affect p53 binding to the promoter regions of NOXA or APAF1.

    [0020] Taken together, it would seem that PRMT5 is a pro-survival factor, which regulates cell proliferation in unstressed conditions and modulates the p53 response during DNA damage. In particular, knockdown of PRMT5, leading to a reduction in the levels of arginine methylated p53, appears to bias the p53 DNA damage response to proapoptotic as opposed to cell cycle arrest.

    [0021] PRMT5 is further linked to cancers in that it is aberrantly expressed in around half of human cancer cases. PRMT5 overexpression has been observed in patient tissue samples and cell lines of Prostate cancer (Gu et al., Biochem. J. 2012, 446, 235-241), Lung cancer (Gu et al., PLoS ONE 2012, 7(8): e44033), Melanoma cancer (Nicholas et al., Cancer Res. 2012, 72(8), Supplement, DOI: 10.1158/1538-7445.AM2012-LB-254), Breast cancer (Powers et al., Cancer Res. 2011, 71, 5579-5588), Colorectal cancer (Cho et al., EMBO J. 2012, 31, 1785-1797), Gastric cancer (Kim et al., Clinical Cancer Res. 2005, 11, 473-482), Esophagus and Lung carcinoma (Aggarwal et al., Cancer Cell 2010, 18, 329-340) and B-Cell lymphomas and leukemia (Wang, Mol. Cell Biol. 2008, 28, 6262-6277). Moreover, elevated expression of PRMT5 in Melanoma, Breast and Colorectal cancers has been demonstrated to correlate with a poor prognosis.

    [0022] Lymphoid malignancies including CLL are associated with over-expression of PRMT5. PRMT5 is over-expressed (at the protein level) in the nucleus and cytosol in a number of patient derived Burkitt's lymphoma; mantle cell lymphoma (MCL); in vitro EBV-transformed lymphoma; leukaemia cell lines; and B-CLL cell lines, relative to normal CD19+ B lymphocytes (Pal et al., EMBO J. 2007, 26, 3558-3569; Wang et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 2008, 28, 6262-6277). Intriguingly, despite elevated levels of PRMT5 protein in these tumour cells, the levels of PRMT5 mRNA are reduced (by a factor of 2 - 5). Translation of PRMT5 mRNA is however, enhanced in lymphoma cells, resulting in increased levels of PRMT5 (Pal et al., EMBO J. 2007, 26, 3558-3569; Wang et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 2008, 28, 6262-6277).

    [0023] In addition to genomic changes, CLL, like almost all cancers, has aberrant epigenetic abnormalities characterised by global hypomethylation and hot-spots of repressive hypermethylation of promoters including tumour suppressor genes. While the role of epigenetics in the origin and progression of CLL remains unclear, epigenetic changes appear to occur early in the disease and specific patterns of DNA methylation are associated with worse prognosis (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 13433-13438; Kanduri et al., Blood 2010, 115, 296-305). Global symmetric methylation of histones H3R8 and H4R3 is increased in transformed lymphoid cell lines and MCL clinical samples (Pal et al., EMBO J. 2007, 26, 3558-3569), correlating with the overexpression of PRMT5 observed in a wide variety of lymphoid cancer cell lines and MCL clinical samples.

    [0024] PRMT5 is therefore a target for the identification of novel cancer therapeutics.

    PRMT5 Function and Hemoglobinopathies



    [0025] Hemoglobin is a major protein in red blood cells and is essential for the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. In adult humans, the most common hemoglobin type is a tetramer called hemoglobin A, consisting of two α and two β subunits. In human infants, the hemoglobin molecule is made up of two α and two γ chains. The gamma chains are gradually replaced by subunits as the infant grows. The developmental switch in human β-like globin gene subtype from foetal (γ) to adult (β) that begins at birth heralds the onset of the hemoglobinopathies β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). In β-thalassemia the adult chains are not produced. In SCD a point mutation in the coding sequence in the β globin gene leads to the production of a protein with altered polymerisation properties. The observation that increased adult γ-globin gene expression (in the setting of hereditary persistence of foetal hemoglobin (HPFH) mutations) significantly ameliorates the clinical severity of β-thalassemia and SCD has prompted the search for therapeutic strategies to reverse γ-globin gene silencing. To date, this has been achieved through pharmacological induction, using compounds that broadly influence epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. The development of more targeted therapies is dependent on the identification of the molecular mechanisms underpinning foetal globin gene silencing. These mechanisms have remained elusive, despite exhaustive study of the HPFH mutations, and considerable progress in many other aspects of globin gene regulation.

    [0026] PRMT5 plays a critical role in triggering coordinated repressive epigenetic events that initiate with dimethylation of histone H4 Arginine 3 (H4R3me2s), and culminate in DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing of the γ-genes (Rank et al., Blood 2010, 116, 1585-1592). Integral to the synchronous establishment of the repressive markers is the assembly of a PRMT5-dependent complex containing the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A, and other repressor proteins (Rank et al., Blood 2010, 116, 1585-1592). DNMT3A is directly recruited to bind to the PRMT5-induced H4R3me2s mark, and loss of this mark through shRNA-mediated knock-down of PRMT5, or enforced expression of a mutant form of PRMT5 lacking methyltransferase activity leads to marked upregulation of γ-gene expression, and complete abrogation of DNA methylation at the γ-promoter. Treatment of human erythroid progenitors with non-specific methyltransferase inhibitors (Adox and MTA) also resulted in upregulation of γ-gene expression (He Y, Transl. Med. 2013, 11:14). Inhibitors of PRMT5 thus have potential as therapeutics for hemoglobinopathies such as β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

    [0027] WO 2004/100719 discloses PRMT5 inhibitors of formula:



    [0028] The present inventors have developed particular substituted β-hydroxy amides that inhibit the activity of PRMT5 and therefore may be of use in treating conditions ameliorated by the inhibition of the activity of PRMT5.

    Summary of the Invention



    [0029] A first aspect of the present invention provides a compound of formula I:

    wherein:

    n is 1 or 2;

    p is 0 or 1;

    R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d are independently selected from H, halo, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, C1-4 alkyloxy, NH-C1-4 alkyl and cyano;

    R2a and R2b are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    1. (i) F;
    2. (ii) H;
    3. (iii) Me; and
    4. (iv) CH2OH;

    R2c and R2d are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    1. (i) F;
    2. (ii) H;
    3. (iii) Me; and
    4. (iv) CH2OH;

    R2e is H or Me;

    R3a and R3b are independently selected from H and Me;

    R4 is either H or Me;

    R5 is either H or Me;

    R6a and R6b are independently selected from H and Me;

    A is either

    1. (i)

      where R7a is selected from N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl and

      or
    2. (ii)

      where X is selected from CH2, NH and O, one of R8a and R8b is selected from Cl and ethoxy and the other of R8a and R8b is H.



    [0030] A second aspect of the present invention provides a compound of the first aspect for use in a method of therapy. The second aspect also provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of the first aspect and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

    [0031] A third aspect of the present invention provides a method of treatment of cancer, comprising administering to a patient in need of treatment, a compound of the first aspect of the invention or a pharmaceutical composition of the first aspect of the invention. The third aspect of the present invention also provides the use of a compound of the first aspect of the invention in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer, and a compound of the first aspect of the invention or pharmaceutical composition thereof for use in the treatment of cancer.

    [0032] As described below, the compound of the first aspect may be administered simultaneously or sequentially with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

    [0033] A fourth aspect of the present invention provides a method of treatment of hemoglobinopathies, comprising administering to a patient in need of treatment, a compound of the first aspect of the invention or a pharmaceutical composition of the first aspect of the invention. The fourth aspect of the present invention also provides the use of a compound of the first aspect of the invention in the manufacture of a medicament for treating hemoglobinopathies, and a compound of the first aspect of the invention or pharmaceutical composition of the first aspect of the invention for use in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies.

    Definitions



    [0034] N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl: The term "N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl" as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from a nitrogen ring atom of a monocyclic heterocyclic compound, which moiety has from 5 to 7 ring atoms; of which from 1 to 2 atoms are heteroatoms, chosen from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur.

    [0035] In this context, the prefixes (e.g. C5-7) denote the number of ring atoms, or range of number of ring atoms, whether carbon atoms or heteroatoms.

    [0036] Examples of N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl groups include, but are not limited to, those derived from:

    N1: pyrrolidine (tetrahydropyrrole) (C5), pyrroline (e.g., 3-pyrroline, 2,5-dihydropyrrole) (C5), 2H-pyrrole or 3H-pyrrole (isopyrrole, isoazole) (C5), piperidine (C6), dihydropyridine (C6), tetrahydropyridine (C6), azepine (C7);

    N2: diazetidine (C4), imidazolidine (C5), pyrazolidine (diazolidine) (C5), imidazoline (C5), pyrazoline (dihydropyrazole) (C5), piperazine (C6);

    N1O1: tetrahydrooxazole (C5), dihydrooxazole (C5), tetrahydroisoxazole (C5), dihydroisoxazole (C5), morpholine (C6), tetrahydrooxazine (C6), dihydrooxazine (C6), oxazine (C6); oxaazepine (C7);

    N1S1: thiazoline (C5), thiazolidine (C5), thiomorpholine (C6); thioazepine (C7);

    N1O1S1: oxathiazine (C6).



    [0037] Those C5-7 heterocyclyl groups which include a second N atom may be substituted on this atom by a C1-4 alkylacyl group, and in particular, by -C(=O)Me.

    [0038] C1-4 alkyl: The term "C1-4 alkyl" as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from a carbon atom of a saturated hydrocarbon compound having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms.

    [0039] Examples of saturated alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl (C1), ethyl (C2), propyl (C3), and butyl (C4).

    [0040] Examples of saturated linear alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl (C1), ethyl (C2), n-propyl (C3), and n-butyl (C4).

    [0041] Examples of saturated branched alkyl groups include iso-propyl (C3), iso-butyl (C4), sec-butyl (C4) and tert-butyl (C4).

    [0042] C1-4 fluoroalkyl: The term "C1-4 fluoroalkyl" refers to a C1-4 alkyl group as defined above where one of more of the hydrogen atoms is replaced by a fluoro. Examples of C1-4 fluoroalkyl include, but are not limited to, -CF3, CF2H, -C2F5, and -C2F4H.

    [0043] C3-4 cycloalkyl: the term 'C3-4 cycloalkyl' as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from a carbon atom of a saturated cyclic core having 3 or 4 atoms in the cyclic core all of which are carbon atoms. Examples of C3-4 cycloalkyl include cyclopropyl and cyclobutyl.

    [0044] C1-4 alkyloxy: The term "C1-4 alkyloxy" as used herein, pertains to the group -OP, where P is C1-4 alkyl.

    [0045] C1-4 alkylacyl: -C(=O)R, wherein R is a C1-4alkyl group as defined above. Examples of C1-4 alkylacyl groups include, but are not limited to, -C(=O)CH3 (acetyl), -C(=O)CH2CH3 (propionyl) and -C(=O)C(CH3)3 (t-butyryl).

    [0046] Halo: The term "halo" as used herein, refers to a group selected from fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo.

    [0047] Cyano: The term "cyano" as used herein refers to a group -CN.

    Includes Other Forms



    [0048] Unless otherwise specified, included in the above are the well known ionic, salt, solvate, and protected forms of these substituents. For example, a reference to carboxylic acid (-COOH) also includes the anionic (carboxylate) form (-COO-), a salt or solvate thereof, as well as conventional protected forms. Similarly, a reference to an amino group includes the protonated form (-N+HR1R2), a salt or solvate of the amino group, for example, a hydrochloride salt, as well as conventional protected forms of an amino group. Similarly, a reference to a hydroxyl group also includes the anionic form (-O-), a salt or solvate thereof, as well as conventional protected forms.

    Salts



    [0049] It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle a corresponding salt of the active compound, for example, a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are discussed in Berge, et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 66, 1-19 (1977).

    [0050] For example, if the compound is anionic, or has a functional group which may be anionic (e.g. -COOH may be -COO-), then a salt may be formed with a suitable cation. Examples of suitable inorganic cations include, but are not limited to, alkali metal ions such as Na+ and K+, alkaline earth cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, and other cations such as Al3+. Examples of suitable organic cations include, but are not limited to, ammonium ion (i.e. NH4+) and substituted ammonium ions (e.g. NH3R+, NH2R2+, NHR3+, NR4+). Examples of some suitable substituted ammonium ions are those derived from: ethylamine, diethylamine, dicyclohexylamine, triethylamine, butylamine, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, piperazine, benzylamine, phenylbenzylamine, choline, meglumine, and tromethamine, as well as amino acids, such as lysine and arginine. An example of a common quaternary ammonium ion is N(CH3)4+.

    [0051] If the compound is cationic, or has a functional group which may be cationic (e.g. -NH2 may be -NH3+), then a salt may be formed with a suitable anion. Examples of suitable inorganic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following inorganic acids: hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, sulfuric, sulfurous, nitric, nitrous, phosphoric, and phosphorous.

    [0052] Examples of suitable organic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following organic acids: 2-acetyoxybenzoic, acetic, ascorbic, aspartic, benzoic, camphorsulfonic, cinnamic, citric, edetic, ethanedisulfonic, ethanesulfonic, fumaric, glucoheptonic, gluconic, glutamic, glycolic, hydroxymaleic, hydroxynaphthalene carboxylic, isethionic, lactic, lactobionic, lauric, maleic, malic, methanesulfonic, mucic, oleic, oxalic, palmitic, pamoic, pantothenic, phenylacetic, phenylsulfonic, propionic, pyruvic, salicylic, stearic, succinic, sulfanilic, tartaric, toluenesulfonic, trifluoroacetic acid and valeric. Examples of suitable polymeric organic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following polymeric acids: tannic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Solvates



    [0053] It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle a corresponding solvate of the active compound. The term "solvate" is used herein in the conventional sense to refer to a complex of solute (e.g. active compound, salt of active compound) and solvent. If the solvent is water, the solvate may be conveniently referred to as a hydrate, for example, a mono-hydrate, a di-hydrate, a tri-hydrate, etc.

    Isomers



    [0054] Certain compounds of the invention may exist in one or more particular geometric, optical, enantiomeric, diasteriomeric, epimeric, atropic, stereoisomeric, tautomeric, conformational, or anomeric forms, including but not limited to, cis- and trans-forms; E- and Z-forms; c-, t-, and r- forms; endo- and exo-forms; R-, S-, and meso-forms; D- and L-forms; d- and l-forms; (+) and (-) forms; keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms; syn- and anti-forms; synclinal- and anticlinal-forms; α- and β-forms; axial and equatorial forms; boat-, chair-, twist-, envelope-, and halfchair-forms; and combinations thereof, hereinafter collectively referred to as "isomers" (or "isomeric forms").

    [0055] The term "chiral" refers to molecules which have the property of non-superimposability of the mirror image partner, while the term "achiral" refers to molecules which are superimposable on their mirror image partner.

    [0056] The term "stereoisomers" refers to compounds which have identical chemical constitution, but differ with regard to the arrangement of the atoms or groups in space.

    [0057] "Diastereomer" refers to a stereoisomer with two or more centers of chirality and whose molecules are not mirror images of one another. Diastereomers have different physical properties, e.g. melting points, boiling points, spectral properties, and reactivities. Mixtures of diastereomers may separate under high resolution analytical procedures such as electrophoresis and chromatography.

    [0058] "Enantiomers" refer to two stereoisomers of a compound which are non-superimposable mirror images of one another.

