(19)
(11)EP 3 447 110 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 18190770.0

(22)Date of filing:  21.03.2012
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C10G 45/00(2006.01)
B01J 21/08(2006.01)
B01J 35/10(2006.01)
C10G 65/04(2006.01)
C10G 65/06(2006.01)
B01J 23/882(2006.01)
C10G 45/08(2006.01)
C10G 69/04(2006.01)

(54)

HYDROPROCESSING METHODS UTILIZING CARBON OXIDE-TOLERANT CATALYSTS

HYDROPROCESSING-VERFAHREN MIT VERWENDUNG VON KOHLENSTOFFOXIDTOLERANTEN KATALYSATOREN

PROCÉDÉS D'HYDROTRAITEMENT UTILISANT DES CATALYSEURS DE CARBONE TOLÉRANT AUX OXYDES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 21.03.2011 US 201161454776 P
20.03.2012 US 201213424683

(43)Date of publication of application:
27.02.2019 Bulletin 2019/09

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
12760220.9 / 2688985

(73)Proprietor: Exxonmobil Research And Engineering Company
Annandale, NJ 08801-0900 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • ROSS, April Denise
    Conroe, TX Texas 77302 (US)
  • HALBERT, Thomas Risher
    Baton Rouge, LA Louisiana 70816 (US)
  • NOVAK, William J.
    Bedminster, NJ New Jersey 07921 (US)
  • GREELEY, John Peter
    Manasquan, NJ New Jersey 08736 (US)

(74)Representative: ExxonMobil Chemical Europe Inc. 
IP Law Europe Hermeslaan 2
1831 Machelen
1831 Machelen (BE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2003 217 952
US-A1- 2007 241 031
US-A1- 2003 221 994
US-A1- 2010 012 554
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD



    [0001] The present invention relates to methods of hydroprocessing an olefinic naphtha feed involving use of a combination of a hydrotreating catalyst that behaves well in carbon monoxide-containing and/or carbon dioxide-containing environments with an unusually increased level of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, for example in the hydrogen-containing treat gas and/or in the olefinic naphtha feed.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] Most sulfur in the refinery motor gasoline pool generally comes from FCC gasoline. The FCC gasoline (or "naphtha") can be hydrotreated to remove sulfur. However, FCC gasoline tends to be olefinic, and conventional hydrotreating can often result in too large of an octane loss, due to near complete olefin saturation. Selective hydrotreating processes have been developed, e.g., SCANfining, to maintain higher relative hydrodesulfurization with reduced (optimally minimal) olefin saturation, by a combination of specific catalyst and operation in a narrow range of optimized operating conditions. Since the operating window in SCANfining can tend to be narrow, any contaminants to the process can tend to be very significant in this technology, as exemplified in US2003/0217952.

    [0003] One potential source of contaminants into the hydrotreatment process can be from makeup hydrogen, typically from a steam-reforming hydrogen plant or from a catalytic reformer. It has been found that some of these streams can contain carbon monoxide in surprisingly high levels, which can act to suppress activity/selectivity in the FCC gasoline hydrotreating process, requiring higher required reactor temperatures to overcome this suppression. Carbon monoxide can also tend to buildup in the recycle gas system, such that the effective concentration in the reactor is higher than the concentration in the makeup hydrogen itself. Higher operating temperatures both narrow the operating window (resulting in lower cycle length) and saturate more olefins (resulting in higher octane loss). In order to prevent deactivation of the catalysts and/or reduction in the process hydrodesulfurization levels, in conventional SCANfining processes, the carbon monoxide contents of the naphtha feedstream, and particularly the hydrogen gas streams, to the SCANfining reactor(s) have been maintained at target carbon monoxide levels to less than 5 vppm.

    [0004] Carbon dioxide can additionally be present in makeup hydrogen streams. CO2 generally has less effect itself, as most selective FCC gasoline HDS units have amine recycle gas scrubbers that remove CO2 in the recycle gas. However, it is known that some CO2 will be converted to CO over many hydrotreatment catalysts.

    [0005] Thus, it would be desirable to identify catalysts that are tolerant of carbon monoxide (and/or carbon dioxide) and/or that convert less carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide during the hydrotreatment process. Included below are methods of utilizing such catalysts in methods where carbon oxides are prevalent, in order to improve the effectiveness and/or efficiency of the methods, e.g., for making motor gasoline and perhaps other fuels/petroleum products as well.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] The invention relates to a method of hydrotreating an olefinic naphtha feedstream in the presence of an increased carbon monoxide content, as described in the attached claims.

