(19)
(11)EP 3 470 845 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
13.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/20

(21)Application number: 18210185.7

(22)Date of filing:  18.03.2014
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01N 33/574  (2006.01)
C12N 9/10  (2006.01)
G01N 33/68  (2006.01)
C12N 9/12  (2006.01)

(54)

SRM ASSAY TO INDICATE CANCER THERAPY

SRM-TEST ZUR ANZEIGE EINER KREBSTHERAPIE

DOSAGE SRM AFIN D'INDIQUER LA THÉRAPIE DU CANCER


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 15.03.2013 US 201361791833 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
17.04.2019 Bulletin 2019/16

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
14763214.5 / 2984176

(73)Proprietor: Expression Pathology, Inc.
Rockville, MD 20850 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • KRIZMAN, David B.
    Gaithersburg, MD 20882 (US)
  • HEMBROUGH, Todd
    Gaithersburg, MD 20882 (US)
  • THYPARAMBIL, Sheeno
    Frederick, MD 21704 (US)

(74)Representative: AWA Sweden AB 
P.O. Box 45086
104 30 Stockholm
104 30 Stockholm (SE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/127248
WO-A2-2009/051846
WO-A2-2012/075318
US-A1- 2009 215 636
US-A1- 2013 011 408
WO-A2-2006/127860
WO-A2-2012/019132
JP-A- 2012 197 258
US-A1- 2012 208 824
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    Introduction



    [0001] Lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer (>200,000 new US cases/year) and has a low five-year survival rate (∼15%). Therapy for lung cancer is transitioning from use of a limited selection of therapies, consisting of radiation, folate metabolism, platinum-based drugs, and/or taxol-based drugs, to more targeted treatments that require histological characterization of the tumor and/or the presence or absence of key biomarker or therapeutic target proteins. A full 80% of all lung cancers are of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) type and this general type can be broken down into 4 different subtypes based on histological analysis: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, bronchioalveolar carcinoma, and Large-cell undifferentiated carcinoma. The remaining 20% of lung cancers are known as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Recently-utilized targeted cancer therapies have shown exciting success in treating both NSCLC and SCLC patients. JP2012-197258 describes a sensitive method for quantifying proteins by digestion and subsequent LCMS/MS analysis starting from frozen tissue samples. A targeted approach to cancer therapy is most advantageous when growth of the cancer is driven by a specific target protein, or proteins, and where the target protein, or proteins, that are driving the cancer are specifically attacked by therapeutic agents designed and manufactured to inhibit the target protein, or proteins, and hence inhibit growth of the cancer. Peptides and peptide sequences are provided for use in an SRM/MRM assay which can be used to quantitatively determine which protein targets are expressed, or over-expressed, directly in tumor tissue derived from lung cancer patients. This permits improved treatment decisions for targeted lung cancer therapy. Also provided is an SRM/MRM assay which can be used to quantitatively determine which protein targets are expressed, or over-expressed, directly in tumor tissue derived from patients with cancers other than lung cancer for improving targeted treatment decisions for any other cancer that is not lung cancer.

    Summary



    [0002] The problem underlying the present invention is solved by the subject-matter of the attached independent claim; preferred embodiments may be taken from the attached dependent claims. Specific peptides derived from subsequences of the Ret protein are provided. ALK is also known as ALK tyrosine kinase receptor and CD246 and is referred to herein as ALK. Ros is also known as c-Ros receptor tyrosine kinase and is referred to herein as Ros. Ron is also known as Macrophage-stimulating protein receptor, CD136, and p185-Ron, and is referred to herein as Ron. Ret is also known as Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret and Proto-oncogene c-Ret, and is referred to herein as Ret. TS is also known as thymidylate synthase, and is referred to herein as TS. FGFR1 is also known as fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and CD331, and is referred to herein as FGFR1.

    [0003] The peptide sequence and fragmentation/transition ions for each peptide derived from proteins are potentially useful in a mass spectrometry-based Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) assay(s), which can also be referred to as a Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) assay(s), hereinafter referred to as SRM/MRM assay(s). The use of peptides for SRM/MRM analysis of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and FGFR1 proteins and isoforms of those proteins is described.