    [0059] Stereochemical definitions and conventions used herein generally follow S. P. Parker, Ed., McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical Terms (1984) McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York; and Eliel, E. and Wilen, S., "Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1994. The compounds of the invention may contain asymmetric or chiral centers, and therefore exist in different stereoisomeric forms. It is intended that all stereoisomeric forms of the compounds of the invention, including but not limited to, diastereomers, enantiomers and atropisomers, as well as mixtures thereof such as racemic mixtures, form part of the present invention. Many organic compounds exist in optically active forms, i.e., they have the ability to rotate the plane of plane-polarized light. In describing an optically active compound, the prefixes D and L, or R and S, are used to denote the absolute configuration of the molecule about its chiral center(s). The prefixes d and I or (+) and (-) are employed to designate the sign of rotation of plane-polarized light by the compound, with (-) or I meaning that the compound is levorotatory. A compound prefixed with (+) or d is dextrorotatory. For a given chemical structure, these stereoisomers are identical except that they are mirror images of one another. A specific stereoisomer may also be referred to as an enantiomer, and a mixture of such isomers is often called an enantiomeric mixture. A 50:50 mixture of enantiomers is referred to as a racemic mixture or a racemate, which may occur where there has been no stereoselection or stereospecificity in a chemical reaction or process. The terms "racemic mixture" and "racemate" refer to an equimolar mixture of two enantiomeric species, devoid of optical activity.

    [0060] Compounds of the present invention have at least two stereocentres, indicated by * in the formula below:



    [0061] It may be preferred the compounds have the following stereochemistry:



    [0062] Alternatively, the compounds may have one of the following stereochemistries:



    [0063] Furthermore, the compounds may have the following stereochemistry:



    [0064] Assignment of the absolute configuration can be determined with X-ray crystallisation studies as described below.

    [0065] Note that, except as discussed below for tautomeric forms, specifically excluded from the term "isomers", as used herein, are structural (or constitutional) isomers (i.e. isomers which differ in the connections between atoms rather than merely by the position of atoms in space). For example, a reference to a methoxy group, -OCH3, is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, a hydroxymethyl group, -CH2OH. Similarly, a reference to ortho-chlorophenyl is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, meta-chlorophenyl. However, a reference to a class of structures may well include structurally isomeric forms falling within that class (e.g. C1-7 alkyl includes n-propyl and iso-propyl; butyl includes n-, iso-, sec-, and tert-butyl; methoxyphenyl includes ortho-, meta-, and para-methoxyphenyl).

    [0066] The above exclusion does not pertain to tautomeric forms, for example, keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms, as in, for example, the following tautomeric pairs: keto/enol (illustrated below), imine/enamine, amide/imino alcohol, amidine/amidine, nitroso/oxime, thioketone/enethiol, N-nitroso/hyroxyazo, and nitro/aci-nitro.



    [0067] The term "tautomer" or "tautomeric form" refers to structural isomers of different energies which are interconvertible via a low energy barrier. For example, proton tautomers (also known as prototropic tautomers) include interconversions via migration of a proton, such as keto-enol and imine-enamine isomerizations. Valence tautomers include interconversions by reorganization of some of the bonding electrons.

    [0068] Note that specifically included in the term "isomer" are compounds with one or more isotopic substitutions. For example, H may be in any isotopic form, including 1H, 2H (D), and 3H (T); C may be in any isotopic form, including 12C, 13C, and 14C; O may be in any isotopic form, including 16O and 18O; and the like.

    [0069] Examples of isotopes that can be incorporated into compounds of the invention include isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, fluorine, and chlorine, such as, but not limited to 2H (deuterium, D), 3H (tritium), 11C, 13C, 14C, 15N, 18F, 31P, 32P, 35S, 36Cl, and 125I. Various isotopically labeled compounds of the present invention, for example those into which radioactive isotopes such as 3H, 13C, and 14C are incorporated. Such isotopically labelled compounds may be useful in metabolic studies, reaction kinetic studies, detection or imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) including drug or substrate tissue distribution assays, or in radioactive treatment of patients. Deuterium labelled or substituted therapeutic compounds of the invention may have improved DMPK (drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics) properties, relating to distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Substitution with heavier isotopes such as deuterium may afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements. An 18F labeled compound may be useful for PET or SPECT studies. Isotopically labeled compounds of this invention and prodrugs thereof can generally be prepared by carrying out the procedures disclosed in the schemes or in the examples and preparations described below by substituting a readily available isotopically labeled reagent for a non-isotopically labeled reagent. Further, substitution with heavier isotopes, particularly deuterium (i.e., 2H or D) may afford certain therapeutic advantages resulting from greater metabolic stability, for example increased in vivo half-life or reduced dosage requirements or an improvement in therapeutic index. It is understood that deuterium in this context is regarded as a substituent. The concentration of such a heavier isotope, specifically deuterium, may be defined by an isotopic enrichment factor. In the compounds of this invention any atom not specifically designated as a particular isotope is meant to represent any stable isotope of that atom.

    [0070] Unless otherwise specified, a reference to a particular compound includes all such isomeric forms, including (wholly or partially) racemic and other mixtures thereof. Methods for the preparation (e.g. asymmetric synthesis) and separation (e.g. fractional crystallisation and chromatographic means) of such isomeric forms are either known in the art or are readily obtained by adapting the methods taught herein, or known methods, in a known manner.

    Therapeutic Indications



    [0071] Compounds disclosed herein may provide a therapeutic benefit in a number of disorders, in particular, in the treatment or prevention of cancers and hemoglobinopathies.

    Cancer



    [0072] Modulators of PRMT5 mediated post-translational arginine methylation of p53 may regulate a pro-apoptotic p53 response, and may therefore be useful as therapeutic agents, for example in the treatment of cancer. Such agents may also be useful as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancers which exhibit overexpression of PRMT5.

    [0073] A "cancer" may be any form of cancer. In particular, a cancer can comprise any one or more of the following: leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, prostate cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer, colon cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer.

    [0074] Alternatively, the cancer may comprise adrenocortical cancer, anal cancer, bladder cancer, blood cancer, bone cancer, brain tumor, cancer of the female genital system, cancer of the male genital system, central nervous system lymphoma, cervical cancer, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, childhood sarcoma, endometrial cancer, endometrial sarcoma, esophageal cancer, eye cancer, gallbladder cancer, gastrointestinal tract cancer, hairy cell leukemia, head and neck cancer, hepatocellular cancer, hypopharyngeal cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, kidney cancer, laryngeal cancer, liver cancer, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant thymoma, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, myeloma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, nervous system cancer, neuroblastoma, oral cavity cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, osteosarcoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penile cancer, pharyngeal cancer, pituitary tumor, plasma cell neoplasm, primary CNS lymphoma, rectal cancer, respiratory system, retinoblastoma, salivary gland cancer, skin cancer, small intestine cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, stomach cancer, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, thyroid cancer, urinary system cancer, uterine sarcoma, vaginal cancer, vascular system, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia and/or Wilms' tumor.
    Cancers may be of a particular type. Examples of types of cancer include lymphoma, melanoma, carcinoma (e.g. adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma), astrocytoma, glioma, medulloblastoma, myeloma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, sarcoma (e.g. angiosarcoma, chrondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma).

    [0075] The cancer may be a PRMT5 overexpressing cancer. The cancer may over express PRMT5 protein relative to non-cancerous tissue. In some cases, the cancer overproduces PRMT5 mRNA relative to non-cancerous tissue.

    [0076] Alternatively or additionally, the cancer may be a p53 overexpressing cancer. The cell may overexpress p53 protein relative to non-cancerous tissue. It may overproduce p53 mRNA as compared to non-cancerous tissue. In some cases, the level of p53 protein and/or mRNA in the cell is at a level approximately equivalent to that of a non-cancerous cell.

    [0077] The agents described herein may be useful in combination with other anti-cancer therapies. They may act synergistically with chemo- or radiotherapy, and/or with p53 targeted drugs.

    [0078] An inhibitor of PRMT5 would in all likelihood augment the effects of drugs (such as the nutlins) that restore p53. Inhibition of PRMT5, resulting in decreased arginine-methylated p53, may sensitize tumour cells to chemo- and radiotherapy by switching, or at least biasing, the cellular outcome to apoptosis.

    Combination therapies



    [0079] p53 is activated by DNA damage. PRMT5 is part of the complex of proteins that activate and modulate p53 activity in response to DNA damage. It is likely that inhibition of PRMT5, resulting in decreased arginine-methylated p53, would sensitize tumour cells to chemo- and radiotherapy by switching or at least biasing the cellular outcome to apoptosis. PRMT5

    [0080] inhibition is likely to synergize well with low dose chemo- or radiotherapy, by stabilizing p53, and biasing the cellular outcome to apoptosis.

    [0081] Biasing the p53 response towards apoptosis would in all likelihood be of benefit, and an agent that so biases the response would be expected to augment the effect of a p53 resurrecting drug. Thus, in some cases, a PRMT5 modulator disclosed herein may be administered in conjunction with a radiotherapeutic or chemotherapeutic regime. It may be administered in conjunction with a drug that resurrects cellular p53 activity, for example, a p53 agonist. The PRMT5 modulator may be administered simultaneously or sequentially with radio and/or chemotherapy. Suitable chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy protocols will be readily appreciable to the skilled person. In particular, the compound described herein may be combined with low dose chemo or radio therapy. Appropriate dosages for "low dose" chemo or radio therapy will be readily appreciable to the skilled practitioner.

    Hemoglobinopathies



    [0082] The compounds disclosed herein may be useful in the treatment or prevention of conditions that may benefit from the increased expression of γ-globin genes, for example, due to the release of repressive methylation of these genes. The compounds disclosed herein may be useful in the treatment or prevention of hemoglobinopathies. A hemoglobinopathy is a condition associated with the presence of abnormal hemoglobin in the blood of a subject. Such conditions include β-thalassemia and Sickle Cell Disease, α-thalassemia and δ-thalassemia.

    [0083] Hemoglobinopathies treatable by the compounds disclosed herein may be ameliorated by the re-activation of the subjects γ-globin genes (γ genes). In such cases, the subject is not a fetal mammal.

    Methods of Treatment



    [0084] The compounds of the present invention may be used in a method of therapy. Also disclosed is a method of treatment, comprising administering to a subject in need of treatment a therapeutically-effective amount of a compound of the invention. The term "therapeutically effective amount" is an amount sufficient to show benefit to a patient. Such benefit may be at least amelioration of at least one symptom. The actual amount administered, and rate and time-course of administration, will depend on the nature and severity of what is being treated. Prescription of treatment, e.g. decisions on dosage, is within the responsibility of general practitioners and other medical doctors.

    [0085] As described above, the anti cancer treatment defined herein may be applied as a sole therapy or may involve, in addition to the compound of the invention, conventional surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Such chemotherapy may include one or more of the following categories of anti-tumour agents:-
    1. (i) other antiproliferative/antineoplastic drugs and combinations thereof, as used in medical oncology, such as alkylating agents (for example cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, nitrogen mustard, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulphan, temozolomide and nitrosoureas); antimetabolites (for example gemcitabine and antifolates such as fluoropyrimidines like 5 fluorouracil and tegafur, raltitrexed, methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, and hydroxyurea); antitumour antibiotics (for example anthracyclines like adriamycin, bleomycin, doxorubicin, daunomycin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitomycin-C, dactinomycin and mithramycin); antimitotic agents (for example vinca alkaloids like vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine and vinorelbine and taxoids like taxol and docetaxel (Taxotere) and polokinase inhibitors); and topoisomerase inhibitors (for example epipodophyllotoxins like etoposide and teniposide, amsacrine, topotecan and camptothecin);
    2. (ii) cytostatic agents such as antioestrogens (for example tamoxifen, fulvestrant, toremifene, raloxifene, droloxifene and iodoxyfene), antiandrogens (for example bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide and cyproterone acetate), LHRH antagonists or LHRH agonists (for example goserelin, leuprorelin and buserelin), progestogens (for example megestrol acetate), aromatase inhibitors (for example as anastrozole, letrozole, vorazole and exemestane) and inhibitors of 5*-reductase such as finasteride;
    3. (iii) anti-invasion agents (for example c-Src kinase family inhibitors like 4-(6-chloro-2,3-methylenedioxyanilino)-7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]-5-tetrahydropyran-4-yloxyquinazoline (AZD0530; International Patent Application WO 01/94341), N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-{6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-methylpyrimidin-4-ylamino}thiazole-5-carboxamide (dasatinib, BMS-354825; J. Med. Chem., 2004, 47, 6658-6661 and and 4-((2,4-dichloro-5-methoxyphenyl)amino)-6-methoxy-7-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propoxy)quinoline-3-carbonitrile (bosutinib, SKI-606; Cancer research (2003), 63(2), 375-81), and metalloproteinase inhibitors like marimastat, inhibitors of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor function or antibodies to Heparanase);
    4. (iv) inhibitors of growth factor function: for example such inhibitors include growth factor antibodies and growth factor receptor antibodies (for example the anti erbB2 antibody trastuzumab [HerceptinT], the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab, the anti erbB1 antibody cetuximab [Erbitux, C225] and any growth factor or growth factor receptor antibodies disclosed by Stern et al. Critical reviews in oncology/haematology, 2005, Vol. 54, pp11-29); such inhibitors also include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, for example inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor family (for example EGFR family tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-morpholinopropoxy)quinazolin-4-amine (gefitinib, ZD1839), N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine (erlotinib, OSI 774) and 6-acrylamido-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-quinazolin-4-amine (CI 1033), erbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor family, inhibitors of the platelet-derived growth factor family such as imatinib, inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases (for example Ras/Raf signalling inhibitors such as farnesyl transferase inhibitors, for example sorafenib (BAY 43-9006)), inhibitors of cell signalling through MEK and/or AKT kinases, inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor family, c-kit inhibitors, abl kinase inhibitors, IGF receptor (insulin-like growth factor) kinase inhibitors; aurora kinase inhibitors (for example AZD1152, PH739358, VX-680, MLN8054, R763, MP235, MP529, VX-528 AND AX39459) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as CDK2 and/or CDK4 inhibitors;
    5. (v) antiangiogenic and antilymphangiogenic agents such as those which inhibit the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor, [for example the anti vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGFA) antibody bevacizumab (AvastinT), the anti vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGFA) antibody ranibizumab, the anti-VEGF aptamer pegaptanib, the anti vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) antibody IMC-3C5, the anti vascular endothelial cell growth factor C (VEGFC) antibody VGX-100, the anti vascular endothelial cell growth factor D (VEGFD) antibody VGX-200, the soluble form of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) VGX-300 and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as 4-(4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino)-6-methoxy-7-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylmethoxy)quinazoline (vandetanib; ZD6474; Example 2 within WO 01/32651), 4-(4-fluoro-2-methylindol-5-yloxy)-6-methoxy-7-(3-pyrrolidin-1-ylpropoxy)quinazoline (cediranib; AZD2171; Example 240 within WO 00/47212), vatalanib (PTK787; WO 98/35985), pazopanib (GW786034), axitinib (AG013736), sorafenib and sunitinib (SU11248; WO 01/60814), compounds such as those disclosed in International Patent Applications WO97/22596, WO 97/30035, WO 97/32856 and WO 98/13354 and compounds that work by other mechanisms (for example linomide, inhibitors of integrin avb3 function and angiostatin)];
    6. (vi) vascular damaging agents such as Combretastatin A4 and compounds disclosed in International Patent Applications WO 99/02166, WO 00/40529, WO 00/41669, WO 01/92224, WO 02/04434 and WO 02/08213;
    7. (vii) antisense therapies, for example those which are directed to the targets listed above, such as ISIS 2503, an anti-ras antisense;
    8. (viii) gene therapy approaches, including for example approaches to replace aberrant genes such as aberrant p53 or aberrant BRCA1 or BRCA2, GDEPT (gene directed enzyme pro drug therapy) approaches such as those using cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase or a bacterial nitroreductase enzyme and approaches to increase patient tolerance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy such as multi drug resistance gene therapy; and
    9. (ix) immunotherapy approaches, including for example ex vivo and in vivo approaches to increase the immunogenicity of patient tumour cells, such as transfection with cytokines such as interleukin 2, interleukin 4 or granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, approaches to decrease T cell anergy, approaches using transfected immune cells such as cytokine transfected dendritic cells, approaches using cytokine transfected tumour cell lines and approaches using anti idiotypic antibodies

    Administration



    [0086] The active compound or pharmaceutical composition comprising the active compound may be administered to a subject by any convenient route of administration, whether systemically/ peripherally or at the site of desired action, including but not limited to, oral (e.g. by ingestion); topical (including e.g. transdermal, intranasal, ocular, buccal, and sublingual); pulmonary (e.g. by inhalation or insufflation therapy using, e.g. an aerosol, e.g. through mouth or nose); rectal; vaginal; parenteral, for example, by injection, including subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intraarterial, intracardiac, intrathecal, intraspinal, intracapsular, subcapsular, intraorbital, intraperitoneal, intratracheal, subcuticular, intraarticular, subarachnoid, intravitreal and intrasternal; by implant of a depot, for example, subcutaneously, intravitreal or intramuscularly. The subject may be a eukaryote, an animal, a vertebrate animal, a mammal, a rodent (e.g. a guinea pig, a hamster, a rat, a mouse), murine (e.g. a mouse), canine (e.g. a dog), feline (e.g. a cat), equine (e.g. a horse), a primate, simian (e.g. a monkey or ape), a monkey (e.g. marmoset, baboon), an ape (e.g. gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon), or a human.