    [0007] [Deleted]

    [0008] [Deleted]

    [0009] [Deleted]

    [0010] [Deleted]

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0011] 

    FIGURE 1 shows a graph of catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity versus days on oil for a hydrotreating catalyst useful in the method according to the invention, relative to a conventional hydrotreating catalyst. At about 55 days on oil, the catalyst was subjected to a hydrogen treat gas containing about 15 vppm of carbon monoxide, as well as an olefinic naphtha feedstream. At about 65 days on oil, the catalyst was subject to a hydrogen treat gas containing about 50 vppm of carbon monoxide, as well as the olefinic naphtha feedstream. At about 72 days on oil, the treat gas was changed to pure hydrogen with no measurable carbon monoxide content.

    FIGURE 2 shows a graph of catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (present in the hydrogen treat gas stream in about 500 vppm) versus average reactor temperature for a hydrotreating catalyst useful in the method according to an embodiment of the invention and for a conventional hydrotreating catalyst.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



    [0012] The invention relates to a method of hydrotreating an olefinic naphtha feedstream in the presence of an increased carbon monoxide content. The hydrotreating method advantageously comprises contacting the olefinic naphtha feedstream with a hydrogen-containing treat gas stream in the presence of a hydrotreating catalyst in a reactor (having a reactor inlet) under hydrotreating conditions sufficient to at least partially hydrodesulfurize, hydrodenitrogenate, and/or hydrodeoxygenate the olefinic naphtha feedstream.

    [0013] The combined olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream to the first hydrodesulfurization reactor collectively have a carbon monoxide content greater than 10 vppm. In one such embodiment, for example, the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream can have a carbon monoxide content from greater than 15 vppm, or greater than greater than 25 vppm, or even greater than 50 vppm. The reactor inlet, through which the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flow into the reactor, can see an average carbon monoxide concentration greater than 10 vppm (e.g., the reactor inlet can see a carbon monoxide content from 10 vppm to 500 vppm). Obviously, in the previous embodiment, the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flowing through the reactor inlet indicates co-current reactor flow.

    [0014] Reactor/catalyst configurations of the embodiments of the invention include a single hydrotreating reactor containing both a first hydrotreating catalyst and a second hydrotreating catalyst wherein the two catalysts are in a "stacked configuration" within the single hydrotreating reactor The catalysts and process conditions of the systems of the invention can be as further described herein.

    [0015] Olefinic naphtha feedstreams to be hydroprocessed (hydrotreated) according to the methods of the present invention can contain levels of heteroatoms, such as sulfur, nitrogen, and/or oxygen, that are unsuitable for certain/desired uses, e.g., as fuel compositions and/or as blending streams for fuel compositions, and that can be appropriately improved through hydrotreatment. Though unsuitable levels of heteroatoms can vary, depending upon the heteroatom and upon the desired use of the feedstream material, the olefinic naphtha feedstreams to be hydroprocessed (hydrotreated) according to the methods of the present invention can include, but are not limited to FCC naphtha, steam cracker naphtha, coker naphtha, visbreaker naphtha, and the like, and combinations thereof.

    [0016] Hydrogen-containing treat gas streams can advantageously contain enough hydrogen gas to (catalytically) effect a hydrodesulfurization and/or hydrodenitrogenation reaction, as necessary to remove the desired amount(s) of heteroatoms from the olefinic naphtha feedstream. Almost all (catalytic) hydrotreatment reactions herein can occur when the treat gas stream contains at least 75 vol% hydrogen gas, for example at least 80 vol%, at least 85 vol%, at least 90 vol%, at least 95 vol%, at least 96 vol%, at least 97 vol%, at least 98 vol%, at least 99 vol%, at least 99.5 vol%, at least 99.7 vol%, at least 99.8 vol%, or at least 99.9 vol%. Additionally, the treat gas stream can contain up to 100 vol% hydrogen gas, for example up to 99.99 vol%, up to 99.95 vol%, up to 99.9 vol%, up to 99.8 vol%, up to 99.7 vol%, up to 99.5 vol%, up to 99 vol%, up to 98 vol%, up to 97 vol%, up to 96 vol%, up to 95 vol%, up to 90 vol%, up to 85 vol%, or up to 80 vol%. In alternate embodiments, which may occur in combination with specially designed hydrotreating catalysts, the amount of hydrogen gas in the treat gas stream can be lower than 75 vol%. See, for example, commonly assigned co-pending U.S. Serial Nos. 12/836,771, 12/869,393, and 12/878,351.

