(19)
(11)EP 3 442 612 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
05.08.2020 Bulletin 2020/32

(21)Application number: 18794752.8

(22)Date of filing:  04.05.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61L 29/16  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2018/031083
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/204782 (08.11.2018 Gazette  2018/45)

(54)

DRUG-COATED BALLOON CATHETERS FOR BODY LUMENS

MEDIKAMENTENBESCHICHTETE BALLONKATHETER FÜR KÖRPERLUMEN

CATHÉTERS À BALLONNET REVÊTUS DE MÉDICAMENT POUR LUMIÈRES CORPORELLES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 05.05.2017 US 201762502212 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
20.02.2019 Bulletin 2019/08

(73)Proprietor: Urotronic, Inc.
Plymouth, Minnesota 55441 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • WANG, Lixiao
    Long Lake, MN 55356 (US)
  • BARNETT, Peter
    Shakopee, Minnesota 55379 (US)
  • HENDRICKSON, David
    Coon Rapids, Minnesota 55433 (US)

(74)Representative: Braun, Nils 
Maiwald Patentanwalts- und Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Elisenhof Elisenstraße 3
80335 München
80335 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 0 474 906
WO-A1-2011/119159
WO-A1-2014/066085
WO-A1-2016/118923
WO-A1-2016/172343
US-A- 5 904 648
US-A- 6 059 713
US-A1- 2004 098 019
US-A1- 2008 255 508
US-A1- 2009 028 920
US-A1- 2009 283 206
US-A1- 2013 253 466
US-A1- 2016 082 159
US-A1- 2016 338 793
US-A1- 2017 086 929
WO-A1-97/28840
WO-A1-2014/066085
WO-A1-2016/073294
WO-A1-2016/172343
US-A- 5 171 299
US-A- 6 059 713
US-A1- 2003 203 991
US-A1- 2004 144 387
US-A1- 2009 018 565
US-A1- 2009 171 241
US-A1- 2013 197 434
US-A1- 2015 231 375
US-A1- 2016 250 388
US-A1- 2017 028 105
US-B1- 6 530 948
  
  • "PMA P130024: FDA SUMMARY OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS DATA (SSED)", , 2004, XP002789686, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cdrh_do cs/pdf13/P130024b.pdf
  • LUKACS, B et al.: "One-year follow-up of 2829 patients with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms treated with alfuzosin in general practice according to IPSS and a health-related quality-of-life questionnaire", Urology, vol. 55, no. 4 April 2000 (2000-04), pages 540-546, XP055549953, Retrieved from the Internet: URL:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10 736498
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION



[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Serial No. 62/502,212 filed 5/5/2017.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, affecting more than 50% percent of men over the age of 60. The prostate early in life is the size and shape of a walnut and weighs about 20 grams. Prostate enlargement appears to be a normal process. With age, the prostate gradually increases in size to twice or more its normal size. As the prostate grows, it presses against and narrows the urethra, causing prostatic urethra compression and urinary obstruction that makes voiding difficult or impossible.

[0003] Male urethral stricture disease occurs at a rate as high as 0.6% in some populations. Urethral stricture diseases appear to be more common in the elderly population. The patients with the strictures experience moderate to severe complications, such as lower urinary tract voiding symptoms or urinary retention, recurrent urinary tract infection and the need for repeat urethral procedures such as dilation, urethrotomy, or urethroplasty.

[0004] Ureteral strictures of the upper urinary tract are either congenital or acquired. Congenital ureteral strictures are most commonly located at the ureteropelvic junction. Most of ureteral strictures are acquired and usually are iatrogenic. The most common etiology of the ureteral strictures is injury during endoscopic, open, or laparoscopic surgical procedures.

[0005] Strictures in the digestive body lumen or the gastrointestinal tracts include esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, biliary strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures. The type of disease classifies a stricture into benign or malignant.

[0006] A biliary stricture, also referred to as a bile duct stricture, occurs when the bile duct gets smaller or narrower. The bile duct is the tube that takes bile from the liver to the small intestine. When the bile duct becomes narrow, it makes it difficult for food to digest. Biliary strictures can be caused by any injuries to the bile duct, swelling, pancreatitis, intestinal injuries, and cancers in the bile duct or pancreas. The symptoms of the biliary stricture include pain, chills and fever, itching, and nausea or vomiting.

[0007] Esophageal strictures are a problem commonly encountered in gastroenterological medicine and can be caused by malignant or benign lesions. Dysphagia is the symptom experienced by all patients. Most of these patients require palliative treatment to relieve the dysphagia.

[0008] Gastrointestinal strictures are a narrowing of a section of the intestine that causes problems by slowing or blocking the movement of food through the area. The strictures are caused by recurrent inflammations, cancer, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. The strictures include esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, biliary strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures.

[0009] Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a term used to classify two major airflow obstruction disorders: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Approximately 16 million Americans have COPD, 80-90% of them were smokers throughout much of their lives. COPD is a leading cause of death in the U.S. Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchial airways. The bronchial airways connect the trachea with the lungs. When inflamed, the bronchial tubes secrete mucus, causing a chronic cough. Emphysema is an over-inflation of the alveoli, or air sacs in the lungs. This condition causes shortness of breath.

[0010] Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the airways, excess mucus production and airway hyper-responsiveness, and a condition in which airways narrow excessively or too easily respond to a stimulus. Asthma episodes or attacks cause narrowing of the airways, which make breathing difficult. Asthma attacks can have a significant impact on a patient's life, limiting participation in many activities. In severe cases, asthma attacks can be life threatening. Presently, there is no known cure for asthma.

[0011] Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the membrane lining of one or more paranasal sinuses. Chronic sinusitis lasts longer than three weeks and often continues for months. In cases of chronic sinusitis, there is usually tissue damage. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), thirty-seven million cases of chronic sinusitis are reported annually.
WO 2011/119159 A1, US 2008/255508 A1 or US 2016/250388 A1 describe a medical device for delivering a therapeutic agent to a tissue, wherein the medical device has a layer overlying the exterior surface of the medical device.
WO 2016/172343 A1 or WO 2014/066085 A1 describe a method of treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen.
PMA P130024: FDA summary of safety and effectiveness data (SSED) describes a drug-coated balloon percutaneous transluminal angioplasty catheter (LUTONIX® 035 Drug Coated Balloon PTA Catheter).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0012] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a drug-coated balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a target site of a body lumen stricture. The body lumen strictures can include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, prostate cancer, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, biliary tract strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The balloon catheter includes an elongated balloon having a main diameter. The balloon catheter also includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent.

[0013] Any references in the description to methods of treatment refer to the drug-coated balloon catheters of the present invention for use in a method for treatment of the human (or animal) body by therapy or surgery. In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen stricture. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the body lumen. The method optionally includes, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive. The balloon catheter also includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method also includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the body lumen.

[0014] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen stricture. The method includes inserting a scope such as a cystoscope into a body lumen. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter with a drug coating into the body lumen. The method includes inflating to the balloon catheter to an initial pressure of between 0.5 atm and 1.5 atm and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops. The method includes inflating to a next higher pressure at least 0.5 atm to 1.5 atm above the initial pressure and maintaining the next higher pressure until the pressure inside the balloon no longer drops, and repeating this step until the lumen is dilated to a desired diameter. The method includes keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes deflating the balloon catheter. The method also includes withdrawing the scope and balloon catheter from the body lumen.

[0015] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method for treatment of a body lumen stricture. The method includes inserting a flexible scope to the body lumen stricture. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter in the body lumen stricture side by side with the scope. The method includes inflating the balloon catheter slowly to prevent balloon migration, such as by optionally inflating to an initial pressure between 0.5 atm and 1.5 atm and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops, and inflating to a higher pressure 0.5 atm to 1.5 atm above the initial pressure and maintaining the higher pressure until the pressure no longer drops, and repeating the inflation to a higher pressure and maintaining until the pressure no longer drops, until the tissue of body lumen yields. The method includes keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes deflating the balloon catheter. The method also includes withdrawing the scope and the balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen.

[0016] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of increasing Qmax. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the urinary tract stricture. The balloon catheter includes an elongated balloon and a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts the walls of the urinary tract stricture for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the urinary tract stricture. The method increases Qmax to a minimum of 15 mL/s.

[0017] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of decreasing International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The method includes inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the urinary tract stricture. The balloon catheter includes an elongated balloon and a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts the walls of the urinary tract stricture for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the urinary tract. The method decreases the IPSS to 14 or less.

[0018] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of forming a balloon. The method includes placing a tube including balloon material into a balloon mold wherein the balloon mold has a shape including a proximal cone, at least one main body section, at least one neck section having a diameter less than the at least one main body section, another at least one main body section, and a distal cone. The method includes pressurizing the interior of the balloon material tube. The method also includes expanding the balloon material tube into contact with the interior of the mold.

[0019] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The method includes inserting a drug coated balloon catheter sheath assembly and a scope. The method includes putting the scope and balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter. The method optionally includes, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive. The method includes removing the sheath from over the balloon and slowly inflating until the pressure drops, the prostatic tissue yields and the commissurotomy is created. The method includes increasing the pressure further up to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more. The method includes keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes deflating the balloon catheter and covering the balloon with the sheath. The method also includes withdrawing the scope and balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).

[0020] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The method includes inserting an uncoated balloon catheter sheath assembly and a scope. The method includes putting the scope and balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter. The method includes removing the sheath from over the balloon and slowly inflating until the pressure drops, the prostatic tissue yields and the commissurotomy is created. The method includes increasing the pressure further to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more. The method includes keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to prevent bleeding. The method includes deflating the uncoated balloon catheter and covering the balloon with the sheath. The method includes withdrawing the scope and uncoated balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen. The method includes inserting a drug coated balloon catheter sheath assembly and the scope. The method includes putting the scope and drug coated balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter. The method includes removing the sheath from over the drug coated balloon and slowly inflating to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more. The method includes keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).

[0021] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method for treating benign prostate hyperplasia. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the prostate. The balloon catheter includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the body lumen. The method splits the prostatic urethra and prostate, achieves a voiding prostatic urethra diameter of at least 12 mm, and achieves an inflated diameter of the balloon catheter of at least 20 mm, or at least 25 mm.

[0022] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method for treating a urethral stricture. The method includes inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the urethra. The balloon catheter includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. Wherein the coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; wherein the therapeutic agent is paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, MTOR inhibitors, and combinations thereof and the water-soluble additives is at least one of N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof. The method optionally includes, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the body lumen. The method achieves a urethra diameter after dilation of at least 6.7 mm, and the inflated diameter of the balloon catheter is at least 7 mm.

[0023] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a balloon catheter for treating a urethral stricture. The balloon catheter includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; wherein the therapeutic agent is paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, MTOR inhibitors, and combinations thereof and the water-soluble additivies is at least one of N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). After treatment Qmax is at least 15 mL per second and IPSS is no more than 14. The urethra diameter after dilation is at least 6.7 mm. The inflated diameter of the balloon catheter is at least 7 mm.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0024] The drawings illustrate generally, by way of example, but not by way of limitation, various embodiments of the present invention.

FIG. 1A illustrates a balloon catheter having one neck section, in accordance with various embodiments.

FIG. 1B illustrates a balloon catheter having two neck sections, in accordance with various embodiments.

FIG. 1C illustrates a balloon catheter having three neck sections, in accordance with various embodiments.

FIG. 2 illustrates a two-necked drug-coated balloon catheter including a catheter shaft, catheter tip, and Tuohy Borst adapter, in accordance with various embodiments (the balloon catheter includes a fixed wire, over the wire, and rapid exchanged balloon catheters details not shown in FIG. 2).

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an embodiment of a balloon catheter according to the present invention (the balloon catheter includes a fixed wire, over the wire, and rapid exchanged balloon catheters details not shown in FIG. 3).

FIGS. 4A-4C are cross-sectional views of different embodiments of the distal portion of the balloon catheter of FIG. 3, taken along line A-A, showing exemplary coating layers.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0025] Reference will now be made in detail to certain embodiments of the disclosed subject matter, examples of which are illustrated in part in the accompanying drawings. While the disclosed subject matter will be described in conjunction with the enumerated claims, it will be understood that the exemplified subject matter is not intended to limit the claims to the disclosed subject matter. The present invention and the scope thereof is defined by the appended claims. The more generic description of the invention is provided for illustrative purposes only. Embodiments not falling under these claims are for reference purposes only.

[0026] Throughout this document, values expressed in a range format should be interpreted in a flexible manner to include not only the numerical values explicitly recited as the limits of the range, but also to include all the individual numerical values or sub-ranges encompassed within that range as if each numerical value and sub-range is explicitly recited. For example, a range of "about 0.1% to about 5%" or "about 0.1% to 5%" should be interpreted to include not just about 0.1% to about 5%, but also the individual values (e.g., 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%) and the sub-ranges (e.g., 0.1% to 0.5%, 1.1% to 2.2%, 3.3% to 4.4%) within the indicated range. The statement "about X to Y" has the same meaning as "about X to about Y," unless indicated otherwise. Likewise, the statement "about X, Y, or about Z" has the same meaning as "about X, about Y, or about Z," unless indicated otherwise.

[0027] In this document, the terms "a," "an," or "the" are used to include one or more than one unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. The term "or" is used to refer to a nonexclusive "or" unless otherwise indicated. The statement "at least one of A and B" has the same meaning as "A, B, or A and B." In addition, it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein, and not otherwise defined, is for the purpose of description only and not of limitation. Any use of section headings is intended to aid reading of the document and is not to be interpreted as limiting; information that is relevant to a section heading may occur within or outside of that particular section.

[0028] In the methods described herein, the acts can be carried out in any order without departing from the principles of the invention, except when a temporal or operational sequence is explicitly recited. Furthermore, specified acts can be carried out concurrently unless explicit claim language recites that they be carried out separately. For example, a claimed act of doing X and a claimed act of doing Y can be conducted simultaneously within a single operation, and the resulting process will fall within the literal scope of the claimed process.

[0029] The term "about" as used herein can allow for a degree of variability in a value or range, for example, within 10%, within 5%, or within 1% of a stated value or of a stated limit of a range and includes the exact stated value or range.

[0030] The term "substantially" as used herein refers to a majority of, or mostly, as in at least about 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99%, 99.5%, 99.9%, 99.99%, or at least about 99.999% or more, or 100%.

[0031] One aspect of various embodiments of the invention is to deliver a therapeutic agent such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus or mTOR inhibitors, to the wall of a body lumen to treat a narrowing or stricture. These drugs can be considered anti-inflammatory or antiproliferative drugs. The stricture can be in a vascular lumen (e.g., a vascular stenosis in a coronary artery or a peripheral artery) or the stricture can be in a nonvascular lumen. The drug can be a water-insoluble drug.

[0032] The antimicrobial properties of various fatty acids and monoglycerides of C8-C12 fatty acids have been investigated for many years. The studies have confirmed that both fatty acids and monoglycerides can inhibit the growth of numerous types of bacteria and viruses. The coating formulation of the present invention can include various fatty acids and monoglycerides of C8-C12 fatty acids, such as caprylic acid, monocaprilin, capric acid, monocaprin, lauric acid and monolaurin, as one of the additives for the treatment of various diseases.

[0033] Causes of nonvascular body lumen strictures, and related nonvascular diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, prostate cancer, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, biliary tract strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can include cancer, and infections and inflammations by pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. Various embodiments of the present invention provide delivery of coating formulations to the stricture that contain drugs and additives which have properties that kill and inhibit bacteria and viruses.

[0034] The present invention provides new methods for treatment of body lumen strictures to have a long term and persistent effect. The new methods open the lumen and prevent, reduce, or minimize renarrowing and recurrent strictures. The methods involve delivering of therapeutic agents such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus or mTOR inhibitors) and one or more water-soluble additives to a target tissue.

[0035] Embodiments of the present invention provide a medical device coating formulation including a drug for treatment of the strictures in nonvascular body lumens, and additives that enhance absorption of the drug into tissue of body lumens. The additives can have antibacterial and antiviral properties. The balloon catheter includes a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of an antiproliferative therapeutic agent.

[0036] By coating the exterior surface of the balloon catheter, for example, with a layer including a therapeutic agent and additives, it is useful in solving problems associated with the coatings. For example, the additive can have a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part. The drug affinity part can be a hydrophobic part and/or can have an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions. Surprisingly, additives according to embodiments of the present invention which include a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, in combination with an antiproliferative therapeutic agent, form an effective drug delivery coating on a medical device without the use of oils and lipids, thereby avoiding the lipolysis dependence and other disadvantages of conventional oil-based coating formulations. Moreover, the additives according to embodiments of the present invention facilitate rapid drug elution and superior permeation of drug into tissues at a disease site. Thus, coatings according to embodiments of the present invention provide an enhanced rate and/or extent of absorption of the antiproliferative therapeutic agent in nonvascular diseased tissues or nonvascular body lumens. In embodiments of the present invention, the coated device delivers antiproliferative therapeutic agent to nonvascular tissues during a very brief deployment time of less than 10 minutes, less than 2 minutes, and reduces renarrowing and reoccurring of the strictures of a nonvascular body lumen.

[0037] Various embodiments of the present invention relate to a medical device for delivering a therapeutic agent to strictures of vascular or nonvascular body lumen, the device including a layer overlying an exterior surface of the medical device. The device includes one of a balloon catheter, a fixed wire balloon catheter, over the wire balloon catheter, rapid exchange balloon catheter, a perfusion balloon catheter, a spaced double balloon, a cutting balloon catheter, a scoring balloon catheter, or an infusion catheter (e.g., a distal perforated drug infusion tube, a perforated balloon, spaced double balloon, porous balloon, or a weeping balloon). The balloon catheter includes an elongated balloon having a narrowed diameter middle section. The balloon catheter includes at least one neck section on the balloon including a smaller diameter than the main diameter, the at least one neck section dividing the balloon into at least two main sections each having a diameter equal to the main diameter or different than the main diameter. Further, the nonvascular lumen or nonvascular stricture includes one of esophagus, airways, sinus, trachea, colon, biliary tract, stomach, small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum, large intestine, urinary tract, prostate, urethra, ureter, and other nonvascular lumens. Vascular lumens include arteries, veins, or any lumens with blood. Nonvascular lumens include those lumens without blood. The balloon catheters shafts and balloon materials may be constructed of polyether-amide block copolymers, polyamides, nylons, or their blends.

[0038] In some embodiments, the additive is at least one of a surfactant and a chemical compound. A coating layer overlying the exterior of the medical device can include one or more water-soluble additives. A coating layer overlying the exterior of the medical device can include one or more water-soluble additives (e.g., a water-soluble first additive, a water-soluble second additive, and a water-soluble third additive).

[0039] The medical device can further include a dimethylsulfoxide solvent layer, wherein the dimethylsulfoxide solvent layer is overlying the exterior surface of the medical device.

[0040] The device can be capable of releasing the therapeutic agent and the additive and delivering therapeutic agent to the tissue in about 0.1 to 10 minutes. The concentration of the therapeutic agent in the layer can be from 1 to 20 µg/mm2, measured when the balloon is inflated to nominal diameter. The concentration of the therapeutic agent in the layer can be from 2 to 10 µg/mm2.

[0041] In some embodiments, the additives can enhance release of the therapeutic agent off the balloon. The additive can enhance penetration and absorption of the therapeutic agent in tissue. The additive can have a water and ethanol solubility of at least 1 mg/ml and the therapeutic agent can be water-insoluble.

[0042] The layer overlying the exterior surface of the medical device can include a therapeutic agent and at least two additives, wherein each of the additives includes a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, wherein the drug affinity part is at least one of a hydrophobic part, a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding, and a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by van der Waals interactions, and wherein each additive is soluble in polar organic solvent and is soluble in water. In one aspect of this embodiment, the polar organic solvent is chosen from methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, dimethylformide, tetrahydrofuran, methylethyl ketone, dimethylsulfoxide, acetonitrile, ethyl acetate, and chloroform and mixtures of these polar organic solvents with water. In another aspect of this embodiment, the device further includes a top layer overlying the surface of the layer overlying the exterior surface of the medical device to reduce loss of drug during transit through a body to the target tissue.

[0043] In some embodiments, the additive reduces crystal size and number of particles of the therapeutic agent, and wherein the additive is water-soluble and the therapeutic agent is not water-soluble. The additive can have a fatty chain of an acid, ester, ether, or alcohol, wherein the fatty chain can directly insert into lipid membrane structures of the tissue. The additive can penetrate into and rearrange lipid membrane structures of the tissue. The additive can have one or more functional groups which have affinity to the drug by hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions. In some embodiments, the additive can be at least one of a surfactant and a chemical compound, and wherein the chemical compound has a molecular weight of from 50 to 750 g/mol. The chemical compound can have more than four hydroxyl groups. In some embodiments, the chemical compound having more than four hydroxyl groups has a melting point of 120°C or less, and the chemical compound is an alcohol or an ester. In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is not water soluble.

[0044] The medical device coating for delivering a drug to a nonvascular tissue or nonvascular stricture that can be prepared from a mixture. The coating can be prepared from a mixture including an organic phase containing drug particles dispersed therein and an aqueous phase containing a water-soluble additive. The water-soluble additive can be chosen from polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidinone, polypeptides, water-soluble surfactants, water-soluble vitamins, and proteins. The preparation of the mixture can include homogenization under high shear conditions and optionally under pressure.

[0045] The coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the medical device can consist essentially of the therapeutic agent and the additive. The coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the medical device can consist essentially of a therapeutic agent, a water-soluble first additive and a water-soluble second additive. The coating overlying an exterior surface of the medical device can consist essentially of a therapeutic agent, and one or more water-soluble additives (e.g., a water-soluble first additive, a water-soluble second additive, and a water-soluble third additive).

[0046] In some embodiments, a method for treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen includes inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into an body stricture, wherein the stricture is one of urethral strictures, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, biliary strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, strictures in stents, large intestine strictures, and sinus strictures, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the stricture, deflating the balloon; and withdrawing the balloon catheter, wherein the residual drug can be about 1 to 70% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter. In one aspect of this embodiment, the additive enhances absorption of the drug into tissue of the nonvascular body lumen.

[0047] Some drugs for use in various embodiments that are considered particularly suitable for the airway, sinus and other nasal lumens are corticosteroids such as, budesonide, flunisolide, triamcinolone, beclomethasone, fluticasone, mometasone, mometasone furoate, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisone, cotisone, betamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide, or the like.

[0048] Various embodiments relate to a method for treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen and can include flushing the lumen with water, saline solution, or water solutions of the additives described herein, inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into a body lumen, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the body lumen, deflating the balloon, and withdrawing the balloon catheter. A method for treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen can include infusing water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one of the additives described herein, inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen, wherein the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen is one of, urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, sinus strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, and biliary tract strictures, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the stricture in a nonvascular body lumen, deflating the balloon, and withdrawing the balloon catheter. In one aspect of this embodiment, the additive enhances absorption of the drug into tissue of the nonvascular body lumens. In another aspect of this embodiment, the additive includes a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, wherein the drug affinity part is at least one of a hydrophobic part, a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding, and a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by van der Waals interactions. In another aspect of this embodiment, the drug is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus and tacrolimus. In another aspect of this embodiment, the additive is chosen from PEG-fatty acids and PEG-fatty acid mono and diesters, polyethylene glycol glycerol fatty acid esters, alcohol-oil transesterification products, polyglyceryl fatty acids, propylene glycol fatty acid esters, sterol and derivatives thereof, polyethylene glycol sorbitan fatty acid esters, polyethylene glycol alkyl ethers, sugars and derivatives thereof, polyethylene glycol alkyl phenols, polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymers, sorbitan fatty acid esters, fat-soluble vitamins and salts thereof, water-soluble vitamins and amphiphilic derivatives thereof, amino acid and salts thereof, oligopeptides, peptides and proteins, and organic acids and esters and anhydrides thereof. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the airway prior to, during, or after an asthma attack. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the esophagus. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the sinus. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the biliary tract. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the urinary tract, prostate, urethral, and ureteral lumens. In yet another aspect of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the stomach, small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, rectum, or large intestine. In another embodiment of this embodiment, the drug can be released to the wall of the nonvascular stricture in the stent.

[0049] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen including inserting a balloon catheter, such as any balloon catheter described herein, to a target site in a body lumen. The method includes inserting the balloon catheter of FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, 2, or 3 to a target site in the body lumen. The method may include inserting the balloon catheter and a scope to a target site in the body lumen side by side or with the balloon catheter in the lumen of the scope. The scope can be an endoscope, enteroscope, colonoscope, sigmoidoscope, rectoscope, anoscope, rhinoscope, bronchoscope, or a cystoscope. The scope may be used to ensure that the balloon catheter is properly positioned within the targeted lumen. The method can include, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive. The method includes inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture in the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method includes deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method also includes withdrawing the balloon catheter from the stricture in the body lumen.

[0050] In some embodiments, the balloon is inflated until the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture and the stricture is dilated, with simultaneous transfer of the drug to the stricture. In some embodiments, the balloon is inflated until the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture, the inflation dilates the stricture to increase its diameter, such that the contacting with the stricture can provide full circumferential transfer of the drug to the wall of the stricture. In some embodiments, the portion of the balloon that includes the drug (e.g., in embodiments including less than 100% of the surface area coated with the drug) can contact the stricture uniformly. In other embodiments, the contacting of various portions of the surface of the balloon with the stricture is non-uniform.

[0051] The inflated diameter of the balloon can be any suitable diameter that is achieved during or throughout the inflation period such that a desired ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen is achieved. The inflated diameter of the balloon can correspond to the pressure used to inflate the balloon during the inflation period. The inflation pressure can be in the range of nominal inflation pressure to rated burst pressure. The nominal pressure is the pressure at the nominal diameter of the inflated balloon catheter. The nominal diameter is the diameter at the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter and is specified on the product labeling. In some embodiments, the inflated pressure can be the nominal pressure for the balloon, and the inflated diameter of the balloon can be about equal to the nominal diameter of the balloon, or can be less than the nominal diameter of the balloon due to constraint from the stricture. In some embodiments, the inflated pressure of the balloon during the inflation period can be above or below the nominal pressure and the inflated diameter of the balloon can be, correspondingly, above or below the nominal diameter of the balloon.

[0052] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen. The method includes 1) backloading a balloon catheter into the scope (e.g., cystoscope). The method includes 2) inserting the scope-balloon catheter assembly into the body lumen. The method includes 3) inflating the balloon to the initial pressure (for example 0.5 atm, 1 atm or 1.5 atm) and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 4) inflating to the next higher pressure with an 0.5, 1, or 1.5 atm increase from the previous pressure and maintaining the higher pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 5) repeating the steps of 4) until the lumen tissue, such as prostatic tissue, yields. The method includes 6) keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, or 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes 7) deflating the balloon catheter. The method includes 8) withdrawing the scope-balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen. In this embodiment, the scope may be used to ensure that the balloon catheter is properly positioned before and/or during the inflation.

[0053] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen. The method includes 1) inserting a flexible scope and a balloon catheter in a sheath to the body lumen side by side. The method includes 2) removing the sheath from over the balloon and inflating to the initial pressure (for example 0.5 atm, 1 atm or 1.5 atm) and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 3) inflating to the next higher pressure with an 0.5, 1, or 1.5 atm increase from the previous pressure and maintaining the higher pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 4) repeating the steps of 3) until the tissue of body lumen yields. The method includes 5) keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes 6) deflating the balloon catheter. The method includes 7) pulling balloon catheter back inside of the sheath. The method includes 8) withdrawing the scope and the balloon catheter/sheath from the body lumen. In this embodiment, the scope may be used to ensure that the balloon is properly positioned before and/or during inflation.