    Formulations



    [0087] While it is possible for the active compound to be administered alone, it is preferable to present it as a pharmaceutical composition (e.g. formulation) comprising at least one active compound, as defined above, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants, excipients, diluents, fillers, buffers, stabilisers, preservatives, lubricants, or other materials well known to those skilled in the art and optionally other therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

    [0088] Thus, the present invention further provides pharmaceutical compositions, as defined above, and methods of making a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing at least one active compound, as defined above, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, excipients, buffers, adjuvants, stabilisers, or other materials, as described herein.

    [0089] The term "pharmaceutically acceptable" as used herein pertains to compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgement, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of a subject (e.g. human) without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Each carrier, excipient, etc. must also be "acceptable" in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation.

    [0090] Suitable carriers, excipients, etc. can be found in standard pharmaceutical texts, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1990.

    [0091] The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. Such methods include the step of bringing into association the active compound with the carrier which constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active compound with liquid carriers or finely divided solid carriers or both, and then if necessary shaping the product.

    [0092] Formulations may be in the form of liquids, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, elixirs, syrups, tablets, losenges, granules, powders, capsules, cachets, pills, ampoules, suppositories, pessaries, ointments, gels, pastes, creams, sprays, mists, foams, lotions, oils, boluses, electuaries, or aerosols.

    [0093] Formulations suitable for oral administration (e.g. by ingestion) may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, cachets or tablets, each containing a predetermined amount of the active compound; as a powder or granules; as a solution or suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid; or as an oil-in-water liquid emulsion or a water-in-oil liquid emulsion; as a bolus; as an electuary; or as a paste.

    [0094] A tablet may be made by conventional means, e.g., compression or moulding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared by compressing in a suitable machine the active compound in a free-flowing form such as a powder or granules, optionally mixed with one or more binders (e.g. povidone, gelatin, acacia, sorbitol, tragacanth, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose); fillers or diluents (e.g. lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium hydrogen phosphate); lubricants (e.g. magnesium stearate, talc, silica); disintegrants (e.g. sodium starch glycolate, cross-linked povidone, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose); surface-active or dispersing or wetting agents (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate); and preservatives (e.g. methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, sorbic acid). Moulded tablets may be made by moulding in a suitable machine a mixture of the powdered compound moistened with an inert liquid diluent. The tablets may optionally be coated or scored and may be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active compound therein using, for example, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in varying proportions to provide the desired release profile. Tablets may optionally be provided with an enteric coating, to provide release in parts of the gut other than the stomach.

    [0095] Formulations suitable for topical administration (e.g. transdermal, intranasal, ocular, buccal, and sublingual) may be formulated as an ointment, cream, suspension, lotion, powder, solution, past, gel, spray, aerosol, or oil. Alternatively, a formulation may comprise a patch or a dressing such as a bandage or adhesive plaster impregnated with active compounds and optionally one or more excipients or diluents.

    [0096] Formulations suitable for topical administration in the mouth include losenges comprising the active compound in a flavoured basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; pastilles comprising the active compound in an inert basis such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia; and mouthwashes comprising the active compound in a suitable liquid carrier.

    [0097] Formulations suitable for topical administration to the eye also include eye drops wherein the active compound is dissolved or suspended in a suitable carrier, especially an aqueous solvent for the active compound.

    [0098] Formulations suitable for nasal administration, wherein the carrier is a solid, include a coarse powder having a particle size, for example, in the range of about 20 to about 500 microns which is administered in the manner in which snuff is taken, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close up to the nose. Suitable formulations wherein the carrier is a liquid for administration as, for example, nasal spray, nasal drops, or by aerosol administration by nebuliser, include aqueous or oily solutions of the active compound.

    [0099] Formulations suitable for administration by inhalation include those presented as an aerosol spray from a pressurised pack, with the use of a suitable propellant, such as dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichoro-tetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide, or other suitable gases.

    [0100] Formulations suitable for topical administration via the skin include ointments, creams, and emulsions. When formulated in an ointment, the active compound may optionally be employed with either a paraffinic or a water-miscible ointment base. Alternatively, the active compounds may be formulated in a cream with an oil-in-water cream base. If desired, the aqueous phase of the cream base may include, for example, at least about 30% w/w of a polyhydric alcohol, i.e., an alcohol having two or more hydroxyl groups such as propylene glycol, butane-1,3-diol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and polyethylene glycol and mixtures thereof. The topical formulations may desirably include a compound which enhances absorption or penetration of the active compound through the skin or other affected areas. Examples of such dermal penetration enhancers include dimethylsulfoxide and related analogues.

    [0101] When formulated as a topical emulsion, the oily phase may optionally comprise merely an emulsifier (otherwise known as an emulgent), or it may comprises a mixture of at least one emulsifier with a fat or an oil or with both a fat and an oil. Preferably, a hydrophilic emulsifier is included together with a lipophilic emulsifier which acts as a stabiliser. It is also preferred to include both an oil and a fat. Together, the emulsifier(s) with or without stabiliser(s) make up the so-called emulsifying wax, and the wax together with the oil and/or fat make up the so-called emulsifying ointment base which forms the oily dispersed phase of the cream formulations.

    [0102] Suitable emulgents and emulsion stabilisers include Tween 60, Span 80, cetostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate and sodium lauryl sulphate. The choice of suitable oils or fats for the formulation is based on achieving the desired cosmetic properties, since the solubility of the active compound in most oils likely to be used in pharmaceutical emulsion formulations may be very low. Thus the cream should preferably be a non-greasy, non-staining and washable product with suitable consistency to avoid leakage from tubes or other containers. Straight or branched chain, mono- or dibasic alkyl esters such as di-isoadipate, isocetyl stearate, propylene glycol diester of coconut fatty acids, isopropyl myristate, decyl oleate, isopropyl palmitate, butyl stearate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate or a blend of branched chain esters known as Crodamol CAP may be used, the last three being preferred esters. These may be used alone or in combination depending on the properties required.

    [0103] Alternatively, high melting point lipids such as white soft paraffin and/or liquid paraffin or other mineral oils can be used.

    [0104] Formulations suitable for rectal administration may be presented as a suppository with a suitable base comprising, for example, cocoa butter or a salicylate.

    [0105] Formulations suitable for vaginal administration may be presented as pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing in addition to the active compound, such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

    [0106] Formulations suitable for parenteral administration (e.g. by injection, including cutaneous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intradermal), include aqueous and non-aqueous isotonic, pyrogen-free, sterile injection solutions which may contain anti-oxidants, buffers, preservatives, stabilisers, bacteriostats, and solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient; and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions which may include suspending agents and thickening agents, and liposomes or other microparticulate systems which are designed to target the compound to blood components or one or more organs. Examples of suitable isotonic vehicles for use in such formulations include Sodium Chloride Injection, Ringer's Solution, or Lactated Ringer's Injection. Typically, the concentration of the active compound in the solution is from about 1 ng/mL to about 10 µg/mL, for example from about 10 ng/ml to about 1 µg/mL. The formulations may be presented in unit-dose or multi-dose sealed containers, for example, ampoules and vials, and may be stored in a freeze-dried (lyophilised) condition requiring only the addition of the sterile liquid carrier, for example water for injections, immediately prior to use. Extemporaneous injection solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders, granules, and tablets. Formulations may be in the form of liposomes or other microparticulate systems which are designed to target the active compound to blood components or one or more organs.

    Dosage



    [0107] It will be appreciated by one of skill in the art that appropriate dosages of the compound, and compositions comprising the compound, can vary from patient to patient. Determining the optimal dosage will generally involve the balancing of the level of therapeutic benefit against any risk or deleterious side effects. The selected dosage level will depend on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the activity of the particular compound, the route of administration, the time of administration, the rate of excretion of the compound, the duration of the treatment, other drugs, compounds, and/or materials used in combination, the severity of the condition, and the species, sex, age, weight, condition, general health, and prior medical history of the patient. The amount of compound and route of administration will ultimately be at the discretion of the physician, veterinarian, or clinician, although generally the dosage will be selected to achieve local concentrations at the site of action which achieve the desired effect without causing substantial harmful or deleterious side-effects.

    [0108] Administration can be effected in one dose, continuously or intermittently (e.g., in divided doses at appropriate intervals) throughout the course of treatment. Methods of determining the most effective means and dosage of administration are well known to those of skill in the art and will vary with the formulation used for therapy, the purpose of the therapy, the target cell(s) being treated, and the subject being treated. Single or multiple administrations can be carried out with the dose level and pattern being selected by the treating physician, veterinarian, or clinician.

    [0109] In general, a suitable dose of the active compound is in the range of about 100 ng to about 25 mg (more typically about 1 µg to about 10 mg) per kilogram body weight of the subject per day. Where the active compound is a salt, an ester, an amide, a prodrug, or the like, the amount administered is calculated on the basis of the parent compound and so the actual weight to be used is increased proportionately.

    [0110] In one embodiment, the active compound is administered to a human patient according to the following dosage regime: about 100 mg, 3 times daily.

    [0111] In one embodiment, the active compound is administered to a human patient according to the following dosage regime: about 150 mg, 2 times daily.

    [0112] In one embodiment, the active compound is administered to a human patient according to the following dosage regime: about 200 mg, 2 times daily.

    [0113] However in one embodiment, the active compound is administered to a human patient according to the following dosage regime: about 50 or about 75 mg, 3 or 4 times daily.

    [0114] In one embodiment, the active compound is administered to a human patient according to the following dosage regime: about 100 or about 125 mg, 2 times daily.

    Treatment



    [0115] The term "treatment," as used herein in the context of treating a condition, pertains generally to treatment and therapy, whether of a human or an animal (e.g., in veterinary applications), in which some desired therapeutic effect is achieved, for example, the inhibition of the progress of the condition, and includes a reduction in the rate of progress, a halt in the rate of progress, regression of the condition, amelioration of the condition, and cure of the condition. Treatment as a prophylactic measure (i.e., prophylaxis, prevention) is also included.

    [0116] The term "therapeutically-effective amount," as used herein, pertains to that amount of an active compound, or a material, composition or dosage from comprising an active compound, which is effective for producing some desired therapeutic effect, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio, when administered in accordance with a desired treatment regimen.

    [0117] Similarly, the term "prophylactically-effective amount," as used herein, pertains to that amount of an active compound, or a material, composition or dosage from comprising an active compound, which is effective for producing some desired prophylactic effect, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio, when administered in accordance with a desired treatment regimen.

    The Subject/Patient



    [0118] The subject/patient may be an animal, mammal, a placental mammal, a marsupial (e.g., kangaroo, wombat), a monotreme (e.g., duckbilled platypus), a rodent (e.g., a guinea pig, a hamster, a rat, a mouse), murine (e.g., a mouse), a lagomorph (e.g., a rabbit), avian (e.g., a bird), canine (e.g., a dog), feline (e.g., a cat), equine (e.g., a horse), porcine (e.g., a pig), ovine (e.g., a sheep), bovine (e.g., a cow), a primate, simian (e.g., a monkey or ape), a monkey (e.g., marmoset, baboon), an ape (e.g., gorilla, chimpanzee, orangutang, gibbon), or a human.

    [0119] Furthermore, the subject/patient may be any of its forms of development, for example, a foetus. In one preferred embodiment, the subject/patient is a human.

    General synthesis methods



    [0120] The compounds of the invention can be prepared employing the following general methods and using procedures described in detail in the examples. The reaction conditions referred to are illustrative and non-limiting, for example one skilled in the art may use a diverse range of synthetic methods to synthesise the desired compounds such as but not limited to methods described in literature (for example but not limited to March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure, 7th Edition or Larock's Comprehensive Organic Transformations: Comprehensive Organic Transformations: A Guide to Functional Group Preparations).

    [0121] Compounds of formula I, as described above, can be prepared by synthetic strategies outlined below, wherein the definitions above apply.

    General Synthesis 1



    [0122] 



    [0123] Scheme 1A illustrates the synthesis of compounds with the structure G9 where R2a, R2c, R2e, R5 = H. A coupling of a carbonyl compound of structure G1 with an organometallic compound of structure G2 to give a compound with structure G3 will be apparent to those skilled in the art. The group represented by (M) includes but is not limited to Mg, In, Zn and the group represented by (X) may be a halide where (Y) may be the number 1-3. Suitable protected amino groups represented by (PG) include but are not limited to phthalimide; and methods for the removal of said protecting groups will be known to those skilled in the art (for example Greene's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 4th Edition). Synthesis of compounds with structure G5 is performed by reacting alkyne G3 with compounds of structure G4 in the presence of a transition metal catalyst or combination of transition metal catalysts such as but not limited to bis(triphenylphosphine)nickel(II) chloride /Zn.

    [0124] After removal of the protecting group, methods to synthesise amides G8 will be apparent to those skilled in the art, but include for example the use of reagents such as HATU, HBTU, T3P and EDCI/HOBt, and the use of activated forms of the carboxylic acid G7 such as the corresponding acyl halide, carbamate or N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Transformation of isoquinolines of structure G8 to give tetrahydroisoquinolines of structure G9 will be apparent to those skilled in the art and such methods include but are not limited to reduction in the presence of a transition metal catalyst.