    [0017] Hydrotreating catalysts particularly useful in the methods according to the present invention are carbon monoxide-tolerant catalysts. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that catalysts having increased carbon monoxide tolerance can allow higher heteroatom removal (e.g., HDS and/or HDN) activity than for less CO-tolerant catalysts in a CO-containing atmosphere at similar reaction conditions, less severe conditions during a hydrotreatment method (e.g., because such carbon monoxide-tolerant catalysts can maintain activity with less deactivation in the presence of carbon monoxide more easily without increasing temperature, for instance), and/or can extend cycle length of a hydrotreatment process (e.g., again because such carbon monoxide-tolerant catalysts can maintain activity with less deactivation in the presence of carbon monoxide for longer time periods than more conventional, less CO-tolerant catalysts). Furthermore, carbon monoxide is a known suppressant of heteroatom removal activity in certain hydrotreatment catalysts, which can thus additionally reduce the selectivity of such hydrotreatment catalysts for heteroatom removal, for example in relation to hydrogenation of unsaturations (e.g., double bonds), in the olefinic naphtha feedstream. Again without being bound by theory, it is believed that catalysts with improved carbon monoxide tolerance can additionally or alternately allow better control of heteroatom removal selectivity, and thus better control of octane loss in naphtha/gasoline hydrotreatment, compared to less CO-tolerant catalysts, e.g., due to lower hydrogenation at similar heteroatom removal activity (such as with less severe reaction conditions and/or over longer times) and/or due to similar hydrogenation at higher heteroatom removal activity (such as with similar reaction conditions and/or over longer times).

    [0018] Such particularly useful CO-tolerant catalysts can include, but are not limited to, those comprising at least one metal from Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements (e.g., nickel and/or cobalt, preferably including cobalt) and at least one metal from Group VIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements (e.g., molybdenum and/or tungsten, such as molybdenum). The Group VIII/VIB metals are disposed on a support material comprising at least 85 wt.% silica,.

    [0019] The carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst (or also referred to herein as the "first hydrotreating catalyst") preferably has a cobalt content from about 2 wt% to about 7 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst, and a molybdenum content from about 7 wt% to about 25 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst. The carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst comprises a silica-based support. By the term "silica based support" it is meant herein that the catalyst support contains at least 85 wt% silica based on the weight of the support. In preferred embodiments, the carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst comprises a silica-based support containing at least 90 wt%, or 95 wt%, silica. In preferred embodiments, the carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst further comprises an average pore volume between about 0.6 cc/g and about 2.0 cc/g and an average pore diameter in the range of about 200Å to 2000Å. In other embodiments, the carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst can further comprise at least one organic additive or component.

    [0020] Typical (or "effective") hydrotreating conditions for an olefinic naphtha feed can include one or more of a weight average bed temperature from about 225°C to about 400°C, a pressure from about 100 psig (about 0.7 MPa) to about 1500 psig (about 10.3 MPa), an LHSV from about 0.2 hr-1 to about 20 hr-1, and a hydrogen treat gas rate from about 250 scf/bbl (about 43 Nm3/m3) to about 10000 scf/bbl (about 1700 Nm3/m3). It is preferred that the effective hydrotreating conditions be selected such as to obtain an at least partially hydrodesulfurized and/or at least partially hydrodenitrogenated olefinic naphtha product stream from the catalytic reactions thereof.

    [0021] In a preferred embodiment, the hydrotreating conditions can be selected such that the carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst can have a relative hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity that is at least 10% greater (e.g., at least 15% greater, at least 20% greater, or at least 25% greater; additionally or alternately, up to 75% greater, up to 50% greater, up to 40% greater, or up to 30% greater) than that of the identical catalyst under identical conditions with at least one of the following two exceptions: in situations where the ("first") olefinic naphtha feedstream and the ("first") hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively have a carbon monoxide content from 10 vppm to 100 vppm, the relative HDS activity should be compared to the situation in which the ("first") olefinic naphtha feedstream and("first") hydrogen-containing treat gas has a collective carbon monoxide content less than 10 vppm (for example less than 7 vppm, less than 5 vppm, less than 3 vppm, or less than 1 vppm); and similarly, in situations where the reactor inlet, through which the ("first") olefinic naphtha feedstream and the ("first") hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flow into the reactor, saw an average carbon monoxide concentration greater than 10 vppm, the relative HDS activity should be compared to the situation in which the reactor inlet sees a carbon monoxide content of less than 10 vppm (for example less than 7 vppm, less than 5 vppm, less than 3 vppm, or less than 1 vppm).

    [0022] Relative HDS activity, as used herein, should be understood to be on a volumetric basis, based on a reference activity. For instance, a reference activity is based on a given volume of a reference catalyst at a certain set of hydrotreatment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, treat gas rate, etc.), and a volumetric relative HDS activity of a comparative catalyst/reaction (i.e., either of another catalyst at identical conditions or of the same catalyst at different conditions) can be expressed as a ratio of the volume of comparative catalyst necessary to attain the same heteroatom (e.g., sulfur) content in the hydrotreated product, relative to the reference catalyst/conditions.