[0054] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen. The method includes 1) inserting a flexible scope to the body lumen. The method also includes 2) inserting a balloon catheter and the scope in the body lumen side by side. The method includes 3) inflating to the initial pressure (for example 0.5 atm, 1 atm or 1.5 atm) and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 4) inflating to the next higher pressure with 0.5, 1, or 1.5 atm increasing from the previous pressure and maintaining the higher pressure until the pressure no longer drops for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 5) repeating the steps of 4) until the tissue of body lumen yields. The method includes 6) keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes 7) deflating the balloon catheter. The method includes 8) withdrawing the scope and the balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen. In this embodiment, the scope may be used to ensure that the balloon catheter is properly positioned before and/or during inflation.

[0055] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. The method includes 1) inserting a balloon catheter sheath assembly and the scope (e.g., cystoscope). The method includes 2) putting the scope and balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter. The method includes 3) removing the sheath from over the balloon and inflating to the initial pressure (for example 0.5 atm, 1 atm or 1.5 atm) and maintaining the initial pressure until the pressure no longer drops for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 4) inflating to the next higher pressure with an 0.5, 1, or 1.5 atm increase from the previous pressure and maintaining the higher pressure until the pressure no longer drops, for 1-2 minutes. The method includes 5) repeating the steps of 4) until the prostatic tissue yield and the commissurotomy is formed. The method includes 6) keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding. The method includes 7) deflating the balloon catheter. The method includes 8) withdrawing the scope and balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).

[0056] Various embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to the treatment of strictures in body lumens by delivering of an effective amount of a therapeutic agent such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, paclitaxel, and docetaxel) to a target tissue. The strictures in body lumens include vascular strictures, nonvascular strictures, urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, sinus strictures, biliary tract strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures. Embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to methods for treating at least one of stenosis of vascular and nonvascular lumens, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), narrowing urethral, prostate cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The treatment is intended for a variety of animals, such as premature neonates to adult humans.

[0057] The drug on the coating of the balloon catheter can be released to the targeted body lumen. The multiple-sectioned balloon with the neck section having a smaller diameter mechanically anchors the balloon in the body lumen, therefore it prevents slipping of the balloon in the body lumen. If the balloon slips or moves off the targeted diseased site, the target site may be missed, and the healthy lumen may be injured.

[0058] In various embodiments, the present invention has advantages, at least some of which are unexpected. For example, coating the exterior surface of a balloon catheter with a layer including a therapeutic agent and additives that have a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part is useful for treating the disorders disclosed herein. The drug affinity part is a hydrophobic part and/or has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions. Surprisingly, additives according to embodiments of the present invention, which include a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, in combination with a therapeutic agent, forms an effective drug delivery coating on a medical device. Moreover, the additives according to embodiments of the present invention can facilitate rapid drug elution and superior permeation of drug into tissues at a disease site. Thus, coatings according to embodiments of the present invention can provide an enhanced rate and/or extent of absorption of the therapeutic agent in diseased tissues or body lumens. In embodiments of the present invention, the coated device can deliver therapeutic agent to tissues during a very brief deployment time of less than 10 minutes (e.g., less than 2 minutes), and can reduce renarrowing and reoccurring of the strictures of a body lumen, such as compared to other balloon catheters lacking such a neck section or configuration of neck sections.

[0059] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter of the present invention is compatible with flexible or rigid scopes that allow visualization of the treatment zone, allowing more accurate and more efficient placement than other balloon catheters. The scope can be an endoscope, enteroscope, colonoscope, sigmoidoscope, rectoscope, anoscope, rhinoscope, bronchoscope, or a cystoscope. In various embodiments, the balloon catheter of the present invention is self-seeking, in that the neck section of the balloon catheter directs the balloon catheter to a proper position during inflation (e.g., with the neck section of the balloon catheter, such as a distal-most neck section, in the bladder neck) even if the balloon catheter is slightly off-position at the time of initiation of inflation.

Balloon catheter and method of using the same.



[0060] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a target site of a body lumen. The balloon catheter may include an elongated balloon having multiple main, or body, sections and at least one neck section with a smaller diameter than that of the main sections. The balloon catheter can include an elongated balloon having a main diameter, such as multiple main sections having the main diameter or having an average diameter equal to the main diameter. The multiple-sectioned balloon with smaller a diameter neck section mechanically anchors the balloon in the body lumen; therefore, it can prevent slipping of the balloon in the body lumen. If the balloon slips away from the targeted diseased site it may be missed and the site of health lumen may be injured. The balloon catheter can include at least one neck section on the balloon including a smaller diameter than the main diameter. The balloon catheter can also include a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon. The coating layer can include one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent (e.g., paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, and tacrolimus). In a method of using the balloon catheter, Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).

[0061] The main diameter of the balloon can be the diameter of the main sections of the balloon when the balloon is inflated. In some embodiments, the inflated pressure used to determine the main diameter can be any pressure that eliminates any folded or creased areas of the balloon and achieves taughtness of the balloon. The inflated pressure used to determine the main diameter can be a pressure such that the inflated balloon has a shape and size that corresponds to the desired shape and size of the balloon during the intended treatment of the body lumen. The inflated pressure used to determine the main diameter can be the nominal pressure of the balloon, such that the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is equal to the main diameter of the balloon.

[0062] In one embodiment, the drug coated balloon includes two main sections at both ends with the same diameters, one neck section with a smaller diameter between the two main sections, and the two cones at proximal and distal balloon body. The drug coated balloon can include three main sections with the same diameters, two neck sections with a smaller diameter, wherein three main sections and two neck sections are aligned alternatively and the neck sections are adjacent to the main sections with larger diameters, and the two cones at proximal and distal balloon body. The drug coated balloon can include four main sections with a larger diameter, three neck sections with a smaller diameter, wherein the four main sections with a larger diameter and three neck sections are aligned alternatively and the neck sections are adjacent to the main sections with larger diameters, and the two cones at proximal and distal balloon body. The drug coated balloon can include five main sections with a larger diameter, four neck sections with a smaller diameter, wherein the five main sections with a larger diameter and four neck sections are aligned alternatively and the neck sections are adjacent to the main sections with larger diameters, and the two cones at proximal and distal balloon body. The balloon catheter includes at least one neck section on the balloon including a smaller diameter than the balloon diameter of the main sections. The balloon catheter can include an elongated (e.g., cylindrical) balloon having multiple sections with various diameters. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The multiple sectioned balloon with smaller necks increases the friction between the balloon and the body lumen; therefore, it prevents the slipping of the balloon in the body lumen.

[0063] The drug-coated balloon catheter can be a medical device for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The balloon catheter can dilate the prostatic urethra and can include a catheter shaft for insertion into the urethra and a compliant, semi-compliant, or non-compliant balloon for inflation in the prostatic urethra. The balloon can be coated with a therapeutic agent which is delivered to the prostate tissue and prostatic urethra upon balloon inflation. The balloon can be positioned within the prostate using any suitable method, such as via a separate location balloon in the bladder, a location balloon in the bulbous urethra, or the catheter shaft can be scope- (e.g., cystoscope-) compatible allowing placement via direct visualization, or the catheter may be side by side with the scope. For example, several possible catheter designs allow direct visualization of the balloon during positioning and inflation. One design is cystoscope-compatible, with the catheter being back-loaded through the working channel. Once through the cystoscope, a Touhy Borst adapter and 1-way stopcock can be attached to the catheter shaft to allow inflation of the balloon. Another design can include a multilumen catheter with a lumen in the center of the shaft that allows the optics of a rigid cystoscope to be inserted and positioned next to the proximal edge of the balloon.

[0064] In some embodiments, when treating the prostate, the balloon catheter should be sized so that the main body section(s) of the catheter are between the bladder neck sphincter (at the outlet of the bladder) and the external sphincter. In other embodiments, the main body section(s) of the catheter are above the external sphincter, placed through the prostate and one or more body sections go through the bladder neck sphincter and sit in the bladder. In these embodiments, preferably, the neck region of the balloon catheter is aligned with the bladder neck. As discussed herein, a scope equipped with visualization can be used to properly size and place the balloon catheter. In embodiments where the balloon catheter includes a soft tip, a Coude tip, or the like, the tip may be inserted into the internal urethral sphincter (e.g., the bladder neck sphincter) to aid in placing the balloon catheter in the desired location.

[0065] The balloon catheter can alleviate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH through the direct dilation of the prostatic tissue. Dilation of the prostate with the balloon with ratio of inflated balloon diameter of normative body lumen diameter at the target site of 1.0 to 20, or with a balloon having a stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative body lumen diameter at the target site of 1.0 to 20, can create a commissurotomy at the natural plane that separates the lateral sections in the transition zone of the prostate. Concurrently, drug can be released from the coating into the prostatic tissue, which can, for example, preventing enlargement of the prostate and renarrowing of the newly formed opening.

[0066] In various embodiments, during inflation of the balloon in a body lumen (e.g., during performance of a method of the present invention), the nominal balloon diameter of the catheter (e.g., the diameter normally achieved at nominal pressure) can be such that the ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment is any suitable ratio, such as about 1.01 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.31 to about 8, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. In some embodiments, the inflated diameter of the balloon at the target site during inflation to the nominal pressure is equal to the nominal diameter; however, during actual use, some strictures may prevent achievement of the nominal diameter, or can constrain the inflated balloon to form "dogbone" shape. The nominal balloon diameter at predetermined pressure (e.g., 2 atm, 3 atm, 6 atm, or 9 atm) can be different for different diameters of balloons for various diseases. For example, nominal diameters of urethral stricture balloons can be 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 14 mm for 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 14 mm balloon catheters at 6 atm inflation. The nominal diameters of the BPH stricture balloons can be 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm, 40 mm, and 45 mm with balloon lengths of 20 mm, 25 mm, 30 mm, 35 mm, 40 mm, 45 mm, 50 mm, 55 mm, and 60 mm balloon catheters at nominal pressure of 2 atm, 3 atm, 4 atm, 6 atm, or 9 atm inflation. Table 1 illustrates examples of nominal balloon sizes, nominal pressures, and ratios of minimal balloon diameter to normative lumen diameter for used to treat strictures of various diseases. Nominal pressure is the pressure required to bring the balloon to its labeled nominal diameter in an unconstrained pressure ramp test. Nominal diameter is the desired diameter that the product is labeled with. All physicians purchase balloons and select balloons for use according to the nominal diameter. The rated burst pressure is the maximum pressure that the balloon can be inflated to and have a very high confidence that it will not burst, a labeling requirement for balloon catheters that is calculated from a statistical analysis of the pressures observed when the balloons burst in an unconstrained pressure ramp test.
Table 1. Examples of nominal balloon sizes, nominal pressures, and ratios of minimal balloon diameter to normative lumen diameter for used to treat strictures of various diseases.
DiseaseNominal balloon diameter x length (mm)Nominal pressure (atm)Rated burst pressure (atm)Ratio of nominal balloon diameter/normative lumen diameter
BPH 20-50 x 20-80, such as 30-40 x 35-45 1.5 minimum, such as 2 atm or more 2 minimum, such as 4 or more 2.5 - 10
Urethral stricture 6-14 x 20-180, such as 6-14 x 30-50 3 minimum, such as 8 or more 8 minimum, such as 10-12 1-2
Esophageal stricture 6-20 x 30-80 3 minimum 9 minimum 1-2
Achalasia (stricture of lower esophagus) 30-40 x 80-100 1.5 minimum 9 minimum 1-2
Gastrointestinal strictures 6-20 x 40-60 3 minimum 9 minimum 1-2
Biliary strictures 4-10 x 20-40 3 minimum 9 minimum 1-2


[0067] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter can be sufficient such that at a predetermined pressure (e.g., the nominal pressure) the balloon can have any suitable ratio of inflated balloon catheter diameter to a normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment; for example, at a pressure of about 1 atm (304 kPa) to about 30 atm (3040 kPa) (e.g., about 1 atm or less, or less than, equal to, or more than about 4 atm, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, or about 30 atm or more).

[0068] The stretch ratio is defined herein, unless otherwise indicated, as the ratio of the nominal diameter of the balloon to the normative diameter of the body lumen in the area being treated by the balloon catheter. The nominal diameter of the balloon is the diameter the balloon achieves in an unrestricted environment at the nominal pressure. The normative lumen diameter is the average of the diameters of healthy lumen adjacent to the stricture, stenosis, or lesion, that is proximal and distal of the stricture or stenosis or lesion of the lumen. For the urinary tract, for example, in the urethra and prostatic urethra, the normative body lumen diameter will be the average diameter of the voiding urethra of the healthy lumen distal and proximal to the obstruction. For all lumens, if the average diameter of healthy tissue distal and proximal is not obtainable, the normative body lumen diameter will be the diameter of what the lumen would have been with biological matter flowing through it had it been healthy. The inflated balloon diameter can be the actual diameter of the balloon following inflation, which in some embodiments can equal to, less than, or greater than the nominal diameter of the balloon. In various embodiments, the stretch ratio of the balloon catheter of the present invention makes it more effective for treating non-vascular lumens than other catheters. During performance of a method of the present invention, the stretch ratio of can be selected to be any suitable ratio that achieves the desired ratio of actual inflated balloon diameter to normative lumen diameter at the range of pressures used during the method. In various embodiments, the stretch ratio of the balloon can be about 1.01 to about 20, 1.31 to 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.1 to about 10, 1.2 to 10, 1.3 to 10, 1.31 to 10, 1.4 to 10, 1.5 to 10, 1.6 to 10, 1.7 to 10, 1.8 to 10, 2 to 10, 2.2 to 10, 2.5 to 10, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; such a stretch ratio can result in a desired ratio of inflated balloon diameter to normative lumen diameter at the pressures used during the inflation period that can be the same, similar to, or different than the stretch ratio, such as about 1.01 to about 20, 1.31 to 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.1 to about 10, 1.2 to 10, 1.3 to 10, 1.31 to 10, 1.4 to 10, 1.5 to 10, 1.6 to 10, 1.7 to 10, 1.8 to 10, 2 to 10, 2.2 to 10, 2.5 to 10, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more.

[0069] In various embodiments, the method includes measuring the body lumen stricture to be treated. The distal and proximal healthy tissue diameter and the length of the stricture can be assessed to select the drug coated balloon to be used. The physician will select a balloon based on the normative diameter of the body lumen stricture and achieving a stretch ratio of the nominal diameter of the balloon to the normative diameter of the body lumen stricture of 1.0 -20, or 1.1-15, or 1.2-10, or 1.31-8. The physician can then inflate the balloon to at least the nominal pressure, and in some cases, can inflate the balloon past the nominal pressure, up to the rated burst pressure of the balloon. The range of pressure used during the inflation period can be called the working pressure range of the drug coated balloon. In some cases, the method can include exceeding the rated burst pressure of the balloon. Because the nominal diameter of the balloon is determined without any constrictions, the inflated diameter of the balloon during treatment while in the stricture will be about the same or less or greater than the nominal diameter. At or above burst pressure, the inflated diameter of the balloon can be less than the nominal diameter, equal to the nominal diameter, or can exceed the nominal diameter. For example, a body lumen stricture can be measured to have a normative diameter of 10 mm. The physician can choose a 14 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon that has a nominal pressure of 6 atm and a rated burst pressure of 10 atm. The stretch ratio is 1.4. The physician would inflate the balloon to at least 6 atm and in some cases inflate to 10 atm and in some cases inflate to over 10 atm to achieve the desired inflated balloon diameter during treatment.

[0070] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter has one or more neck sections separating one or more main sections, and the at least one neck section of the balloon catheter of the present invention, or the configuration of the one or more neck sections, allows the balloon catheter to stay in place during treatment more consistently and effectively to dilate the stricture and deliver the drug, as compared to other balloon catheters lacking such a neck section or configuration of neck sections.

[0071] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter can be assembled with a sheath. The catheter assembly and scope (e.g., cystoscope) are inserted transurethrally into the prostatic urethra and they are positioned side by side near the external sphincter. Using the live video feed from the scope, the external sphincter can be located. The balloon can be positioned adjacent to the external sphincter and within the prostatic urethra. The balloon dilation, drug release, and balloon deflation can be visualized by the scope.

[0072] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter can be assembled with a cystoscope by backloading the shaft through the working channel and attaching a Tuohy Borst and one-way stopcock at the proximal end. The cystoscope-catheter assembly is inserted transurethrally into the prostatic urethra. Using the live video feed from the cystoscope, the external sphincter can be located. The balloon can be positioned adjacent to the external sphincter and within the prostatic urethra.

[0073] In some embodiments, when treating the prostate, it is preferable to place the proximal balloon waist in the external sphincter so that the external sphincter is not dilated. It is also preferable to size the balloon so that when the balloon waist is in the external sphincter, a balloon neck (e.g., a distal-most balloon neck) is aligned with the bladder neck. This arrangement provides holding forces so that the balloon will not slip during expansion. If a balloon neck cannot be aligned with the bladder neck, it may be preferable to inflate the balloon slowly so that the prostate can yield as the balloon is inflated.

[0074] Once properly positioned the balloon is dilated, such as using an inflation device with a pressure gauge. The balloon can be inflated slowly, allowing the prostatic tissue to yield and reducing the propensity for the balloon to slip proximally into the bladder and slip backward distally. Although a single- or multi-necked shape of the balloon can prevent balloon movement by aligning the distal-most neck with the bladder neck, in some abnormal situations such as with an enlarged median lobe (e.g., about 10-15% of cases) the neck of the balloon may not stay aligned to the neck of the bladder during inflation and additional techniques can be useful to further prevent balloon migration. In some examples, inflating at a rate of about 0.5 to 1 atm/min can prevent balloon movement. As the tissue yields, the balloon pressure correspondingly drops, allowing for additional fluid to be instilled within the balloon without increasing the pressure. When the pressure is stable for about 1-2 minutes the pressure can be increased in 0.5 or 1 atm increments and maintained in a similar method. The pressure can be continually increased, following this method of increasing pressure, allowing pressure to stabilize after pressure drops, and continuing to increase pressure, until a commissurotomy or a split is achieved. Alternatively, a very slow inflation can prevent balloon migration to achieve a commissurotomy or a prostate split. Once a commissurotomy or a prostatic urethra and prostate split is observed and confirmed with the video feed from the scope, mechanical decompression can be achieved. The balloon can remain inflated for a period of about 1 minute to 7 days, 1 minute to 1 day, or 1-10 minutes to allow the drug in the coating to transfer into the tissue. Once the treatment is completed, the balloon can be deflated and the catheter and scope can be removed from the body lumen of the patient.

[0075] In some embodiments, when treating the prostate, it may be desirable to predilate the stricture. In this embodiment, the predilation catheter may be shorter and/or of less diameter than the drug-coated balloon treatment catheter. In this scenario, the predilation catheter is positioned with the proximal waist of the balloon in the external sphincter and a neck region aligned with the bladder neck. The balloon is slowly inflated as described herein to aid in yielding the prostate while protecting against balloon slippage. Once inflated, the predilation balloon is deflated and removed and the drug-coated treatment balloon is inserted. The treatment balloon's proximal waist is aligned with the external sphincter. If the BPH was properly predilated, it is not as necessary to align a balloon neck with the bladder neck as the balloon will not be as prone to slipping as it would be in a non-predilated body lumen.

[0076] The drug-coated balloon catheter can include an elongated balloon body with multiple main sections, two cones at distal and proximal ends of the balloon body, an inflation lumen, and a wire lumen, wherein the balloon body includes at least two main sections with a larger diameter and at least one neck section with a smaller diameter, wherein the main section with a larger diameter and neck section are aligned alternatively and adjacently. The elongated balloon can have a generally cylindrical shape, with the exception of any neck section on the balloon, any tapered sections (e.g., cones) between the neck section and the main sections having the main diameter, and any tapered or shaped sections at the longitudinal ends of the balloon. The elongated balloon can have any suitable profile taken perpendicular to a longitudinal direction of the balloon, such as circular (e.g., cylindrical balloon), oval, or polygonal (e.g., pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal, octagonal, and the like), or a combination thereof. The diameter of a non-cylindrical balloon can be the largest size perpendicular to the longitudinal direction.

[0077] The balloon can be formed from any suitable material, such as a non-compliant or semi-compliant biocompatible material. In some embodiments, the balloon can be made by blow-forming to accomplish a desired geometry. In some embodiments, the balloon can include materials that do not interact with the drug coating, or materials such as nylon (e.g., any suitable nylon, such as nylon 6,6 or nylon 12), polyether block amide (PEBA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyester, polyurethane, derivatives thereof, or combinations thereof.

[0078] The balloon can have any suitable size. The balloon can be designed to fit within the prostatic urethra with the distal section of the balloon being positioned in the bladder. Main diameters and nominal balloon diameters can range from about 5 mm to about 50 mm, 25 mm up to 45 mm, at least 10 mm, at least 15 mm, at least 20 mm, at least 30 mm, such as about 5 mm or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 6 mm, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, or about 50 mm or more; main section diameters can independently range from any of these ranges or specific sizes. The balloon can have a length of about 20 mm to about 160 mm, 40 mm to about 80 mm, or about 20 mm or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 22 mm, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78 mm, or about 80 mm or more. Balloon length and diameter can be selected based on the unique prostate anatomy of the patient.

[0079] The balloon can include at least one neck section. The neck section is a section of the balloon having a smaller diameter than the main nominal diameter of the balloon. The neck section diameter can be about 5 mm to about 35 mm, 10 mm to about 35 mm, or about 5 mm or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 6 mm, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34 mm, or about 35 mm or more. The at least one neck section can have a diameter that is independently about 5% to about 99% of the main diameter, such as about 20% to about 99%, or about 5% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 10%, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, or about 99% or more. In some embodiments, the neck section diameter is from 35% to 75% of the diameter of the main section of the balloon. In some embodiments where the balloon main section has a nominal diameter of 35 to 40 mm, the neck section would have a diameter of 15 to 20 mm. In some embodiments, if the neck diameter is too similar to the diameter of the main section, its ability to prevent balloon slippage may be lessened.

[0080] The neck section can be a rigid or semi-rigid neck section, such that the diameter of the neck section (e.g., the portion of the neck section having the neck section diameter) remains substantially static during inflation of the balloon. The neck section can include a substantially nonelastic (e.g., non-compliant, or minimally non-compliant) portion of the balloon, a reinforced portion of the balloon, or a combination thereof. The neck section can include an inelastic material circulated around a circumference of the neck section, such as a suture or monofilament or multifilaments of such material, such as nylon, polyamide, aromatic polyamides, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polyesters, aromatic polyesters, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or a combination thereof.

[0081] In some embodiments, the balloon neck section can be semi-compliant and expand at different rates than the main balloon body. The neck section compliance can be more, less or equal to the compliance of the balloon body. Table 2 illustrates example measurements of a balloon that has neck section that expands more than the balloon body. The expansion rate of the neck diameter can be higher than the expansion rate of the diameter of the main body section in the tested pressure range of 1-5 atm. The expansion rate of the neck diameter can be in the range of 1.1 to 10 times that of the diameter of the main body section (main diameter) in the tested pressure range of 1-5 atm, such as in the range of 2 to 6 times the main diameter. The expansion rate of the neck diameter is 12.38% per atm. The expansion rate of the body diameter is 2.4% per atm. The difference of the expansion rates is 9.98% per atm. Table 3 illustrates example measurements of a balloon that has a neck section that expands less than the balloon body when inflated from 2 atmospheres to 4 atmospheres. The expansion rate of the neck diameter can be less than the expansion rate of the diameter of the main body section in the tested pressure range of 2-4 atm.
Table 2. Example measurements of a balloon that has neck section that expands more than the balloon body.
Balloon Pressure [atm]Neck Diameter [mm]Body Diameter [mm]Body ComplianceNeck Compliance
1 21.5 39.0 2.3% (1-2 atm) 12.2% (1-2 atm)
2 24.0 40.0 2.4% (2-3 atm) 15.7% (2-3 atm)
3 27.5 40.5 2.6% (3-4 atm) 13.4% (3-4 atm)
4 31.5 41.5 2.3% (4-5 atm) 8.2% (4-5 atm)
5 34.0 42.5 - -
Table 3. Example measurements of a balloon that has a neck section that expands less than the balloon body.
Balloon Pressure [atm]Neck Diameter [mm]Body Diameter [mm]Body ComplianceNeck Compliance
2 15.28 34.06 8.7% (2-4 atm) 0.4% (2-4 atm)
4 15.34 37.02 - -


[0082] The neck section can create a wedge of tissue between the larger diameter sections of the balloon that can hold the balloon in place. The larger sections of the balloon cannot overcome the tissue barriers created at the neck section, thus the balloon with the neck section is preventing, reducing, or minimizing balloon migration during inflation. Balloon neck sections may be placed at various locations along the balloon, may number more or less than two (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, or more), and may vary in diameter. Neck section placement can be designed to facilitate the greatest increase in traction while still maintaining treatment efficacy.

[0083] The neck section can include a central narrow portion having the smallest diameter of the neck section, and an adjacent portion that can have a varying diameter and that occurs between the central narrow portion and portions of the balloon having the main diameter. When the diameter of a neck section is referred to herein, it refers to the diameter of the central narrow portion which has the smallest diameter, and not to the tapered sections, unless otherwise indicated. The tapered sections of the balloon can be rigid, flexible (e.g., elastic), or a combination thereof. The neck section, as measured including the central narrow portion and the tapered portions (e.g., cones) adjacent thereto, can have any suitable length, such as about 1% to about 50% of the balloon length, or about 1% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 2%, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48%, or about 50% or more, or about 0.5 mm to about 40 mm, or about 0.5 mm or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1 mm, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, or about 40 mm.

[0084] In some embodiments, the balloon can include one neck section and is free of other neck sections, such that the balloon includes two main sections separated by one neck section. The one neck section can have any suitable position on the balloon, such as approximately centered with respect to the balloon length, or off-center with respect to the balloon length. The one neck section can be off-center with respect to the length of the balloon and can be at a distal end of the balloon. An embodiment of the balloon including one neck section that is off-center with respect to the length of the balloon is illustrated in FIG. 1A.

[0085] In some embodiments, the balloon can include two neck sections and is free of other neck sections, such that the balloon includes three lobes separated by two neck sections. The two neck sections can have about the same diameter, or one of the neck sections can have a smaller diameter than the other neck sections. The two neck sections can be symmetrically or asymmetrically located with respect to the center of the balloon length. The three main sections can have approximately equal length or can have different lengths. FIG. 1B illustrates an embodiment of a balloon catheter having two neck sections with three main sections, wherein the neck sections are symmetrically located about the center of the length of the balloon, and wherein the three main sections of the balloon have about the same length. During use, the distal neck section (e.g., the neck section on the distal end of the balloon catheter which is inserted into the body first) can anchor and locate the balloon at the bladder neck, while the proximal neck section can be positioned in the prostatic urethra. In some embodiments, the distal main section of the balloon catheter can be free of the therapeutic agent.

[0086] In some embodiments, the balloon can include three necks and is free of other neck sections, such that the balloon includes four sections separated by the three necks. The three neck sections can be positioned in any suitable way along the length of the balloon. The four main sections formed by the three neck sections can have equal or different lengths. The three neck sections can have equal diameters, or different diameters. In some embodiments two of the neck sections have an equal diameter that is smaller than the diameter of the other neck section. FIG. 1C illustrates an embodiment of a balloon catheter having three neck sections with four main sections each having an approximately equal length, wherein two of the neck sections have an equal diameter that is smaller than the diameter of the other neck section.