    [0125] Alternatively, for the synthesis of compounds with structure G12 where R2a, R2c, R2d, R2e, R5 = H, a coupling of an alkyne and a aryl halide will be apparent to those skilled in the art and such methods include a coupling in the presence of a transition metal catalyst or catalyst combination such as but not limited to PdCl2(PPh3)/CuI and Pd(OAc)2/PPh3. This may be followed by cyclisation either in situ or as a separate step to give isoquinoline of structure G11. The synthetic steps to give compounds with general formula G12 will be similar to those used in Scheme 1A.

    General synthesis 2



    [0126] 

    Where R9 represents the fused ring group.

    [0127] Scheme 2A illustrates the synthesis of compounds G18 from aldehyde G13 (or ketone where R4 = Me). Conversion of a carbonyl to an alkene will be apparent to those skilled in the art but methods include but are not limited to a Wittig reaction with [Ph3PMe]+Br- in the presence of a base such as KHMDS. The alkene G14 can be epoxidised with reagents such as mCPBA and then reacted with an amine to give intermediate G17. Alternatively, an aminohydroxylation can be performed by methods such as but not limited to reaction with (PG)NHOTs in the presence of potassium osmate dehydrate to give G16. Removal of the protecting group will be apparent to those skilled in the art (for example Greene's Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis, 4th Edition) and gives intermediate G17. Direct synthesis of epoxide G15 from aldehyde G13 may be achieved by methods such as, but not limited to, reaction with trimethylsulfonium iodide or trimethylsulfoxonium iodide in the presence of base such as NaH. Amide bond formation to give compounds G18 can be performed by methods previously described (General synthesis 1).

    General synthesis 3



    [0128] Scheme 3A illustrates the synthesis of compounds G22 beginning with a Henry reaction between an aldehyde G19 (or ketone where R4 = Me) and nitromethane in the presence or absence of a suitable base, such as but not limited to DBU, a KF, TBAF or sodium hydroxide, in the presence or absence of a chiral or achiral transition metal compound for example but not limited to complexes of copper, cobalt or zinc to furnish a nitro-alcohol G20. Reduction of the nitro group to the primary amine G21 will be apparent to those skilled in the art and include but are not limited to using reducing conditions such as a transition metal (Fe, In, Zn) in the presence of HCI, hydrogenation in the presence of a transition metal or transition metal catalyst. Amide bond formation to give compounds G22 can be performed by methods previously described (General synthesis 1). The method can also be carried out with nitroethane and other nitroalkanes, as appropriate.


    General synthesis 4



    [0129] Transition metal catalysed coupling reactions known to those skilled in the art, such as but not limited to Suzuki couplings, can be used to prepare carboxylic acids G7 used in Scheme 1A, 2A and 3A for the amide formations. In scheme 4A, acid G7 can be described by G33 where A as described herein, consists of -A2R11 where R11 maybe, but not limited to, a CH2-linked N-containing C5-7 hetereocyclyl. In starting material G30 and G32, A as described herein, consists of -A2X and -A2B1 respectively. The groups denoted by (X) and B1 are chosen to be suitable for the coupling reaction employed. For example, in the case of a Suzuki coupling reaction (X) may be a halogen, tosylate or other suitable group and B1 represents a suitable boron compound including, but not limited to, a boronic acid, boronic ester, vinylic boronic acid or ester, potassium trifluoroborate derivative. If a vinylic boronic acid or ester is used then it may be necessary to reduce the resulting double bond by some method such as but not limited to hydrogenation in the presence of a transition metal catalyst such as palladium on carbon.



    [0130] In G30 and G32 R12 can be a H or a carbon group for example but not limited to Me, Et, Pr, iPr, Bu, t-Bu, Bn. In these instances where R12 is carbon group it may be necessary to form the carboxylic acid before use in the amide coupling (Scheme 1A), generally this can be achieved by for example hydrolysis with a base such as an alkali metal hydroxide or an acid for example aqueous hydrochloric acid to form G33. The same method for converting an ester to a carboxylic acid is used in other general schemes.

    General synthesis 5



    [0131] Scheme 5A illustrates the addition of an R13 group, as a substituent which is part of A. This can be achieved using any suitable coupling reaction known to the person skilled in the art, for example, by an SNAr displacement or Buchwald coupling. The group denoted by (X) may be but not limited to halogen and is chosen to be suitable for the coupling reaction employed.



    [0132] In G34 and G35 R14 can be a H or a carbon group for example but not limited to Me, Et, Pr, iPr, Bu, t-Bu, Bn. In these instances it may be necessary to form the carboxylic acid before use in an amide coupling (Scheme 1A), generally this can be achieved by, for example, hydrolysis with a base such as an alkali metal hydroxide or an acid, for example, aqueous hydrochloric acid to form G36. The same method for converting an ester to a carboxylic acid is used in other general schemes.

    [0133] This method may also be extended to the addition of secondary amines.

    [0134] Alternatively, to synthesise ether linked compounds, a similar strategy can be employed as shown in Scheme 5B. This can be achieved using any suitable coupling reaction known to a person skilled in the art, for example, by an SNAr displacement or an Ullmann-type coupling to give compounds with structure G37. Upon hydrolysis using methods previously described, compounds with structure G38 may be obtained and used in an amide bond formation as shown in scheme 1A.


    Further Embodiments


    n



    [0135] In some embodiments, n is 1. In some embodiments, n is 2.

    p



    [0136] In some embodiments, p is 0. In some embodiments, p is 1.

    R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d



    [0137] In some embodiments, R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d are all H.

    [0138] In some embodiments, one of R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d is C1-4 alkoxy, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, NH-C1-4 alkyl, halo or cyano. In some of these embodiments, R1b or R1c is C1-4 alkoxy, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, NH-C1-4 alkyl, halo or cyano, and in further of these embodiments, R1b is C1-4 alkoxy, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, NH-C1-4alkyl, halo or cyano. Where one of R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d is C1-4 alkoxy, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, NH-C1-4 alkyl, halo or cyano, it may be that the group is methoxy, methyl, NHMe, F or cyano. In some embodiments, the group is methoxy.

    [0139] In other embodiments, one to four of R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d may be Me or halo groups, preferably one to three of R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d may be Me or halo groups and more preferably one or two of R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d may be Me or halo groups.

    R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d



    [0140] R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are independently selected from H, F, CH2OH and Me. In some of these embodiments, R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are independently selected from H, Me and CH2OH. In further of these embodiments, R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are independently selected from H and Me.

    [0141] In some embodiments R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are all H.

    [0142] In some embodiments R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are comprised of three H and one Me or CH2OH group. It may be preferred in these embodiments that R2a is Me and R2b, R2c and R2d are H. It may be preferred in these embodiments that R2c is Me or CH2OH and R2a, R2b and R2d are H.

    [0143] In some embodiments R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are comprised of two H and two Me groups. It may be preferred in these embodiments that R2a and R2c are Me and R2b and R2d are H. It may be preferred in these embodiments that R2a and R2b are Me and R2c and R2d are H. It may also be preferred in these embodiments that R2c and R2d are Me and R2a and R2b are H.

    [0144] In some embodiments, R2c and R2d are independently selected from H and F.

    R2e



    [0145] In some embodiments, R2e is H. In other embodiments, R2e is Me.

    R3



    [0146] R3a and R3b are independently selected from H and Me. In some embodiments R3a is H and R3b is Me. In some embodiments R3a and R3b are both H. In some embodiments R3a and R3b are both Me.

    R4



    [0147] In some embodiments R4 is H. In some embodiments R4 is Me.

    R5



    [0148] In some embodiments R5 is H. In some embodiments R5 is Me.

    R6



    [0149] R6a and R6b are independently selected from H and Me. In some embodiments R6a is H and R6b is Me. In some embodiments R6a and R6b are both H. In some embodiments R6a and R6b are both Me.

    Stereoisomers



    [0150] The carbon to which R4 is attached is a chiral centre.

    [0151] In some embodiments, the compound is a mixture of stereoisomers at this centre. In some embodiments, the compound is a single stereoisomer. In some of these embodiments, the compound is the (R)-stereoisomer. In others of these embodiments, the compound is the (S)-stereoisomer.

    [0152] The compound may also include further chiral centres. The carbon in the THIQ moiety is chiral. In some embodiments, the compound is a mixture of stereoisomers at this centre. In other embodiments, the compound is a single stereoisomer at this centre. In some of these embodiments, the compound is the (R)- stereoisomer at this cetnre. In others of these embodiments, the compound is the (S)- stereoisomer at this centre.

    [0153] Thus the compound may be a single diastereomer or a mixture of diastereomers.

    [0154] It may be preferred the compounds have the following stereochemistry:



    [0155] Alternatively, the compounds may have one of the following stereochemistries:


    R1-R5, n & p



    [0156] In some embodiments, R1a, R1b, R1c, R1d, R2a, R2b, R2c, R2d, R2e, R4, R5, R6a and R6b are all H, n is 1 and p is 0, and thus the compound of formula I is of formula Ia:



    [0157] In some embodiments, R1a, R1b, R1c, R1d, R2a, R2b, R2c, R2d, R2e, R3a, R3b, R4, R5, R6a and R6b are all H, n is 1 and p is 1, and thus the compound of formula I is of formula Ib:



    [0158] In some embodiments, R1a, R1b, R1c, R1d, R2a, R2b, R2c, R2d, R2e, R4, R5, R6a are all H, n is 1 and p is 0, and R6b is Me and thus the compound of formula I is of formula Ic:


    A



    [0159] In some embodiments, A is of formula (IIa):



    [0160] In some of these embodiments, R7a is:

    In other of these embodiments, R7a is a N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl group. In some embodiments, R7a is a N-linked N-containing C6-7 heterocyclyl group.

    [0161] If R7a is a N-linked N-containing C6 heterocyclyl group, it may be selected from the group: piperidinyl; piperazinyl, optionally N-substituted with a C1-4 alkylacyl group (such as N-acetyl-piperazinyl); morpholino; and thiomorpholino.

    [0162] If R7a is a N-linked N-containing C7 heterocyclyl group, it may be selected from the group: azepinyl; oxaazepinyl, such as 1,4-oxaazepinyl; and thioazepinyl.

    [0163] In some embodiments, A is of formula (IIb):


    X



    [0164] In some embodiments, X is CH2. In other embodiments, X is NH. In other embodiments, X is O.

    R8



    [0165] In some embodiments, R8a is selected from Cl and ethoxy and R8b is H. In some of these embodiments, R8a is Cl. In others of these embodiments, R8a is ethoxy.

    [0166] In some embodiments, R8b is selected from Cl and ethoxy and R8a is H. In some of these embodiments, R8b is Cl. In others of these embodiments, R8b is ethoxy.

    EXAMPLES



    [0167] The following examples are provided solely to illustrate the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention, as described herein.

    Acronyms



    [0168] For convenience, many chemical moieties are represented using well known abbreviations, including but not limited to, methyl (Me), ethyl (Et), n-propyl (nPr), isopropyl (iPr), n-butyl (nBu), tert-butyl (tBu), phenyl (Ph), benzyl (Bn), methoxy (MeO), ethoxy (EtO), trimethylsilyl (TMS), and acetyl (Ac).

    [0169] For convenience, many chemical compounds are represented using well known abbreviations, including but not limited to, methanol (MeOH), deuterated methanol (d4-MeOD) ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (i-PrOH), ether or diethyl ether (Et2O), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetic acid (AcOH), acetonitrile (MeCN), dichloromethane (methylene chloride, DCM), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), dimethylformamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), deuterated chloroform (CDCl3), diethylamine (DEA), deuterated dimethylsulfoxide (d6-DMSO), N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI.HCI, EDCI), meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA), 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf), tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc, BOC), 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl (SEM), triethylamine (Et3N), 2-(1H-7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene dichloropalladium (II) (PdCl2(dppf)), trans-dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(II) (PdCl2(PPh3)2), tris(dibenzylideneacetone) dipalladium(0) (Pd2(dba)3), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (Pd(PPh3)4), propylphosphonic anhydride (T3P), and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt), hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA), trimethylamine (TEA), dichloroethane (DCE), N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), N-N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), p-toluenesulfonic acid (TsOH), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP), 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI).

    General Experimental Details



    [0170] Unless otherwise stated the following generalisations apply. 1H NMR spectra were recorded on a Bruker Ultrashield Plus (400 MHz) or a Bruker AVANCE (400 MHz). The multiplicity of a signal is designated by the following abbreviations: s, singlet; d, doublet; t, triplet; q, quartet; dd, doublet of doublets; dt, doublet of triplets; tt, triplet of triplets; br, broad; m, multiplet. All observed coupling constants, J, are reported in Hertz.

    [0171] LCMS data was generated using either an Agilent 6100 Series Single Quad LCMS (LCMS-A), an Agilent 1260 Infinity Series UPLC/MS (LCMS-B), an Agilent 1200 Series G6110A Quadrupole LCMS or Waters 2695 alliance (LCMS-C). Chlorine isotopes are reported as 35Cl, Bromine isotopes are reported as either 79Br or 81Br or both 79Br/81Br.

    LCMS Method A (LCMS-A):



    [0172] Instrument: Agilent 6100 Series Single Quad LC/MS
    Agilent 1200 Series HPLC
    Pump: 1200 Series G1311A Quaternary pump
    Autosampler: 1200 Series G1329A Thermostatted Autosampler
    Detector: 1200 Series G1314B Variable Wavelength Detector

    LC conditions:



    [0173] Reverse Phase HPLC analysis
    Column: Luna C8 (2) 5 µm 50 × 4.6 mm 100 Å
    Column temperature: 30 °C
    Injection Volume: 5 µL
    Solvent A: Water 0.1 % Formic Acid
    Solvent B: MeCN 0.1 % Formic Acid
    Gradient: 5-100 % solvent B over 10 min
    Detection: 254 nm or 214 nm

    MS conditions:



    [0174] Ion Source: Quadrupole
    Ion Mode: Multimode-ES
    Drying gas temp: 300 °C
    Vaporizer temperature: 200 °C
    Capillary voltage (V): 2000 (positive)
    Capillary voltage (V): 4000 (negative)
    Scan Range: 100-1000
    Step size: 0.1 sec
    Acquisition time: 10 min

    LCMS Method B (LCMS-B):



    [0175] Instrument: Agilent 1260 Infinity Series UPLC/MS
    Pump: 1260 Infinity G1312B Binary pump
    Autosampler: 1260 Infinity G1367E 1260 HiP ALS
    Detector: 1290 Infinity G4212A 1290 DAD

    LC conditions:



    [0176] Reverse Phase HPLC analysis
    Column: Poroshell 120 EC-C18 2.7 µm 50 × 3.0 mm
    Column temperature: 35 °C
    Injection Volume: 1 µL
    Solvent A: Water 0.1 % Formic Acid
    Solvent B: MeCN 0.1 % Formic Acid
    Gradient: 5-100 % solvent B over 3.8 min
    Detection: monitored at 254 nm and 214 nm

    MS conditions:



    [0177] Ion Source: Quadrupole
    Ion Mode: API-ES
    Drying gas temp: 350 °C
    Capillary voltage (V): 3000 (positive)
    Capillary voltage (V): 3000 (negative)
    Scan Range: 100-1000
    Step size: 0.1 sec
    Acquisition time: 5 min

    LCMS Method C (LCMS-C):



    [0178] Instrument: Agilent 1200 Series G6110A Quadrupole
    Pump: Binary pump
    Detector: DAD

    LC conditions:



    [0179] Reverse Phase HPLC analysis
    Column: Xbridge-C18, 2.5 µm, 2.1×30 mm
    Column temperature: 30 °C
    Injection Volume: 1-10 µL
    Solvent A: Water 0.07 % Formic acid
    Solvent B: Methanol
    Gradient: 30-95 % solvent B over 3.5 min (for medium polarity samples) or 10-95% solvent B over 3.7 min (for large polarity samples)
    Detection: monitored at 254 nm and 214 nm

    MS conditions:



    [0180] Ion Source: Quadrupole
    Ion Mode: ES+
    Drying gas temp: 350 °C
    Drying gas flow: 10 L/min
    Nebulizer pressure: 35 psi
    Capillary voltage (V): 3500 (positive)
    Scan Range: 50-900

    Or



    [0181] Instrument: Waters 2695 alliance
    Pump: Quaternary Pump
    Detector: 2996 Photodiode Array Detector
    MS model: Micromass ZQ

    LC conditions:



    [0182] Column: Xbridge-C18, 3.5µm, 2.1×50 mm
    Column temperature: 30 °C
    Injection volume: 1-10 µL
    Acquisition of wavelength: 214 nm, 254 nm
    Solvent A: 0.07% HCOOH aqueous solution
    Solvent B: MeOH
    Run time: 8 min
    Gradient: 20-95 % solvent B over 5 min
    Detection: 254 nm and 214 nm

    MS condition:



    [0183] Ion source: ES+ (or ES-) MS range: 50∼900 m/z
    Capillary: 3 kV Cone: 3 V Extractor: 3 V
    Drying gas flow: 600 L/hr cone: 50 L/hr
    Desolvation temperature: 300 °C
    Source temperature: 100 °C

    Sample preparation:



    [0184] The sample was dissolved in methanol, the concentration about 0.1-1.0 mg/mL, then filtered through the syringes filter with 0.22 µm.