    [0023] As used herein, the term "COx content," in reference to a stream, should be understood to mean the sum of carbon monoxide content plus the carbon dioxide content of that stream. The hydroprocessing method comprises contacting the olefinic naphtha feedstream with a hydrogen-containing treat gas stream in the presence of a combination of a first hydrotreating catalyst and a second hydrotreating catalyst in a reactor system which includes only one reactor having a reactor inlet under hydrotreating conditions sufficient to at least partially hydrodesulfurize and/or hydrodenitrogenate the olefinic naphtha feedstream.

    [0024] Advantageously in one embodiment, the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream can collectively have a COx content from 15 vppm to 550 vppm. In one such embodiment, for example, the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream can have a carbon dioxide content from 20 vppm to 500 vppm and/or a carbon monoxide content from 15 vppm to 50 vppm. Additionally or alternately in such embodiments, the reactor inlet or initial reactor inlet, through which the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flow into the reactor, can see an average concentration of COx from 10 vppm to 550 vppm (e.g., the reactor inlet can see a carbon monoxide content from 10 vppm to 45 vppm and/or a carbon dioxide content from 15 vppm to 450 vppm). Obviously, in the previous embodiment, the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flowing through the reactor inlet or initial reactor inlet indicates co-current reactor flow.

    [0025] The first olefinic naphtha feedstream, first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream, and first hydrotreating catalyst can all be similar to those described in the previous aspect of the invention, hereinabove. The second hydrotreating catalyst can generally be any conventional hydrotreating catalyst but, in one embodiment, can be a catalyst comprising cobalt and molybdenum on an alumina-based support. By the term "alumina-based support" it is meant herein that the catalyst support contains at least 85 wt% alumina based on the weight of the support. In preferred embodiments, the second hydrotreating catalyst comprises an alumina-based support containing at least 90 wt%, or 95 wt%, alumina.

    [0026] In an embodiment, the second hydrotreating catalyst has a cobalt content of about 0.1 to about 5 wt%, or even about 0.5 to about 3 wt%, of cobalt as measured as an oxide and based on the total weight of the catalyst, and a molybdenum content of about 1 to about 10 wt%, or even about 3 to about 6 wt%, of molybdenum, as measured as an oxide and based on the total weight of the catalyst. In an embodiment, the second hydrotreating catalyst has an average pore volume between about 0.5 cc/g and about 1.5 cc/g, or even 0.6 cc/g and about 1.0 cc/g, and an average pore diameter in the range of about 60Å to 200Å, or even 75Å to 150Å.

    [0027] Without being bound by theory, it is believed that catalysts having increased carbon monoxide tolerance can allow higher heteroatom removal (e.g., HDS, HDN, and/or HDO) activity than for less CO-tolerant catalysts in a CO-containing atmosphere at similar reaction conditions, less severe conditions during a hydrotreatment method (e.g., because such carbon monoxide-tolerant catalysts can maintain activity with less deactivation in the presence of carbon monoxide more easily without increasing temperature, for instance), and/or can extend cycle length of a hydrotreatment process (e.g., again because such carbon monoxide-tolerant catalysts can maintain activity with less deactivation in the presence of carbon monoxide for longer time periods than more conventional, less CO-tolerant catalysts). Furthermore, carbon monoxide is a known suppressant of heteroatom removal activity in certain hydrotreatment catalysts, which can thus additionally reduce the selectivity of such hydrotreatment catalysts for heteroatom removal, for example in relation to hydrogenation of unsaturations (e.g., double bonds), in the olefinic naphtha feedstream. Again without being bound by theory, it is believed that catalysts with increased carbon monoxide tolerance can additionally or alternately allow better control of heteroatom removal selectivity, and thus better control of octane loss in naphtha/gasoline hydrotreatment, compared to less CO-tolerant catalysts, e.g., due to lower hydrogenation at similar heteroatom removal activity (such as with less severe reaction conditions and/or over longer times) and/or due to similar hydrogenation at higher heteroatom removal activity (such as with similar reaction conditions and/or over longer times). Further without being bound by theory, it is believed that catalysts that are more COx-tolerant, e.g., that can convert less carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide during the first hydrotreatment reaction, can cause a benefit not only from carbon monoxide-tolerance of the first hydrotreating catalyst itself but also from exposing the relatively carbon monoxide-intolerant second hydrotreating catalyst, which is going to later contact the effluent (at least partially hydrotreated product) from the hydrotreating zone/reactor, to a lower carbon monoxide content. Such lower CO content in the effluent can then thus result in higher activity of the second hydrotreating catalyst, less difficulty in maintaining a similar catalytic activity and/or cycle length, less severe conditions necessary in the reactor/zone containing the second hydrotreating catalyst, and/or increased cycle length of the second hydrotreating catalyst.