[0087] The balloon catheter can be a fixed wire balloon catheter. The outer shaft can be bonded to the proximal balloon neck, distal end of the tapered wire is bonded with distal neck of balloon, the proximal ends of the wire and outer shaft are bonded with the hub (e.g., a valve, connector, or adapter) at the proximal end of the balloon catheter. The balloon catheter can be a moveable wire catheter. The outer shaft is bonded to proximal balloon neck, the distal end of the tapered wire is bonded with distal neck of balloon, the proximal end of the wire is free to move relative to the hub at the proximal end of the balloon catheter. The balloon catheter can be an over-the wire balloon catheter. The balloon catheter can be a rapid exchanged balloon catheter. The balloon catheter can include a catheter shaft on a longitudinal end of the balloon (e.g., on the proximal end of the balloon, inserted into the body after insertion of the distal end), the catheter shaft including an interior lumen for delivery of air, liquid, or a combination thereof, to the balloon interior. The catheter shaft can include a thermoplastic material that is thermally attached (e.g., attached via heating or melting) to the balloon, such as a high durometer material, such as a material similar or identical to the balloon material, such as polyamides, nylon (e.g., nylon 6,6, or nylon 12), polyether block amide (PEBA), or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the catheter shaft can be a scope (e.g., cystoscope). A high durometer material can help to prevent, reduce, or minimize crushing, and can allow pushability and flexibility. The catheter shaft outer diameter can be sized to allow passage through the working channel of a standard cystoscope. A fluidic connection between the inner lumen and the inside of the balloon can be included, such as holes in the catheter shaft underneath the balloon attachment point to allow inflation of the balloon by instilling media through the inner lumen.

[0088] In various embodiments, the catheter shaft can have a separate lumen which creates a pathway for urine to flow from the bladder through the catheter shaft and out through the external portion of the device. This embodiment can allow the drug coated balloon catheter to remain in place for a period of time, such as 0.1 to about 7 days, while prevention of bleeding and the tissue healed into the new configuration. The drug coated balloon not only can be used for dilation and drug delivery also used as Foley catheters.

[0089] The catheter shaft at an end that remains outside the body (e.g., proximal end) can include a hub (e.g., a valve, connector, or adapter) that provides a connection to the interior lumen of the catheter shaft. During inflation, the hub (e.g., when closed, or always), can prevent backflow of fluid or air from the balloon. The hub can be can include any suitable valve, such as a Tuohy Borst adapter. The Tuohy Borst adapter is a compression sealing device that can be placed over the catheter shaft and tightened to provide a liquid/air tight connection to the inner lumen of the catheter shaft. A one-way stopcock can allow control over fluid flow into the balloon and can connects via a standard Luer to an inflation device.

[0090] The balloon catheter can include a catheter tip at a longitudinal end of the balloon, at the distal end which is inserted into the body first. The catheter tip can facilitate passage of the balloon through the urethra. The tip can be an atraumatic tip that helps prevent damage to the urethra during insertion therein. The tip can be a Coude atraumatic tip. The atraumatic Coude tip is designed to facilitate passage of the catheter through the bends in the male urethra while preventing damage to the urethral walls during tracking. It can be a low durometer biocompatible material overmolded onto the catheter shaft or adhesively bonded onto the shaft. For example, the Coude tip can be formed from a PEBAX® or liquid silicone rubber.

[0091] FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment of the balloon catheter including a catheter shaft, catheter tip, and Tuohy Borst adapter/stopcock assembly. All materials can be biocompatible. The balloon is coated with a paclitaxel solution but may be coated with any multitude of other drugs or biologics that could facilitate improvement of BPH symptoms. Only the proximal two main sections of the balloon are coated with drug, since during use the distal section is in the bladder.

[0092] The balloon catheter can include an inflation device including a pressure gauge or pressure sensor, the inflation device fluidly connected to a catheter shaft connected to the balloon catheter.

[0093] The balloons shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, and 2 are blow molded in a mold that includes the main sections and the neck sections. A tube of balloon material in inserted into a mold with the desired shape. The balloon material tube may be prestretched. The balloon mold has a shape that corresponds to the balloons shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, or 2. This will include a proximal cone, at least one main body section, at least one neck section, at least one more main body section, and the distal cone. The balloon material can be any of polyesters, polyamides, nylon 12, nylon 11, polyamide 12, block copolymers of polyether and polyamide, PEBAX®, polyurethanes, and block copolymers of polyether and polyester. The tube and mold are heated to a temperature above the glass transition temperature of the tube of balloon material and pressurized with gas, air, fluid, or the like resulting in the material of the tube taking the shape of the mold. The formed balloon is then cooled, trimmed, and is then ready to be attached to the catheter.

[0094] After the balloon is attached to a catheter, the balloon is inflated at a low pressure and a neck section reinforcement is attached to the neck region. The neck section reinforcement is used to control the expansion of the neck section during balloon expansion. The neck section may be a substantially nonelastic portion of the balloon, a reinforced portion of the balloon, or a combination thereof. The neck section can include an inelastic material circulated around a circumference of the neck section, such as a suture or monofilament or multifilaments of such material, such as steel, stainless steel, nitinol, tungsten, aluminum, copper, silver, gold, platinum, iridium, superalloys contain elements, including nickel (Ni) chromium (Cr), aluminum (Al), titanium(Ti), molybdenum(Mo), tungsten (W), niobium (Nb), tantalum (Ta) and cobalt (Co), nylon, polyamide, aromatic polyamides, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), polyesters, aromatic polyesters, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the polymer material is in strand or filament form and is wrapped numerous times around the neck section and then held in place by using two or more spots of glue or adhesive.

[0095] The main sections of the balloon may be formed with identical or similar diameters. In some embodiments, the diameters of the various main sections may differ from each other by as much as 30%, when measured at nominal balloon diameter. In FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, and 2, the main sections of the balloon are shown with equal diameters, that is the diameter of each main section is constant. In practice, at higher pressures, the diameter of the main sections will become slightly bowed out, in that the diameter of the mid part of the main sections may have a slightly larger diameter than the edges of the main sections near the balloon cone and/or near the neck sections.

[0096] For embodiments where the balloon has neck and main sections, as shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, and 2, and where the balloon doesn't have any neck sections, as shown in FIG. 3, after the balloon catheter is assembled, the balloon may be coated with the at least one water-soluble additive and drug as discussed herein. In some embodiments where the balloon has multiple main sections, the distal main section may not be coated. The balloon may be coated according to the process discussed herein. If a sheath is used, it may be put over the balloon after the balloon is coated. The catheter is then packaged, sterilized, and labeled as is known in the art.

[0097] Embodiments of the present invention relate to balloon catheters having a rapid drug-releasing coating and methods for preparing such coated devices. The therapeutic agent according to embodiments of the present invention does not require a delayed or long-term release and instead, for example, the therapeutic agent and the additive are released in a very short time period to provide a therapeutic effect upon contact with tissue. An object of embodiments of the present invention is to facilitate rapid and efficient uptake of drug by target tissue during transitory device deployment at a target site.

[0098] The drug coating can cover any suitable proportion of the exterior surface of the balloon (e.g., proportion of the surface of the balloon that obtains the main diameter during inflation to the nominal pressure, excluding necks and end-cones), such as about 1% to about 100%, or about 50% to about 100%, to about 80% to about 100%, or about 10% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than 20%, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, or about 100% or more.

[0099] The drug coating can include a water-soluble additive, such as chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof. The water-soluble additive can include a first water soluble additive that is a surfactant such as a PEG sorbitan monolaurate, a PEG sorbitan monooleate, or a combination thereof. The water-soluble additive can include a second water-soluble additive that is a chemical compound with one or more moieties that are hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester, such as sorbitol, sorbitan, xylitol, gluconolactone, or a combination thereof. The drug coating can include both the first water-soluble additive and the second water-soluble additive. In some embodiments, the distal end of the balloon can be free of the therapeutic agent.

[0100] In various embodiments, the present invention provides a method for treating a body lumen. The body lumen can be a vascular body lumen or a nonvascular body lumen. The method can include inserting the balloon catheter (e.g., any embodiment of the balloon catheter described herein) to a target site in the body lumen. The method can include inflating the balloon until (e.g., at least until) the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture in the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period. Feature (a), or (b), or (c), or (a) and (b), or (a) and (c), or (b) and (c), or (a) and (b) and (c), are present: (a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is about 1.0 to about 20; or (c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter; or (d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c). The method can include deflating the balloon after the inflation period. The method can include withdrawing the balloon catheter from the stricture in the body lumen.

[0101] Various embodiments provide a method of treating a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stricture, a urethral stricture, a ureteral stricture, prostate cancer, an esophageal stricture, a biliary tract stricture, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The method is a method of treating a stricture in the body lumen, such as a urethral stricture, a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stricture, a ureteral stricture, an esophageal stricture, a sinus stricture, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, and a biliary tract stricture. The stricture in the body lumen can be a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stricture, a urethral structure, or an esophageal stricture. The method can be a method of treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, or a combination thereof, wherein the body lumen is a prostate.

[0102] The method can include, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive.

[0103] The body lumen can be a prostate, wherein inserting the balloon catheter includes positioning the balloon catheter in the prostate using a scope (e.g., flexible or rigid, such as a cystoscope). The balloon catheter can include a scope, and the method can include using video feed from the scope to locate the target site. The method can include using video feed from the scope to position the balloon catheter at the target site.

[0104] The body lumen can be a prostate, the balloon can have multiple main sections divided by or more necks, and inserting the balloon catheter can include positioning one of the balloon catheter main sections in the prostate and positioning a second main section of the balloon catheter in the bladder.

[0105] The inserting can include positioning the at least one neck section of the balloon in a bladder neck. The at least one neck section of the balloon catheter can be a distal neck section, and the inserting can include positioning the distal neck section in the bladder neck. The balloon catheter can include a proximal neck section, and the inserting can include positioning the proximal neck section in the prostatic urethra.

[0106] The inflation period can be any suitable inflation period, such as about 0.1 minutes to about 10 minutes, about 0.5 minutes to about 2 minutes, or about 0.1 minutes or less, or about 0.2 minutes, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or about 10 minutes or more.

[0107] The inflating can include increasing pressure within the balloon at any suitable rate (e.g., which can exclude periods wherein pressure drops due to tissue yielding and pressure can be maintained during these times), such as about 0.1 atm/minute to about 10 atm/minute, or about 0.5 to about 1.5 atm/minute, or about 0.1 atm/minute or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 0.2 atm/minute, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or about 10 atm/minute or more.

[0108] The inflating can include observing the pressure within the balloon, such as via a pressure gauge. During yielding of the stricture, which can result in a decrease in pressure, the inflating can include allowing pressure within the balloon to stabilize and maintaining the stabilized pressure in the balloon for a stabilization period during tissue yielding, then resuming increasing pressure in the balloon until a desired inflation diameter is achieved. The stabilization period can be any suitable period, such as about 0.1 minutes to about 10 minutes, about 0.5 minutes to about 2 minutes, or about 0.1 minutes or less, or about 0.2 minutes, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or about 10 minutes or more.

[0109] As shown in FIG. 3, in one embodiment, the medical device is a balloon catheter. The balloon catheter may be any suitable catheter for the desired use, including conventional balloon catheters known to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, balloon catheter 10 may include an expandable, inflatable balloon 12 at a distal end of the catheter 10, a handle assembly 16 at a proximal end of the catheter 10, and an elongate flexible member 14 extending between the proximal and distal ends. Handle assembly 16 may connect to and/or receive one or more suitable medical devices, such as a source of inflation media (e.g., air, saline, or contrast media). Flexible member 14 may be a tube made of suitable biocompatible material and having one or more lumens therein. At least one of the lumens is configured to receive inflation media and pass such media to balloon 12 for its expansion. The balloon catheter may be a rapid exchange or over-the-wire catheter and made of any suitable biocompatible material. The material of balloon 12 can include one or more of polyesters, polyamides, nylon 12, nylon 11, polyamide 12, block copolymers of polyether and polyamide, PEBAX®, polyurethanes, and block copolymers of polyether and polyester.

[0110] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a tissue, such as a vascular tissue or a nonvascular tissue. The device includes a layer applied to an exterior surface of the balloon catheter. The layer includes a therapeutic agent and one or more additives. The additive can be any suitable additive. The layer can include one additive, or the layer can include more than one additive, such as a water-soluble first additive and a water-soluble second additive. For example, as shown in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 4A, the balloon 12 is coated with a layer 20 that includes a therapeutic agent and an additive. In some embodiments, the layer consists essentially of a therapeutic agent and an additive, e.g., the layer includes only the therapeutic agent and the additive, without any other materially significant components. In some embodiments, the device may optionally include an adherent layer. For example, as shown in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 4B, the balloon 12 is coated with an adherent layer 22. A layer 24 that includes a therapeutic agent and an additive is overlying the adherent layer. The adherent layer, which is a separate layer underlying the drug coating layer, improves the adherence of the drug coating layer to the exterior surface of the medical device and protects coating integrity. For example, if drug and additive differ in their adherence to the medical device, the adherent layer may prevent differential loss of components and maintain drug-to-additive ratio in the coating during transit to a target site for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, the adherent layer may function to facilitate rapid release of coating layer components off the device surface upon contact with tissues at the target site. In other embodiments, the device may include a top layer. For example, as shown in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 4C, the balloon 12 is coated with an adherent layer 22, a layer 26 that includes a therapeutic agent and an additive overlying the adherent layer, and a top layer 28. The top layer may reduce loss of the drug layer before it is brought into contact with target tissues, for example during transit of the balloon 12 to the site of therapeutic intervention or during the first moments of inflation of balloon 12 before coating layer 20 is pressed into direct contact with target tissue.

[0111] Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the treatment of strictures in body lumens by delivering of an effective amount of therapeutic agents, such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., rapamycin, paclitaxel). The strictures in a body lumen include vascular stenosis, urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, sinus strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, and biliary tract strictures. Embodiments of the present invention are directed to methods for treating at least one of vascular stenosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral issues, prostate cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). According to embodiments, the method involves delivering of therapeutic agents such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., rapamycin, paclitaxel) via coated medical devices, such as balloon catheters. The therapeutic agent can be coated on the medical device alone or with one or more additives.

[0112] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating a stricture in a body lumen including inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into the stricture, wherein the stricture is one of urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, sinus strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures, and biliary tract strictures, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the stricture, deflating the balloon; and withdrawing the balloon catheter, wherein the residual drug can be about 1 to 70% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter, wherein the drug in the wall of body lumen can be about 0.1 to 25% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter. In one aspect of this embodiment, the additive enhances absorption of the drug into tissue of the stricture in the body lumen.

[0113] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating a stricture of the body lumen including inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into a body lumen, wherein the body lumen is one of esophagus, airways, sinus, trachea, colon, biliary tract, stomach, small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum, large intestine, urinary tract, prostate, urethra, ureter, and other lumens, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the body lumen, deflating the balloon; and withdrawing the balloon catheter, wherein the residual drug can be about 1 to 70% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter, wherein the drug in the wall of body lumen can be about 0.1 to 25% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter. In one aspect of this embodiment, the additive enhances absorption of the drug into tissue of the body lumens. In another aspect of this embodiment, the additive includes a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, wherein the drug affinity part is at least one of a hydrophobic part, a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding, and a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by van der Waals interactions.

[0114] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a target site of a body lumen stricture, the balloon catheter including a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of a balloon, wherein the coating layer includes an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent, and one or more water-soluble additive; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof.

[0115] In one embodiment of the balloon catheter, the one or more water-soluble additives promote a rapid release of the therapeutic agent from the balloon, and whereby the rapid release includes a residual drug amount of the therapeutic agent remaining on the balloon after the balloon is inflated at the target site of the body lumen for an inflation period of from about 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes and subsequently removed from the body lumen.

[0116] In one embodiment of the balloon catheter, the ratio by weight of the therapeutic (e.g., hydrophobic) agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more additives in the coating layer can be about 0.05 to about 20, about 0.1 to about 10, about 0.1 to about 5, about 0.5 to about 8, about 0.5 to about 3, about 2 to about 6, or about 0.05 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 or more. In one embodiment of the balloon catheter, the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives (e.g., a first and second water soluble additive in the coating layer, or to the total weight of a first, second, and third water soluble additive) in the coating layer, is from about 0.05 to about 20, about 0.1 to about 10, about 0.1 to about 5, about 0.5 to about 8, about 0.5 to about 3, about 2 to about 6, or about 0.05 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 or more.

[0117] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating a stricture in a body lumen, the method including flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the stricture in the body lumen, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon. The coating layer includes at least one water-soluble additive, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-Nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-Lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl) urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture in the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the stricture in the body lumen. The inflated balloon catheter diameter can be such that the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the treated body lumen can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0118] The balloon can have thereon a residual drug amount after the withdrawing. Any suitable residual drug amount can remain after the withdrawing, such as greater than, equal to, or less than about 90 wt%, 88, 86, 84, 82, 80, 78, 76, 74, 72, 70, 68, 66, 64, 62, 60, 58, 56, 54, 52, 50, 48, 46, 44, 42, 40, 38, 36, 34, 32, 30, 28, 26, 24, 22, 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1 wt%, or about 0 wt%.

[0119] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating at least one of a benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer, the method including flushing the prostate with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the prostate, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon. The coating layer can include one or more water-soluble additives, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the prostate. The ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the body lumen can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.01 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0120] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating a urethral stricture, the method including flushing the urethral stricture with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the urethral stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble additive, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the urethral stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the urethral stricture. The ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the urethra in the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.01 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. After dilation, the diameter of the urethral stricture can be 6.7 mm or more, such as about 6.7 mm to about 50 mm, or about 6.7 mm to about 20 mm, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.2, 7.4, 7.6, 7.8, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 mm, or about 50 mm or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0121] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating an esophageal stricture such as an achalasia stricture, the method including optionally flushing the esophageal stricture prior to, during, or after insertion of the balloon catheter with water, saline solution or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the esophageal stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble second additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon at its nominal diameter; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the esophageal stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the esophageal stricture. The ratio of the balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 20, or about 1.01 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. In some embodiments, the balloon catheter properties are equal or similar to those given in Table 4, having a growth rate that slows at higher pressures. Compliance is the percent change in balloon diameter from nominal diameter to rated burst pressure (RBP) diameter, calculated as: Diameter @ RBP - Diameter @ nominal pressure) / Diameter @ nominal pressure)100%. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.
Table 4. Examples of properties of balloon catheters for treating esophageal and gastrointestinal strictures.
Nominal diameter (mm)Rated burst pressure diameter (mm)Nominal pressure (atm)Rated burst pressure (atm)Compliance (%)
4 6 3 12 50
6 8 3 10 30
8 10 3 9 25
10 12 3 8 20
12 15 3 8 17
15 18 3 7 20
18 20 3 6 11
20 23 3 6 15
23 25 3 6 9
30 34 2 4 13
35 40 2 4 14
40 45 2 4 12


[0122] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating an esophageal stricture such as an achalasia stricture, the method including flushing the esophageal stricture with water, saline solution or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive optionally prior to, during, after insertion of balloon catheter; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the esophageal stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble second additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon at its nominal diameter; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the esophageal stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the esophageal stricture. The ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 20, or about 1.31 to 20, or about 1.01 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.31 to 20, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter. In some embodiments, the balloon catheter properties are equal or similar to those given in Table 5, a single balloon catheter having the ability to achieve a wide range of balloon diameters at relatively high working pressures compared to conventional compliant balloons. Balloons in Table 5 have a unique feature that there are three increasing balloon diameters at three increasing inflation pressure stages. The nominal inflation diameter is the diameter at stage I. The diameter increases about 0.5 - 4 mm, preferably 0.75 - 3 mm, most preferably 0.9 - 2 mm for every stage of pressure increase. For example, a balloon that has a diameter of 15 mm at Pressure I (3 ATM) has a diameter of 16.5 mm at pressure II (4.5 ATM) and has a diameter of 18 mm at pressure III (7 ATM).
Table 5. Examples of properties of balloon catheters for treating esophageal and gastrointestinal strictures.
Three inflation pressure stages (atm)Diameter at pressure stage I (mm) [Nominal Diameter]Diameter at pressure stage II (mm)Diameter at pressure stage III (mm)
3,6, 10 4 5 6
3,6, 10 6 7 8
3, 5.5, 9 8 9 10
3, 5, 8 10 11 12
3,4.5, 8 12 13.5 15
3,4.5,7 15 16.5 18
3,4.5,6 18 19 20
3, 4.5, 5.5 20 21.5 23
3, 4, 5 23 24 25
2, 3.5, 4.5 30 32.5 35
2, 3, 4 35 37.5 40
2, 3, 4 40 42.5 45


[0123] In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a method for treating an gastrointestinal strictures, the gastrointestinal strictures include stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures and biliary tract strictures, the method including flushing the gastrointestinal stricture with water, saline solution or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the gastrointestinal stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble second additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon at its nominal diameter; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the esophageal stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the esophageal stricture. The inflated balloon catheter diameter can be such that the ratio of the balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.01 to about 15, or about 1.01 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter. In some embodiments, the balloon catheter has properties are that are equal or similar to those given in Tables 4 and 5, having a growth rate that slows at higher pressures and a single balloon catheter having the ability to achieve a wide range of balloon diameters at high working pressures.

[0124] In various embodiments, the drug coated balloon catheters used to treat the esophageal strictures, achalasia stricture, gastrointestinal strictures, the gastrointestinal strictures include stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures and biliary tract strictures, have a catheter design that is fixed wire, wire-guided, over the wire catheter, or rapid exchange design catheters.

[0125] One embodiment, not being part of the present invention, relates to a method for treating a sinus stricture, the method including: flushing the sinus stricture with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additives; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the sinus stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon at its nominal diameter; the therapeutic agent is chosen from budesonide, flunisolide, triamcinolone, beclomethasone, fluticasone, mometasone, mometasone furoate, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisone, cortisone, betamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the sinus stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the sinus stricture.

[0126] In some embodiments, it may be desirable to predilate the target region of the body lumen, such as the prostate, prior to using the drug coated balloon. In some embodiments, the predilation balloon is selected to be slightly shorter and/or have a slightly smaller nominal diameter than the treatment balloon. If the predilation balloon is shorter than the treatment balloon, it will be more likely that the entire predilated zone or region gets treated by the treatment balloon. In some embodiments, it may be desirable to dilate the target region of the body lumen directly without predilation.

[0127] Embodiments of the present invention relate to balloon catheters having a rapid drug-releasing coating and methods for preparing such coated devices. The therapeutic agent according to embodiments of the present invention does not require a delayed or long-term release and instead, for example, the therapeutic agent and the additive are released in a very short time period to provide a therapeutic effect upon contact with tissue. An object of embodiments of the present invention is to facilitate rapid and efficient uptake of drug by target tissue during transitory device deployment at a target site.

[0128] In various embodiments, the balloon catheter can have 1 to or multiple (e.g., 2) neck sections along the body of the balloon. Neck sections have smaller nominal diameters than the nominal balloon body diameter (e.g., 1.5 to 2.5x smaller) and can be any suitable length, such as about 10-20 mm long. Neck sections can divide the balloon symmetrically or can result in certain balloon body sections being longer than others. Nominal balloon diameters can range from 6-45 mm with working lengths of 20 to 160 mm.

[0129] In FIG. 1A, in one embodiment, a balloon with one neck section is shown. Balloon 100, has waist 101, cone 102, first body section 103, neck 104, second body section 105, cone 106, and waist 107. When assembled into a balloon catheter, as is known in the art, waists 101 and 107 will be attached or bonded or the like to the catheter shaft (not shown). During inflation, waists 101 and 107 do not inflate as they are attached to the catheter shaft. In FIG. 1B, in one embodiment, a balloon with two neck sections is shown. Balloon 120, has waist 121, cone 122, first body section 123, first neck 124, second body section 125, second neck 126, third body section 127, cone 128, and waist 129. When assembled into a balloon catheter, as is known in the art, waists 121 and 129 will be attached or bonded or the like to the catheter shaft. During inflation, waists 121 and 129 do not inflate as they are attached to the catheter shaft. While neck sections 124 and 126 are shown as being the same diameter at the present state of inflation, they can be the same or different diameters with the same or different compliance. In FIG. 1C, in one embodiment, a balloon with three neck sections is shown. Balloon 140, has waist 141, cone 142, first body section 143, first neck 144, second body section 145, second neck 146, third body section 147, third neck 148, fourth body section 149, cone 150, and waist 151. When assembled into a balloon catheter, as is known in the art, waists 141 and 151 will be attached or bonded or the like to the catheter shaft. During inflation, waists 141 and 151 do not inflate as they are attached to the catheter shaft. While neck sections 144, 146, and 148 are shown with different diameters at the present state of inflation, they can be the same or different diameters with the same of different compliance.

[0130] As shown in FIG. 2, in one embodiment, the medical device is a balloon catheter, a fixed wire balloon catheter, a moveable wire catheter, an over the wire balloon catheter, a rapid exchanged balloon catheter, including conventional balloon catheters known to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, balloon catheter 150 may include an expandable, inflatable balloon at a distal end of the catheter 150, a handle assembly 160 at a proximal end of the catheter 150, an elongate flexible member 164 extending between the proximal and distal ends, and atraumatic Coude tip 163. Handle assembly 160 may connect to and/or receive one or more suitable medical devices, such as a source of inflation media (e.g., air, saline, or contrast media). Flexible member 164 may be a tube made of suitable biocompatible material and having one or more lumens therein. At least one of the lumens is configured to receive inflation media and pass such media to balloon 162 for its expansion. The balloon catheter may be a fixed wire or a rapid exchange or over-the-wire catheter and made of any suitable biocompatible material. The material of balloon 162 can include one or more of polyesters, polyamides, nylon 12, nylon 11, polyamide 12, block copolymers of polyether and polyamide, PEBAX®, polyurethanes, and block copolymers of polyether and polyester. In FIG. 2, in one embodiment, a balloon with two neck sections is shown. Balloon 162, has waist 151, cone 152, first body section 153, first neck 154, second body section 155, second neck 156, third body section 157, cone 158, and waist 159. When assembled into a balloon catheter, as is known in the art, waists 151 and 159 will be attached or bonded or the like to the catheter shaft. During inflation, waists 151 and 159 do not inflate as they are attached to the catheter shaft. While neck sections 154 and 156 are shown as being the same diameter at the present state of inflation, they can be the same or different diameters with the same or different compliance.

[0131] As shown in FIG. 3, in one embodiment, the medical device is a balloon catheter. The balloon catheter may be any suitable catheter for the desired use, including a fixed wire balloon catheter, a moveable wire catheter, an over the wire balloon catheter, a rapid exchanged balloon catheter, including conventional balloon catheters known to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, balloon catheter 10 may include an expandable, inflatable balloon 12 at a distal end of the catheter 10, a handle assembly 16 at a proximal end of the catheter 10, and an elongate flexible member 14 extending between the proximal and distal ends. Handle assembly 16 may connect to and/or receive one or more suitable medical devices, such as a source of inflation media (e.g., air, saline, or contrast media). Flexible member 14 may be a tube made of suitable biocompatible material and having one or more lumens therein. At least one of the lumens is configured to receive inflation media and pass such media to balloon 12 for its expansion. The balloon catheter may be a rapid exchange or over-the-wire catheter and made of any suitable biocompatible material. The material of balloon 12 can include one or more of polyesters, polyamides, nylon 12, nylon 11, polyamide 12, block copolymers of polyether and polyamide, PEBAX®, polyurethanes, and block copolymers of polyether and polyester.

[0132] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a medical device for delivering a therapeutic agent to a diseased tissue or stricture, such as a vascular tissue or a nonvascular tissue. The device includes a layer applied to an exterior surface of the balloon catheter. The layer includes a therapeutic agent and one or more additives. The additive can be any suitable additive. The layer can include one additive, or the layer can include more than one additive, such as a water-soluble first additive and a water-soluble second additive. For example, as shown in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 4A, the balloon 12 is coated with a layer 20 that includes a therapeutic agent and an additive. In some embodiments, the layer consists essentially of a therapeutic agent and an additive, e.g., the layer includes only the therapeutic agent and the additive, without any other materially significant components. In some embodiments, the device may optionally include an adherent layer. For example, as shown in the embodiment depicted in FIG. 4B, the balloon 12 is coated with an adherent layer 22. A layer 24 that includes a therapeutic agent and an additive is overlying the adherent layer. The adherent layer, which is a separate layer underlying the drug coating layer, improves the adherence of the drug coating layer to the exterior surface of the medical device and protects coating integrity. For example, if drug and additive differ in their adherence to the medical device, the adherent layer may prevent differential loss of components and maintain drug-to-additive ratio in the coating during transit to a target site for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, the adherent layer may function to facilitate rapid release of coating layer components off the device surface upon contact with tissues at the target site. In other embodiments, the device may include a top layer. The top layer may reduce loss of the drug layer before it is brought into contact with target tissues, for example during transit of the balloon 12 to the site of therapeutic intervention or during the first moments of inflation of balloon 12 before coating layer 20 is pressed into direct contact with target tissue.