    Preparative RP-HPLC:



    [0185] Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC system
    UV detection at 210 nm and 254 nm
    Gradient or isocratic elution through a Phenomenex Luna C8 (2) column 100 Å Axia (250 × 21.2 mm; particle size 5 µm)
    Flow rate: 10 mL/min
    Gradients are as specified in the individual examples.

    [0186] Analytical thin-layer chromatography was performed on Merck silica gel 60 F254 aluminium-backed plates which were visualised using fluorescence quenching under UV light or a basic KMnO4 dip or Ninhydrin dip.

    [0187] Preparative thin-layer chromatography (prep TLC) was performed using Tklst (China), grand grade: (HPTLC): 8±2 µm>80 %; (TLC): 10-40 µm. Type: GF254. Compounds were visualised by UV (254 nm).

    [0188] Flash chromatography was performed using a Biotage Isolera purification system using either Grace or RediSep® silica cartridges.
    Column chromatography was performed using Tklst (China), grand grade, 100-200 meshes silica gel.

    [0189] Microwave irradiation was achieved using a CEM Explorer SP Microwave Reactor.

    [0190] Where necessary, anhydrous solvents were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich or dried using conventional methods. Solutions of inorganic acids or bases where made up as aqueous solutions unless stated otherwise.

    [0191] Additional Cartridges used are as follows:

    Phase Separator:



    [0192] Manufacturer: Biotage
    Product: ISOLUTE ® Phase Separator (3 mL unless otherwise stated)

    SCX and SCX-2 cartridges:



    [0193] Manufacturer: Biotage
    Product: ISOLUTE ® SCX 1 g, (6 mL SPE Column unless otherwise stated)

    [0194] Manufacturer: Biotage
    Product: ISOLUTE ® SCX-2 1 g (6 mL Column)

    [0195] Manufacturer: Silicycle
    Product: SCX-2 500mg or 5g

    [0196] Manufacturer: Agilent
    Product: Bond Elut® SCX 10g

    Sample extraction cartridge:



    [0197] Manufacturer: Waters
    Product: Oasis ® HLB 35 cc (6 g) LP extraction cartridge

    Intermediate Preparations


    (i) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I5)



    [0198] 


    (a) (S)-2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (11)



    [0199] (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (5.00 g, 28.2 mmol) was vigorously stirred in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and water (50 mL). Sodium bicarbonate (4.74 mg, 56.4 mmol) and Boc anhydride (6.77 g, 31.0 mmol) were added and the mixture was stirred vigorously at room temperature. After 17 hours the mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue dissolved in water (200 mL). A 30% w/v aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate (30 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with chloroform (3 × 200 mL). The pooled organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound (7.50 g, 96% yield) as a thick syrup. LCMS-B: RT 3.64 min; m/z 178.1 [M-Boc+2H]+; m/z 276.1 [M-H]-

    (b) tert-Butyl (S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I2)



    [0200] (S)-2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (11) (7.50 g, 27.0 mmol) was dissolved in THF (150 mL) and CDI (8.77 g, 54.1 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature then cooled to 0 °C. A solution of sodium borohydride (1.16 g, 30.5 mmol) in water (15 mL) was added dropwise. After 40 minutes the mixture was quenched with acetone (25 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between water (250 mL) and ethyl acetate (200 mL). The separated aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 × 250 mL), the combined organic extracts washed with 5% w/v aqueous NaHSO4 (250 mL), brine (200 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was loaded in diethyl ether (50 mL) onto a plug of basic alumina and silica (50 mL each). The plug was eluted with diethyl ether (250 mL) and the eluate evaporated to give the desired compound (5.93 g, 83% yield) as a colourless syrup. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.25 - 7.06 (m, 4H), 4.82 - 4.59 (m, 1H), 4.57 - 4.38 (m, 1H), 4.37 - 4.19 (m, 1H), 3.57 - 3.40 (m, overlaps with trace solvent), 3.03 (dd, J = 16.1, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 2.80 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.66 min; m/z 164.2 [M-Boc+2H]+, 286.2 [M+Na]+

    (c) tert-Butyl (S)-3-formyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I3)



    [0201] tert-Butyl (S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I2) (1.50 g, 5.70 mmol), DCM (25 mL) and DMSO (5 mL) were cooled to 0 °C. Triethylamine (2.38 mL, 17.1 mmol) was added, followed by pyridine-sulfur trioxide complex (2.72 g, 17.1 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 minutes then allowed to come to room temperature. After 2 hours, saturated sodium bicarbonate (75 mL) and water (75 mL) were added, and the mixture extracted with diethyl ether (3 × 150 mL). The pooled ether extracts were washed with 1:1 water: saturated aqueous NH4Cl (200 mL), brine (200 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound as a colourless oil which was used without further purification.

    (d) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4A) and tert-butyl (S)-3-((S)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4B)



    [0202] A solution of tert-butyl (S)-3-formyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (13) (5.70 mmol @ 100% conversion) in i-propanol (50 mL) was cooled to 0 °C. Nitromethane (1.22 mL, 22.8 mmol) and potassium fluoride (331 mg, 5.70 mmol) were added and the mixture stirred for 18 hours, allowing the temperature to come to room temperature as the ice bath thawed. The mixture was diluted with water (200 mL) and extracted with DCM (3 × 200 mL). The pooled DCM extracts were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. Chromatography (40 g silica cartridge, 0-20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave two partly overlapping peaks, which were split into early (4A major, colourless syrup, 697 mg, 37% yield) and late (4B minor, colourless syrup, 170 mg, 9% yield) fractions. Overall: 867 mg, 47% yield.

    [0203] Data for major isomer tert-butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate I4A:
    1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.25 - 7.14 (m, 4H), 4.85 - 4.49 (m, 5H), 4.44 (dd, J = 12.6, 9.3 Hz, 1H), 4.37 - 3.99 (m, overlaps with solvent), 3.19 (dd, J = 15.9, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.92 (dd, J = 15.8, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.51 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.71 min; m/z 223.2 [M-Boc+2H]+, 345.2 [M+Na]+; m/z 321.2 [M-H]-
    Data for minor isomer tert-butyl (S)-3-((S)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate I4B:
    1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.25 - 7.11 (m, 4H), 4.75 (d, J = 16.5 Hz, 1H), 4.68 - 4.48 (m, 4H), 4.42 - 4.23 (m, overlaps with residual nitromethane), 3.06 (dd, J = 16.3, 6.1 Hz, 1H), 2.91 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.70 min; m/z 223.2 [M-Boc+2H]+, 345.2 [M+Na]+; m/z 321.2 [M-H]-

    (e) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4A)



    [0204] 

    tert-Butyl (S)-3-formyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I3) (1.9 mmol @100% conversion), absolute ethanol (5 mL), nitromethane (1.02 mL, 19.0 mmol) and the copper catalyst (91 mg, 10 mol%) (see above figure, prepared according to Tetrahedron: Asymmetry (2008) 2310-2315) were stirred at room temperature. After 90 hours the mixture was concentrated in vacuo, chromatography (40 g silica cartridge, 0-15% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave the desired compound (352 mg, 58% yield over two steps). 1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.25 - 7.13 (m, 4H), 4.85 - 4.68 (m, 1H), 4.65 - 4.49 (m, 1H), 4.49 - 4.39 (m, 1H), 4.36 - 3.96 (m, overlaps with trace solvent), 3.19 (dd, J = 15.9, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.92 (dd, J = 15.9, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.51 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.25 min; m/z 321.1 [M-H]-

    (f) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I5)



    [0205] tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4A) (1.54 g, 4.78 mmol), absolute ethanol (75 mL) and 10% Pd/C (53% wetted with water, 1.5 g) were stirred under hydrogen (balloon). After 3 hours the mixture was filtered through celite, the celite was washed with absolute ethanol (100 mL) and the combined filtrates concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound (1.34 g, 96% yield) as a pale grey-green syrup. LCMS-B: RT 3.27 min, m/z 293.2 [M+H]+

    Alternate synthesis method


    (a) (S)-2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (I1)



    [0206] (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (50.0 g, 282 mmol) was vigorously stirred in a mixture of 1,4-dioxane (1000 mL) and water (500 mL). Sodium bicarbonate (47.4 g, 564 mmol) and Boc anhydride (67.7 g, 310 mmol) were added and the reaction was stirred vigorously at room temperature for 6 days. The mixture was concentrated in vacuo and the residue dissolved in water (2000 mL). A 30% w/v aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate (300 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with chloroform (3 × 1000 mL). The pooled organic extracts were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound (90.0 g, quantitative) as a thick syrup. LCMS-B: RT 3.64 min; m/z 178.1 [M-Boc+2H]+; m/z 276.1 [M-H]-

    (b) tert-Butyl (S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I2)



    [0207] (S)-2-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (I1) (54.0 g, 195mmol) was dissolved in THF (1000 mL) and CDI (63.2 g, 390 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 30 °C then cooled to 0 °C. A solution of sodium borohydride (14.7 g, 390 mmol) in water (120 mL) was added dropwise. After 3 hours the mixture was quenched with acetone (300 mL) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between water (1000 mL) and ethyl acetate (1000 mL). The separated aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (4 × 500 mL) and the combined organic extracts washed with 5% w/v aqueous NaHSO4 (1000 mL), brine (500 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by chromatography (5-20% ethyl acetate/petroleum ether) to give the desired compound (30.4 g, 59% yield) as a yellow syrup. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.25 - 7.06 (m, 4H), 4.82 - 4.59 (m, 1H), 4.57 - 4.38 (m, 1H), 4.37 - 4.19 (m, 1H), 3.57 - 3.40 (m, overlaps with trace solvent), 3.03 (dd, J = 16.1, 5.7 Hz, 1H), 2.80 (d, J = 16.1 Hz, 1H), 1.50 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.66 min; m/z 164.2 [M-Boc+2H]+, 286.2 [M+Na]+

    (c) tert-Butyl (S)-3-formyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I3)



    [0208] tert-Butyl (S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I2) (16 g, 0.06 mol), DCM (250 mL) and DMSO (75 mL) were cooled to 0 °C. Triethylamine (25.1 mL, 0.18 mol) was added, followed by pyridine-sulfur trioxide complex (28.6 g, 0.18 mol). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes then allowed to come to room temperature and stirred at room temperature overnight. Saturated sodium bicarbonate (200 mL) and water (200 mL) were added, and the mixture extracted with diethyl ether (3 × 300 mL). The pooled ether extracts were washed with 1:1 water: saturated aqueous NH4Cl (200 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound (16.0 g) as an orange oil which was used without further purification.

    (e) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4A)



    [0209] To a solution of tert-butyl (S)-3-formyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I3) (0.06 mol @100% conversion) in absolute ethanol (50 mL) was added a solution of the copper catalyst (6.8 g, 20 mol%) (see above figure, prepared according to Tetrahedron: Asymmetry (2008) 2310-2315) in absolute ethanol (10 mL). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and nitromethane (36.0 g, 0.6 mol) was added. The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 3 days, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo and purified by chromatography (5% ethyl acetate/petroleum ether) to give the desired compound (7.5 g, 39% yield over two steps). 1H NMR (400 MHz, d4-MeOD) δ 7.25 - 7.13 (m, 4H), 4.85 - 4.68 (m, 1H), 4.65 - 4.49 (m, 1H), 4.49 - 4.39 (m, 1H), 4.36 - 3.96 (m, overlaps with trace solvent), 3.19 (dd, J = 15.9, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.92 (dd, J = 15.9, 5.6 Hz, 1H), 1.51 (s, 9H). LCMS-B: RT 3.25 min; m/z 321.1 [M-H]-

    (f) tert-Butyl (S)-3-((R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I5)



    [0210] To a solution of tert-butyl (S)-3-((R)-1-hydroxy-2-nitroethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (I4A) (7.5 g, 23.3 mmol) in absolute ethanol (100 mL) was added 10% Pd/C (7.5 g) and the reaction was stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen. After 3 hours, the mixture was filtered through Celite, the Celite was washed with absolute ethanol (200 mL) and the combined filtrates concentrated in vacuo to give the desired compound (5.3 g, 78% yield) as a pale grey solid. LCMS-B: RT 3.27 min, m/z 293.2 [M+H]+

    (ii) 2-Ethoxy-6-(1,4-oxazepan-4-yl)nicotinic acid (I9)



    [0211] 


    (a) 2-Chloro-6-ethoxypyridine (I6)



    [0212] A mixture of 2,6-dichloropyridine (5.0 g, 33.8 mmol) and EtONa (9.2 g, 135.2 mmol) in EtOH (40 mL) was heated at 60 °C overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue was diluted with water (40 mL). The pH of the solution was adjusted to 7 by addition of 1M aqueous HCl and the aqueous solution extracted with DCM (3 x 40 mL). The combined organic fractions were separated and washed with a saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution , brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title product (4.3 g, 81%) as an orange oil that was used for the next step without purification. LCMS: RT 2.60 min; m/z 158.1, 160.0 [M+H]+.

    (b) 6-Chloro-2-ethoxynicotinaldehyde (I7)



    [0213] To a solution of 2-chloro-6-ethoxypyridine I6 (4.0 g, 25.4 mmol) in dry THF (20 mL) at -70 °C under N2(g) was added t-BuLi (1.6 M in pentane, 19 mL, 30.5 mmol) dropwise and the mixture stirred at -65 °C for 1 hour. DMF (5.6 g, 76.2 mmol) was added slowly and the reaction stirred at -65 °C for 30 minutes, then warmed to room temperature for a further 30 min. The reaction mixture was acidified with a 2M aqueous HCl solution (pH ∼ 4). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 30 mL) and the combined organic fractions washed with water and brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by silica gel chromatography (eluting with 5% EtOAC in petroleum ether) to give the title product (3.9 g, 83%) as yellow solid. LCMS: RT 2.31 min; m/z 186.0, 188.0 [M+H]+.