    [0028] Typically, the second hydrotreating catalyst can generally be a less carbon monoxide-tolerant catalyst than the first hydrotreating catalyst, e.g., can be a conventional hydrotreating catalyst. Such different hydrotreating catalysts can include, but are not limited to, those comprising at least one metal from Group VIII of the Periodic Table of the Elements (e.g., nickel and/or cobalt, preferably including cobalt) and at least one metal from Group VIB of the Periodic Table of the Elements (e.g., molybdenum and/or tungsten, such as molybdenum). The Group VIII/VIB metals can optionally be present in a bulk catalyst form, again optionally with no more than 25 wt% of a sufficient binder (e.g., silica, alumina, silica-alumina, titania, or the like, or a combination thereof). Alternately, the Group VIII/VIB metals can be disposed on a support material. Exemplary support materials can include, but are not limited to, silica, alumina, silica-alumina, titania, or the like, or a combination thereof, for example including at least silica.

    [0029] Unlike with the first hydrotreating catalyst herein, the support of the second hydrotreating catalyst can, in some embodiments, include or be alumina. Further, in some embodiments, the second hydrotreating catalyst can have a cobalt content from about 0.1 wt% to about 5 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst, and a molybdenum content from about 1 wt% to about 10 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst.

    [0030] According to the hydroprocessing methods of the present invention utilizing two or more catalysts, the first hydrotreating catalyst and the second hydrotreating catalyst can advantageously be oriented in the reactor system in a stacked configuration, such that the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream can collectively contact the first hydrotreating catalyst before the second hydrotreating catalyst. As before, in such embodiments, the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flowing through the reactor inlet indicates co-current flow. In such co-current flow schemes, the carbon monoxide-tolerant (first) hydrotreating catalyst should be contacted first, as this catalyst can typically be more capable than the second hydrotreating catalyst of tolerating the higher COx concentrations present at the (initial) reactor inlet, with the second hydrotreating catalyst thus being oriented furthest from the (initial) reactor inlet.

    [0031] [Deleted]

    [0032] In the hydroprocessing methods according to the present invention, the second hydrotreating conditions can be similar to the first hydrotreating conditions described herein. Since at least one other hydroprocessing catalyst is present within the same (a single) reactor, the second hydrotreating conditions generally will not vary much from the first hydrotreating conditions, notably even if there are independent conditional controls (e.g., temperature, pressure, etc.) for each reaction stage, because the housing within the same reactor can make it rather difficult to subject two different stacked catalysts to significantly different reaction conditions.

    [0033] In a preferred embodiment, the hydrotreating conditions can be selected such that the carbon monoxide-tolerant (first) hydrotreating catalyst can have a relative hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity that is at least 10% greater (e.g., at least 15% greater, at least 20% greater, or at least 25% greater; additionally or alternately, up to 75% greater, up to 50% greater, up to 40% greater, or up to 30% greater) than that of the identical catalyst under identical conditions except, since the reactor inlet, through which the olefinic naphtha feedstream and the hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively flow into the reactor, saw an average carbon monoxide concentration greater than 10 vppm, the relative HDS activity should be compared to the situation in which the reactor inlet sees a carbon monoxide content of less than 10 vppm (for example less than 7 vppm, less than 5 vppm, less than 3 vppm, or less than 1 vppm). Additionally or alternately in this preferred embodiment, the hydrotreating conditions can be selected such that the carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst can convert at least 5% less carbon dioxide (e.g., at least 7% more, at least 8% more, or at least 10% more carbon dioxide; additionally or alternately, up to 75% less, up to 50% less, up to 40% less, up to 30% less, or up to 25% less carbon dioxide) to carbon monoxide than the at least one other hydroprocessing catalyst at the same hydrotreating conditions. The other hydroprocessing catalyst can be the hydroprocessing catalyst utilized as the second hydrotreating catalyst described herein.

    EXAMPLES


    Example 1 - Exposure to CO



    [0034] In Example 1, pilot plant testing was done to simulate conditions in a single stage refinery hydrotreating unit for SCAN fining, or selective hydrofining of a variety of catalytic (FCC) naphtha feedstreams. FIG. 1 shows hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity data for a CoMo on silica supported hydrotreating catalyst, relative to an arbitrary hydrotreating catalyst baseline. The triangles in FIG. 1 indicate data using CoMo-silica with two different heavy cat naphtha (HCN) feeds; the squares in FIG. 1 indicate data using CoMo-silica with an intermediate cat naphtha (ICN) feed; and the circles in FIG. 1 indicate data using CoMo-silica with a light cat naphtha (LCN) feed. Up to about 55 days on oil in the pilot unit, ∼100% hydrogen gas was used as the treat gas at approximately 515-535°F (about 268-279°C), a reaction pressure of about 230-300 psig (about 1.6-2.1 MPag), an LHSV of about 4-10 hr-1, and a treat gas rate of about 1200-1800 scf/bbl (about 200-310 Nm3/m3). At about 55 days on oil, the ∼100% hydrogen gas was switched to a hydrogen treat gas containing about 15 vppm of carbon monoxide; at about 65 days on oil, the hydrogen treat gas was switched to contain about 50 vppm of carbon monoxide; then at about 72 days on oil, the treat gas was changed back to ∼100% hydrogen with no measurable carbon monoxide content; and the pilot plant run ended at about 77 days on oil.