[0133] Embodiments of the present invention are directed to the treatment of strictures in nonvascular body lumens by delivering of an effective amount of a therapeutic agent such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, paclitaxel, docetaxel). The strictures in a nonvascular body lumen include urethral strictures, ureteral strictures, esophageal strictures, sinus strictures, achalasia strictures, strictures in stents, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures and biliary tract strictures. Embodiments of the present invention are directed to methods for treating at least one of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). According to various embodiments, the method involves delivering of a therapeutic agent such as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs (e.g., sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, paclitaxel, docetaxel) via coated balloon catheters. The anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative drugs can be coated on the medical device alone or with one or more additives.

[0134] A method for treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen includes inserting a balloon catheter including a coating layer into a body lumen, wherein the coating layer includes a drug and an additive, inflating the balloon catheter and releasing the drug to a wall of the nonvascular body lumen, deflating the balloon; and withdrawing the balloon catheter, wherein the residual drug can be about 1 to 70% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter, wherein the drug in the wall of body lumen can be about 0.1 to 25% of the total loading drug on the balloon catheter. The method can include, prior to, during, or after the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive. In one aspect of this embodiment, the additive enhances absorption of the drug into tissue of the nonvascular body lumens. In another aspect of this embodiment, the additive includes a hydrophilic part and a drug affinity part, wherein the drug affinity part is at least one of a hydrophobic part, a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding, and a part that has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by van der Waals interactions.

[0135] A balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a target site of a nonvascular body lumen can include a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of a balloon, wherein the coating layer includes an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent, and one or more water-soluble additive; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof.

[0136] The nonvascular body lumen can be one of esophagus, airways, sinus, trachea, colon, biliary tract, stomach, small intestine, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum, large intestine, urinary tract, prostate, urethra, ureter, and other nonvascular lumens.

[0137] In some embodiments, the one or more water-soluble additives can promote a rapid release of the therapeutic agent from the balloon, and whereby the rapid release includes a residual drug amount of the therapeutic agent remaining on the balloon after the balloon is inflated at the target site of the nonvascular body lumen for an inflation period of from about 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes and subsequently removed from the nonvascular lumen.

[0138] The ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more additives in the coating layer can be about 0.05 to about 20, about 0.1 to about 10, about 0.1 to about 5, about 0.5 to about 8, about 0.5 to about 3, about 2 to about 6, or about 0.05 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 or more. The ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives (e.g., a first and second water soluble additive in the coating layer, or to the total weight of a first, second, and third water soluble additive) in the coating layer, can be from about 0.05 to about 20, about 0.1 to about 10, about 0.1 to about 5, about 0.5 to about 8, about 0.5 to about 3, about 2 to about 6, or about 0.05 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 or more.

[0139] The initial drug load can be from 1 microgram to 20 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon (i.e., per external surface area of the nominal diameter of the balloon), or about 2 to about 6 micrograms, or about 1 microgram or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 micrograms or more. The residual drug amount can be 70% or less of the initial drug load.

[0140] A method for treating a stricture in a nonvascular body lumen includes flushing the nonvascular body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon. The coating layer includes a at least one water-soluble additive, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-Nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-Lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl) urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen. In some embodiments, the balloon diameter is 10 mm at the nominal inflation pressure of 6 atm. The ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the target site of the body lumen can be about 1.01 to about 20; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of the treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0141] The balloon can have thereon a residual drug amount after the withdrawing. Any suitable residual drug amount can remain after the withdrawing, such as greater than, equal to, or less than about 70 wt%, 65, 60, 55, 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 wt%, or about 0 wt%.

[0142] The ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more additives in the coating layer can be about 0.05 to about 20, about 0.1 to about 10, about 0.1 to about 5, about 0.5 to about 8, about 0.5 to about 3, about 2 to about 6, or about 0.05 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or about 20 or more.

[0143] In various embodiments, the coating layer can include one or more water-soluble additives, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, sirolimus, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof.

[0144] A method for treating at least one of a benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer can include flushing the prostate with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the prostate, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon. The method can include inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate cancer at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the prostate. The ratio of inflated balloon diameter to normative body lumen diameter at the target site can be about 1.01 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of the treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0145] A method for treating a urethral stricture includes flushing the urethral stricture with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the urethral stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble additive, and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the urethral stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the urethral stricture. The ratio of inflated balloon diameter to a normative diameter of the body lumen at the site of the urethral stricture can be about 1.01 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of the treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, or about 1.31 to about 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. After dilation, the diameter of the urethral stricture can be 6.7 mm or more, such as about 6.7 mm to about 50 mm, or about 6.7 mm to about 20 mm, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 7.0, 7.2, 7.4, 7.6, 7.8, 8, 8.5, 9, 9.5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 mm, or about 50 mm or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0146] In one embodiment, the balloon has thereon a residual drug amount of less than 70% of the initial drug load after the withdrawing.

[0147] A method for treating an esophageal stricture includes flushing the esophageal stricture with water, saline solution or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the esophageal stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble second additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon; the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel docetaxel, sirolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus, mTOR inhibitors, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the esophageal stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the esophageal stricture. The ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the esophagus at the location of the stricture can be about 1.01 to about 20, 1.31 to 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.3 to about 10, or about 1.31 to 10, or about or greater than about 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more; the stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of the treatment can be about 1.0 to about 20, 1.31 to 20, or about 1.1 to about 15, or about 1.2 to about 10, or about 1.3 to 10, or about 1.31 to 10, or about 1.0 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1.01, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.31, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 or more. Optionally the inflating can include inflating to a pressure equal to or greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter.

[0148] A method for treating a sinus stricture, which is not part of the sent invention, includes flushing the sinus stricture with water, saline solution, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additives; inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the sinus stricture, the balloon catheter including a balloon and a coating layer overlying external surfaces of the balloon, wherein the coating layer includes at least one water-soluble additive, and a therapeutic agent with an initial drug load of from 1 to 6 micrograms of the therapeutic agent per square millimeter of the balloon; the therapeutic agent is chosen from budesonide, flunisolide, triamcinolone, beclomethasone, fluticasone, mometasone, mometasone furoate, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisone, cotisone, betamethasone, triamcinolone acetonide, and combinations thereof; the water-soluble additive is chosen from N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, N-nonanoyl-N-methylglycamine, N-octanoyl-N-methyl glutamine, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate, PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, and combinations thereof; and the ratio by weight of the therapeutic agent in the coating layer to the total weight of the one or more water-soluble additives in the coating layer is from about 0.05 to 20; inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the sinus stricture at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period; deflating the balloon after the inflation period, wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 10 minutes; and withdrawing the balloon catheter from the sinus stricture.

Additive.



[0149] In various embodiments, the additive can have two parts. One part is hydrophilic and the other part is a drug affinity part. The drug affinity part is a hydrophobic part and/or has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions. The drug affinity part of the additive may bind the lipophilic drug, such as rapamycin or paclitaxel. The hydrophilic portion accelerates diffusion and increases permeation of the drug into tissue. It may facilitate rapid movement of drug off the medical device during deployment at the target site by preventing hydrophobic drug molecules from clumping to each other and to the device, increasing drug solubility in interstitial spaces, and/or accelerating drug lumen through polar head groups to the lipid bilayer of cell membranes of target tissues. The additives of embodiments of the present invention have two parts that function together to facilitate rapid release of drug off the device surface and uptake by target tissue during deployment (by accelerating drug contact with tissues for which drug has high affinity) while preventing the premature release of drug from the device surface prior to device deployment at the target site.

[0150] In embodiments of the present invention, the therapeutic agent is rapidly released after the medical device is brought into contact with tissue and is readily absorbed. For example, certain embodiments of devices of the present invention include drug coated balloon catheters that deliver a therapeutic agent such as a lipophilic antiproliferative pharmaceutical (such as paclitaxel or rapamycin) to nonvascular tissue through brief, direct pressure contact at high drug concentration during balloon nonvascular body balloon dilation. The lipophilic drug, for example, is retained in target tissue at the delivery site, where it inhibits hyperplasia and restenosis yet allows epithelization. In these embodiments, coating formulations of the present invention not only facilitate rapid release of drug from the balloon surface and transfer of drug into target tissues during deployment, but also prevent drug from diffusing away from the device during transit through tortuous anatomy prior to reaching the target site and from exploding off the device during the initial phase of balloon inflation, before the drug coating is pressed into direct contact with the surface of the body lumen.

[0151] The additive according to certain embodiments has a drug affinity part and a hydrophilic part. The drug affinity part is a hydrophobic part and/or has an affinity to the therapeutic agent by hydrogen bonding and/or van der Waals interactions. The drug affinity part may include aliphatic and aromatic organic hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and alkanes, among others. These parts are not water soluble. They may bind both hydrophobic drug, with which they share structural similarities, and lipids of cell membranes. The drug affinity part may include functional groups that can form hydrogen bonds with drug and with itself. The hydrophilic part may include hydroxyl groups, amine groups, amide groups, carbonyl groups, carboxylic acid and anhydrides, ethyl oxide, ethyl glycol, polyethylene glycol, ascorbic acid, amino acid, amino alcohol, glucose, sucrose, sorbitan, glycerol, polyalcohol, phosphates, sulfates, organic salts and their substituted molecules, among others. One or more hydroxyl, carboxyl, acid, amide or amine groups, for example, may be advantageous since they easily displace water molecules that are hydrogen-bound to polar head groups and surface proteins of cell membranes and may function to remove this barrier between hydrophobic drug and cell membrane lipid. These parts can dissolve in water and polar solvents. The additive of embodiments of the present invention has components to both bind drug and facilitate its rapid movement off the medical device during deployment and into target tissues.

[0152] The additives in embodiments of the present invention can be surfactants and chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties. The surfactants include ionic, nonionic, aliphatic, and aromatic surfactants. The chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties are chosen from amino alcohols, hydroxyl carboxylic acid and anhydrides, ethyl oxide, ethyl glycols, amino acids, peptides, proteins, sugars, glucose, sucrose, sorbitan, glycerol, polyalcohol, phosphates, sulfates, organic acids, esters, salts, vitamins, and their substituted molecules.

[0153] As is well known in the art, the terms "hydrophilic" and "hydrophobic" are relative terms. To function as an additive in exemplary embodiments of the present invention, the compound includes polar or charged hydrophilic moieties as well as non-polar hydrophobic (lipophilic) moieties.

[0154] An empirical parameter commonly used in medicinal chemistry to characterize the relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of pharmaceutical compounds is the partition coefficient, P, the ratio of concentrations of unionized compound in the two phases of a mixture of two immiscible solvents, usually octanol and water, such that P = ([solute]octanol/[solute]water). Compounds with higher log Ps are more hydrophobic, while compounds with lower log Ps are more hydrophilic. Lipinski's rule suggests that pharmaceutical compounds having log P<5 can be more membrane permeable. For purposes of certain embodiments of the present invention, for example, the additive has log P less than log P of the drug to be formulated (as an example, log P of paclitaxel is 7.4). A greater log P difference between the drug and the additive can facilitate phase separation of drug. For example, if log P of the additive is much lower than log P of the drug, the additive may accelerate the release of drug in an aqueous environment from the surface of a device to which drug might otherwise tightly adhere, thereby accelerating drug delivery to tissue during brief deployment at the site of intervention. In certain embodiments of the present invention, log P of the additive is negative. In other embodiments, log P of the additive is less than log P of the drug. While a compound's octanol-water partition coefficient P or log P is useful as a measurement of relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity, it is merely a rough guide that may be useful in defining suitable additives for use in embodiments of the present invention.

[0155] Suitable additives that can be used in embodiments of the present invention include, without limitation, organic and inorganic pharmaceutical recipients, natural products and derivatives thereof (such as sugars, vitamins, amino acids, peptides, proteins, and fatty acids), low molecular weight oligomers, surfactants (anionic, cationic, non-ionic, and ionic), and mixtures thereof. The additives described herein as useful in the present invention is provided for exemplary purposes only and is not intended to be comprehensive. Many other additives may be useful for purposes of the present invention.

Surfactants.



[0156] The surfactant can be any surfactant suitable for use in pharmaceutical compositions. Such surfactants can be anionic, cationic, zwitterionic or non-ionic. Mixtures of surfactants are also within the scope of various embodiments of the invention, as are combinations of surfactant and other additives. Surfactants often have one or more long aliphatic chains such as fatty acids that may insert directly into lipid bilayers of cell membranes to form part of the lipid structure, while other components of the surfactants loosen the lipid structure and enhance drug penetration and absorption. The contrast agent iopromide does not have these properties.

[0157] An empirical parameter commonly used to characterize the relative hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of surfactants is the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance ("HLB" value). Surfactants with lower HLB values are more hydrophobic, and have greater solubility in oils, while surfactants with higher HLB values are more hydrophilic, and have greater solubility in aqueous solutions. Using HLB values as a rough guide, hydrophilic surfactants are generally considered to be those compounds having an HLB value greater than about 10, as well as anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic compounds for which the HLB scale is not generally applicable. Similarly, hydrophobic surfactants are compounds having an HLB value less than about 10. In certain embodiments of the present invention, a higher HLB value is utilized, since increased hydrophilicity may facilitate release of hydrophobic drug from the surface of the device. In one embodiment, the HLB of the surfactant additive is higher than 10. The additive HLB can be higher than 14. Alternatively, surfactants having lower HLB may be utilized to prevent drug loss prior to device deployment at the target site, for example in a top coat over a drug layer that has a very hydrophilic additive.

[0158] The HLB value of a surfactant is merely a rough guide generally used to enable formulation of industrial, pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions, for example. For many important surfactants, including several polyethoxylated surfactants, it has been reported that HLB values can differ by as much as about 8 HLB units, depending upon the empirical method chosen to determine the HLB value (Schott, J. Pharm. Sciences, 79(1), 87-88 (1990)). Keeping these inherent difficulties in mind, and using HLB values as a guide, surfactants may be identified that have suitable hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity for use in embodiments of the present invention, as described herein.

PEG-Fattv Acids and PEG-Fattv Acid Mono and Diesters.



[0159] Although polyethylene glycol (PEG) itself does not function as a surfactant, a variety of PEG-fatty acid esters have useful surfactant properties. Among the PEG-fatty acid monoesters, esters of lauric acid, oleic acid, and stearic acid are most useful in embodiments of the present invention. Examples of hydrophilic surfactants include PEG-8 laurate, PEG-8 oleate, PEG-8 stearate, PEG-9 oleate, PEG-10 laurate, PEG-10 oleate, PEG-12 laurate, PEG-12 oleate, PEG-15 oleate, PEG-20 laurate and PEG-20 oleate. The HLB values are in the range of 4-20.

[0160] Polyethylene glycol fatty acid diesters are also suitable for use as surfactants in the compositions of embodiments of the present invention. Hydrophilic surfactants include PEG-20 dilaurate, PEG-20 dioleate, PEG-20 distearate, PEG-32 dilaurate and PEG-32 dioleate. The HLB values are in the range of 5-15.

[0161] In general, mixtures of surfactants are also useful in embodiments of the present invention, including mixtures of two or more commercial surfactants as well as mixtures of surfactants with another additive or additives. Several PEG-fatty acid esters are marketed commercially as mixtures or mono-and di-esters.

Polyethylene Glycol Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters.



[0162] Hydrophilic surfactants can include PEG-20 glyceryl laurate, PEG-30 glyceryl laurate, PEG-40 glyceryl laurate, PEG-20 glyceryl oleate, and PEG-30 glyceryl oleate.

Alcohol-Oil Transesterification Products.



[0163] Many surfactants of different degrees of hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity can be prepared by reaction of alcohols or polyalcohol with a variety of natural and/or hydrogenated oils. Most commonly, the oils used are castor oil or hydrogenated castor oil, or an edible vegetable oil such as corn oil, olive oil, peanut oil, palm kernel oil, apricot kernel oil, or almond oil. Alcohols include glycerol, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, and pentaerythritol. Among these alcohol-oil transesterified surfactants, hydrophilic surfactants are PEG-35 castor oil (Incrocas-35), PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH 40), PEG-25 trioleate (TAGAT™ TO), PEG-60 corn glycerides (CrovoI M70), PEG-60 almond oil (Crovol A70), PEG-40 palm kernel oil (Crovol PK70), PEG-50 castor oil (Emalex C-50), PEG-50 hydrogenated castor oil (Emalex HC-50), PEG-8 caprylic/capric glycerides (Labrasol), and PEG-6 caprylic/capric glycerides (Softigen 767). For example, hydrophobic surfactants in this class include PEG-5 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-7 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-9 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-6 corn oil (Labrafil™ M 2125 CS), PEG-6 almond oil (Labrafil™ M 1966 CS), PEG-6 apricot kernel oil (Labrafil™ M 1944 CS), PEG-6 olive oil (Labrafil™ M 1980 CS), PEG-6 peanut oil (Labrafil™ M 1969 CS), PEG-6 hydrogenated palm kernel oil (Labrafil™ M 2130 BS), PEG-6 palm kernel oil (Labrafil™ M 2130 CS), PEG-6 triolein (Labrafil™b M 2735 CS), PEG-8 corn oil (Labrafil™ WL 2609 BS), PEG-20 corn glycerides (Crovol M40), and PEG-20 almond glycerides (Crovol A40).

Polyglyceryl Fatty Acids.



[0164] Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids are also suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Among the polyglyceryl fatty acid esters, hydrophobic surfactants include polyglyceryl oleate (Plurol Oleique), polyglyceryl-2 dioleate (Nikkol DGDO), polyglyceryl-10 trioleate, polyglyceryl stearate, polyglyceryl laurate, polyglyceryl myristate, polyglyceryl palmitate, and polyglyceryl linoleate. Hydrophilic surfactants include polyglyceryl-10 laurate (Nikkol Decaglyn 1-L), polyglyceryl-10 oleate (Nikkol Decaglyn 1-O), and polyglyceryl-10 mono, dioleate (CaproI™ PEG 860), polyglyceryl-10 stearate, polyglyceryl-10 laurate, polyglyceryl-10 myristate, polyglyceryl-10 palmitate, polyglyceryl-10 linoleate, polyglyceryl-6 stearate, polyglyceryl-6 laurate, polyglyceryl-6 myristate, polyglyceryl-6 palmitate, and polyglyceryl-6 linoleate. Polyglyceryl polyricinoleates (Polymuls) are also surfactants.

Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Esters.



[0165] Esters of propylene glycol and fatty acids are suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. In this surfactant class, hydrophobic surfactants include propylene glycol monolaurate (Lauroglycol FCC), propylene glycol ricinoleate (Propymuls), propylene glycol monooleate (Myverol P-06), propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate (Captex™ 200), and propylene glycol dioctanoate (Captex™ 800).

Sterol and Sterol Derivatives.



[0166] Sterols and derivatives of sterols are suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Derivatives include the polyethylene glycol derivatives. A surfactant in this class is PEG-24 cholesterol ether (Solulan C-24).

Polyethylene Glycol Sorbitan Fatty Acid Esters.



[0167] A variety of PEG-sorbitan fatty acid esters are available and are suitable for use as surfactants in embodiments of the present invention. Among the PEG-sorbitan fatty acid esters, surfactants include PEG-20 sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20), PEG-20 sorbitan monopalmitate (Tween-40), PEG-20 sorbitan monostearate (Tween-60). PEG-20 sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80). In some embodiments, laurate esters are utilized because they have a short lipid chain compared with oleate esters, increasing drug absorption.

Polyethylene Glycol Alkyl Ethers.



[0168] Ethers of polyethylene glycol and alkyl alcohols are suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Ethers include PEG-3 oleyl ether (Volpo 3) and PEG-4 lauryl ether (Brij 30).

Sugar and its Derivatives.



[0169] Sugar derivatives are suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Surfactants in this class include sucrose monopalmitate, sucrose monolaurate, decanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-decyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, heptanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-heptyl-β-D-thioglucoside, n-hexyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, octanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside.

Polyethylene Glycol Alkyl Phenols.



[0170] Several PEG-alkyl phenol surfactants are available, such as PEG-10-100 nonyl phenol and PEG-15-100 octyl phenol ether, Tyloxapol, octoxynol, octoxynol-9, nonoxynol, and are suitable for use in embodiments of the present invention.

Polyoxyethylene-Polyoxypropylene (POE-POP) Block Copolymers.



[0171] The POE-POP block copolymers are a unique class of polymeric surfactants. The unique structure of the surfactants, with hydrophilic POE and hydrophobic POP moieties in well-defined ratios and positions, provides a wide variety of surfactants suitable for use in embodiments of the present invention. These surfactants are available under various trade names, including Synperonic PE series (ICI); Pluronic™ series (BASF), Emkalyx, Lutrol (BASF), Supronic, Monolan, Pluracare, and Plurodac. The generic term for these polymers is "poloxamer"(CAS 9003-11-6). These polymers have the formula: HO(C2H4O)a(C3H6)b(C2H4O)aH where "a" and "b" denote the number of polyoxyethylene and polyoxypropylene units, respectively.

[0172] Hydrophilic surfactants of this class include Poloxamers 108, 188, 217, 238, 288, 338, and 407. Hydrophobic surfactants in this class include Poloxamers 124, 182, 183, 212, 331, and 335.

Sorbitan Fatty Acid Esters.



[0173] Sorbitan esters of fatty acids are suitable surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Among these esters, hydrophobic surfactants include sorbitan monolaurate (Arlacel 20), sorbitan monopalmitate (Span-40), and sorbitan monooleate (Span-80), sorbitan monostearate.

[0174] The sorbitan monopalmitate, an amphiphilic derivative of Vitamin C (which has Vitamin C activity), can serve two important functions in solubilization systems. First, it possesses effective polar groups that can modulate the microenvironment. These polar groups are the same groups that make vitamin C itself (ascorbic acid) one of the most water-soluble organic solid compounds available: ascorbic acid is soluble to about 30 wt/wt % in water (very close to the solubility of sodium chloride, for example). Second, when the pH increases so as to convert a fraction of the ascorbyl palmitate to a more soluble salt, such as sodium ascorbyl palmitate.

Ionic Surfactants.



[0175] Ionic surfactants, including cationic, anionic and zwitterionic surfactants, are suitable hydrophilic surfactants for use in embodiments of the present invention. Ionic surfactants include quaternary ammonium salts, fatty acid salts and bile salts. Specifically, ionic surfactants include benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride, docecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium docecylsulfates, dialkyl methylbenzyl ammonium chloride, edrophonium chloride, domiphen bromide, dialkylester of sodium sulfonsuccinic acid, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, sodium cholate, and sodium taurocholate. They can be dissolved in both organic solvents (such as ethanol, acetone, and toluene) and water. This is especially useful for medical device coatings because it simplifies the preparation and coating process and has good adhesive properties. Water insoluble drugs are commonly dissolved in organic solvents.

[0176] Some of the surfactants described herein are very stable under heating. They survive an ethylene oxide sterilization process. They do not react with drugs such as paclitaxel or rapamycin under the sterilization process. The hydroxyl, ester, amide groups are utilized because they are unlikely to react with drug, while amine and acid groups often do react with paclitaxel or rapamycin during sterilization. Furthermore, surfactant additives improve the integrity and quality of the coating layer, so that particles do not fall off during handling. When the surfactants described herein are formulated with paclitaxel, experimentally it protects drug from premature release during the device delivery process while facilitating rapid release and elution of paclitaxel during a very brief deployment time of 0.2 to 10 minutes at the target site. Drug absorption by tissues at the target site is unexpectedly high experimentally.

Chemical Compounds with One or More Hydroxyl, Amino, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Acid, Amide, or Ester Moieties.



[0177] The chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties include creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, N-acetylglucosamine, N-octyl-D-gluconamide, C6-ceramide, dihydro-C6-ceramide, cerabroside, sphingomyelin, galaclocerebrosides, lactocerebrosides, N-acetyl-D-sphingosine, N-hexanoyl-D-sphingosine, N-octonoyl-D-sphingosine, N-Lauroyl-D-sphingosine, N-palmitoyl-D-sphingosine, N-oleoyl-D-sphingosine, PEG caprylic/capric diglycerides, PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, PEG caprylate, PEG8 caprylate (e.g., Labrasol®), PEG caprate, PEG caproate, glyceryl monocaprylate, glyceryl monocaprate, glyceryl monocaproate, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, and monoolein.

[0178] The chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties include amino alcohols, hydroxyl carboxylic acid, ester, anhydrides, hydroxyl ketone, hydroxyl lactone, hydroxyl ester, sugar phosphate, sugar sulfate, ethyl oxide, ethyl glycols, amino acids, peptides, proteins, sorbitan, glycerol, polyalcohol, phosphates, sulfates, organic acids, esters, salts, vitamins, combinations of amino alcohols and organic acids, and their substituted molecules. Hydrophilic chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties having a molecular weight less than 5,000-10,000 are utilized in certain embodiments. In other embodiments, molecular weight of the additive with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, acid, amide, or ester moieties is less than 1000-5,000, or less than 750-1,000, or less than 750. In these embodiments, the molecular weight of the additive is to be less than that of the drug to be delivered. Further, the molecular weight of the additive is to be higher than 80 since molecules with molecular weight less than 80 very easily evaporate and do not stay in the coating of a medical device. Small molecules can diffuse quickly. They can release themselves easily from the delivery balloon, accelerating release of drug, and they can diffuse away from drug when the drug binds tissue of the body lumens.

[0179] In certain embodiments, additives with more than four hydroxyl groups are utilized, for example in the case of a high molecular weight additive. Large molecules diffuse slowly. If the molecular weight of the additive or the chemical compound is high, for example if the molecular weight is above 800, above 1000, above 1200, above 1500, or above 2000; large molecules may elute off the surface of the medical device too slowly to release drug under 2 minutes. If these large molecules contain more than four hydroxyl groups they have increased hydrophilic properties, which is necessary for relatively large molecules to release drug quickly. The increased hydrophilicity helps elute the coating off the balloon, accelerates release of drug, and improves or facilitates drug movement through water barrier and polar head groups of lipid bilayers to penetrate tissues. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl group is utilized as the hydrophilic moiety because it is unlikely to react with water insoluble drug, such as paclitaxel or rapamycin. In some embodiments, the chemical compound having more than four hydroxyl groups has a melting point of 120°C or less. In some embodiments, the chemical compound having more than four hydroxyl groups has three adjacent hydroxyl groups that in stereo configuration are all on one side of the molecule. For example, sorbitol and xylitol have three adjacent hydroxyl groups that in stereo configuration are all on one side of the molecule, while galactitol does not. The difference impacts the physical properties of the isomers such as the melting temperature. The stereo configuration of the three adjacent hydroxyl groups may enhance drug binding. This will lead to improved compatibility of the water insoluble drug and hydrophilic additive, and improved tissue uptake and absorption of drug.