    (c) 6-Chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (I8)



    [0214] To a solution of 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinaldehyde I7 (3.9 g, 21.0 mmol) in a mixture of t-BuOH (50 mL) and 2-methyl-2-butene (15 mL) was slowly added a solution of NaH2PO4·H2O (22.9 g, 147.1 mmol) and NaCl2O (17.8 g, 197.4 mmol) in water (50 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight, then concentrated. The remaining aqueous solution was acidified with to pH 4 with a 4M aqueous HCI solution and extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title product (2.6 g, 62%) as a white solid. LCMS: RT 2.31 min; m/z 202.0, 204.0 [M+H]+.

    (d) 2-Ethoxy-6-(1,4-oxazepan-4-yl)nicotinic acid (I9)



    [0215] A solution of 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid I8 (100 mg, 0.5 mmol), Et3N (152 mg, 1.5 mmol) and 1,4-oxazepane hydrochloride salt (102 mg, 0.75 mmol) in DMSO (2 mL) was heated at 80 °C for 72 hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture was acidified to pH 6-7 by addition of a 1M aqueous HCl solution. The resulting mixture was extracted with DCM (3x10 mL) and the combined organic fractions washed with water and brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by preparative reverse phase-HPLC to give the title product (25 mg, 19%) as white solid. LCMS: RT 2.27 min; m/z 267.1 [M+H]+.

    (iii) 2-Ethoxy-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)nicotinic acid (I11)



    [0216] 


    (a) Piperidin-4-ol hydrochloride salt (I10)



    [0217] A solution of N-Boc-4-hydroxypiperidine (600 mg, 3.0 mmol) in HCl/Et2O (2.0 M, 10 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated and the residue obtained washed with Et2O and dried to give the title product (370 mg, 90%) as white solid which was used without purification.

    (b) 2-Ethoxy-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)nicotinic acid (I11)



    [0218] A mixture of 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid I8 (100 mg, 0.5 mmol), Et3N (152 mg, 1.5 mmol) and piperidin-4-ol hydrochloride salt I10 (102 mg, 0.75 mmol) in DMSO (2 mL) was heated at 80 °C for 72 hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the mixture acidified with a 1M aqueous HCI solution to pH 6-7. The resulting mixture was extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL) and the combined organic fractions washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by preparative reverse phase-HPLC to give the title product (15 mg, 11%) as white solid. LCMS: RT 2.09 min; m/z 267.1 [M+H]+.

    (iv) 6-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (I12)



    [0219] 



    [0220] A mixture of 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid I8 (50 mg, 0.25 mmol) and N-acetylpiperazine (250 mg, 2.0 mmol) was heated at 80 °C overnight. Water (10 mL) was added and the pH of the solution adjusted to 6-7 by addition of a 1 M aqueous HCI solution. The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL) and the combined organic fractions washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by preparative reverse phase-HPLC to give the title product (75 mg, 50%) as a yellow solid. LCMS: RT 1.99 min; m/z 294.1 [M+H]+.

    (v) 2-Ethoxy-6-(4-(methoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl)nicotinic acid (I15)



    [0221] 


    (a) Methyl 4-benzylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (I13)



    [0222] To a solution of 1-benzylpiperazine (1.0 g, 5.7 mmol) and Et3N (1.7 g, 17.1 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) was added methyl chloroformate (0.53 g, 5.7 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction diluted with water (20 mL) and the resulting mixture extracted with DCM (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title product (1.0 g, 80%) as yellow oil. LCMS: RT 0.32 min; m/z 235.2 [M+H]+.

    (b) Ethyl piperazine-1-carboxylate (I14)



    [0223] A solution of methyl 4-benzylpiperazine-1-carboxylate I13 (100 mg, 0.43 mmol) and 10% Pd/C (20 mg) in MeOH (2 mL) under H2 (g) was stirred at 40 °C for 2 days. The reaction mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate was concentrated to give the crude title product (45 mg, 73%) as clear oil that was used for the next step without purification.

    (c) 2-Ethoxy-6-(4-(methoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl)nicotinic acid (I15)



    [0224] A solution of 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid I8 (45 mg, 0.22 mmol), Et3N (67 mg, 0.66 mmol) and methyl piperazine-1-carboxylate 114 (40 mg, 0.28 mmol) in DMSO (2 mL) was heated at 80 °C for 72 hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was acidified with a 1M aqueous HCl solution to pH 6-7. The aqueous fraction was extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL) and the combined organic fractions were washed with water and brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by preparative reverse phase-HPLC to give the title product (33 mg, 49%) as yellow oil. LCMS: RT 2.36 min; m/z 310.1 [M+H]+.

    (vi) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloroisonicotinic acid (I18)



    [0225] 


    (a) 2-((1-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloroisonicotinic acid (I16)



    [0226] To a solution of tert-butyl 4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carboxylate (4.79 g, 23.83 mmol) in NMP (20 mL) was added NaH (60% dispersion in mineral oil, 0.95 g, 23.82 mmol) in portions at 0 °C After stirring for 30 minutes, 2,3-dichloroisonicotinic acid (0.8 g, 3.90 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture heated at 60 °C overnight. After cooling, the mixture was poured into water and the pH adjusted to 5 by addition of a 1 M aqueous HCI solution. The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc and the combined organic extracts washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by column chromatography (MeOH/DCM = 1/10, v/v) to give the title compound (0.5 g, crude, 36%). LCMS: RT 2.61 min; m/z 379.1 [M+Na]+.

    (b) 3-Chloro-2-(piperidin-4-yloxy)isonicotinic acid dihydrochloride (I17)



    [0227] To a solution of 2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloroisonicotinic acid 116 (300 mg, 0.84 mmol) in DCM (15 mL) was added HCI (2.0 M, in 1,4-dioxane, 15 mL) and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. The solvent was removed and the residue resuspended in Et2O. The solid precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with Et2O and dried to afford the title compound (50 mg, crude, 18%) as a white solid.
    LCMS: RT 0.27 min; m/z 257.1 [M+H]+.

    (c) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloroisonicotinic acid (I18)



    [0228] To a mixture of 3-chloro-2-(piperidin-4-yloxy)isonicotinic acid dihydrochloride 117 (240 mg, 0.82 mmol) and NEt3 (415 mg, 4.10 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) at 0 °C was added AC2O (125 mg, 1.23 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight, then poured into water. The aqueous solution was acidified with a 1M aqueous HCI solution and extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic fractions were washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (140 mg, crude, 57%) as a white solid. LCMS: RT 0.89 min; m/z 299.1 [M+H]+

    (vii) Ethyl 2-bromo-5-ethoxyisonicotinate (I19)



    [0229] 



    [0230] To a solution of 2-bromo-5-fluoroisonicotinic acid (3.0 g, 13.64 mmol) in EtOH (30 mL) was added EtONa (3.7 g, 54.55 mmol). The reaction was heated at 60 °C for 24 hours then cooled to room temperature and thionyl chloride (3.2 g, 27.28 mmol) added dropwise. The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight then the solvent removed. The residue was partitioned between DCM (20 mL) and water (10 mL) and the aqueous phase extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with a saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (3 x 10 mL), brine (3 x 10 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by column chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether=1/20 v/v) to give the title compound (2.1 g, 56%) as an off-white solid. 1H-NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.14 (s, 1H), 7.69 (s, 1H), 4.40-4.35 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 4.21-4.15 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 1.46 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H), 1.38 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H); LCMS RT 2.61 min; m/z 274, 276 [M+H]+.

    (viii) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinic acid (I27)



    [0231] 


    (a) tert-Butyl 4-(dibromomethylene)piperidine-1-carboxylate (120)



    [0232] To a solution of tert-butyl 4-oxopiperidine-1-carboxylate (5.0 g, 25.1 mmol) and PPh3 (26.3 g, 100.4 mmol) in CH3CN (50 mL) under N2 at 0 °C was added CBr4 (16.6 g, 50.2 mmol) in portions. The reaction was stirred at 0 °C for 15 minutes then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred a further 2 hours. The mixture was filtered through Celite and the filtrate concentrated. The residue obtained was diluted with Et2O (100 mL) and the solids removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated to afford the title compound (8.9 g, 99%) as a white solid which was used without further purification. 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO) δ 3.35 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 4H), 2.40 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 4H), 1.40 (s, 9H); LCMS RT 1.04 min; m/z 255.9, 257.9 [M-Boc+2H]+

    (b) tert-Butyl 4-(bromomethylene)piperidine-1-carboxylate (I21)



    [0233] To a solution of tert-butyl 4-(dibromomethylene)piperidine-1-carboxylate I20 (8.9 g, 25.06 mmol) in a mixture of THF (35 mL) and MeOH (70 mL) at 0 °C under N2 was added NH4Cl (10.7 g, 200.5 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes then zinc dust (6.5 g, 100.24 mmol) was added. The resulting mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred overnight. The solids were removed by filtration through Celite and the filtrate concentrated. The residue obtained was partitioned between EtOAc (30 mL) and water (20 mL) and the aqueous layer extracted with EtOAc (3 x 15 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with a saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (3 x 10 mL), brine (3 x 10 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title compound (5.0 g, 72%) as a white solid 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO) δ 6.25 (s, 1H), 3.36-3.34 (m, 2H), 3.33-3.30 (m, 2H), 2.28 (t, J= 6.0 Hz, 2H), 2.22 (t, J= 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.40 (s, 9H); LCMS RT 0.34 min; m/z 176, 178 [M-Boc+2H]+

    (c) tert-Butyl 4-((4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)methylene)piperidine-1-carboxylate (I22)



    [0234] To a solution of tert-butyl 4-(bromomethylene)piperidine-1-carboxylate 121 (3.0 g, 10.86 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (30 mL) was added 4,4,4',4',5,5,5',5'-octamethyl-2,2'-bi(1,3,2-dioxaborolane) (4.2 g, 16.29 mmol), KOAc (2.1 g, 21.72 mmol), PPh3 (171 mg, 0.652 mmol) and Pd2(dba)3 (298 mg, 0.326 mmol). The reaction was heated at reflux overnight then cooled to room temperature and the solids removed by filtration through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue partitioned between DCM (20 mL) and water (20 mL) and the aqueous phase extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with brine (3 x 10 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by column chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether=1/20 v/v) to give the title compound (1.52 g, 43%) as an off-white solid. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.14 (s, 1H), 3.45-3.41 (m, 4H), 2.58 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 2.24 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.25 (s, 12H); LCMS RT 3.31 min; m/z 346.2 [M+Na]+.

    (d) Ethyl 2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-ylidene)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate (I23)



    [0235] To a solution of tert-butyl 4-((4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)methylene) piperidine-1-carboxylate I22 (1.5 g, 4.64 mmol) and ethyl 2-bromo-5-ethoxyisonicotinate 119 (1.53 g, 5.57 mmol) in 1,4 -dioxane (20 mL) was added a saturated aqueous Na2CO3 solution (4 mL) and Pd(dppf)Cl2 (680 mg, 0.928 mmol). The mixture was heated at 80 °C overnight then filtered through Celite and the filtrate concentrated. The residue obtained was partitioned between DCM (20 mL) and water (20 mL) and the aqueous phase extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with a saturated aqueous NaHCO3 solution (3 x 10 mL), brine (3 x 10 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by column chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether=1/5 v/v) to give the title compound (1.1 g, 60%) as an off-white solid. 1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.36 (s, 1H), 7.43 (s, 1H), 6.33 (s, 1H), 4.40-4.35 (q, J = 7.2 Hz, 2H), 4.24-4.18 (q, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.51 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 3.44 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 2.79 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 2.35 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 1.48-1.44 (m, 12H), 1.38 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 3H); LCMS RT 3.17 min; m/z 391.2 [M+H]+

    (e) Ethyl 2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate (I24)



    [0236] A mixture of ethyl 2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-ylidene)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate I23 (1.1 g, 2.81 mmol) and 10% Pd/C (220 mg) in MeOH (20 mL) was stirred at room temperature under an atmosphere of H2 overnight. The catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite and the filtrate concentrated to afford the title compound (900 mg, 81%) as a yellow solid. LCMS RT 3.12 min; m/z 393.2 [M+H]+

    (f) Ethyl 5-ethoxy-2-(piperidin-4-ylmethyl)isonicotinate dihydrochloride (I25)



    [0237] To a solution of ethyl 2-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate I24 (900 mg, 2.29 mmol) in MeOH (5 mL) was added a solution of HCI in Et2O (2.0 M, 10 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours, then the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue obtained was washed with Et2O (20 mL) and dried to afford the title compound (770 mg, 92%) as a yellow solid. LCMS RT 2.84 min; m/z 293.2 [M+H]+

    (g) Ethyl 2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate (I26)



    [0238] To a solution of ethyl 5-ethoxy-2-(piperidin-4-ylmethyl)isonicotinate dihydrochloride 125 (300 mg, 0.82 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) was added NEt3 (414 mg, 4.10 mmol) and AC2O (168 mg, 1.64 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight then partitioned between DCM (10 mL) and water (5 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with DCM (3 x 5 mL) and the combined organic extracts washed with a saturated aqueous solution of NaHCO3 (3 x 5 mL) and brine (3 x 5 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue obtained was purified by preparative TLC (MeOH/DCM=1/30 v/v) to give the title compound (180 mg, 65%) as a colourless oil. LCMS RT 2.38 min; m/z 335.2 [M+H]+

    (h) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinic acid (I27)



    [0239] To a solution of ethyl 2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxyisonicotinate I26 (180 mg, 0.54 mmol) in a mixture of THF (2 mL), MeOH (1 mL) and water (1 mL) was added lithium hydroxide monohydrate (174 mg, 2.70 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight then the organic solvents removed. The pH of the remaining aqueous solution was adjusted to 2-3 by addition of a 1M aqueous HCI solution. The solvent was removed to give the crude title compound (295 mg) as an off-white solid. LCMS RT 0.49 min; m/z 307.1 [M+H]+

    (ix) 6-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamide hydrochloride salt (I30)



    [0240] 


    (a) 6-((1-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (I28)



    [0241] A mixture of tert-butyl 4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carboxylate (150 mg, 0.74 mmol) and t-BuOK (162 mg, 1.5 mmol) in DMSO (3 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. 6-chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (100 mg, 0.5 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was heated at 80 °C for 72 hours. The reaction was diluted with water (10 mL) and the mixture acidified with 1 M aqueous HCI solution to pH 5-6, then extracted with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined organic fractions were washed with water, brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the crude title product (180 mg, 98%) as a yellow solid that was uses for the next step without purification. LCMS: RT 2.96 min; m/z 389.2 [M+Na]+.

    (b) 2-Ethoxy-6-(piperidin-4-yloxy)nicotinic acid hydrochloride salt (I29)



    [0242] To 6-((1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxynicotinic acid I28 (180 mg, 0.49 mmol) was added a solution of HCI in ether (2.0 M, 3 mL) and the reaction stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to give the crude title product (150 mg, 90%) as yellow solid that was used for the next step without purification. LCMS: RT 0.36 min; m/z 267.0 [M+H]+.

    (c) 6-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (I30)



    [0243] To a solution of 2-ethoxy-6-(piperidin-4-yloxy)nicotinic acid hydrochloride salt 129 (150 mg, 0.44 mmol) and Et3N (157 mg, 1.5 mmol) in DCM (5 mL) was added acetic anhydride (63 mg, 0.61 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was washed with water and brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the crude product (90 mg, 52%) as yellow solid that was used for the next step without purification. LCMS: RT 2.22 min; m/z 309.2 [M+H]+.