    [0035] Of particular interest on this graph is the increase in relative HDS activity of the CoMo-silica (compared to a conventional "baseline" supported CoMo alumina catalyst), when exposed to about 15-50 vppm carbon monoxide. This is highlighted by the jog lower in relative HDS activity after the carbon monoxide content was removed toward the end of the run. This data show approximately a 20-25% increase in relative HDS activity for the CoMo-silica (again, in comparison to a less CO-tolerant conventional CoMo-alumina catalyst) that disappeared when the CO was removed. As carbon monoxide is a known suppressant for heteroatom removal processes such as hydrodesulfurization, this relative increase in activity indicates a slower deactivation rate in the presence of CO, as compared to the less CO-tolerant hydrotreating catalyst.

    Example 2 - Exposure to CO2



    [0036] In Example 2, a comparison is made between two supported CoMo hydrotreating catalysts, a supported CoMo on silica and a supported CoMo on alumina, in a pilot plant study testing the effect of carbon dioxide on SCANfining of ICN product having the characteristics set forth in Table 1 below.
    Table 1
    Feedstock Number 
    Source 
    Description 
    API GRAVITY 53.6
    SULFUR, wppm 1487
    BROMINE NUMBER 66.2
    MERCAPTAN SULFUR, wppm GCD, °F 22.3
     0.5 VOL%(IBP) 138
     5.0 VOL% 149
     10.0 VOL% 158
     30.0 VOL% 186
     50.0 VOL% 210
     70.0 VOL% 242
     90.0 VOL% 323
     95.0 VOL% 359
     99.5 VOL% (FBP) 454


    [0037] Temperatures in the pilot study ranged from about 525°F (about 274°C) to about 550°F (288°C). In order to maintain a treat gas rate of about 2000 scf/bbl (about 340 Nm3/m3), the CoMo-silica pilot unit was exposed to an LHSV of about 3.3 hr-1, and the CoMo-alumina pilot unit was exposed to an LHSV of about 2 hr-1 at about 230 psig (about 1.6 MPag). Pure hydrogen treat gas in each case was spiked with about 500 vppm of carbon monoxide to test the inclination of each catalyst to form CO from CO2.

    [0038] FIG. 2 shows graphically the results of conversion versus average reaction temperature for CoMo-silica and CoMo-alumina. It can be seen that the CoMo-silica showed about 10-25% less conversion of CO2 into CO than the CoMo-alumina. Additionally, the CoMo-silica conversion level did not substantially change over the given temperature range, while the CoMo-alumina conversion level increased markedly. This finding indicates that the benefit of reduced CO make increases with the CoMo-silica at higher temperatures (more severe conditions).


    Claims

    1. A method of hydrotreating an olefinic naphtha feedstream in the presence of an increased carbon monoxide content, the method comprising:

    contacting a first olefinic naphtha feedstream with a first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream in the presence of a first hydrotreating catalyst in a first hydrotreating reactor under first hydrotreating conditions sufficient to at least partially hydrodesulfurize and/or hydrodenitrogenate the first olefinic naphtha feedstream to produce a first hydrotreated olefinic naphtha product stream; and

    contacting the first hydrotreated olefinic naphtha product stream with a second hydrotreating catalyst, wherein the first hydrotreating catalyst and the second hydrotreating catalyst are in a stacked configuration within the first hydrotreating reactor such that the first hydrotreated olefinic naphtha product stream contacts the second hydrotreating catalyst to produce a second hydrotreated olefinic naphtha product stream which is withdrawn from the first hydrotreating reactor,

    wherein the first olefinic naphtha feedstream and the first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively have a carbon monoxide content of greater than 10 vppm; and
    wherein the first hydrotreating catalyst comprises cobalt and molybdenum disposed on a silica-based support comprising at least 85 wt% silica.
     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein the first hydrotreating conditions are selected such that the first hydrotreating catalyst has a first relative hydrodesulfurization activity that is at least 10% greater, preferably at least 20% greater, than that of an identical catalyst under identical conditions except that the identical conditions include a collective carbon monoxide content of the first olefinic naphtha feedstream and first hydrogen-containing treat gas being less than 10 vppm.
     