[0180] Some of the chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties described herein are very stable under heating. They survive an ethylene oxide sterilization process and do not react with the water insoluble drug paclitaxel or rapamycin during sterilization. L-ascorbic acid and its salt and diethanolamine, on the other hand, do not necessarily survive such a sterilization process, and they react with paclitaxel. A different sterilization method is therefore utilized for L-ascorbic acid and diethanolamine. For example, hydroxyl, ester, and amide groups are utilized because they are unlikely to react with therapeutic agents such as paclitaxel or rapamycin. Sometimes, amine and acid groups do react with paclitaxel, for example, experimentally, benzoic acid, gentisic acid, diethanolamine, and ascorbic acid were not stable under ethylene oxide sterilization, heating, and aging process and reacted with paclitaxel. When the chemical compounds described herein are formulated with paclitaxel, a top coat layer may be advantageous to prevent premature drug loss during the device delivery process before deployment at the target site, since hydrophilic small molecules sometimes release drug too easily. The chemical compounds herein rapidly elute drug off the balloon during deployment at the target site. Surprisingly, even though some drug is lost during transit of the device to the target site when the coating contains these additives, experimentally drug absorption by tissue is unexpectedly high after only 0.2-10 minutes of deployment, for example, with the additive hydroxyl lactones such as ribonic acid lactone and gluconolactone.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins and Salts Thereof.



[0181] Vitamins A, D, E and K in many of their various forms and provitamin forms are considered as fat-soluble vitamins and in addition to these several other vitamins and vitamin sources or close relatives are also fat-soluble and have polar groups, and relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients. Clearly, the general class of such compounds has a history of safe use and high benefit to risk ratio, making them useful as additives in embodiments of the present invention.

[0182] The following examples of fat-soluble vitamin derivatives and/or sources are also useful as additives: alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, ergosterol, 1-alpha-hydroxycholecal-ciferol, vitamin D2, vitamin D3, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene, vitamin A, fursultiamine, methylolriboflavin, octotiamine, prosultiamine, riboflavine, vintiamol, dihydrovitamin K1, menadiol diacetate, menadiol dibutyrate, menadiol disulfate, menadiol, vitamin K1, vitamin K1 oxide, vitamins K2, and vitamin K--S(II). Folic acid is also of this type, and although it is water-soluble at physiological pH, it can be formulated in the free acid form. Other derivatives of fat-soluble vitamins useful in embodiments of the present invention may easily be obtained via well known chemical reactions with hydrophilic molecules.

Water-Soluble Vitamins and their Amphiphilic Derivatives.



[0183] Vitamins B, C, U, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and some of the menadione-related vitamins/provitamins in many of their various forms are considered water-soluble vitamins. These may also be conjugated or complexed with hydrophobic moieties or multivalent ions into amphiphilic forms having relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients and polar groups. Again, such compounds can be of low toxicity and high benefit to risk ratio, making them useful as additives in embodiments of the present invention. Salts of these can also be useful as additives in the present invention. Examples of water-soluble vitamins and derivatives include, without limitation, acetiamine, benfotiamine, pantothenic acid, cetotiamine, cyclothiamine, dexpanthenol, niacinamide, nicotinic acid, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, nicotinamide ascorbate, riboflavin, riboflavin phosphate, thiamine, folic acid, menadiol diphosphate, menadione sodium bisulfite, menadoxime, vitamin B12, vitamin K5, vitamin K6, vitamin K6, and vitamin U. Also, as mentioned above, folic acid is, over a wide pH range including physiological pH, water-soluble, as a salt.

[0184] Compounds in which an amino or other basic group is present can easily be modified by simple acid-base reaction with a hydrophobic group-containing acid such as a fatty acid (especially lauric, oleic, myristic, palmitic, stearic, or 2-ethylhexanoic acid), low-solubility amino acid, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, or an acidic fat-soluble vitamin (such as riboflavin). Other compounds might be obtained by reacting such an acid with another group on the vitamin such as a hydroxyl group to form a linkage such as an ester linkage, etc. Derivatives of a water-soluble vitamin containing an acidic group can be generated in reactions with a hydrophobic group-containing reactant such as stearylamine or riboflavine, for example, to create a compound that is useful in embodiments of the present invention. The linkage of a palmitate chain to vitamin C yields ascorbyl palmitate.

Amino Acids and their Salts.



[0185] Alanine, arginine, asparagines, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, proline, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, and derivatives thereof are other useful additives in embodiments of the invention.

[0186] Certain amino acids, in their zwitterionic form and/or in a salt form with a monovalent or multivalent ion, have polar groups, relatively high octanol-water partition coefficients, and are useful in embodiments of the present invention. In the context of the present disclosure we take "low-solubility amino acid" to mean an amino acid which has solubility in unbuffered water of less than about 4% (40 mg/ml). These include cystine, tyrosine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and methionine.

[0187] Amino acid dimers, sugar-conjugates, and other derivatives are also useful. Through simple reactions well known in the art hydrophilic molecules may be joined to hydrophobic amino acids, or hydrophobic molecules to hydrophilic amino acids, to make additional additives useful in embodiments of the present invention.

[0188] Catecholamines, such as dopamine, levodopa, carbidopa, and DOPA, are also useful as additives.

Oligopeptides, Peptides and Proteins.



[0189] Oligopeptides and peptides are useful as additives, since hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids may be easily coupled and various sequences of amino acids may be tested to maximally facilitate permeation of tissue by drug.

[0190] Proteins are also useful as additives in embodiments of the present invention. Serum albumin, for example, is a useful additive since it is water-soluble and contains significant hydrophobic parts to bind drug: paclitaxel is 89% to 98% protein-bound after human intravenous infusion, and rapamycin is 92% protein bound, primarily (97%) to albumin. Furthermore, paclitaxel solubility in PBS increases over 20-fold with the addition of BSA. Albumin is naturally present at high concentrations in serum and is thus very safe for human use.

[0191] Other useful proteins include, without limitation, other albumins, immunoglobulins, caseins, hemoglobins, lysozymes, immunoglobins, a-2-macroglobulin, fibronectins, vitronectins, firbinogens, lipases, and the like.

Organic Acids and their Esters and Anhydrides.



[0192] Examples include acetic acid and anhydride, benzoic acid and anhydride, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid dianhydride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride, maleic acid and anhydride, succinic acid and anhydride, diglycolic anhydride, glutaric anhydride, ascorbic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, oxalic acid aspartic acid, nicotinic acid, 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid, and 2-pyrrolidone.

[0193] These esters and anhydrides are soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, acetone, methylethylketone, ethylacetate. The water insoluble drugs can be dissolved in organic solvent with these esters and anhydrides, then coated easily on to the medical device, then hydrolyzed under high pH conditions. The hydrolyzed anhydrides or esters are acids or alcohols, which are water soluble and can effectively carry the drugs off the device into the walls of the body lumen.

Other Chemical Compounds with One or More Hydroxyl. Amine, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, or Ester Moieties.



[0194] The additives according to embodiments include amino alcohols, alcohols, amines, acids, amides, and hydroxyl acids in both cyclo and linear aliphatic and aromatic groups. Examples are L-ascorbic acid and its salt, D-glucoascorbic acid and its salt, tromethamine, triethanolamine, diethanolamine, meglumine, glucamine, amine alcohols, glucoheptonic acid, glucomic acid, hydroxyl ketone, hydroxyl lactone, gluconolactone, glucoheptonolactone, glucooctanoic lactone, gulonic acid lactone, mannoic lactone, ribonic acid lactone, lactobionic acid, glucosamine, glutamic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, lysine acetate salt, gentisic acid, lactobionic acid, lactitol, sorbitol, glucitol, sugar phosphates, glucopyranose phosphate, sugar sulphates, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, vanillic acid diethylamide, vanillin, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, xylitol, 2-ethoxyethanol, sugars, galactose, glucose, ribose, mannose, xylose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, arabinose, lyxose, fructose, cyclodextrin, (2-hydroxypropyl)-cyclodextrin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, retinoic acid, lysine acetate, gentisic acid, catechin, catechin gallate, tiletamine, ketamine, propofol, lactic acids, acetic acid, salts of any organic acid and amine described herein, polyglycidol, glycerol, multiglycerols (e.g., chemical compounds with multiple hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties), galactitol, di(ethylene glycol), tri(ethylene glycol), tetra(ethylene glycol), penta(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers, di(propylene glycol), tri(propylene glycol), tetra(propylene glycol, and penta(propylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol) oligomers, a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, and derivatives and combinations thereof.

[0195] Combinations of additives can also be useful for purposes of the present invention. One embodiment includes the combination or mixture of two additives, for example, a first additive including a surfactant and a second additive including a chemical compound with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties.

[0196] The combination or mixture of the surfactant and the small water-soluble molecule (the chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties) has advantages. Formulations including mixtures of the two additives with water-insoluble drug are in certain cases superior to mixtures including either additive alone. The hydrophobic drugs bind extremely water-soluble small molecules more poorly than they do surfactants. They are often phase separated from the small water-soluble molecules, which can lead to suboptimal coating uniformity and integrity. The water-insoluble drug has Log P higher than both that of the surfactant and that of small water-soluble molecules. However, Log P of the surfactant is typically higher than Log P of the chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties. The surfactant has a relatively high Log P (usually above 0) and the water-soluble molecules have low Log P (e.g., below 0). Some surfactants, when used as additives in embodiments of the present invention, adhere so strongly to the water-insoluble drug and the surface of the medical device that drug is not able to rapidly release from the surface of the medical device at the target site. On the other hand, some of the water-soluble small molecules (with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties) adhere so poorly to the medical device that they release drug before it reaches the target site, for example, into serum during the transit of a coated balloon catheter to the site targeted for intervention. Surprisingly, by adjusting the ratio of the concentrations of the small hydrophilic molecule and the surfactant in the formulation, the inventor has found that the coating stability during transit and rapid drug release when inflated and pressed against tissues of the lumen wall at the target site of therapeutic intervention in certain cases is superior to a formulation including either additive alone. Furthermore, the presence of the surfactant improves the miscibility and compatibility of the water-insoluble drug and the highly water-soluble molecules. The surfactant also improves coating uniformity and integrity by its good adhesion to the drug and the small molecules. The long chain hydrophobic part of the surfactant binds drug tightly while the hydrophilic part of the surfactant binds the water-soluble small molecules.

[0197] The surfactants in the mixture or the combination include all of the surfactants described herein for use in embodiments of the invention. The surfactant in the mixture may be chosen from PEG sorbitan fatty esters; PEG omega-3 fatty esters, ethers, and alcohols; glycerol fatty esters, sorbitan fatty esters, PEG glyceryl fatty esters, PEG fatty esters and alcohols, sugar fatty esters, PEG sugar esters, Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, p-isononylphenoxypolyglycidol, PEG laurate, PEG oleate, PEG stearate, PEG glyceryl laurate, PEG glyceryl oleate, PEG glyceryl stearate, polyglyceryl laurate, plyglyceryl oleate, polyglyceryl myristate, polyglyceryl palmitate, polyglyceryl-6 laurate, plyglyceryl-6 oleate, polyglyceryl-6 myristate, polyglyceryl-6 palmitate, polyglyceryl-10 laurate, plyglyceryl-10 oleate, polyglyceryl-10 myristate, polyglyceryl-10 palmitate, PEG sorbitan monolaurate, PEG sorbitan monolaurate, PEG sorbitan monooleate, PEG sorbitan stearate, PEG oleyl ether, PEG laurayl ether, Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, octoxynol, octoxynol-9, monoxynol, tyloxapol, sucrose monopalmitate, sucrose monolaurate, decanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-decyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, heptanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-heptyl-β-D-thioglucoside, n-hexyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, octanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside and their derivatives.

[0198] Embodiments of the chemical compound with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties in the mixture or the combination can include any of the chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties described herein for use in embodiments of the invention. In various embodiments, the chemical compound with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties in the mixture has at least one hydroxyl group. In certain embodiments, additives with more than four hydroxyl groups are utilized, for example in the case of a high molecular weight additive. In some embodiments, the chemical compound having more than four hydroxyl groups has a melting point of 120°C or less. Large molecules diffuse slowly. If the molecular weight of the additive or the chemical compound is high, for example if the molecular weight is above 800, above 1000, above 1200, above 1500, or above 2000; large molecules may elute off the surface of the medical device too slowly to release drug under 2 minutes. If these large molecules contain more than four hydroxyl groups they have increased hydrophilic properties, which is necessary for relatively large molecules to release drug quickly. The increased hydrophilicity helps elute the coating off the balloon, accelerates release of drug, and improves or facilitates drug movement through water barrier and polar head groups of lipid bilayers to penetrate tissues. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl group is utilized as the hydrophilic moiety because it is unlikely to react with water insoluble drug, such as paclitaxel or rapamycin.

[0199] The chemical compound with one or more hydroxyl, amine, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties in the mixture is chosen from L-ascorbic acid and its salt, D-glucoascorbic acid and its salt, tromethamine, triethanolamine, diethanolamine, meglumine, glucamine, amine alcohols, glucoheptonic acid, glucomic acid, hydroxyl ketone, hydroxyl lactone, gluconolactone, glucoheptonolactone, glucooctanoic lactone, gulonic acid lactone, mannoic lactone, ribonic acid lactone, lactobionic acid, glucosamine, glutamic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, lysine acetate salt, gentisic acid, lactobionic acid, lactitol, sorbitol, glucitol, sugar phosphates, glucopyranose phosphate, sugar sulphates, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, xylitol, 2-ethoxyethanol, sugars, galactose, glucose, ribose, mannose, xylose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, arabinose, lyxose, fructose, cyclodextrin, (2-hydroxypropyl)-cyclodextrin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, retinoic acid, lysine acetate, gentisic acid, catechin, catechin gallate, tiletamine, ketamine, propofol, lactic acids, acetic acid, salts of any organic acid and amine described herein, polyglycidol, glycerol, multiglycerols, galactitol, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, di(ethylene glycol), tri(ethylene glycol), tetra(ethylene glycol), penta(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers, di(propylene glycol), tri(propylene glycol), tetra(propylene glycol, and penta(propylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol) oligomers, a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, and derivatives and combinations thereof.

[0200] Mixtures or combinations of a surfactant and a water-soluble small molecule confer the advantages of both additives. The water insoluble drug often has a poor compatibility with highly water-soluble chemical compounds, and the surfactant improves compatibility. The surfactant also improves the coating quality, uniformity, and integrity, and particles do not fall off the balloon during handling. The surfactant reduces drug loss during transit to a target site. The water-soluble chemical compound improves the release of drug off the balloon and absorption of the drug in the tissue. Experimentally, the combination was surprisingly effective at preventing drug release during transit and achieving high drug levels in tissue after very brief 0.2 to 2 minute deployment. Furthermore, in animal studies it effectively reduced stenosis and late lumen loss.

[0201] Some of the mixtures or combinations of surfactants and water-soluble small molecules are very stable under heating. They survived an ethylene oxide sterilization process and do not react with the water insoluble drug paclitaxel or rapamycin during sterilization. In one embodiment, the hydroxyl, ester, amide groups are utilized because they are unlikely to react with therapeutic agents such as paclitaxel or rapamycin. Sometimes amine and acid groups do react with paclitaxel and are not stable under ethylene oxide sterilization, heating, and aging. When the mixtures or combinations described herein are formulated with paclitaxel, a top coat layer may be advantageous in order to protect the drug layer and from premature drug loss during the device.

[0202] Examples of additives include p-isononylphenoxypolyglycidol, PEG glyceryl oleate, PEG glyceryl stearate, polyglyceryl laurate, plyglyceryl oleate, polyglyceryl myristate, polyglyceryl palmitate, polyglyceryl-6 laurate, plyglyceryl-6 oleate, polyglyceryl-6 myristate, polyglyceryl-6 palmitate, polyglyceryl-10 laurate, plyglyceryl-10 oleate, polyglyceryl-10 myristate, polyglyceryl-10 palmitate, PEG sorbitan monolaurate, PEG sorbitan monolaurate, PEG sorbitan monooleate, PEG sorbitan stearate, octoxynol, octoxynol-9, monoxynol, tyloxapol, sucrose monopalmitate, sucrose monolaurate, decanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-decyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside, heptanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, n-heptyl-β-D-thioglucoside, n-hexyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, octanoyl-N-methylglucamide, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, octyl-P-D-thioglucopyranoside; cystine, tyrosine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and methionine (amino acids), cetotiamine, cyclothiamine, dexpanthenol, niacinamide, nicotinic acid and its salt, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, nicotinamide ascorbate, riboflavin, riboflavin phosphate, thiamine, folic acid, menadiol diphosphate, menadione sodium bisulfite, menadoxime, vitamin B12, vitamin K5, vitamin K6, vitamin K6, and vitamin U (vitamins); albumin, immunoglobulins, caseins, hemoglobins, lysozymes, immunoglobins, a-2-macroglobulin, fibronectins, vitronectins, firbinogens, lipases, benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, docecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium docecylsulfates, dialkyl methylbenzyl ammonium chloride, and dialkylesters of sodium sulfonsuccinic acid, L-ascorbic acid and its salt, D-glucoascorbic acid and its salt, tromethamine, triethanolamine, diethanolamine, meglumine, glucamine, amine alcohols, glucoheptonic acid, glucomic acid, hydroxyl ketone, hydroxyl lactone, gluconolactone, glucoheptonolactone, glucooctanoic lactone, gulonic acid lactone, mannoic lactone, ribonic acid lactone, lactobionic acid, glucosamine, glutamic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, lysine acetate salt, gentisic acid, lactobionic acid, lactitol, sinapic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, sorbitol, xylitol, cyclodextrin, (2-hydroxypropyl)-cyclodextrin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, retinoic acid, lysine acetate, gentisic acid, catechin, catechin gallate, tiletamine, ketamine, propofol, lactic acids, acetic acid, salts of any organic acid and organic amine, polyglycidol, glycerol, multiglycerols, galactitol, monolaurin, monocaprin, monocaprylin, monomyristin, monopalmitolein, monoolein, creatine, creatinine, agmatine, citrulline, guanidine, sucralose, aspartame, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline, adenine, uracil, uridine, guanine, thymine, thymidine, xanthine, xanthosine, xanthosine monophosphate, caffeine, allantoin, (2-hydroxyethyl)urea, N,N'-bis(hydroxymethyl)urea, pentaerythritol ethoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate, pentaerythritol propoxylate/ethoxylate, glycerol ethoxylate, glycerol propoxylate, trimethylolpropane ethoxylate, pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, crown ether, 18-crown-6, 15-crown-5, 12-crown-4, di(ethylene glycol), tri(ethylene glycol), tetra(ethylene glycol), penta(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene glycol) oligomers, di(propylene glycol), tri(propylene glycol), tetra(propylene glycol, and penta(propylene glycol), poly(propylene glycol) oligomers, a block copolymer of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, and derivatives and combinations thereof, (chemical compounds with one or more hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, carboxyl, or ester moieties). Some of these additives are both water-soluble and organic solvent-soluble. They have good adhesive properties and adhere to the surface of polyamide medical devices, such as balloon catheters. They may therefore be used in the adherent layer, top layer, and/or in the drug layer of embodiments of the present invention. The aromatic and aliphatic groups increase the solubility of water insoluble drugs in the coating solution, and the polar groups of alcohols and acids accelerate drug permeation of tissue.

[0203] Other additives according to embodiments of the invention include hydroxyl ketone, hydroxyl lactone, hydroxyl acid, hydroxyl ester, and hydroxyl amide. Examples are gluconolactone, D-glucoheptono-1,4-lactone, glucooctanoic lactone, gulonic acid lactone, mannoic lactone, erythronic acid lactone, ribonic acid lactone, glucuronic acid, gluconic acid, gentisic acid, lactobionic acid, lactic acid, acetaminophen, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, and derivatives thereof.

[0204] From a structural point of view, these additives share structural similarities and are compatible with water insoluble drugs (such as paclitaxel and rapamycin). They often contain double bonds such as C=C, C=N, C=O in aromatic or aliphatic structures. These additives also contain amine, alcohol, ester, amide, anhydride, carboxylic acid, and/or hydroxyl groups. They may form hydrogen bonds and/or van der Waals interactions with drug. They are also useful in the top layer in the coating. Compounds containing one or more hydroxyl, carboxyl, or amine groups, for example, are especially useful as additives since they facilitate drug release from the device surface and easily displace water next to the polar head groups and surface proteins of cell membranes and may thereby remove this barrier to hydrophobic drug permeability. They accelerate movement of a hydrophobic drug off the balloon to the lipid layer of cell membranes and tissues for which it has very high affinity. They may also carry or accelerate the movement of drug off the balloon into more aqueous environments such as the interstitial space, for example, of nonvascular tissues that have been injured by balloon angioplasty or stent expansion. Additives such as polyglyceryl fatty esters, ascorbic ester of fatty acids, sugar esters, alcohols and ethers of fatty acids have fatty chains that can integrate into the lipid structure of target tissue membranes, carrying drug to lipid structures. Some of the amino acids, vitamins and organic acids have aromatic C=N groups as well as amino, hydroxyl, and carboxylic components to their structure. They have structural parts that can bind or complex with hydrophobic drug, such as paclitaxel or rapamycin, and they also have structural parts that facilitate tissue penetration by removing barriers between hydrophobic drug and lipid structure of cell membranes.

[0205] For example, isononylphenylpolyglycidol (Olin-10 G and Surfactant-10G), PEG glyceryl monooleate, sorbitan monolaurate (Arlacel 20), sorbitan monopalmitate (Span-40), sorbitan monooleate (Span-80), sorbitan monostearate, polyglyceryl-10 oleate, polyglyceryl-10 laurate, polyglyceryl-10 palmitate, and polyglyceryl-10 stearate all have more than four hydroxyl groups in their hydrophilic part. These hydroxyl groups have very good affinity for walls of the body lumen and can displace hydrogen-bound water molecules. At the same time, they have long chains of fatty acid, alcohol, ether, and ester that can both complex with hydrophobic drug and integrate into the lipid structure of the cell membranes to form the part of the lipid structure. This deformation or loosening of the lipid membrane of target cells may further accelerate permeation of hydrophobic drug into tissue.

[0206] For another example, L-ascorbic acid, thiamine, maleic acids, niacinamide, and 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid all have a very high water and ethanol solubility and a low molecular weight and small size. They also have structural components including aromatic C=N, amino, hydroxyl, and carboxylic groups. These structures have very good compatibility with paclitaxel and rapamycin and can increase the solubility of these water-insoluble drugs in water and enhance their absorption into tissues. However, they often have poor adhesion to the surface of medical devices. They are therefore used in combination with other additives in the drug layer and top layer where they are useful to enhance drug absorption. Vitamin D2 and D3 are especially useful because they themselves have anti-restenotic effects and reduce thrombosis, especially when used in combination with paclitaxel.

[0207] In embodiments of the present invention, the additive is soluble in aqueous solvents and is soluble in organic solvents. Extremely hydrophobic compounds that lack sufficient hydrophilic parts and are insoluble in aqueous solvent, such as the dye Sudan Red, are not useful as additives in these embodiments. Sudan red is also genotoxic.

[0208] In one embodiment, the concentration density of the at least one therapeutic agent applied to the surface of the medical device is from about 1 to 20 µg/mm2, or from about 2 to 6 µg/mm2, or about 0.5 microgram/mm2 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 micrograms/mm2 or more. If the medical device is a balloon, these measurements are calculated at nominal diameter. In one embodiment, the concentration of the at least one additive applied to the surface of the medical device is from about 0.5 to 20 µg/mm2, or from about 2 to 6 µg/mm2, or about 0.5 microgram/mm2 or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, or about 20 micrograms/mm2 or more. The ratio of additives to drug by weight in the coating layer in embodiments of the present invention can be about 20 to 0.05, about 10 to 0.1, or about 5 to 0.15.

[0209] The relative amount of the therapeutic agent and the additive in the coating layer, may vary depending on applicable circumstances. The optimal amount of the additive can depend upon, for example, the particular therapeutic agent and additive selected, the critical micelle concentration of the surface modifier if it forms micelles, the hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance (HLB) of a surfactant or an additive's octonol-water partition coefficient (P), the melting point of the additive, the water solubility of the additive and/or therapeutic agent, the surface tension of water solutions of the surface modifier, and the like.

[0210] Other considerations will further inform the choice of specific proportions of different additives. These considerations can include the degree of bioacceptability of the additives and the desired dosage of therapeutic agent to be provided.

Therapeutic Agent.



[0211] Therapeutic agents which can be used in embodiments of the present invention are antiproliferative drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, tacrolimus, everolimus, mTOR inhibitors (i.e., a class of drugs that inhibit the mechanistic target of rapamycin), that can be delivered to the wall of a body lumen to treat the narrowing or stricture.

Solvents.



[0212] Solvents for preparing of the coating layer may include, as examples, one or combination of the following: (a) water, (b) alkanes such as hexane, octane, cyclohexane, and heptane, (c) aromatic solvents such as benzene, toluene, and xylene, (d) alcohols such as ethanol, propanol, and isopropanol, diethylamide, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, Trascutol, and benzyl alcohol (e) ethers such as dioxane, dimethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran, (f) esters/acetates such as ethyl acetate and isobutyl acetate, (g) ketones such as acetone, acetonitrile, diethyl ketone, and methyl ethyl ketone, and (h) mixture of water and organic solvents such as water/ethanol, water/acetone, water/methanol, water/tetrahydrofuran. A solvent in the top coating layer can be, for example, methanol, ethanol, and acetone.

[0213] Organic solvents, such as short-chained alcohol, dioxane, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, etc., are particularly useful solvents in embodiments of the present invention because these organic solvents generally disrupt colloidal aggregates and co-solubilize all the components in the coating solution.

[0214] The therapeutic agent and additive or additives may be dispersed in, solubilized, or otherwise mixed in the solvent. The weight percent of drug and additives in the solvent may be in the range of 0.1-80% by weight, or 2-20% by weight.

[0215] Various embodiments provide a method for preparing a balloon catheter. First, a coating solution or suspension including at least one solvent, at least one therapeutic agent, and at least one additive is prepared. In at least one embodiment, the coating solution or suspension includes only these three components. The content of the therapeutic agent in the coating solution can be from 0.5-50% by weight based on the total weight of the solution. The content of the additive in the coating solution can be from about 0.1 wt% to about 45 wt%, about 0.2 wt% to about 40 wt% by weight, about 0.3 to about 15wt%, or about 0.1 wt% or less, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 0.2 wt%, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, or about 45 wt% or more, based on the total weight of the solution. The amount of solvent used depends on the coating process and viscosity. It will affect the uniformity of the drug-additive coating but will be evaporated.

[0216] In other embodiments, two or more solvents, two or more therapeutic agents, and/or two or more additives may be used in the coating solution.

[0217] In other embodiments, a therapeutic agent, an additive and a polymeric material may be used in the coating solution for the balloon catheter. In the coating, the therapeutic agent is not encapsulated in polymer particles.

[0218] Various techniques may be used for applying a coating solution to a medical device such as casting, fixed volume liquid dispensing, metering (e.g., dispense a fixed amount of coating solution based on volume onto the balloon), spinning, spraying, dipping (immersing), ink jet printing, electrostatic techniques, and combinations of these processes. During the application of the coating solution, the balloon can be at least partially inflated. The metering can be performed in any suitable way, such as by pumping liquid coating solution from a reservoir to a nozzle that is proximate the surface of the balloon (e.g., the surface of an at least partially inflated balloon). The nozzle can dispense the liquid therefrom, which can be immediately transferred to the exterior of the balloon due to its proximity to the nozzle (e.g., the nozzle can be so close to the balloon that the liquid emerging from the nozzle can contact and be transferred to the exterior of the balloon before forming a drop of liquid that leaves the nozzle). The nozzle can dispense the liquid to the exterior of the balloon such that substantially none of the liquid is lost. The balloon can be rotated around its longitudinal axis during the dispensing of the liquid from the nozzle. The nozzle can move during the dispensing, such as along the exterior of the balloon parallel to the longitudinal axis of the balloon. In some embodiments, the balloon can be rotated around its longitudinal axis during the dispensing, and the nozzle can move parallel to the longitudinal axis of the balloon, such that substantially all of the balloon surface is coated with the coating solution (e.g., similar to the movement of a woodworker's chisel on a cylindrical piece of spinning wood in a lathe).