    Examples


    General Method A



    [0244] 



    [0245] To a solution of the acid (1.0 eq) and amine I5 (1.0 eq) in DCM was added DIPEA (3.0 eq), HOBt (0.1 eq), and EDCI·HCl (2.0 eq). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Water was added and the aqueous layer extracted with DCM (3 times). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the crude product which was purified by preparative TLC (DCM: MeOH =20:1 v/v) to give the Boc protected intermediate A.

    [0246] A solution of the Boc protected intermediate A (1.0 eq) in a 2.0 M solution of HCI in Et2O was stirred at room temperature for 2-3 hours. The mixture was concentrated and the residue was washed with ether to give the desired product B.
    ExampleName and StructureAnalytical dataMethod
    1

    1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) 5 8.13 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.31 - 7.24 (m, 3H), 7.23 - 7.20 (m, 1H), 6.44 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H), 4.55 - 4.46 (m, 2H), 4.44 - 4.35 (m, 2H), 4.23 - 4.15 (m, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 3.70 - 3.65 (m, 4H), 3.60 - 3.53 (m, 5H), 3.29 - 3.20 (m, 3H), 3.16 (m, 1H), 1.42 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H). A (from 115)
    Methyl 4-(6-ethoxy-5-(((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)carbamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carboxylate dihydrochloride
    LCMS:RT 2.27 min, m/z 484.3 [M+H]+
    2

    1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.10 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.37 - 7.14 (m, 4H), 6.43 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.55 - 4.46 (m, 3H), 4.40 (m, 3H), 4.24 - 4.12 (m, 3H), 3.93 - 3.82 (m, 1H), 3.71 (m, 1H), 3.56 (m, 2H), 3.26 - 3.20 (m, 2H), 3.20 - 3.11 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.42 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H). A (from I11)
    2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)nicotinamide dihydrochloride
    LCMS:RT 2.16 min, m/z 441.3 [M+H]+
    3

    1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.11 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 7.35 - 7.17 (m, 4H), 6.34 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.54 - 4.46 (m, 2H), 4.45 - 4.34 (m, 2H), 4.24 - 4.15 (m, 1H), 3.92 - 3.76 (m, 6H), 3.73 - 3.65 (m, A 3H), 3.63 - 3.54 (m, 2H), 3.27 - 3.22 (m, 1H), 3.20 - 3.13 (m, 1H), 1.97 (t, J = 5.3 Hz, 2H), 1.42 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H). A (from 19)
    2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(1,4-oxazepan-4-yl)nicotinamide dihydrochloride
    LCMS: RT 2.23 min, m/z 441.3 [M+H]+
    4

    1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.15 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.32 -7.22 (m, 4H), 6.45 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.56 - 4.48 (m, 2H), 4.40 (m, 2H), 4.23 - 4.17 (m, 1H), 3.79 - 3.73 (m, A 3H), 3.71 - 3.66 (m, 6H), 3.57 (m, 2H), 3.30 - 3.24 (m, 1H), 3.17 (m, 1H), 2.16 (s, 3H), 1.43 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H). A (from 112)
    6-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamide
    dihydrochloride LCMS:RT 2.08 min, m/z 468.3 [M+H]+
    5

    1H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d4) δ 8.12 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 7.29-7.23 (m, 4H), 7.05 (d, J = 5.2 Hz, 1H), 5.45-5.41 (m, 1H), 4.51-4.37 (m, 2H), 4.31-4.28 (m, 1H), 3.79-3.53 (m, 8H), 3.23-3.18 (m, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.07-1.98 (m, 2H), 1.89-1.80 (m, 2H). A (from 118)
    2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloro-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride
    LCMS:RT 1.36 min, m/z 473.2 [M+H]+
    6

    1H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d4) δ 8.60 (s, 1H), 8.15 (s, 1H), 7.30-7.22 (m, 4H), 4.53-4.49 (m, 2H), 4.42-4.34 (m, 4H), 3.97-3.94 (m, 1H), 3.78-3.69 (m, 2H), 3.63-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.23-3.12 (m, 2H), 3.00 (d, J = 4.0 Hz, 2H), 2.70-2.65 (m, 1 H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.77-1.68 (m, 2H), 1.40-1.28 (m, 7H). A (from I27)
    2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride
    LCMS: RT 3.36 min, m/z 481.3 [M+H]+
    7

    1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.28-8.26 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 7.31 - 7.25 (m, 3H), 7.23-7.21 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 6.49 - 6.46 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 5.34-5.29 (m, 1H), 4.57 - 4.52 (m, 2H), 4.49 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 4.22-4.18 (m, 1H), 3.86-3.69 (m, 3H), 3.65-3.48 (m, 4H), 3.29 - 3.26 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.15 (m, 1H), 2.13 (s, 3H), 2.10 - 1.98 (m, 2H), 1.89- 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.46 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H). A (from I30)
    6-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamide hydrochloride salt
    LCMS:RT 2.20 min, m/z 483.3 [M+H]

    Example 8: 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride salt (8)



    [0247] 


    (a) tert-Butyl (1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)carbamate (A1)



    [0248] To a solution of tert-butyl piperidin-4-ylcarbamate (5.0 g, 25.0 mmol) in DCM (80 mL) at 0 °C was added Et3N (3.8 g, 37.5 mmol) and AC2O (2.6 g, 25.0 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 2 hours. The reaction was quenched by the addition of water (30 mL) and the organic layer separated and washed with a saturated aqueous solution of NaHCO3 (30 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a white solid (4.8 g, 80%). LCMS: RT 1.88 min; m/z 265.1 [M+Na]+.

    (b) 1-(4-Aminopiperidin-1-yl)ethanone (A2)



    [0249] To a solution of tert-butyl (1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)carbamate A1 (4.8 g, 19.8 mmol) in a mixture of DCM (20 mL) and MeOH (20 mL) was added a solution of HCI in Et2O (1.8 M, 20 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue washed with EtOAc (20 mL) to give 1-(4-aminopiperidin-1-yl)ethanone hydrochloride as a white solid (3.2 g, 91%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d4) δ 4.60-4.57 (m, 1H), 4.05-4.01 (m, 1H), 3.43-3.37 (m,1H), 3.26-3.19 (m, 1H), 2.77-2.70(m, 1H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 2.10-2.04 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.43(m, 2H); LCMS: RT 0.25 min; m/z 143.1 [M+H]+. The free base was prepared as follows: to a solution of 1-(4-aminopiperidin-1-yl)ethanone hydrochloride (3.0 g, 16.8 mmol) in water (20 mL) was added a 4 M aqueous NaOH solution and adjusted to pH 11. The mixture was lyophilized. The solid was extracted with DCM (6x40 mL) and concentrated to give the title compound (0.8 g, 35%) as a yellow oil.

    (c) 2-Chloro-3-ethoxypyridine (A3)



    [0250] To a solution of 2-chloropyridin-3-ol (5.0 g, 38.6 mmol) in methanol (100 mL) was added finely ground K2CO3 (21.3 g, 0.15 mol). The mixture was heated to 80 °C and EtBr (8.5 g, 77.2 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred at 80 °C overnight then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue obtained was suspended in water (200 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (200 mL x 2). The combined organic fractions were washed with brine (200 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by chromatography (33% v/v EtOAc in petroleum ether) to give the title compound as a yellow oil (3.2 g, 53%). LCMS: RT 1.92 min; m/z 158.1 [M+H]+.

    (d) 2-Chloro-3-ethoxyisonicotinic acid (A4)



    [0251] To a solution of diisopropylamine (1.3 g, 13.0 mmol) in dry THF (15 mL) at 0 °C was added n-BuLi (2.4 M in hexane, 5.4 mL, 13.0 mmol) dropwise. After addition, the mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 30 minutes then cooled to -78 °C and a solution of 2-chloro-3-ethoxypyridine A3 (1.7 g, 10.8 mmol) in THF (5 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 2 hours then CO2 was bubbled through the reaction for 30 minutes. The reaction was quenched with 5% w/v aqueous NaOH (20 mL) and the aqueous layer was washed with Et2O (20 mL x 2). The organic fractions were discarded and the pH of the aqueous layer was adjusted to 4 with a 6 M aqueous HCI solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (30 mL x 3) and the combined organic fractions dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated to give the title compound as a yellow solid (700 mg, 32%). LCMS: RT 0.87 min; m/z 202.0 [M+H]+.

    (e) Benzyl 2-chloro-3-ethoxyisonicotinate (A5)



    [0252] To a solution of 2-chloro-3-ethoxyisonicotinic acid A4 (540 mg, 2.68 mmol) in DMF (2 mL) was added benzyl bromide (460 mg, 2.68 mmol) and Cs2CO3 (873 mg, 2.68 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and washed with water (50 mL x 4) and brine (50 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (10% v/v EtOAc in petroleum ether) to give the title compound as yellow oil (560 mg, 72%). LCMS: RT 2.94 min; m/z 292.1 [M+H]+

    (f) Benzyl 2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinate (A6)



    [0253] To a suspension of Pd(OAc)2 (45 mg, 0.20 mmol) in 1,4-dioxane (12 mL) was added BINAP (250 mg, 0.40 mmol) under nitrogen. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 40 °C. A solution of benzyl 2-chloro-3-ethoxyisonicotinate A5 (200 mg, 0.68 mmol) and 1-(4-aminopiperidin-1-yl)ethanone A2 (195 mg, 1.36 mmol, free base) in degassed 1,4-dioxane (4 mL) and Cs2CO3 (313 mg, 0.96 mmol) were then added and the reaction stirred at 100 °C overnight. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue obtained dissolved in EtOAc (50 mL) and washed with water (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (50 mL) and the combined organic fractions washed with brine (50 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by column chromatography (3% v/v methanol in DCM) then further purified by preparative TLC (3% v/v methanol in DCM) to give the title compound as yellow oil (90 mg, 22%). LCMS: RT 2.64 min; m/z 398.2 [M+H]+

    (g) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinic acid (A7)



    [0254] To a solution of benzyl 2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinate A6 (90 mg, 0.23 mmol) in EtOAc (5 mL) was added 10 % Pd/C (18 mg) and the reaction stirred under a hydrogen atmosphere at 50 °C overnight. The catalyst was removed by filtration through Celite and the filter pad washed with MeOH (10 mL). The filtrate was concentrated to give the title compound as a yellow solid (60 mg, 86%). LCMS: RT 0.27 min; m/z 308.2 [M+H]+

    (h) (S)-tert-Butyl-3-((R)-2-(2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinamido)-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate (A8)



    [0255] To a solution of 2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinic acid A7 (60 mg, 0.20 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (5 mL) was added (S)-tert-butyl 3-((R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate I5 (47 mg, 0.16 mmol), HOBt (3 mg, 0.02 mmol), DIPEA (90 mg, 0.70 mmol) and EDCI (76 mg, 0.40 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was diluted with DCM (30 mL) and washed with water (30 mL), brine (30 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by preparative TLC (5% v/v methanol in dichloromethane) to give the title compound as a yellow oil (34 mg, 30%): LCMS: RT 2.65 min; m/z 582.4 [M+H]+

    (i) 2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride (8)



    [0256] To a solution of (S)-tert-butyl-3-((R)-2-(2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxyisonicotinamido)-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate A8 (34 mg, 0.06 mmol) in DCM (1 mL) was added a solution of HCI in Et2O (1.8 M, 1 mL). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight then the solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the crude product was washed with Et2O (2 mL x 2) to give the title compound as a grey solid (26 mg, 76%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, Methanol-d4) δ 7.67 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H), 7.31-7.27 (m, 3H), 7.24-7.22 (m,1H), 6.97 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1H), 4.65-4.61 (m, 1H), 4.52-4.48 (m, 1H), 4.41-4.37 (m, 1H), 4.30 (br s, 1H), 4.19 (m, 2H), 4.06-3.98 (m, 2H), 3.73-3.68 (m, 1H), 3.66 (s, 3H), 3.58-3.53 (m, 1H), 3.20-3.15 (m, 1H), 2.82-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.14 (s, 3H), 2.10-2.02 (m, 2H), 1.76-1.63 (m, 2H), 1.37 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 3 H); LCMS: RT 2.76 min; m/z 482.3 [M+H]+.

    Example 9: 2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquino)in-3-yl)ethyl)-6-morpholinonicotinamide 9



    [0257] 


    (a) 2-Ethoxy-6-morpholinonicotinic acid (A9)



    [0258] 6-Chloro-2-ethoxynicotinic acid (0.250 g, 1.24 mmol) was dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (2 mL) and Et3N (0.52 mL, 3.72 mmol) and morpholine (0.16 mL, 1.86 mmol) were added. The reaction was heated under microwave irradiation at 150 °C for 45 minutes. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was purified by column chromatography (Isolera Biotage, 12 g SiO2 cartridge, 0-100% EtOAc in petroleum benzine 40-60 °C, then 0-5% MeOH in EtOAc) to give the title compound (0.174 g, 56% yield) as a pale pink solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, MeOD) δ 8.05 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.36 (d, J = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 4.47 (q, J = 7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.79 - 3.73 (m, 4H), 3.67 - 3.62 (m, 4H), 1.40 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H). LCMS-B: RT 3.098 min, m/z 253.1 [M+H]+

    (b) 2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-morpholinonicotinamide 9



    [0259] To a solution of 2-ethoxy-6-morpholinonicotinic acid A9 (41 mg, 0.16 mmol), , DIPEA (85 µL, 0.49 mmol, 3 equiv) and HATU (93 mg, 0.25 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added a solution of tert-butyl (S)-3-((R)-2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline-2(1H)-carboxylate I5 (48 mg, 0.16 mmol, 1 equiv) in DMF (2 mL). The reaction was stood at room temperature overnight, quenched with a 1 M aqueous solution of NaOH (5 mL) and extracted with DCM (× 3) with the organic phase separated using a separation cartridge. The organic filtrates were reduced under a stream of air. DCM:TFA (4 mL, 1:1 v/v) was added to the residue, and the reaction stood overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated under a stream of air, purified by solid-phase extraction (1 g SCX-2 cartridge, 3 column volumes of methanol followed by 3 column volumes of 0.2 M methanolic ammonia) and then by column chromatography (4 g SiO2 cartridge, 60-100 % EtOAc (modified by the addition of 1 % v/v of 3.5 M methanolic ammonia) in petroleum benzine followed by 0 - 20 % MeOH in EtOAc modified by the addition of 1 % v/v of 3.5 M methanolic ammonia) to give the title compound .LCMS-B: RT = 2.99 min, m/z = 427.3 [M+H]+.

    Assays


    PRMT5 Biochemical Assay



    [0260] Compounds of the invention may be tested for in vitro activity in the following assay:
    A histone H4 derived peptide is used as substrate (amino acid sequence: Ser-Gly-Arg-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Lys-Gly-Leu-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Lys-Arg-His-Arg-Lys-Val-NH2). Full-length PRMT5 enzyme (NCBI Reference sequence NP_006100.2) was co-expressed with His6-MEP50 in insect cells and purified via Nickel immobilized metal affinity and gel filtration chromatography ("the enzyme").