    3. The method of any previous claim wherein the first olefinic naphtha feedstream is comprised of an FCC naphtha.
     
    4. The method of any previous claim wherein the first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream has a carbon monoxide concentration of greater than 15 vppm.
     
    5. The method of any previous claim, wherein the first hydrotreating catalyst has a cobalt content from 2 wt% to 7 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst, and a molybdenum content from 7 wt% to 25 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst.
     
    6. The method of any previous claim, wherein the first olefinic naphtha feedstream and the first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively have a carbon monoxide content of greater than 15 vppm.
     
    7. The method of any previous claim, wherein the first olefinic naphtha feedstream and the first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively have a carbon monoxide content of greater than 25 vppm.
     
    8. The method of any previous claim wherein the first olefinic naphtha feedstream and the first hydrogen-containing treat gas stream collectively have a COx content from 15 vppm to 550 vppm.
     
    9. The method of any previous claim wherein the first hydrotreating catalyst converts at least 5% less carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide than the second hydrotreating catalyst at the same hydrotreating conditions.
     
    10. The method of any previous claim, wherein the second hydrotreating catalyst comprises cobalt and molybdenum disposed on an alumina-based support wherein the alumina-based support contains at least 85 wt% alumina.
     
    11. The method of any previous claim, wherein the second hydrotreating catalyst has a cobalt content from 0.1 wt% to 5 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst, and a molybdenum content from 1 wt% to 10 wt%, measured as oxide and based on total weight of the catalyst.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Hydrotreating eines olefinischen Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstroms in Gegenwart eines erhöhten Kohlenmonoxidgehalts, bei dem
    ein erster olefinischer Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom mit einem ersten wasserstoffhaltigen Behandlungsgasstrom in Gegenwart eines ersten Hydrotreating-Katalysators in einem ersten Hydrotreating-Reaktor unter ersten Hydrotreating-Bedingungen in Kontakt gebracht wird, die ausreichen, um den ersten olefinischen Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom mindestens hydrierend zu entschwefeln (Hydrodesulfurierung) und/oder hydrierend an Stickstoffverbindungen abzureichern (Hydrodenitrifizierung), um einen ersten Hydrotreating unterzogenen olefinischen Naphthaproduktstrom zu produzieren, und
    der erste Hydrotreating unterzogene olefinische Naphtha-Produktstrom mit einem zweiten Hydrotreating-Katalysator in Kontakt gebracht wird, wobei der erste Hydrotreating-Katalysator und der zweite Hydrotreating-Katalysator innerhalb des ersten Hydrotreating-Reaktors in einer gestapelten Anordnung vorliegen, so dass der erste Hydrotreating unterzogene olefinische Naphtha-Produktstrom in Kontakt mit dem zweiten Hydrotreating-Katalysator kommt, um einen zweiten Hydrotreating unterzogenen olefinischen Naphtha-Produktstrom zu produzieren, der aus dem ersten Hydrotreating-Reaktor abgezogen wird,
    wobei der erste olefinische Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom und der erste wasserstoffhaltige Behandlungsgasstrom zusammengenommen einen Kohlenmonoxidgehalt von mehr als 10 Vol.ppm aufweisen, und
    wobei der erste Hydrotreating-Katalysator Kobalt und Molybdän umfasst, die auf Träger auf Siliciumdioxidbasis angeordnet sind, der mindestens 85 Gew.% Siliciumdioxid umfasst.
     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die ersten Hydrotreating-Bedingungen so gewählt werden, dass der erste Hydrotreating-Katalysator eine erste relative Hydrodesulfurierungsaktivität aufweist, die mindestens 10 % größer, vorzugsweise mindestens 20 % größer als diejenige eines identischen Katalysators unter identischen Bedingungen ist, außer dass die identischen Bedingungen einen zusammengenommenen Kohlenmonoxidgehalt des ersten olefinischen Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstroms und ersten wasserstoffhaltigen Behandlungsgases einschließen, der kleiner als 10 Vol.ppm ist.
     
    3. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste olefinische Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom aus FCC-Naphtha zusammengesetzt ist.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste wasserstoffhaltige Behandlungsgasstrom eine Kohlenmonoxidkonzentration von mehr als 15 Vol.ppm aufweist.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste Hydrotreating-Katalysator einen Kobaltgehalt von 2 Gew.% bis 7 Gew. %, gemessen als Oxid und bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Katalysators, und einen Molybdängehalt von 7 Gew.% bis 25 Gew.% aufweist, gemessen als Oxid und bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Katalysators.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste olefinische Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom und der erste wasserstoffhaltige Behandlungsgasstrom zusammengenommen einen Kohlenmonoxidgehalt von mehr als 15 Vol.ppm aufweisen.
     