[0219] Choosing an application technique principally depends on the viscosity and surface tension of the solution. In some embodiments of the present invention, metering can be utilized because it makes it easier to control the uniformity of the thickness of the coating layer as well as the concentration of the therapeutic agent applied to the medical device.

[0220] In one embodiment of the present invention, the balloon is inflated or partially inflated, the coating solution is applied to the inflated balloon by metering it on while the balloon is inflated and rotating along its longitudinal axis. The balloon is then allowed to dry before being deflated, folded, and sheathed.

[0221] The description of an embodiment of an application device, fixture, and metering technique is an example. Any suitable metering or other technique may be used for coating the balloon catheter.

[0222] After the medical device is coated with the coating solution, the coated balloon is subjected to a drying in which the solvent in the coating solution is evaporated. This produces a coating matrix on the balloon containing the therapeutic agent. One example of a drying technique is placing a coated balloon into an oven at approximately 20°C or higher for approximately 24 hours. Any other suitable method of drying the coating solution may be used. The time, temperature, and relative humidity may vary with particular additives and therapeutic agents.

[0223] An embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of treating a benign prostatic hyperplasia. The method includes inserting a medical device including a coating into a prostatic urethra. The coating layer includes a therapeutic agent and an additive. In this embodiment, the medical device can be configured as having at least an expandable portion. Some examples of such devices include balloon catheters, fixed wire balloon catheter, over the wire balloon catheter, rapid exchange catheter, perfusion balloon catheters, an infusion catheter (e.g., distal perforated drug infusion catheters, a perforated balloon, spaced double balloon, porous balloon, and weeping balloon, cutting balloon catheters), spaced double balloons, cutting balloon catheter, scoring balloon catheters, self-expanded and balloon expanded-stents, guide catheters, guide wires, embolic protection devices, and various imaging devices.

[0224] As mentioned herein, one example of a medical device that is particularly useful in the present invention is a coated balloon catheter. A balloon catheter typically has a long, narrow, hollow tube tabbed with a miniature, deflated balloon. In embodiments of the present invention, the balloon is coated with a drug solution. Then, the balloon is maneuvered through the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen to the site of a blockage, occlusion, or other tissue requiring a therapeutic agent. Once in the proper position, the balloon is inflated and contacts the walls of the stricture in the nonvascular body lumen and/or a blockage or occlusion. It is an object of embodiments of the present invention to rapidly deliver drug to and facilitate absorption by target tissue. In various embodiments, it can be advantageous to efficiently deliver drug to tissue in as brief a period as possible while the device is deployed at the target site. The therapeutic agent can be released into such tissue, for example the lumen walls, in about 0.1 to 30 minutes, for example, or about 0.1 to 10 minutes, or about 0.2 to 2 minutes, or about 0.1 to 1 minutes, of balloon inflation time pressing the drug coating into contact with diseased nonvascular tissue.

[0225] Given that a therapeutically effective amount of the drug can be delivered by embodiments of the present invention into, for example, the prostate, in some cases the need for a stent may be eliminated, obviating the complications of fracture and dripping associated therewith.

[0226] The balloon catheter may be used to treat nonvascular tissue/disease alone or in combination with other methods and medical devices for treating the non-vasculature, for example, direct vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU) for strictures and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for BPH. DVIU is a procedure used to open a urethral stricture. Specifically, DVIU is a procedure in which relaxing incisions are made in a stricture to create urethral luminal gain. DVIU may be accomplished using cold knife (urethrotome) or a hot knife (electrode). The cutter is inserted into the body and advanced through the urethra to the area of narrowing. After the relaxing incisions have been made, balloon dilation using the coated balloon of embodiments of the present invention may be performed. In addition, stenting may be performed thereafter, or simultaneous with expansion of the coated balloon as described herein. In another embodiment, balloon dilation using the coated balloon of embodiments of the present invention may be performed inside a placed stent. For TURP the medical device typically used is a hot knife (electrode) or a laser. In either case the device is inserted into the body and advanced through the urethra to the area of narrowing. After the prostatic tissue has been excised, balloon dilation using the coated balloon of embodiments of the present invention may be performed. In addition, stenting may be performed thereafter, or simultaneous with expansion of the coated balloon as described herein. In another embodiment a self-expanding stent coated with the therapeutic agents and additives of the present invention may be delivered and placed inside the body lumen strictures including esophageal strictures, achalasia strictures, biliary strictures, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, and large intestine strictures.

Preparation.



[0227] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of forming a balloon. The method can include placing a tube including balloon material into a balloon mold having any suitable shape, such as a balloon mold having a shape including a proximal cone, at least one main body section, at least one neck section having a diameter less than the at least one main body section, another at least one main body section, and a distal cone. The method can include pressurizing the interior of the balloon material tube. The method can also include expanding the balloon material tube into contact with the interior of the mold.

[0228] Various embodiments of the present invention provide a method of forming a balloon and then shrinking it to get a large diameter range. The method includes placing a tube including balloon material into a balloon mold wherein the balloon mold has a shape including a proximal cone, at least one main body section, and a distal cone. The method includes pressurizing the interior of the balloon material tube. The method includes expanding the balloon material tube into contact with the interior of the mold at pressures of 200-400 psi and temperatures of 100-200°C. The formed balloon is then shrunk by annealing the balloon at a temperature lower than the forming process with low inflation pressure for a specified amount of time, preferably 1-30 psi at 70-90°C, for 3-30 seconds. Once the balloon is shrunk it can be attached to a catheter shaft and coated with drug. Any of the manufacturing techniques, methods of treating body lumens, or balloons described in the following patents, can be used in embodiments of the present invention: U.S. patent nos. 7,163,522 and 7,108,826.

[0229] The medical device and the coating layers of embodiments of the present invention can be made according to various methods. For example, the coating solution can be prepared by dispersing, dissolving, diffusing, or otherwise mixing all the ingredients, such as a therapeutic agent, an additive, and a solvent, simultaneously together. Also, the coating solution can be prepared by sequentially adding each component based on solubility or any other parameters. For example, the coating solution can be prepared by first adding the therapeutic agent to the solvent and then adding the additive. Alternatively, the additive can be added to the solvent first and then the therapeutic agent can be later added. If the solvent used does not sufficiently dissolve the drug, it is useful to first add the additive to the solvent, then the drug, since the additive will increase drug solubility in the solvent.

International prostate symptom score (IPSS) and Qmax.



[0230] Qmax is a measure of the maximum urine flow rate obtained during a urodynamics test. It is the maximum volumetric flow rate of urine during urination. It is a measure of the quantity of urine voided in a specified period of time (per second or per minute). It may be measured with uroflowmetry. Qmax indicates the maximum flow rate. Qmax is used as an indicator for the diagnosis of enlarged prostate or other urinary tract occlusion or stricture. A lower Qmax may indicate that the enlarged prostate puts pressure on the urethra or that the urethral stricture has partially occluded the urethra.

[0231] By using this invention, for example, the balloon shown in FIG. 3, a patient with urethral strictures can experience an increase in Qmax. The typical Qmax for a person with a urethral stricture is in the range of 0 to 10 mL/s. Following treatment (measurements usually taken between 14 and 30 days following treatment) with the balloon of this invention, the Qmax would be expected to increase to 9 to 52 mL/s, or a minimum of 15 mL/s or, in some embodiments, to a minimum of 20 mL/s or, in some embodiments, to less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more. This treatment has been shown to have a long-term effect on Qmax. In some embodiments, after 6 months, Qmax can still be at or above 15 mL/s, 20 mL/s, or in the range of 6 to 50 mL/s, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more. After 12 months, in various embodiments, Qmax can still be above 15 mL/s, 20 mL/s, or in the range of 6 to 50 mL/s, 9 to 32 mL/s, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more.

[0232] By using this invention, for example, the balloon shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, or 2, a patient with benign prostate hyperplasia can experience an increase in Qmax. The typical Qmax for a person with a BPH is in the range of 5 to 12 mL/s. Following treatment with the balloon of this invention, in various embodiments, the Qmax can increase to a minimum of 16 mL/s, to a range of 4 to 35 mL/s, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more. The treatment has been shown to have a long-term effect on Qmax. After 6 months, Qmax can be above a minimum of 16 mL/s or, in some embodiments, in the range of 16 to 32 mL/s, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more. After 12 months, Qmax can be above a minimum of 16 mL/s or, in some embodiments, in the range of 16 to 30 mL/s, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 8 mL/s, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 35, 40, 45, or about 50 mL/s or more. These effects distinguish the current invention from prior art devices and methods.

[0233] The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) is a validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) scoring system. Urologists accept it worldwide and it is used to screen for and diagnose benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as to monitor symptoms and guide decisions about how to manage the disease. The IPSS is based on the answers to eight questions, seven regarding disease symptoms and one question related to the patient's quality of life. For the symptom questions, the patient is asked to choose the rating that best represents their condition. The scale ranges from 0 to 5, with 5 representing the most symptomatic disease. The seven symptom scores are summed to give an overall maximum possible score of 35. The answer to the quality of life question is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. According to these scoring systems, the scores can be categorized as follows: symptoms are mild if the score is 7 or less; symptoms are moderate if the score is 8 to 19; and symptoms are severe if the score is 20 to 35.

[0234] By using this invention, for example the balloon shown in FIG. 3, a patient with urethral strictures can experience a decrease in IPSS. The typical IPSS for a person with a urethral stricture is in the range of 15 to 35. Following treatment with the balloon of this invention, the IPSS would be expected to be at a maximum of 14 or, in some embodiments be in the range of 0 to 13, 4 to 13, 0 to 11, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. This treatment has been shown to have a long-term effect on IPSS. After 6 months, IPSS is still below a maximum of 14 and in some embodiments in the range of 0 to 13, 1 to 13, 0 to 11, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. After 12 months, IPSS is still below a maximum of 14, or can be 0 to 7, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. These effects distinguish the current invention from prior art devices and methods.

[0235] By using this invention, for example the balloon catheter shown in FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C, or 2, a patient with benign prostate hyperplasia can experience a decrease in IPSS. The typical IPSS for a person with a BPH is in the range of 15 to 35. Following treatment with the balloon of this invention, the IPSS can be at a maximum of 14 or, in some embodiments, in the range of 4 to 13, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. This treatment can have a long-term effect on IPSS. After 6 months, IPSS can still be at a maximum of 14 and in some embodiments in the range of 1 to 13, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. After 12 months, IPSS can still be under a maximum of 14 or in some embodiments in the range of 1 to 14, or 0, or less than, equal to, or greater than about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, or about 14. These effects distinguish the current invention from prior art devices and methods.

[0236] To obtain the desired increase in Qmax or the decrease in IPSS, in one embodiment, a balloon coated with a therapeutic agent such as an antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory drug and one or more water-soluble additives, as described herein, is positioned within the area of a urethral stricture or within the prostate. For strictures, the balloon is then inflated to a diameter that is 1.0 to 20 times larger than the native urethra (e.g., of a normative diameter of the treated urethra), such as about 1.2 to 3 times larger. For BPH treatment, the balloon is inflated to a diameter that can be about 1.0 to 20 times larger than the native (undiseased) prostatic urethra, or about 1.2 to 10 times larger. That is, the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment for a urethral stricture can be from 1.2 to 3 and for BPH treatment can be 1.2 to 10; the stretch ratio can be the same or different. The balloon can be left inflated for 0.1 to 10 minutes to allow the drug to be delivered to the urethra. In some embodiments, a scope such as a cystoscope can be used to aid in the placement of the balloon. In some embodiments, the balloon catheter shaft can be within the lumen of the scope and in other embodiments it can be placed side by side with the scope. In some embodiments, the stricture or prostate can be predilated with a non-drug coated balloon prior to treatment by the drug coated balloon. In some embodiments, the predilation balloon will be slightly shorter than the treatment balloon, such as to ensure that the entire area of the urethra or prostate that is predilated is later treated with the drug coated balloon. In some embodiments, the lumen and/or the drug coated balloon is flushed or soaked in water, saline, urine, or a water solution including at least one water soluble additive prior to drug coated balloon insertion. The drug coated balloon may be covered with a sheath to provide protection to the coating during delivery to the treatment site. The sheath can be removed from the balloon prior to inflating the balloon.

[0237] Although various embodiments are specifically illustrated and described herein, it will be appreciated that modifications and variations of the present invention are covered by the above teachings and are within the purview of the appended claims without departing from the scope of the invention defined by the appended claims.

[0238] Other than the operating examples, or where otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of components in a layer, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about." Accordingly, unless otherwise indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in this specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present disclosure.

Examples



[0239] Various embodiments of the present invention can be better understood by reference to the following Examples which are offered by way of illustration. The present invention is not limited to the Examples given herein.

[0240] Throughout the Examples, unless otherwise indicated, the stretch ratio was calculated as the ratio of the diameter of the nominal balloon to the normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment. The normative diameter of the body lumen at the location of treatment is the normal diameter for the body lumen at the location of treatment and can be calculated as the average of the diameters of healthy tissue adjacent to the stricture, stenosis, or lesion, that is proximal and distal of the stricture or stenosis or lesion of the lumen. The inflated balloon diameter was about equal to the nominal balloon diameter for the pressure used during the inflation period, and was within 10% of the nominal balloon diameter.

Part I.


Example 1-1. Preparation of Coating Solutions.



[0241] 

Formulation 1: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 2: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg uracil and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 3: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg uridine and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 4: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg sucralose and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 4a: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg sucralose and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed, with a mass ratio of paclitaxel:PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides:sucralose of 1:1:1.

Formulation 4b: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg sucralose and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed, with a mass ratio of paclitaxel:PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides:sucralose of 1:1:2.

Formulation 5: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg creatinine and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 6: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG6 caprylic/capric glycerides, 25-300 mg uracil and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 7: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg C6-ceramide and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 8: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg monolaurin, 25-300 mg sucralose and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 9: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg sucralose and 2-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 10: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 mono caprylate/caprate and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 11: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg PEG8 mono caprylate/caprate, 25-300 mg sucralose and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 12: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg thymidine, and 1-6 ml (96/4 v/v) THF/water were mixed.

Formulation 13: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg uridine, and 1-6 ml (96/4 v/v) THF/water were mixed.

Formulation 14: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg caffeine, and 1-6 ml (96/4 v/v) THF/water were mixed.

Formulation 15: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg 18Crown6, and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 16: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg 18Crown6, and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 17: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 10-100 mg 18Crown6, 10-100 mg pentaerythritol ethoxylate (15/4) and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 18: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg pentaerythritol ethoxylate (15/4), and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 19: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg trimethylpropane ethoxylate(Mw∼1014)), and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 20: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg pentaerythritol ethoxylate (3/4), and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 21: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg 15Crown5, and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 22: 25-100 mg (0.03-0.12 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg thymidine, and 1-6 ml (90/10 v/v) THF/water were mixed.

Formulation 23: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 5-75 mg pentaerythritol ethoxylate (15/4), 10-200 mg pentaerythritol ethoxylate (3/4), and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.

Formulation 24: 50-150 mg (0.06-0.18 mmole) paclitaxel, 25-300 mg trimethylpropane ethoxylate (Mw∼170)), and 1-6 ml ethanol were mixed.


Example 1-2. Preclinical study 1 & 2 sample preparation.



[0242] Twenty-one balloon catheters (twelve 4 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, six 8 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, three 20 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length) were inflated to 1 to 2 atmospheres pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. Next the balloons were coated using various formulations (1-6) from Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 2-4 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-3. Preclinical study 1 & 2 treatments.



[0243] For this study male dogs were used. Baseline urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before drug coated balloon treatment. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example I-2 were used with nonoverlapping treatments in the pelvic, bulbar, and distal urethra just proximal of the os penis. The os penis urethra was not treated. The treatment site diameters were approximately 3.5-4.5 mm. The balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio for the prostatic urethra balloons was approximately 4-10. For the anterior urethra, balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio was approximately 1.8-2.3. Prior to inserting the catheter approximately 5 mL of saline was used to flush the urethra. The 18-20 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the prostatic urethra and the 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the anterior urethra. The 18 to 20 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 4 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 12 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The stretch ratio for the inflated 20 mm nominal diameter balloons was 4.4 to 6.3. The stretch ratio for the inflated 8 mm nominal diameter balloons was 2.0 to 2.5. The amount of drug in the treated urethra tissues of the sacrificed animal was measured after 4 hrs and 1 day and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed.

[0244] Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-2 were inserted into the left ureter and urethra of a female pig. The 4 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 14 atmospheres in the ureters and the 8 mm balloons were inflated to 12 atmospheres in the urethra. The balloons were inflated at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the pigs. The stretch ratio for the 4 mm nominal diameter balloons was 2 to 2.5. The stretch ratio for the 8 mm nominal diameter balloons was 2.0 to 2.5. The drug concentration in the urethra and prostate tissues of the sacrificed animal was measured after 4 hrs. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed.

Example 1-4. Preclinical study 1 & 2 tissue and balloon residual drug content.



[0245] The dog tissue drug concentration from the prostatic urethra sample in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, was 0.4 µg/g at 4 hours. The dog tissue drug concentration from the prostate sample in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, was 0.367 µg/g at 4 hours. The dog tissue drug concentration from the pelvic urethra samples in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4b, was 11.7 µg/g at 4 hours. The dog tissue drug concentration from the bulbar urethra samples in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, was 25.2 µg/g at 4 hours. The dog tissue drug concentration from the prostatic urethra sample in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, was 0.586 µg/g at 1 day. The dog tissue drug concentration from the prostate sample in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, was 0.429 µg/g at 1 day. The dog tissue drug concentration from the pelvic urethra samples in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4b, was 26.6 µg/g at day 1. The dog tissue drug concentration from the distal urethra samples in Example I-3, using Formulation 4a, was 2.04 µg/g at day 1. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-3, using Formulation 4a, ranged from 45-87%.

[0246] The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-3, using formulation 4b, ranged from 83-85%.

[0247] At 4 hours the proximal (Formulation 4b) right ureter pig tissue drug concentration from the samples in Example 1-3 was 17.3 µg/g. At 4 hours the female pig urethra (Formulation 4a) drug concentration was 66.9 µg/g. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-3 ranged from 6-58%. The average residual balloon content for Formulation 4a was 52.8%. The average residual balloon content for Formulation 4b was 64.7%.

Example 1-5. Preclinical study 3 sample preparation.



[0248] Twenty-three balloon catheters (twelve 8 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, six 10 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, four 12 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and three 10 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length) were inflated to 50% of their nominal inflation pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. Next the balloons were coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 2 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-6. Preclinical study 3 treatments.



[0249] For this study male dogs were used. Baseline retrograde urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before drug coated balloon treatment. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-5 were used with nonoverlapping treatments in the prostatic, pelvic, bulbar, and distal urethra just proximal of the os penis. The os penis urethra was not treated. The treatment site diameters were approximately 2.1-8.5 mm. The balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio for the prostatic urethra balloons (the ratio of the nominal diameter of the balloon to the normative diameter of the target site) was planned to be approximately 1.7-3.4. For the anterior urethra, balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio was approximately 1.8-2.3. Prior to inserting the catheter approximately 5 mL of saline was used to flush the urethra. The 12 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the prostatic urethra and the 8 and 10 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the anterior urethra. The 12 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 9 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 10 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The stretch ratio for the 12 mm nominal diameter balloons was 2.0 to 3.0. The stretch ratio for the 8 and 10 mm nominal diameter balloons was 1.3 to 3.0. The amount of drug in the treated urethra tissues of the sacrificed animal was measured after 1 and 7 days and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed.

Example 1-7. Preclinical study 3 tissue and balloon residual drug content.



[0250] The dog tissue drug concentration from the samples in Example I-6 ranged from 4-176 µg/g at 1 day and 0.003-23 µg/g at 7 days. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-6 ranged from 5-98%.

Example 1-8. Preclinical study 4 sample preparation.



[0251] One hundred eight balloon catheters (forty-two 8 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, twenty-seven 10 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, twenty-five 12 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length, five 8 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length, nine 12 mm in diameter and 55 mm in length) were inflated to 50% of their nominal inflation pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. Next the balloons were split into two groups; one group was coated using Formulation 1 and Formulation 4 from Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 2 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface, and the other group was coated using the same formulations from Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 4 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-9. Preclinical study 4 treatments.



[0252] For this study male dogs were used. Baseline retrograde urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before drug coated balloon treatment. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-8 were used with nonoverlapping treatments in the prostatic, pelvic, bulbar, and distal urethra just proximal of the os penis. The os penis urethra was not treated. The treatment site diameters were approximately 2.6-7.7 mm. The balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio for the prostatic urethra balloons was planned to be approximately 2-4. For the anterior urethra, balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio was approximately 1.8-2.3. Prior to inserting the catheter approximately 5 mL of saline was used to flush the urethra. 8 and 12 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the prostatic urethra and 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated in the anterior urethra. The prostatic urethra balloons were inflated to 6-9 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 10 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 10 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The stretch ratio for the prostatic urethra balloons was 2.0 to 5, 10, 15, or 20. The stretch ratio for the anterior urethra balloons was 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, or 1.5 to 1.75, 2.0, 2.25, 2.50, 2.75, 3.0. The urethra diameter and the amount of drug in the treated urethra tissues of the sacrificed animal was measured after 1, 7 and 28 days and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. At 28 days samples were taken for histological evaluation to compare drug coated balloon tissue to plain old balloon and untreated tissue.

Example I-10. Preclinical study 4 pharmacokinetics, balloon residual drug content, and urethra lumen gain.



[0253] The dog tissue average drug concentration from the samples in Example 1-9 was 582 µg/g at 1 day, 0.347 µg/g at day 7, and 4 µg/g at day 28. The dog tissue average drug concentration from the 2 µg/g and 4 µg/g dose density Formulation 1 samples in Example 1-9 was 20.34 µg/g and 0.73 µg/g, respectively, at day 28. The dog tissue average drug concentration from the 2 µg/g and 4 µg/g dose density Formulation 4 samples in Example 1-9 was 0.01 µg/g and 1.20 µg/g,respectively, at day 28. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-9 ranged from 0-60%. The average residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the 2 µg/g and 4 µg/g dose density Formulation 1 samples was 11.5% and 2.4%, respectively. The average residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the 2 µg/g and 4 µg/g dose density Formulation 4 samples was 12.2% and 19.9%, respectively. The mean urethral gain at 28 days, treatment site urethra diameter at 28 days minus the urethral diameter at time of treatment, ranged from 1.6 mm to a lumen loss of 4.4 mm. Examination of the histology samples showed no discernable difference between the drug coated balloon treatments, plain balloon treatments, and untreated tissue.

Example 1-11. Preclinical study 5 sample preparation.



[0254] Forty balloon catheters (twenty 6 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, twenty 8 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length) were inflated to 50% of their nominal inflation pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. Next the balloons were split into two groups; one group was coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 3.5 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface the other group was coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 10 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-12. Preclinical study 5 treatments.



[0255] For this study female pigs were used to allow for easier access to the ureters. Before drug coated balloon treatments baseline uretergrams and urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameters of the ureter and urethra treatment sites before treatment. The treatment site diameters were approximately 4.0-6.0 mm. For the urethra, balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio was approximately 1.8-2.3. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-11 were used for nonoverlapping treatments. A controlled experiment was conducted to investigate two procedure parameters; balloon to urethra stretch, inflation time, and one product design feature; the drug dose density. The amount of drug in the treated urethra tissues of the sacrificed animal was measured after 1 day and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed.

Example 1-13. Preclinical study 5 balloon residual drug content and tissue drug content.



[0256] The pig tissue average drug concentration from the samples in Example 1-12 was 12.5 µg/g at 1 day. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-12 ranged from 1-52%.

Example 1-14. Preclinical study 6 sample preparation.



[0257] Eighty-seven balloon catheters (thirty-seven 12 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, fifty 8 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length) were inflated to 50% of their nominal inflation pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. Next the balloons were split into two groups; one group was coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 3.5 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface the other group was coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 10 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-15. Preclinical study 6 treatments.



[0258] For this study casted male pigs were used. Before drug coated balloon treatments baseline urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before treatment. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-14 were used with nonoverlapping treatments. Prior to inflation 5-10 mL of saline was used to flush the urethra. A controlled experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of double inflation and drug dose density on the amount of drug in the treated urethra tissues. The tissue drug content was measured after 1 day and 28 days and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. Histology samples were taken at 28 days to compare the two different drug dose density catheter groups

Example 1-16. Preclinical study 5 balloon residual drug content and tissue drug content.



[0259] The pig tissue average drug concentration from the samples in Example 1-14 was 83 ng/g at 1 day and 2.5 ng/g at 28 days. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example I-14 ranged from 19-73%.

Example 1-17. Preclinical study 7 sample preparation.



[0260] Fifty-seven balloon catheters (forty-three 8 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, fourteen 20 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length) were inflated to 50% of their nominal inflation pressure and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. The balloons were coated using various formulations (1-6) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 3.5 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-18. Preclinical study 7 treatments.



[0261] For this study male dogs were used. These treatments were conducted under direct visualization using a 2.4 mm outer diameter endoscope. The endoscope utilized constant saline irrigation to flush visual obstructions away from the field of view, thus the treatment zones were constantly being flushed at all times. The first step in the treatment was to use cutting balloons (balloon catheters that have blades running longitudinally along the length of the balloon) in the prostatic urethra, middle urethra, and distal urethra. Next, uncoated balloons were used to dilate the treatment locations where the cutting balloons were used. Then baseline urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before drug coated balloon treatment. Finally, drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-17 and uncoated balloon catheters (as controls) were used. The 20 mm nominal diameter balloons were used in the prostatic urethra and the 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were used in the anterior urethra. The prostatic urethra balloons were inflated to 4-5 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 2 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 10 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 2 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The stretch ratio for the prostatic urethra balloons was 2.9 to 9.7. The stretch ratio for the anterior urethra balloons was 1.5 to 2.8. The tissue drug content was measured after 3 day, 7 days, and 28 days and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. Histology samples were taken at 3 and 28 days to compare direct drug coated balloon treatment to cutting balloon pretreatment followed by drug coated balloon treatment.

Example 1-19. Preclinical study 7 pharmacokinetics, balloon residual drug content, lumen gain, and histology.



[0262] The dog tissue average drug concentration from the samples in Example 1-18 was 100 µg/g at day 3 and 62 µg/g at day 7 and 33 µg/g at day 28. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-18 ranged from 2-50%.

Example 1-20. Preclinical Study 8 Sample Preparation.



[0263] Thirty-nine balloon catheters (8 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length) were inflated to 3 atmospheres and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. The balloons were coated using Formulations 18, 19, and 23 from Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve 2.5 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for animal testing.

Example 1-21. Preclinical study 8 treatments.



[0264] For this study male dogs were used. Baseline urethrograms were taken to measure the inner diameter of the urethra treatment sites before drug coated balloon treatment. The treatment site diameters were approximately 3.5-4.5 mm. The balloon catheters were chosen such that the stretch ratio for the anterior urethra balloons was approximately 1.8-2.3. Drug coated balloon catheters prepared in Example 1-20 were used with nonoverlapping treatments in the pelvic, bulbar, and distal urethra just proximal of the os penis. The os penis urethra was not treated. Prior to inserting the catheter approximately 5 mL of saline was used to flush the urethra. The 8 mm nominal diameter balloons were inflated to 12 atmospheres at the treatment sites for 2 min to release drug and additive, then deflated and withdrawn from the dogs. The stretch ratio for the anterior urethra balloons was approximately 2.0-2.5. The tissue drug content was measured after 1 day and the residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed.

Example 1-22. Preclinical Study 8 tissue drug content and balloon residual drug content.