    [0261] The 6 µL reactions are run in Greiner brand black 384-well low volume assay plates. All reactions contained assay buffer (phosphate buffered saline, 0.01 % (v/v) Tween-20, 0.01% (w/v) albumin from chicken egg white, 1 mM Dithiothreitol, 1 µM peptide substrate, 1 µM S-Adenosyl methionine, and 15 ng/reaction enzyme, with the enzyme being omitted from negative control reactions. Compounds were added in a volume of 100 nL from dilution series prepared in DMSO, positive and negative control reactions receiving the same volume DMSO without compound. The plates were sealed with adhesive seals and incubated for 4 hours at 37 degree Celsius. Reaction progress was measured using the Transcreener™ EPIGEN methyltransferase assay (BellBrook Labs, Madison, WI) as recommended by the manufacturer. To each reaction 2 µL detection mix were added, containing coupling enzymes, fluorescence polarisation tracer, and AMP antibody. Plates were incubated for 90 minutes before being read on a PerkinElmer EnVision™ plate reader in fluorescence polarisation mode. IC50 values were obtained from the raw readings by calculating percent inhibition (%I) for each reaction relative to controls on the same plate (%I=(I-CN)/(CP-CN) where CN/ CP are the averages of the negative/ positive reactions, respectively), then fitting the %I data vs. compound concentration [I] to %I=(A+((B-A)/(1+((C/[I])^D)))) where A is the lower asymptote, B is the upper asymptote, C is the IC50 value, and D is the slope.
    Example NumberIC50 (µM)
    1 0.037
    2 0.102
    3 0.070
    4 0.026
    5 0.026
    6 0.202
    7 0.135
    8 0.135
    9 0.251

    PRMT5 Biomarker Assay



    [0262] Compounds of the invention may be tested for potency to inhibit symmetrical dimethylation of arginine in the following assay:
    The cell line TE11 was seeded at a density of 6,000 cells per well in 96 well optical quality tissue culture plates in DME medium and 10% foetal bovine serum, and allowed to adhere for 5 hours under standard culture conditions (37 degree Celsius, 5% CO2). Compound dilutions prepared in DMSO were added to the medium, with negative control wells reserved for treatment with DMSO only and maximum inhibition controls receiving a potent PRMT5 inhibitor compound at 1 µM concentration. After incubation for 72 hours, the cells were fixed with 3.7% formaldehyde in PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature, washed with phosphate buffer saline and blocked with Odyssey blocking buffer (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Rabbit anti-Di-Methyl Histone H4 Arginine 3 specific antibody (Epigentek) in Odyssey blocking buffer was added and incubated for 14 hours at 4 degree Celsius. After washing, anti-rabbit secondary antibody labelled with Alexa647 dye (LifeTechnologies) and Hoechst 33342 (1 µg/mL, SigmaAldrich) were added for 1 hour incubation. Plates were washed and read on a PerkinElmer Envision 2103 in fluorescence intensity scanning mode (24 scans across the well area). The plates were imaged on a PerkinElmer Phenix high content imaging platform. Using a Columbus image analysis pipeline, individual nuclei were located by Hoechst 33342 stain and the methylation level was calculated from the Alexa647-related intensity in the same area. IC50 values were obtained from the mean Alexa647-related intensity per cell by calculating percent inhibition (%I) for each well relative to controls on the same plate (%I=(I-CN)/(CP-CN) where CN/ CP are the averages of the negative/ maximum inhibition controls, respectively), then fitting the %I data vs. compound concentration [I] to %I=(A+((B-A)/(1+((C/[I])^D))) where A is the lower asymptote, B is the upper asymptote, C is the IC50 value, and D is the slope.
    Example NumberIC50 (µM)
    1 0.0002
    2 0.0233
    3 0.0056
    4 0.0013
    5 0.0060
    6 0.0754
    7 0.0165
    8 0.1123
    9 0.0315



    Claims

    1. A compound of formula I:

    wherein:

    n is 1 or 2;

    p is 0 or 1;

    R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d are independently selected from H, halo, C1-4 alkyl, C1-4 fluoroalkyl, C3-4 cycloalkyl, C1-4 alkyloxy, NH-C1-4 alkyl and cyano;

    R2a and R2b are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    (i) F;

    (ii) H;

    (iii) Me; and

    (iv) CH2OH;

    R2c and R2d are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    (i) F;

    (ii) H;

    (iii) Me; and

    (iv) CH2OH;

    R2e is H or Me;

    R3a and R3b are independently selected from H and Me;

    R4 is either H or Me;

    R5 is either H or Me;

    R6a and R6b are independently selected from H and Me;

    A is either

    (i)

    where R7a is selected from N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl and

    or

    (ii)

    where X is selected from CH2, NH and O, one of R8a and R8b is selected from Cl and ethoxy and the other of R8a and R8b is H.


     
    2. A compound according to claim 1, wherein n is 1.
     
    3. A compound according to either claim 1 or claim 2, wherein p is 0.
     
    4. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R1a, R1b, R1c and R1d are all H.
     
    5. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein R2a, R2b, R2c and R2d are all H.
     
    6. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R2e is H.
     
    7. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein R3a and R3b are both H.
     
    8. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein R4 is H.
     
    9. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein R5 is H.
     
    10. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein R6a and R6b are both H.
     
    11. A compound according to claim 1 which is of formula la:


     
    12. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 11, which has the following stereochemistry:


     
    13. A compound according to any one of claim 1 to 12, wherein A is of formula Ila and R7a is


     
    14. A compound according to any one of claim 1 to 13, wherein A is of formula Ila and R7a is N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl.
     
    15. A compound according to claim 14, wherein the N-linked N-containing C5-7 heterocyclyl is selected from piperidinyl, piperazinyl, N-acetyl-piperazinyl, morpholino, thiomorpholino, and 1,4-oxaazepan-4-yl.
     
    16. A compound according to any one of claim 1 to 13, wherein A is of formula IIb, R8a is selected from Cl and ethoxy and R8b is H.
     
    17. A compound according to claim 16, wherein R8a is Cl.
     
    18. A compound according to any one of claim 1 to 13, wherein A is of formula IIb, R8b is selected from Cl and ethoxy and R8a is H.
     
    19. A compound according to claim 18, wherein R8b is ethoxy.
     
    20. A compound according to any one of claims 16 to 19, wherein X is CH2.
     
    21. A compound according to any one of claims 16 to 19, wherein X is O.
     
    22. A compound according to claim 1 which is selected from:

    methyl 4-(6-ethoxy-5-(((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)carbamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)piperazine-1-carboxylate dihydrochloride (1);

    2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)nicotinamide dihydrochloride (2);

    2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(1,4-oxazepan-4-yl)nicotinamide dihydrochloride (3);

    6-(4-acetylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamide dihydrochloride (4);

    2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloro-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((5)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride (5);

    2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride (6);

    6-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamide hydrochloride (7);

    2-((1-acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamide dihydrochloride (8); and

    2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-morpholinonicotinamide (9).


     
    23. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 22 for use in a method of therapy.
     
    24. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound according to any one of claims 1 to 22 and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
     
    25. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 22 or pharmaceutical composition according to claim 24, for use in the treatment of cancer.
     
    26. A compound according to any one of claims 1 to 22 or pharmaceutical composition according to claim 24 for use in the treatment of hemoglobinopathies.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verbindung der Formel I:

    worin:

    n = 1 oder 2 ist;

    p = 0 oder 1 ist;

    R1a, R1b, R1c und R1d jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus H, Halogen, C1-4-Alkyl, C1-4-Fluoralkyl, C3-4-Cycloalkyl, C1-4-Alkoxy, NH-C1-4-Alkyl und Cyano ausgewählt sind;

    R2a und R2b jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus der aus Folgendem bestehenden Gruppe ausgewählt sind:

    (i) F;

    (ii) H;

    (iii) Me; und

    (iv) CH2OH;

    R2c und R2d jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus der aus Folgendem bestehenden Gruppe ausgewählt sind:

    (i) F;

    (ii) H;

    (iii) Me; und

    (iv) CH2OH;

    R2e H oder Me ist;

    R3a und R3b jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus H und Me ausgewählt sind;

    R4 entweder H oder Me ist;

    R5 entweder H oder Me ist;

    R6a und R6b jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus H und Me ausgewählt sind;

    A entweder

    (i)

    worin R7a aus N-gebundenem N-hältigem C5-7-Heterocyclyl und

    ausgewählt ist; oder

    (ii)

    ist, worin X aus CH2, NH und O ausgewählt ist, einer von R8a und R8b aus Cl und Ethoxy ausgewählt ist und der andere von R8a und R8b H ist.


     
    2. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, worin n = 1 ist.
     
    3. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, worin p = 0 ist.
     
    4. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, worin R1a, R1b, R1c und R1d alle H sind.
     
    5. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, worin R2a, R2b, R2c und R2d alle H sind.
     
    6. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, worin R2e H ist.
     
    7. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, worin R3a und R3b beide H sind.
     
    8. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 7, worin R4 H ist.
     
    9. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, worin R5 H ist.
     
    10. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 9, worin R6a und R6b beide H sind.
     
    11. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, die der Formel Ia entspricht:


     
    12. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 11, welche die folgende Stereochemie aufweist:


     
    13. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 12, worin A der Formel IIa entspricht und R7a

    ist.
     
    14. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, worin A der Formel IIa entspricht und R7a N-gebundenes N-hältiges C5-7-Heterocyclyl ist.
     
    15. Verbindung nach Anspruch 14, worin das N-gebundene N-hältige C5-7-Heterocyclyl aus Piperidinyl, Piperazinyl, N-Acetylpiperazinyl, Morpholino, Thiomorpholino und 1,4-Oxaazepan-4-yl ausgewählt ist.
     
    16. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, worin A der Formel IIb entspricht, R8a aus Cl und Ethoxy ausgewählt ist und R8b H ist.
     
    17. Verbindung nach Anspruch 16, worin R8a Cl ist.
     
    18. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 13, worin A der Formel IIb entspricht, R8b aus Cl und Ethoxy ausgewählt ist und R8a H ist.
     
    19. Verbindung nach Anspruch 18, worin R8b Ethoxy ist.
     
    20. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 16 bis 19, worin X CH2 ist.
     
    21. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 16 bis 19, worin X O ist.
     
    22. Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, die aus Methyl-4-(6-ethoxy-5-(((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-carbamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)piperazin-1-carboxylat-dihydrochlorid (1);
    2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)nicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (2);
    2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-(1,4-oxazepan-4-yl)nicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (3);
    6-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (4);
    2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chlor-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (5);
    2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl)-5-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (6);
    6-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-2-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)nicotinamid-hydrochlorid (7);
    2-((1-Acetylpiperidin-4-yl)amino)-3-ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)isonicotinamid-dihydrochlorid (8); und
    2-Ethoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochinolin-3-yl)ethyl)-6-morpholinonicotinamid (9) ausgewählt ist.
     
    23. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 22 zur Verwendung in einem Therapieverfahren.
     
    24. Pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung, die eine Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 22 und einen pharmazeutisch annehmbaren Exzipienten umfasst.
     
    25. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 22 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 24 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von Krebs.
     
    26. Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 22 oder pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung nach Anspruch 24 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung von Hämoglobinopathien.
     


    Revendications

    1. Composé de formule I :

    dans laquelle :

    n vaut 1 ou 2 ;

    p vaut 0 ou 1 ;

    R1a, R1b, R1c et R1d sont indépendamment choisis parmi H, halogéno, alkyle en C1 à C4, fluoroalkyle en C1 à C4, cycloalkyle en C3 à C4, alkyloxy en C1 à C4, NH-alkyle en C1 à C4 et cyano ;

    R2a et R2b sont indépendamment choisis dans l'ensemble constitué par :

    (i) F ;

    (ii) H ;

    (iii) Me ; et

    (iv) CH2OH ;

    R2c et R2d sont indépendamment choisis dans l'ensemble constitué par :

    (i) F ;

    (ii) H ;

    (iii) Me ; et

    (iv) CH2OH ;

    R2e est H ou Me ;

    R3a et R3b sont indépendamment choisis parmi H et Me ;

    R4 est soit H soit Me ;

    R5 est soit H soit Me ;

    R6a et R6b sont indépendamment choisis parmi H et Me ;

    A est soit

    (i)

    où R7a est choisi parmi hétérocyclyle en C5 à C7 azoté à liaison N et

    soit

    (ii)

    où X est choisi parmi CH2, NH et O, l'un parmi R8a et R8b est choisi parmi Cl et éthoxy, et l'autre parmi R8a et R8b est H.


     
    2. Composé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel n vaut 1.
     
    3. Composé selon l'une ou l'autre des revendications 1 et 2, dans lequel p vaut 0.
     
    4. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel R1a, R1b, R1c et R1d sont tous H.
     
    5. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel R2a, R2b, R2c et R2d sont tous H.
     
    6. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel R2e est H.
     
    7. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel R3a et R3b sont tous deux H.
     
    8. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 7, dans lequel R4 est H.
     
    9. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel R5 est H.
     
    10. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 9, dans lequel R6a et R6b sont tous deux H.
     
    11. Composé selon la revendication 1, qui est de formule Ia :


     
    12. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 11, qui a la stéréochimie suivante :


     
    13. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 12, dans lequel A est de formule IIa et R7a est


     
    14. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, dans lequel A est de formule IIa et R7a est un hétérocyclyle en C5 à C7 azoté à liaison N.
     
    15. Composé selon la revendication 14, dans lequel l'hétérocyclyle en C5 à C7 azoté à liaison N est choisi parmi pipéridinyle, pipérazinyle, N-acétyl-pipérazinyle, morpholino, thiomorpholino, et 1,4-oxa-azépan-4-yle.
     
    16. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, dans lequel A est de formule IIb, R8a est choisi parmi Cl et éthoxy, et R8b est H.
     
    17. Composé selon la revendication 16, dans lequel R8a est Cl.
     
    18. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 13, dans lequel A est de formule IIb, R8b est choisi parmi Cl et éthoxy, et R8a est H.
     
    19. Composé selon la revendication 18, dans lequel R8b est éthoxy.
     
    20. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 16 à 19, dans lequel X est CH2.
     
    21. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 16 à 19, dans lequel X est O.
     
    22. Composé selon la revendication 1, qui est choisi parmi :

    le dichlorhydrate de 4-(6-éthoxy-5-(((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)carbamoyl)pyridin-2-yl)pipérazine-1-carboxylate de méthyle (1) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 2-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)-6-(4-hydroxypipéridin-1-yl)nicotinamide (2) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 2-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)-6-(1,4-oxazépan-4-yl)nicotinamide (3) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 6-(4-acétylpipérazin-1-yl)-2-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)nicotinamide (4) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 2-((1-acétylpipéridin-4-yl)oxy)-3-chloro-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)isonicotinamide (5) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 2-((1-acétylpipéridin-4-yl)méthyl)-5-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)isonicotinamide (6) ;

    le chlorhydrate de 6-((1-acétylpipéridin-4-yl)oxy)-2-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)nicotinamide (7) ;

    le dichlorhydrate de 2-((1-acétylpipéridin-4-yl)amino)-3-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)isonicotinamide (8) ; et

    le 2-éthoxy-N-((R)-2-hydroxy-2-((S)-1,2,3,4-tétrahydroisoquinolin-3-yl)éthyl)-6-morpholinonicotinamide (9) .


     
    23. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 22, pour une utilisation dans une méthode de thérapie.
     
    24. Composition pharmaceutique comprenant un composé de l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 22 et un excipient pharmaceutiquement acceptable.
     
    25. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 22 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 24, pour une utilisation dans le traitement d'un cancer.
     
    26. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 22 ou composition pharmaceutique selon la revendication 24, pour une utilisation dans le traitement d'hémoglobinopathies.
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description