    7. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste olefinische Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom und der erste wasserstoffhaltige Behandlungsgasstrom zusammengenommen einen Kohlenmonoxidgehalt von mehr als 25 Vol.ppm aufweisen.
     
    8. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste olefinische Naphtha-Einsatzmaterialstrom und der erste wasserstoffhaltige Behandlungsgasstrom zusammengenommen einen COx-Gehalt von 15 Vol.ppm bis 550 Vol.ppm aufweisen.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der erste Hydrotreating-Katalysator mindestens 5 % weniger Kohlendioxid in Kohlenmonoxid umwandelt als der zweite Hydrotreating-Katalysator unter denselben Hydrotreating-Bedingungen.
     
    10. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der zweite Hydrotreating-Katalysator Kobalt und Molybdän angeordnet auf Träger auf Aluminiumoxidbasis umfasst, wobei der Träger auf Aluminiumoxidbasis mindestens 85 Gew.% Aluminiumoxid enthält.
     
    11. Verfahren nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, bei dem der zweite Hydrotreating-Katalysator einen Kobaltgehalt von 0,1 Gew.% bis 5 Gew.%, gemessen als Oxid und bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Katalysators, und einen Molybdängehalt von 1 Gew.% bis 10 Gew.% aufweist, gemessen als Oxid und bezogen auf das Gesamtgewicht des Katalysators.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé d'hydrotraitement d'un flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique en présence d'une teneur accrue en monoxyde de carbone, le procédé comprenant :

    la mise en contact d'un premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique avec un premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène en présence d'un premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement dans un premier réacteur d'hydrotraitement sous des premières conditions d'hydrotraitement suffisantes pour obtenir une hydrodésulfuration et/ou une hydrodésazotation au moins partielles du premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique afin de produire un premier flux de produit sous forme de naphta oléfinique hydrotraité ; et

    la mise en contact du premier flux de produit sous forme de naphta oléfinique hydrotraité avec un deuxième catalyseur d'hydrotraitement, le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement et le deuxième catalyseur d'hydrotraitement se trouvant dans une configuration superposée à l'intérieur du premier réacteur d'hydrotraitement de telle sorte que le premier flux de produit sous forme de naphta oléfinique hydrotraité entre en contact avec le deuxième catalyseur d'hydrotraitement pour produire un deuxième flux de produit sous forme de naphta oléfinique hydrotraité qui est retiré du premier réacteur d'hydrotraitement,

    dans lequel le premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique et le premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène ont collectivement une teneur en monoxyde de carbone supérieure à 10 ppmv ; et

    dans lequel le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement comprend du cobalt et du molybdène disposés sur un support à base de silice comprenant au moins 85 % en poids de silice.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel les premières conditions d'hydrotraitement sont sélectionnées de telle sorte que le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement ait une première activité d'hydrodésulfuration relative qui est au moins 10 % supérieure, préférablement au moins 20 % supérieure, à celle d'un catalyseur identique sous des conditions identiques, sauf que les conditions identiques comprennent une teneur collective en monoxyde de carbone du premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique et du premier gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène qui est inférieure à 10 ppmv.
     
    3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique se compose d'un naphta de craquage catalytique fluide (FCC).
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène a une concentration de monoxyde de carbone supérieure à 15 ppmv.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement a une teneur en cobalt de 2 % en poids à 7 % en poids, mesurée en oxyde et relativement au poids total du catalyseur, et une teneur en molybdène de 7 % en poids à 25 % en poids, mesurée en oxyde et relativement au poids total du catalyseur.
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique et le premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène ont collectivement une teneur en monoxyde de carbone supérieure à 15 ppmv.
     
    7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique et le premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène ont collectivement une teneur en monoxyde de carbone supérieure à 25 ppmv.
     
    8. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier flux d'alimentation de naphta oléfinique et le premier flux de gaz de traitement contenant de l'hydrogène ont collectivement une teneur en COx de 15 ppmv à 550 ppmv.
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement convertit au moins 5 % moins de dioxyde de carbone en monoxyde de carbone que le deuxième catalyseur d'hydrotraitement sous les mêmes conditions d'hydrotraitement.
     
    10. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le deuxième catalyseur d'hydrotraitement comprend du cobalt et du molybdène disposés sur un support à base d'alumine, le support à base d'alumine contenant au moins 85 % en poids d'alumine.
     
    11. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le premier catalyseur d'hydrotraitement a une teneur en cobalt de 0,1 % en poids à 5 % en poids, mesurée en oxyde et relativement au poids total du catalyseur, et une teneur en molybdène de 1 % en poids à 10 % en poids, mesurée en oxyde et relativement au poids total du catalyseur.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description