[0265] The dog tissue drug concentration from the pelvic urethra samples in Example 1-21 was 0.305, 1.17, 17.3, 33.4 µg/g at day 1. The dog tissue drug concentration from the bulbar urethra samples in Example 1-21 was 0.28, 4.31, 44.5, 57.8 µg/g at day 1. The dog tissue drug concentration from the distal urethra samples in Example 1-21 was 7.37, 38.9, 238, 268 µg/g at day 1. The average drug concentration from Formulations 18, 19, and 23 was 6.5, 33.6, and 137.7 µg/g, respectively, at day 1. The residual balloon content as a percent of the original drug loading from the samples in Example 1-21 ranged from 20.4-81.7%. The average residual balloon content as a percentage of the original drug loading from Formulations 18, 19, and 23 was 57.7%, 68.7%, and 51.9%, respectively.

Example 1-23. Bench-top drug release testing sample preparation.



[0266] Forty-nine balloon catheters (thirty-one 8 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, six 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, thirteen 12mm in diameter and 20 mm in length) were inflated to 3 atmospheres and wiped with an ethanol wipe to clean the balloon surface. The balloons were coated using various formulations (1-34) in Example 1-1 with sufficient coating solution to achieve either 2.5 or 3.5 microgram paclitaxel per square mm of balloon surface. The balloons were then dried, folded, sheathed, packaged in a Tyvek pouch and ethylene oxide sterilized in preparation for bench testing.

Example 1-24. Bench-top drug release testing.



[0267] A bench top drug release apparatus was developed that consisted of a 10 inch long by 2 inch diameter cylindrical vessel placed inside a temperature controlled water bath. The cylindrical vessel was filled with 0.9% saline and maintained at 37°C for the testing. An 8 French (i.e., wherein 3 French is 1 mm) by 13 cm long introducer sheath penetrated the top of the cylindrical vessel and was used as a conduit to pass balloon catheter samples into the cylindrical vessel. The samples developed in Example 1-22 were individually passed into the cylindrical vessel where they soaked for 1 minute prior to being inflated to 10 atmospheres for 1 minute and then withdrawn. The remaining drug on the balloon was analyzed to determine how much drug was released. The amount of drug released during this testing ranged from 37% to 97%.

Part II.


Example II-1. Bench testing with pig urethras.



[0268] The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a necked balloon design could prevent movement during inflation in an anatomical model.

[0269] Intact male porcine bladders and urethras were obtained from a local research facility. Balloon catheters were constructed with 20 mm diameter x 80 mm length 7233 PEBAX® balloons. Two balloon neck sections were created in the balloon using an UHMWPE suture. The suture was tied to the balloon at the desired location to prevent balloon expansion, thereby creating necks. Necks were positioned symmetrically along the length of the balloon splitting the 80 mm length into three about 20 mm body sections. Neck sections were sized to 10 mm lengths and were about 8 mm in diameter. Neck section lengths are measured from one larger body section to the adjacent larger body section. Balloons were attached to 10 Fr catheter shafts and were pleated/folded and placed in a sheath to facilitate insertion.

[0270] Intact pig urethra and bladders were placed in a 37 °C water bath to simulate body temperature. Balloon catheters were inserted through the urethra and positioned with the distal edge of the balloon located at the bladder neck. Balloons were inflated until visual evidence of a urethral split or to the maximum rated burst pressure (RBP) of 6 atm. Balloons were deflated immediately after the urethral split was confirmed. Inflation speed was varied across samples using 0.5 atm/min, 1.0 atm/min, and 2.0 atm/min. Total inflation time was between 3 and 10 minutes depending on the inflation speed.

[0271] Necked balloons for this study were able to prevent balloon movement during inflation. The stretch ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to the normative prostatic urethral diameter was between about 3.0-3.5. Additionally, this study indicated that inflation rate played a role in balloon movement. By inflating the balloon slower, and allowing the tissue to stress relax and yield, migration of the balloon into the bladder was further minimized. Rates of 0.5 atm/min and 1.0 atm/min had less balloon movement during inflation.

Part III. Testing of drug coated balloons in urethral strictures of human subjects.



[0272] The following Examples include embodiments of the use of medical devices with drug coating within the scope of the present invention. While the following examples are considered to embody the present invention, the examples should not be interpreted as limitations upon the present invention.

[0273] Materials. Drug coated balloon catheters with a dose density of 3.5 µg of paclitaxel per millimeter squared were used to treat human subjects that had stricture disease in a clinical study. The drug coated balloon catheters had nominal diameters of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 mm and lengths of 30 and 50 mm at nominal pressure of 6 atm. The paclitaxel (PTX) dosing per balloon size can be seen in Table 6.
Table 6. Paclitaxel (PTX) dosing per balloon size.
Diameter (mm)30 mm Length50 mm Length
6 1979 µg PTX 3299 µg PTX
8 2639 µg PTX 4398 µg PTX
10 3299 µg PTX 5498 µg PTX
12 3958 µg PTX 6597 µg PTX
14 4618 µg PTX 7697µg PTX


[0274] The drug coated balloon catheters had a dual lumen shaft design with a single inflatable balloon. One lumen was sized to accommodate a 0.038" guide wire lumen. The other lumen was the inflation port lumen and allows the balloon to be inflated with mixture of saline and contrast fluid. The drug coated balloon catheter had a manifold with two Luer style connections, one connection was compatible with an inflation syringe, the other allowed the guidewire to protrude out of the manifold so the balloon catheter could freely slide onto the guidewire. The 6 and 8 mm drug coated balloon catheters had a rated burst pressure of 12 atmospheres. The 10, 12, and 14 mm drug coated balloon catheters had a rated burst pressure of 10 atmospheres. The balloon was made of polyamide.

[0275] Uroflowemetry (Qmax measurement). Uroflowmetry is performed by urinating into a special urinal, toilet, or disposable device that has a measuring device built into it. The parameter, Qmax, is the maximum flow rate measured during a Uroflowmetery test. This method was used prior to treatment (baseline) and at follow-up visits of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months to demonstrate the longevity of the treatment.

[0276] International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). The IPSS is based on the answers to eight questions - seven regarding disease symptoms and one question related to the patient's quality of life: 1) Incomplete Emptying; How often have you had the sensation of not emptying your bladder? 2) Frequency; How often have you had to urinate less than every two hours? 3) Intermittency; How often have you found you stopped and started again several times when you urinated? 4) Urgency; How often have you found it difficult to postpone urination? 5) Weak Stream; How often have you had a weak urinary stream? 6) Straining; How often have you had to strain to start urination? 7) Nocturia; How many times did you typically get up at night to urinate? 8) Quality of Life Due to Urinary Symptoms; If you were to spend the rest of your life with your urinary condition just the way it is now, how would you feel about that? Although the IPSS was developed for BPH it can be applied to other bladder outlet obstructive diseases such as stricture to determine if obstructive symptoms are improved after a medical treatment. For the symptom questions, the patient is asked to choose the rating that best represents their condition. The scale ranges from 0 to 5, with 5 representing the most symptomatic disease. The seven symptom scores are summed to give an overall maximum possible score of 35. The answer to the quality of life question is scored on a scale of 0 to 6. According to these scoring systems, the scores can be categorized as follows: symptoms are mild if the score is 7 or less; symptoms are moderate if the score is 8 to 19; and symptoms are severe if the score is 20 to 35. This questionnaire was given prior to treatment (baseline) and at follow-up visits of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months to demonstrate the longevity of the treatment.

Example III-1. Human Clinical Subject A Treated with an Uncoated Predilation balloon followed by an 8 mm nominal Diameter Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0277] Subject A had a 1.5 cm length by 2.5 mm diameter stricture in his anterior urethra. Specifically, the bulbar portion of the anterior urethra. This was determined by conducting a retrograde urethragram. The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 4.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 25. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra. Then a guidewire was inserted into the working channel of the cystoscope. Next a predilation balloon that had a nominal diameter of 7 mm and a length of 20 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire and positioned so the balloon crossed the stricture. The predilation balloon was inflated to 14 atmospheres with a syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The syringe contained a mixture of saline and contrast media. A fluoroscopic image was acquired to ensure the balloon had a uniform expansion. Once this was confirmed the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the urethra. Next a drug coated balloon that had a nominal diameter of 8 mm and a length of 30 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire. The drug coated balloon was positioned such that the balloon body completely covered the predilated stricture area. The drug coated balloon was held in position for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The balloon was inflated to 11 atmospheres, achieved an inflated diameter of 8.5 mm, and was held at the inflation pressure for 5 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 8 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 1.1 to 1.4. The diameter of the dilated stricture was 7 mm after dilation. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 158 µg (6 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. Additionally, the urethral caliber of the human clinical subject was assessed at 6 months to determine if the urethra was greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) by visualizing and passing a flexible cystoscope past the previously treated area. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 50.0, 44.0, 35.0, and 32.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 6, 4, and 2 at follow-up visits of 30, 90, and 180 days respectively. The human clinical subject had a urethra caliber greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) at 6 months.

Example III-2. Human Clinical Subject B Treated with an Uncoated Predilation balloon followed by a 10 mm nominal Diameter Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0278] Subject B had a 1.5 cm length by 2.0 mm diameter stricture in his anterior urethra. Specifically, the bulbar portion of the anterior urethra. This was determined by conducting a retrograde urethragram. The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 2.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 24. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra. Then a guidewire was inserted into the working channel of the cystoscope. Next a predilation balloon that had a nominal diameter of 10 mm and a length of 20 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire and positioned so the balloon crossed the stricture. The predilation balloon was inflated to 20 atmospheres with a syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The syringe contained a mixture of saline and contrast media. A fluoroscopic image was acquired to ensure the balloon had a uniform expansion. Once this was confirmed the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the urethra. Next a drug coated balloon that had a nominal diameter of 10 mm and a length of 30 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire. The drug coated balloon was positioned such that the balloon body completely covered the predilated stricture area. The drug coated balloon was held in position for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The balloon was inflated to 10 atmospheres for 5 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 10 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 1.3 to 1.5. The diameter of the dilated stricture was 10 mm after dilation. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 315 µg (9.5 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, and 180 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. Additionally, the urethral caliber of the human clinical subject was assessed at 6 months to determine if the urethra was greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) by visualizing and passing a flexible cystoscope past the previously treated area. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 19.0, 13.0, 18.0, and 16.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 30, 90, and 180 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 2 at the 30 day follow-up visit. The human clinical subject had a urethra caliber greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) at 6 months.

Example III-3. Human Clinical Subject C Treated with Direct Visual Internal Urethrotomy (DVIU) followed by a 10 mm nominal diameter Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0279] Subject C had a 1.9 cm length by 2.0 mm diameter stricture in his anterior urethra. Specifically, the bulbar portion of the anterior urethra. This was determined by conducting a retrograde urethragram. The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 1.0 mL/second and an IPSS score of 24. First a resectoscope was inserted into the urethra. Then a guidewire was inserted into the working channel of the resectoscope. Next the resectoscope was used to cut the urethra at the 12 o'clock position to open the strictured urethra to greater than 20 French (6.7mm). The length of the cut was the length of the stricure. Next a drug coated balloon that had a nominal diameter of 10 mm and a length of 30 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire. The drug coated balloon was positioned such that the balloon body completely covered the cut stricture area. The drug coated balloon was held in position for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The balloon was inflated to 10 atmospheres for 5 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 10 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 1.3 to 1.5. The diameter of the dilated stricture was 9.5 mm after dilation. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 264 µg (8 percent of the initial drug load. The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, and 180 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. Additionally, the urethral caliber of the human clinical subject was assessed at 6 months to determine if the urethra was greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) by visualizing and passing a flexible cystoscope past the previously treated area. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 52.0, 52.0, 47.0, and 22.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 30, 90, and 180 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 0 at the 30 day follow-up visit. The human clinical subject had a urethra caliber greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) at 6 months.

Example III-4. Human Clinical Subject D Treated Directly with a Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0280] Subject D had a 1.7 cm length by 2.5 mm diameter stricture in his anterior urethra. Specifically, the bulbar portion of the anterior urethra. This was determined by conducting a retrograde urethragram. The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 3.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 27. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra. Then a guidewire was inserted into the working channel of the cystoscope. Next a drug coated balloon that had a nominal diameter of 10 mm and a length of 30 mm was inserted into the urethra over the guidewire. The drug coated balloon was positioned such that the balloon body centered on the stricture. The drug coated balloon was held in position for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe that had a pressure gage on it. The balloon was inflated to 10 atmospheres for 5 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated and withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 10 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 1.2 to 1.4. The diameter of the dilated stricture was 8 mm after dilation. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 99 µg (3 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. Additionally, the urethral caliber of the human clinical subject was assessed at 6 months to determine if the urethra was greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) by visualizing and passing a flexible cystoscope past the previously treated area. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 40.0, 37.0, 36.0, and 31.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 4, 2, 3, and 2 at follow-up visits of 30, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had a urethra caliber greater than 16 French (5.3 mm) at 6 months.

Part IV. Testing of drug coated balloons to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia in human subjects.



[0281] Materials. Drug coated balloon catheters with a dose density of 2.4 µg of paclitaxel per millimeter squared were used to treat human subjects that had stricture disease in a clinical study. The drug coated balloon catheters had nominal diameters of 30, 35, 40, and 45 mm and dilation lengths of 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 mm at a nominal inflation pressure of 2 atm. The paclitaxel (PTX) dosing per balloon size can be seen in Table 7.
Table 7. Paclitaxel (PTX) dosing per balloon size.
Diameter (mm)30 mm Length35 mm Length40 mm Length45 mm Length50 mm Length
30 9586 µg PTX 11004 µg PTX 12421 µg PTX 13839 µg PTX 15256 µg PTX
35 12403 µg PTX 13915 µg PTX 15238 µg PTX 16561 µg PTX 18073 µg PTX
40 15220 µg PTX 16543 µg PTX 18055 µg PTX 19567 µg PTX 20890 µg PTX
45 18037 µg PTX 19455 µg PTX 20872 µg PTX 22290 µg PTX 23707 µg PTX


[0282] The drug coated balloon catheters had a single lumen shaft design with a single inflatable balloon. The single lumen was the inflation port lumen that allows the balloon to be inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast fluid. The drug coated balloon catheter shaft had a manifold with a Luer-style connection that was compatible with an inflation syringe. The matrix of drug coated balloon catheters had a rated burst pressure of 4 atmospheres. Each drug coated balloon catheter had four distinct balloon features that provided special functionality. The four features were the proximal balloon lobe, the balloon neck, distal balloon lobe and the Coude tip. The proximal balloon lobe dilates the prostatic urethra when the balloon is inflated. The balloon neck anchors into the bladder neck during balloon inflation and prevents migration of the proximal balloon lobe into the bladder. The balloon neck is reinforced with ultra high molecular weight high density polyethylene (UHMHDPE) fibers that wrap around the balloon neck and are fixed in place. The balloon neck reinforcement ensures the balloon neck does not grow in diameter as the balloon is inflated. The distal balloon lobe is used for positioning and also provides dilation of the bladder neck and any intra prostatic protrusion present during balloon inflation. The balloon is made of a higher durometer polyethylene oxide polyamide block copolymer (74D PEBAX®). The Coude tip is a specially curved tip that allows the catheter to be tracked in the prostatic urethra. The Coude tip was made of silicone rubber. The balloon portion of the catheter was pleat and folded down to a caliber of 19 French. Each catheter had a delivery sheath placed over the catheter. The delivery sheath had two functions. One was to cover and protect the balloon. The other is to form a smooth cylindrical catheter body that allows the balloon catheter to be tracked into the urethra and positioned into the prostatic urethra.

[0283] Uroflowemetry (Qmax measurement) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) were measured using the techniques described herein in Part III.

Example IV-1. Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with a 35 mm by 35 mm Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0284] Human subject A had a 3.5 cm length prostatic urethra, 3.7 cm width prostate and 4.0 cm height prostate. The subject's prostate size was 38 grams. This was determined by conducting trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 5.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 27. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra to survey for urethra stricture, view and assess prostatic obstruction due to BPH, and to also gather fluoroscopy images of anatomical landmarks such as the bladder neck and the external sphincter. Then the cystoscope was removed, and the drug coated balloon was inserted into the urethra and tracked so the Coude tip was in the bladder. Next the delivery sheath was removed to expose the drug coated balloon and the cystoscope was inserted side by side with the catheter shaft. Next the position of the drug coated balloon was slightly adjusted such that the proximal bond of the balloon was adjacent to the external sphincter. The balloon was held uninflated for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the drug coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe with pressure gage. The balloon was inflated till the anterior commissure of the prostate was separated. This occurred at a pressure of 2 atmospheres. When the anterior commissure was split the pressure dropped because the balloon expanded further. The balloon was inflated further to 4 atmospheres and held for 10 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated, and the delivery sheath was inserted into the urethra to recapture the balloon into it. The video image from the cystoscope showed the prostatic urethra was at least 12-22 mm after dilation. Finally, the catheter was withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 35 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 4.4 to 4.8. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 214 µg (3 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 40.0, 37.0, 36.0, and 31.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 4, 2, 3, and 2 at follow-up visits of 30, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively.

Example IV-2. Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with a 35 mm by 45 mm Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0285] Human subject B had a 4.6 cm length prostatic urethra, 3.9 cm width prostate and 4.1 cm height prostate. The subject's prostate size was 72.5 grams. This was determined by conducting trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 14.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 19. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra to survey for urethra stricture, to view and assess prostatic obstruction due to BPH, and to also gather fluoroscopy images of anatomical landmarks such as the bladder neck and the external sphincter. Then the cystoscope was removed, and the drug coated balloon was inserted into the urethra and tracked so the Coude tip was in the bladder. Next the delivery sheath was removed to expose the drug coated balloon and the cystoscope was inserted side by side with the catheter shaft. Next the position of the drug coated balloon was slightly adjusted such that the proximal bond of the balloon was adjacent to the external sphincter. The balloon was held uninflated for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the drug coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe with pressure gage. The balloon was inflated till the anterior commissure of the prostate was separated. This occurred at a pressure of 2 atmospheres. When the anterior commissure was split the pressure dropped because the balloon expanded further. The balloon was inflated further to 4 atmospheres and held for 10 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated, and the delivery sheath was inserted into the urethra to recapture the balloon into it. The video image from the cystoscope showed the prostatic urethra was at least 20-30 mm after dilation. Finally, the catheter was withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 35 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 4.4 to 4.8. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 167 µg (3 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 23.0, 24.0, 25.0, 21.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 7, 7, 6, and 5 at follow-up visits of 30, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively.

Example IV-3. Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with a 40 mm by 45 mm Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0286] Human subject C had a 4.8 cm length prostatic urethra, 5.0 cm width prostate and 3.9 cm height prostate. The subject's prostate size was 50 grams. This was determined by conducting trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 12.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 29. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra to survey for urethra stricture, to view and assess prostatic obstruction due to BPH, and to also gather fluoroscopy images of anatomical landmarks such as the bladder neck and the external sphincter. Then the cystoscope was removed, and the drug coated balloon was inserted into the urethra and tracked so the Coude tip was in the bladder. Next the delivery sheath was removed to expose the drug coated balloon and the cystoscope was inserted side by side with the catheter shaft. Next the position of the drug coated balloon was slightly adjusted such that the proximal bond of the balloon was adjacent to the external sphincter. The balloon was held uninflated for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the drug coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe with pressure gage. The balloon was inflated till the anterior commissure of the prostate was separated. This occurred at a pressure of 2 atmospheres. When the anterior commissure was split the pressure dropped because the balloon expanded further. The balloon was inflated further to 4 atmospheres and held for 10 minutes. Then the balloon was deflated, and the delivery sheath was inserted into the urethra to recapture the balloon into it. The video image from the cystoscope showed the prostatic urethra was at least 23-33 mm after dilation. Finally, the catheter was withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 40 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 4.0 to 5.0. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 312 µg (3 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 21.0, 25.0, 26.0, and 23.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 12, 8, 6, and 4 at follow-up visits of 30, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively.

Example IV-4. Treatment of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia with a 35 mm by 35 mm Uncoated Balloon Catheter followed a 40 mm by 45 mm Drug Coated Balloon Catheter.



[0287] Human subject D had a 4.1 cm length prostatic urethra, 3.7 cm width prostate and 2.6 cm height prostate. The subject's prostate size was 21 grams. This was determined by conducting trans rectal ultrasound (TRUS). The human clinical subject had a baseline Qmax (maximum urine flow rate) of 14.0 mL/second and a baseline IPSS score of 33. First a cystoscope was inserted into the urethra to survey for anterior urethra stricture and to also gather fluoroscopy images of anatomical landmarks such as the bladder neck and the external sphincter. Then the cystoscope was removed, and the uncoated balloon catheter was inserted into the urethra and tracked so the Coude tip was in the bladder. Next the delivery sheath was removed to expose the uncoated balloon and the cystoscope was inserted side by side with the catheter shaft. Next the position of the uncoated balloon was slightly adjusted such that the proximal bond of the balloon was adjacent to the external sphincter. Then the uncoated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe with pressure gage. The balloon was inflated till the anterior commissure of the prostate was separated. This occurred at a pressure of 2 atmospheres. When the anterior commissure was split the pressure dropped because the balloon expanded further. The balloon was inflated further to 3 atmospheres and held for 2 minutes. Then the cystoscope was removed, and the uncoated balloon was recaptured using the delivery sheath and removed. Next the drug coated balloon was inserted into the urethra and tracked so the Coude tip was in the bladder. Then the delivery sheath was removed to expose the drug coated balloon and the cystoscope was inserted side by side with the catheter shaft. Next the position of the drug coated balloon was slightly adjusted such that the proximal bond of the balloon was adjacent to the external sphincter. The balloon was held uninflated for at least 1 minute prior to inflating to hydrate the drug coating. Then the drug coated balloon was inflated with a mixture of saline and contrast media using the syringe with pressure gage. The balloon was inflated to 4 atmospheres and held for 10 minutes. The video image from the cystoscope showed the prostatic urethra was at least 20-30 mm after dilation. Then the balloon was deflated, and the delivery sheath was inserted into the urethra to recapture the balloon into it. Finally, the catheter was withdrawn from the human subject. The stretch ratio for the 40 mm nominal diameter drug coated balloon was 4.0 to 5.0. The residual drug remaining on the balloon after use was analyzed. The residual amount of paclitaxel left on the balloon was 247 µg (5 percent of the initial drug load). The human clinical subject had follow-up visits at 14, 30, 90, 180, and 365 days to measure maximum urine flow rate and IPSS score. The human clinical subject had a maximum urine flow rate of 27.0, 32.0, 36.0, and 32.0 mL/second at follow-up visits of 14, 90, 180, and 365 days respectively. The human clinical subject had an IPSS of 10, 8, 7, and 6 at follow-up visits of 30, 90,180, and 365 days respectively.


Claims

1. A drug-coated balloon catheter for delivering a therapeutic agent to a target site of a body lumen stricture, the balloon catheter comprising:

an elongated balloon having a main diameter, wherein the elongated balloon has a length of 20 mm to 160 mm; and

a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon, wherein the coating layer comprises one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent, wherein the balloon comprises at least one neck section on the balloon comprising a smaller diameter than the main diameter when the balloon is inflated, the at least one neck section dividing the balloon into at least two main sections each having a diameter, and

wherein the therapeutic agent is chosen from paclitaxel, docetaxel, sirolimus, everolimus, tacrolimus, mTOR inhibitors, and combinations thereof.


 
2. The balloon catheter of claim 1, wherein the diameter of the at least two main sections are 5 mm to 45 mm.
 
3. The balloon catheter of claim 1,

(a) wherein the at least one neck section is one neck section and the balloon is free of other neck sections; or

(b) wherein the at least one neck section is two neck sections and the balloon is free of other neck sections, and
wherein the balloon catheter comprises three of the main sections separated by the two neck sections; or

(c) wherein the at least one neck section is three neck sections, wherein the balloon is free of other neck sections,

preferably wherein the three neck sections are arranged to provide four of the main sections separated by the three neck sections.
 
4. Drug-coated balloon catheter according to claim 1 for use in treating a body lumen stricture, the use comprising:

inserting a balloon catheter into a target site in the body lumen stricture, the balloon catheter comprising

an elongated balloon, and

a coating layer overlying an exterior surface of the balloon, wherein the coating layer comprises one or more water-soluble additives and an initial drug load of a therapeutic agent;

inflating the balloon until the coating layer contacts walls of the body lumen at the target site and the balloon achieves an inflated balloon diameter for an inflation period, wherein

a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter, or

d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c);

deflating the balloon after the inflation period; and

withdrawing the balloon catheter from the body lumen.


 
5. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the balloon catheter comprises an elongated balloon having a proximal waist, a distal waist, a main body diameter and at least one neck section on the balloon comprising a smaller diameter than the main diameter when the balloon is inflated, the at least one neck section dividing the balloon into at least two main sections each having a diameter; preferably
wherein the body lumen is a prostate, wherein inserting the balloon catheter comprises positioning one of the balloon catheter main sections in the prostate and positioning a second main section of the balloon catheter in the bladder; further preferably
wherein the inserting comprises positioning the at least one neck section of the balloon in the bladder neck.
 
6. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4,

(a) further comprising, prior to the insertion of the balloon to the target site, flushing the body lumen with water, saline solution, or a water solution comprising at least one water soluble additive; or

(b) wherein the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a first pressure, allowing pressure within the balloon to stabilize while maintaining the first pressure in the balloon for a stabilization period, then resuming increasing pressure in the balloon until a desired inflation diameter is achieved; or

(c) wherein the inflation period is from 0.1 minutes to 7 days; or

(d) wherein the use is a useof treating a vascular lumen, a nonvascular lumen, a coronary artery, a peripheral artery, a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stricture, a urethra, a ureter, a prostate, an esophagus, a stricture in a stent, a biliary tract, a stomach, a small intestine, a duodenum, a jejunum, an ileum, a colon, a rectum, a large intestine, a sinus, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); or

(d) wherein the use is a use of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia; or

(e) wherein the stricture in the body lumen is one of urethral strictures, a benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) stricture, a ureteral stricture, an esophageal stricture, a stricture in a stent, a sinus stricture, a biliary tract stricture, stomach strictures, small intestine strictures, duodenum strictures, jejunum strictures, ileum strictures, colon strictures, rectum strictures, large intestine strictures, prostatic cancer strictures, and airway strictures; or

(f) wherein the use is a use of treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, or a combination thereof, wherein the body lumen is a prostate; or

(g) wherein a scope is used to properly position the balloon catheter.


 
7. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 5, wherein the body lumen is the prostatic urethra and wherein when inserting the balloon catheter to the target site a scope is used to position the proximal waist of the balloon catheter within the external sphincter of the prostatic urethra.
 
8. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the balloon catheter has a ratio of inflated balloon diameter to normative body lumen diameter at the target site of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, or 1.31 to 10, or the balloon catheter has a stretch ratio of the nominal balloon diameter to the normative body lumen diameter at the target site of 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, or 1.31 to 10, or a combination thereof.
 
9. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is increasing Qmax,
wherein the body lumen stricture comprises a urinary tract stricture; and
wherein the method increases Qmax to a minimum of 15 mL/s.
 
10. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is decreasing International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS):

wherein the body lumen stricture comprises a urinary tract stricture; and

wherein the method decreases the IPSS to 14 or less.


 
11. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is in a method of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia comprising:

inserting a drug coated balloon catheter sheath assembly and a scope;

putting the scope and balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter;

removing the sheath from over the balloon and slowly inflating until the pressure drops, the prostatic tissue yields and the commissurotomy is created;

increasing the pressure further to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more;

keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding;

deflating the balloon catheter and covering the balloon with the sheath; and

withdrawing the scope and balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen, wherein

a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter, or

d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).


 
12. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is in a method of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia comprising:

inserting an uncoated balloon catheter sheath assembly and a scope;

putting the scope and balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter;

removing the sheath from over the balloon and slowly inflating until the pressure drops, the prostatic tissue yields and the commissurotomy is created;

increasing the pressure further to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more;

keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days to prevent bleeding;

deflating the uncoated balloon catheter and covering the balloon with the sheath;

withdrawing the scope and uncoated balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen;

inserting a drug coated balloon catheter sheath assembly and the scope;

putting the scope and drug coated balloon catheter side by side near the external sphincter;

removing the sheath from over the drug coated balloon and slowly inflating to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more; and

keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding, wherein

a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter, or

d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).


 
13. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is treating benign prostate hyperplasia:

wherein the body lumen comprises the prostate;

wherein the prostatic urethra and prostate is split and the prostatic urethra diameter is at least 12 mm, and wherein the inflated diameter of the balloon catheter is at least 25 mm.


 
14. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is treating a urethral stricture:

wherein the body lumen comprises the urethra

wherein the urethra diameter after dilation is at least 6.7 mm, and the inflated diameter of the balloon catheter is at least 7 mm.


 
15. The drug-coated balloon catheter for use according to claim 4, wherein the use is in a method of splitting an enlarged prostate or creating a commissurotomy for treating benign prostate hyperplasia comprising:

inserting a drug coated balloon catheter sheath assembly and a scope;

putting the scope and balloon catheter near the external sphincter;

removing the sheath from over the balloon and slowly inflating until the pressure drops, the prostatic tissue yields and the commissurotomy is created;

increasing the pressure further to rated burst pressure to dilate the prostate more;

keeping the balloon inflated for 1 minute to 7 days to release the drug into tissue and to prevent bleeding;

deflating the balloon catheter and covering the balloon with the sheath; and

withdrawing the scope and balloon catheter assembly from the body lumen, wherein

a) the ratio of the inflated balloon diameter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

b) the inflating comprises inflating the balloon to a pressure equal to or greater than a nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the stretch ratio of a nominal diameter of the balloon catheter to a normative body lumen diameter at the target site is 1.0 to 20, or

c) the inflating comprises inflating to a pressure greater than the nominal pressure of the balloon catheter, and the nominal diameter of the balloon catheter is less than the inflated balloon diameter, or

d) a combination of (a), (b), and (c).


 


Ansprüche

1. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verabreichung eines therapeutischen Mittels an eine Zielstelle einer Körperlumenverengung, wobei der Ballonkatheter umfasst:

einem länglichen Ballon mit einem Hauptdurchmesser, wobei der längliche Ballon eine Länge von 20 mm bis 160 mm hat; und

eine Beschichtungsschicht, die über einer äußeren Oberfläche des Ballons liegt, wobei die Beschichtungsschicht ein oder mehrere wasserlösliche Additive und eine anfängliche Arzneimittelbeladung eines therapeutischen Mittels umfasst, wobei der Ballon mindestens einen Halsabschnitt auf dem Ballon umfasst, der einen kleineren Durchmesser als den Hauptdurchmesser umfasst, wenn der Ballon aufgeblasen ist, wobei der mindestens eine Halsabschnitt den Ballon in mindestens zwei Hauptabschnitte unterteilt, die jeweils einen Durchmesser haben, und

wobei das therapeutische Mittel ausgewählt ist aus Paclitaxel, Docetaxel, Sirolimus, Everolimus, Tacrolimus, mTOR-Inhibitoren, und Kombinationen davon.


 
2. Ballonkatheter nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Durchmesser der mindestens zwei Hauptabschnitte 5 mm bis 45 mm beträgt.
 
3. Ballonkatheter nach Anspruch 1,

(a) wobei der mindestens eine Halsabschnitt ein Halsabschnitt ist und der Ballon frei von anderen Halsabschnitten ist; oder

(b) wobei der mindestens eine Halsabschnitt aus zwei Halsabschnitten besteht und der Ballon frei von anderen Halsabschnitten ist, und
wobei der Ballonkatheter drei der Hauptabschnitte umfasst, die durch die beiden Halsabschnitte getrennt sind; oder

(c) wobei der mindestens eine Halsabschnitt aus drei Halsabschnitten besteht, wobei der Ballon frei von anderen Halsabschnitten ist,

vorzugsweise wobei die drei Halsabschnitte so angeordnet sind, dass vier der Hauptabschnitte durch die drei Halsabschnitte getrennt sind.
 
4. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter nach Anspruch 1 zur Verwendung bei der Behandlung einer Körperlumenverengung, wobei die Verwendung umfasst:

Einführen eines Ballonkatheters in eine Zielstelle in der Verengung des Körperlumens, wobei der Ballonkatheter umfasst

einem länglichen Ballon und

eine Beschichtungsschicht, die über einer äußeren Oberfläche des Ballons liegt, wobei die Beschichtungsschicht ein oder mehrere wasserlösliche Additive und eine anfängliche Arzneimittelbeladung eines therapeutischen Mittels umfasst;

Aufblasen des Ballons, bis die Beschichtungsschicht die Wände des Körperlumens an der Zielstelle berührt und der Ballon einen aufgeblasenen Ballondurchmesser für eine Aufblaszeit erreicht, wobei

a) das Verhältnis des Durchmessers des aufgeblasenen Ballons zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

b) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen des Ballons auf einen Druck umfasst, der gleich oder größer als ein Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und das Dehnungsverhältnis eines Nenndurchmessers des Ballonkatheters zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

c) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen auf einen Druck umfasst, der größer als der Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und der Nenndurchmesser des Ballonkatheters kleiner als der aufgeblasene Ballondurchmesser ist, oder

d) eine Kombination aus (a), (b) und (c);

das Entleeren des Ballons nach der Aufblaszeit; und

Zurückziehen des Ballonkatheters aus dem Körperlumen.


 
5. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei der Ballonkatheter einen länglichen Ballon mit einer proximalen Taille, einer distalen Taille, einem Hauptkörperdurchmesser und mindestens einen Halsabschnitt am Ballon umfasst, der einen kleineren Durchmesser als der Hauptdurchmesser umfasst, wenn der Ballon aufgeblasen ist, wobei der mindestens eine Halsabschnitt den Ballon in mindestens zwei Hauptabschnitte unterteilt, die jeweils einen Durchmesser aufweisen; vorzugsweise
wobei das Körperlumen eine Prostata ist, wobei das Einführen des Ballonkatheters das Positionieren eines der Hauptabschnitte des Ballonkatheters in der Prostata und das Positionieren eines zweiten Hauptabschnitts des Ballonkatheters in der Blase umfasst; ferner vorzugsweise
wobei das Einführen das Positionieren des mindestens einen Halsabschnitts des Ballons im Blasenhals umfasst.
 
6. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4,

(a) der ferner vor dem Einführen des Ballons an den Zielort eine Spülung des Körperlumens mit Wasser, Kochsalzlösung oder einer Wasserlösung, die mindestens einen wasserlöslichen Zusatzstoff enthält, umfasst; oder

(b) wobei das Aufblasen das Aufblasen des Ballons auf einen ersten Druck, wodurch sich der Druck innerhalb des Ballons stabilisieren kann, während der erste Druck im Ballon für eine Stabilisierungsperiode aufrechterhalten wird, und dann die Wiederaufnahme des Druckanstiegs im Ballon, bis ein gewünschter Aufblasdurchmesser erreicht ist, umfasst; oder

(c) wobei die Aufblaszeit von 0,1 Minuten bis 7 Tage beträgt; oder

(d) wobei die Verwendung eine Verwendung zur Behandlung eines vaskulären Lumens, eines nichtvaskulären Lumens, einer Koronararterie, einer peripheren Arterie, einer Striktur der benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH), einer Harnröhre, eines Harnleiters, einer Prostata, einer Speiseröhre, einer Verengung in einem Stent, eines Gallenwegs, eines Magens, eines Dünndarms, eines Zwölffingerdarms, eines Jejunums, eines Ileums, eines Kolons, eines Rektums, eines Dickdarms, eines Sinus, Asthma oder einer chronisch obstruktiven Lungenerkrankung (COPD) ist; oder

(d) wobei die Verwendung eine Verwendung der Spaltung einer vergrößerten Prostata oder der Schaffung einer Kommissurotomie zur Behandlung von gutartiger Prostatahyperplasie ist; oder

(e) wobei die Verengung im Körperlumen eine der folgenden Verengungen ist: Harnröhrenverengung, eine Verengung der benignen Prostatahyperplasie (BPH), eine Verengung der Harnröhre, eine Verengung der Speiseröhre, eine Verengung in einem Stent, eine Verengung der Nasennebenhöhlen, eine Verengung der Gallenwege, Magenstrikturen, Dünndarmstrikturen, Zwölffingerdarmstrikturen, Jejunumstrikturen, Ileumstrikturen, Kolonstrikturen, Rektumstrikturen, Dickdarmstrikturen, Prostatakrebsstrikturen und Atemwegsstrikturen; oder

(f) wobei die Verwendung eine Verwendung zur Behandlung von benigner Prostatahyperplasie, Prostatakrebs oder einer Kombination davon ist, wobei das Körperlumen eine Prostata ist; oder

(g) wobei ein Endoskop zur korrekten Positionierung des Ballonkatheters verwendet wird.


 
7. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 5, wobei das Körperlumen die prostatische Harnröhre ist und wobei beim Einführen des Ballonkatheters an den Zielort ein Endoskop verwendet wird, um die proximale Taille des Ballonkatheters innerhalb des äußeren Schließmuskels der prostatischen Harnröhre zu positionieren.
 
8. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei der Ballonkatheter ein Verhältnis von aufgeblasenem Ballondurchmesser zu normativem Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle von 1,0, 1,1, 1,2 oder 1,31 bis 10 aufweist oder der Ballonkatheter ein Dehnungsverhältnis des nominalen Ballondurchmessers zu dem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle von 1,0, 1,1, 1,2 oder 1,31 bis 10 oder eine Kombination davon aufweist.
 
9. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung Qmax erhöht,
wobei die Körperlumenverengung eine Harnwegsverengung umfasst; und
wobei das Verfahren Qmax auf ein Minimum von 15 mL/s erhöht.
 
10. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung den International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) senkt:

wobei die Körperlumenverengung eine Harnwegssverengung umfasst; und

wobei das Verfahren den IPSS auf 14 oder weniger verringert.


 
11. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Spaltung einer vergrößerten Prostata oder zur Schaffung einer Kommissurotomie zur Behandlung von benigner Prostatahyperplasie besteht, umfassend:

Einführen einer arzneimittelbeschichteten Ballonkatheter-Hülseneinheit und eines Endoskop;

Nebeneinanderlegen von Endoskop und Ballonkatheter in der Nähe des äußeren Schließmuskels;

die Hülse über dem Ballon entfernen und langsam aufblasen, bis der Druck abfällt, das Prostatagewebe nachgibt und die Kommissurotomie angelegt wird;

den Druck weiter auf den Nennberstdruck zu erhöhen, um die Prostata weiter zu dehnen;

den Ballon 1 Minute bis 7 Tage lang aufgeblasen halten, um das Medikament im Gewebe freizusetzen und Blutungen zu verhindern;

Entleeren des Ballonkatheters und Bedecken des Ballons mit der Hülse; und

Zurückziehen des Endoskopes und der Ballonkatheteranordnung aus dem Körperlumen, wobei

a) das Verhältnis des Durchmessers des aufgeblasenen Ballons zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

b) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen des Ballons auf einen Druck umfasst, der gleich oder größer als ein Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und das Dehnungsverhältnis eines Nenndurchmessers des Ballonkatheters zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

c) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen auf einen Druck umfasst, der größer als der Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und der Nenndurchmesser des Ballonkatheters kleiner als der aufgeblasene Ballondurchmesser ist, oder

d) eine Kombination aus (a), (b) und (c).


 
12. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Spaltung einer vergrößerten Prostata oder zur Schaffung einer Kommissurotomie zur Behandlung von benigner Prostatahyperplasie besteht, umfassend:

Einführen einer unbeschichteten Ballonkatheter-Hülseneinheit und eines Endoskopes;

Nebeneinanderlegen von Endoskop und Ballonkatheter in der Nähe des äußeren Schließmuskels;

die Hülse über dem Ballon entfernen und langsam aufblasen, bis der Druck abfällt, das Prostatagewebe nachgibt und die Kommissurotomie angelegt wird;

den Druck weiter auf den Nennberstdruck erhöhen, um die Prostata weiter zu dehnen;

den Ballon 1 Minute bis 7 Tage lang aufgeblasen halten, um Blutungen zu verhindern;

Entleeren des unbeschichteten Ballonkatheters und Abdecken des Ballons mit der Hülse;

Zurückziehen des Endoskopes und der unbeschichteten Ballonkatheteranordnung aus dem Körperlumen;

Einführen einer medikamentenbeschichteten Ballonkatheter-Hülsenanordnung und des Endoskopes;

Nebeneinanderlegen des Endoskopes und des medikamentenbeschichteten Ballonkatheters in der Nähe des äußeren Schließmuskels;

Entfernen der Hülse über dem medikamentenbeschichteten Ballon und langsames Aufblasen auf den Nennberstdruck, um die Prostata weiter zu dehnen; und

aufgeblasen Halten des Ballons für 1 Minute bis 7 Tage, um das Medikament in das Gewebe freizusetzen und Blutungen zu verhindern, wobei

a) das Verhältnis des Durchmessers des aufgeblasenen Ballons zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

b) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen des Ballons auf einen Druck umfasst, der gleich oder größer als ein Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und das Dehnungsverhältnis eines Nenndurchmessers des Ballonkatheters zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

c) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen auf einen Druck umfasst, der größer als der Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und der Nenndurchmesser des Ballonkatheters kleiner als der aufgeblasene Ballondurchmesser ist, oder

d) eine Kombination aus (a), (b) und (c).


 
13. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung die Behandlung der benignen Prostatahyperplasie ist:

wobei das Körperlumen die Prostata umfasst;

wobei die prostatische Harnröhre und Prostata gespalten ist und der Durchmesser der prostatischen Harnröhre mindestens 12 mm beträgt, und wobei der aufgeblasene Durchmesser des Ballonkatheters mindestens 25 mm beträgt.


 
14. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung die Behandlung einer Harnröhrenverengung ist:

wobei das Körperlumen die Harnröhre umfasst

wobei der Harnröhrendurchmesser nach der Dilatation mindestens 6,7 mm und der aufgeblasene Durchmesser des Ballonkatheters mindestens 7 mm beträgt.


 
15. Arzneimittelbeschichteter Ballonkatheter zur Verwendung nach Anspruch 4, wobei die Verwendung in einem Verfahren zur Spaltung einer vergrößerten Prostata oder zur Schaffung einer Kommissurotomie zur Behandlung von benigner Prostatahyperplasie erfolgt, umfassend:

Einführen einer arzneimittelbeschichteten Ballonkatheter-Hülseneinheit und eines Endoskopes;

Platzieren des Endoskopes und des Ballonkatheters in der Nähe des äußeren Schließmuskels;

die Hülse über dem Ballon entfernen und langsam aufblasen, bis der Druck abfällt, das Prostatagewebe nachgibt und die Kommissurotomie angelegt wird;

den Druck weiter auf den Nennberstdruck erhöhen, um die Prostata weiter zu dehnen;

den Ballon 1 Minute bis 7 Tage lang aufgeblasen halten, um das Medikament im Gewebe freizusetzen und Blutungen zu verhindern;

Entleeren des Ballonkatheters und Bedecken des Ballons mit der Hülse; und

Zurückziehen des Endoskopes und der Ballonkatheteranordnung aus dem Körperlumen, wobei

a) das Verhältnis des Durchmessers des aufgeblasenen Ballons zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

b) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen des Ballons auf einen Druck umfasst, der gleich oder größer als ein Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und das Dehnungsverhältnis eines Nenndurchmessers des Ballonkatheters zu einem normativen Körperlumendurchmesser an der Zielstelle 1,0 bis 20 beträgt, oder

c) das Aufblasen das Aufblasen auf einen Druck umfasst, der größer als der Nenndruck des Ballonkatheters ist, und der Nenndurchmesser des Ballonkatheters kleiner als der aufgeblasene Ballondurchmesser ist, oder

d) eine Kombination aus (a), (b) und (c).


 


Revendications

1. Un cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour délivrer un agent thérapeutique à un site cible d'un rétrécissement d'un lumen corporel, le cathéter à ballonnet comprenant :

un ballonnet allongé ayant un diamètre principal, le ballonnet allongé ayant une longueur allant de 20 mm à 160 mm ; et

une couche de revêtement recouvrant une surface extérieure du ballonnet, la couche de revêtement comprenant un ou plusieurs additifs hydrosolubles et une charge médicamenteuse initiale d'un agent thérapeutique, le ballonnet comprenant au moins une portion de col sur le ballonnet comprenant un diamètre plus petit que le diamètre principal lorsque le ballonnet est gonflé, ladite au moins une portion de col divisant le ballonnet en au moins deux portions principales ayant chacune un diamètre, et

l'agent thérapeutique étant choisi parmi le paclitaxel, le docétaxel, le sirolimus, l'évérolimus, le tacrolimus, les inhibiteurs de mTOR, et

les combinaisons de ceux-ci.


 
2. Le cathéter à ballonnet selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le diamètre desdites au moins deux portions principales est compris entre 5 mm et 45 mm.
 
3. Le cathéter à ballonnet selon la revendication 1,

a) dans lequel ladite au moins une portion de col est constituée par une seule portion de col et le ballonnet est exempt d'autres portions de col ; ou

(b) dans lequel ladite au moins une portion de col est constituée par deux portions de col et le ballonnet est exempt d'autres portions de col, et
le cathéter à ballonnet comprenant trois des portions principales séparées par les deux portions de col ; ou

(c) dans lequel ladite au moins une portion de col est constituée par trois portions de col, le ballonnet étant exempt d'autres portions de col,

les trois portions de col étant de préférence agencées de manière à fournir quatre des portions principales séparées par les trois portions de col.
 
4. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament selon la revendication 1 pour une utilisation dans le traitement d'un rétrécissement d'un lumen corporel, l'utilisation comprenant :

le fait d'insérer un cathéter à ballonnet dans un site cible dans le rétrécissement du lumen corporel, le cathéter à ballonnet comprenant

un ballonnet allongé, et

une couche de revêtement recouvrant une surface extérieure du ballonnet, la couche de revêtement comprenant un ou plusieurs additifs hydrosolubles et une charge médicamenteuse initiale d'un agent thérapeutique ;

le fait de gonfler le ballonnet jusqu'à ce que la couche de revêtement entre en contact avec les parois du lumen corporel au niveau du site cible et que le ballonnet atteigne un diamètre de ballonnet gonflé pendant une période de gonflage ;

a) le rapport entre le diamètre de ballonnet gonflé et le diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

b) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler le ballonnet à une pression égale ou supérieure à une pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le rapport d'étirement d'un diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet à un diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

c) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler à une pression supérieure à la pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet étant inférieur au diamètre du ballonnet gonflé, ou

d) l'utilisation comprenant une combinaison de (a), (b) et (c) ;

le fait de dégonfler du ballonnet après la période de gonflage ; et

le fait de retirer le cathéter à ballonnet du lumen corporel.


 
5. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le cathéter à ballonnet comprend un ballonnet allongé ayant une taille proximale, une taille distale, un diamètre de corps principal et au moins une portion de col sur le ballonnet, comprenant un diamètre plus petit que le diamètre principal lorsque le ballonnet est gonflé, ladite au moins une portion de col divisant le ballonnet en au moins deux portions principales ayant chacune un diamètre ; de préférence
le lumen corporel étant une prostate, l'insertion du cathéter à ballonnet comprenant le fait de positionner une des portions principales du cathéter à ballonnet dans la prostate et de positionner une deuxième portion principale du cathéter à ballonnet dans la vessie ; de préférence, en outre,
l'insertion comprenant le fait de positionner ladite au moins une portion du col du ballonnet dans le col de la vessie.
 
6. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4,

(a) comprenant en outre, avant l'insertion du ballonnet dans le site cible, le rinçage du lumen corporel avec de l'eau, une solution saline ou une solution aqueuse comprenant au moins un additif hydrosoluble ; ou

(b) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler le ballonnet à une première pression, permettant à la pression à l'intérieur du ballonnet de se stabiliser tout en maintenant la première pression dans le ballonnet pendant une période de stabilisation, puis en reprenant l'augmentation de la pression dans le ballonnet jusqu'à ce qu'un diamètre de gonflage souhaité soit atteint ; ou

(c) la période de gonflage étant comprise entre 0,1 minute et 7 jours ; ou

(d) l'utilisation étant une utilisation pour traiter un lumen vasculaire, un lumen non vasculaire, une artère coronaire, une artère périphérique, un rétrécissement de l'hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate (HBP), un urètre, un uretère, une prostate, un œsophage, un rétrécissement dans un stent, une voie biliaire, un estomac, un intestin grêle, un duodénum, un jéjunum, un iléon, un côlon, un rectum, un gros intestin, un sinus, l'asthme ou une maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique (MPOC) ; ou

(d) l'utilisation étant une utilisation consistant à diviser une prostate élargie ou à créer une commissurotomie pour traiter une hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate ; ou

(e) le rétrécissement dans le lumen corporel étant une sténose urétrale, une sténose hyperplasique bénigne de la prostate (HBP), une sténose urétérale, une sténose œsophagienne, une sténose dans un stent, une sténose des sinus, une sténose des voies biliaires, des sténoses stomacales, des rétrécissements de l'intestin grêle, des rétrécissements du duodénum, des rétrécissements du jéjunum, des rétrécissements de l'iléon, des rétrécissements du côlon, des rétrécissements du rectum, des rétrécissements du gros intestin, des rétrécissements dus au cancer de la prostate et des rétrécissements des voies respiratoires ; ou

(f) l'utilisation étant une utilisation pour traiter l'hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate, le cancer de la prostate, ou une combinaison de ceux-ci, le lumen corporel étant une prostate ; ou

(g) un scope étant utilisé pour positionner correctement le cathéter à ballonnet.


 
7. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 5, le lumen corporel étant l'urètre prostatique et, lors de l'insertion du cathéter à ballonnet sur le site cible, un scope étant utilisé pour positionner la taille proximale du cathéter à ballonnet à l'intérieur du sphincter externe de l'urètre prostatique.
 
8. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le cathéter à ballonnet a un rapport entre le diamètre du ballonnet gonflé et le diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible de 1,0, 1,1, 1,2 ou 1,31 à 10, ou le cathéter à ballonnet a un rapport d'étirement du diamètre nominal du ballonnet au diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible de 1,0, 1,1, 1,2 ou 1,31 à 10, ou une combinaison de ceux-ci.
 
9. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation augmente le Qmax,
le rétrécissement du lumen corporel comprenant une sténose des voies urinaires ; et
la méthode augmentant le Qmax à un minimum de 15 mL/s.
 
10. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation diminue le score international des symptômes de la prostate (IPSS) :

le rétrécissement du lumen corporel comprenant une sténose des voies urinaires ; et

la méthode diminuant l'IPSS à 14 ou moins.


 
11. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation se fait dans une méthode de division d'une prostate hypertrophiée ou de création d'une commissurotomie pour traiter une hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate comprenant :

le fait d'insérer un ensemble comprenant une gaine de cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament et un scope ;

le fait de placer le scope et le cathéter à ballonnet côte à côte près du sphincter externe ;

le fait de retirer la gaine de par-dessus le ballonnet et de gonfler lentement jusqu'à ce que la pression baisse, le tissu prostatique cède et la commissurotomie soit créée ;

le fait d'augmenter encore la pression jusqu'à la pression d'éclatement nominale pour dilater davantage la prostate ;

le fait de maintenir le ballonnet gonflé pendant 1 minute à 7 jours pour libérer le médicament dans les tissus et éviter les saignements ;

le fait de dégonfler le cathéter à ballonnet et de recouvrir le ballonnet avec la gaine ; et

le fait de retirer l'ensemble scope et cathéter à ballonnet hors du lumen corporel ;

a) le rapport du diamètre du ballonnet gonflé au diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

b) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler le ballonnet à une pression égale ou supérieure à une pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le rapport d'étirement d'un diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet à un diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

c) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler à une pression supérieure à la pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet étant inférieur au diamètre du ballonnet gonflé, ou

d) l'utilisation comprenant une combinaison de (a), (b) et (c).


 
12. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation est dans une méthode de division d'une hypertrophie de la prostate ou de création d'une commissurotomie pour traiter une hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate comprenant :

le fait d'insérer un ensemble comprenant une gaine de cathéter à ballonnet non revêtu et un scope ;

le fait de placer le scope et le cathéter à ballonnet côte à côte près du sphincter externe ;

le fait de retirer la gaine de par-dessus le ballonnet et de gonfler lentement jusqu'à ce que la pression baisse, le tissu prostatique cède et la commissurotomie soit créée ;

le fait d'augmenter encore la pression jusqu'à la pression d'éclatement nominale pour dilater davantage la prostate ;

le fait de maintenir le ballonnet gonflé pendant 1 minute à 7 jours pour éviter les saignements ;

le fait de dégonfler le cathéter à ballonnet non revêtu et de recouvrir le ballonnet avec la gaine ;

le fait de retirer l'ensemble scope et cathéter à ballonnet non revêtu hors du lumen corporel ;

le fait d'insérer un ensemble formant gaine de cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament et le scope ;

le fait de placer le scope et le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament côte à côte près du sphincter externe ;

le fait de retirer la gaine de par-dessus le ballonnet revêtu de médicament et de gonfler lentement à la pression d'éclatement nominale pour dilater davantage la prostate ; et

le fait de maintenir le ballonnet gonflé pendant 1 minute à 7 jours pour libérer le médicament dans les tissus et prévenir les saignements ;

a) le rapport du diamètre du ballonnet gonflé au diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

b) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler le ballonnet à une pression égale ou supérieure à une pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le rapport d'étirement d'un diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet à un diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

c) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler à une pression supérieure à la pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet étant inférieur au diamètre du ballonnet gonflé, ou

d) l'utilisation comprenant une combinaison de (a), (b) et (c).


 
13. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation est un traitement de l'hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate :

le lumen corporel comprenant la prostate ;

l'urètre prostatique et la prostate étant divisés et le diamètre de l'urètre prostatique étant d'au moins 12 mm, et le diamètre gonflé du cathéter à ballonnet étant d'au moins 25 mm.


 
14. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation est un traitement d'un rétrécissement urétral :

le lumen corporel comprenant l'urètre

le diamètre de l'urètre après dilatation étant d'au moins 6,7 mm, et le diamètre gonflé du cathéter à ballonnet étant d'au moins 7 mm.


 
15. Le cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament pour une utilisation selon la revendication 4, dans lequel l'utilisation est faite dans une méthode de division d'une prostate hypertrophiée ou de création d'une commissurotomie pour traiter une hyperplasie bénigne de la prostate comprenant :

le fait d'insérer un ensemble de gaine de cathéter à ballonnet revêtu de médicament et un scope ;

le fait de placer le scope et le cathéter à ballonnet près du sphincter externe ;

le fait de retirer la gaine de par-dessus le ballonnet et de gonfler lentement jusqu'à ce que la pression baisse, le tissu prostatique cède et la commissurotomie soit créée ;

le fait d'augmenter encore la pression jusqu'à la pression d'éclatement nominale pour dilater davantage la prostate ;

le fait de maintenir le ballonnet gonflé pendant 1 minute à 7 jours pour libérer le médicament dans les tissus et éviter les saignements ;

le fait de dégonfler le cathéter à ballonnet et de recouvrir le ballonnet avec la gaine ; et

le fait de retirer le scope et l'ensemble formant cathéter à ballonnet hors du lumen corporel ;

a) le rapport du diamètre du ballonnet gonflé au diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

b) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler le ballonnet à une pression égale ou supérieure à une pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le rapport d'étirement d'un diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet à un diamètre normatif de lumen corporel au niveau du site cible étant de 1,0 à 20, ou

c) le gonflage comprenant le fait de gonfler à une pression supérieure à la pression nominale du cathéter à ballonnet, et le diamètre nominal du cathéter à ballonnet étant inférieur au diamètre du ballonnet gonflé, ou

d) l'utilisation comprenant une combinaison de (a), (b) et (c).


 




Drawing












REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description