    [0004] One or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, or five or six SRM/MRM assay(s) can be used to detect the presence and measure relative or absolute quantitative levels of one or more of the specific peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and thereby provide a means of measuring the total amount of each of those proteins in a given protein preparation obtained from a biological sample by mass spectrometry. All, or a portion of all of the available peptides from those proteins can also be analyzed simultaneously in a single SRM/MRM assay or can be analyzed in any combination of individual SRM/MRM assays. Each of the peptides provides a potential means of measuring the total amount of each of the corresponding proteins in a given protein preparation obtained from a biological sample by mass spectrometry.

    [0005] The SRM/MRM assay(s) described herein can measure these peptides directly in complex protein lysate samples prepared from cells procured from patient tissue samples, such as formalin fixed cancer patient tissue (e.g., biopsies). Methods of preparing protein samples from formalin fixed tissue are described in U.S. Patent No. 7,473,532. The methods described in that patent may conveniently be carried out using Liquid Tissue reagents and protocol available from Expression Pathology Inc. (Rockville, MD).

    [0006] Formaldehyde/formalin fixation of tissues surgically removed from cancer patients is the accepted convention in pathology practice. As a result, formaldehyde/formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue is the most widely available form of tissues from those patients. Formaldehyde/formalin fixation typically employs aqueous solutions of formaldehyde referred to as formalin. "100%" formalin consists of a saturated solution of formaldehyde (about 40% formaldehyde by volume or 37% by mass) in water, with a small amount of stabilizer, usually methanol, to limit oxidation and degree of polymerization. The most common way in which tissue is preserved is to soak whole tissue for extended periods of time (8 hours to 48 hours) in aqueous formaldehyde, commonly termed 10% neutral buffered formalin, followed by embedding the fixed whole tissue in paraffin wax for long term storage at room temperature. Thus molecular analytical methods to analyze formalin fixed cancer tissue will be the most accepted and heavily utilized methods for analysis of cancer patient tissue.

    [0007] Results from the SRM/MRM assay(s) can be used to correlate accurate and precise quantitative levels of any or all of these proteins, in addition to accurate and precise quantitative levels of potential isoforms of these proteins, within specific tissue samples (e.g., cancer tissue sample) of a patient or subject from whom the tissue (biological sample) was collected and preserved. This not only provides diagnostic information about the cancer, but also permits a physician or other medical professional to determine appropriate therapy for the patient or subject. Such an assay that provides diagnostically and therapeutically important information about levels of protein expression in a diseased tissue or in another patient/subject sample is termed a companion diagnostic assay. For example, such an assay can be designed to diagnose the stage, degree, or histology of a cancer and determine a therapeutic agent that will be most effective in stopping the cancer cells from growing, leading to the determination to which therapeutic agent that a patient or subject will most likely respond.

    [0008] More specifically, detection and/or quantitation of one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, in cancer cells from a patient is indicative of cancer growth, most notably lung cancer, and identify proteins that can be targeted by targeted treatment regimens.

    Detailed Description



    [0009] The assays described herein quantify or measure relative or absolute levels of specific unmodified peptides from proteins including ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins and also can measure relative or absolute levels of specific modified peptides from those proteins. Examples of modifications include phosphorylated amino acid residues and glycosylated amino acid residues that are present on the peptides.

    [0010] Relative quantitative levels of proteins and potential isoforms, can be determined by the SRM/MRM methodology, for example by comparing SRM/MRM signature peak areas (e.g., signature peak area or integrated fragment ion intensity). Relative levels of individual ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides can be determined in different samples (e.g., a control sample and a sample prepared from a patient's or subject's tissue). Alternatively, where each peptide has its own specific SRM/MRM signature peak, it is possible to compare multiple SRM/MRM signature peak areas for one or more of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 signature peptides. By comparing peak areas it is possible to determine the relative ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein and potential protein isoform content in one biological sample or in one or more additional or different biological samples. In this way, the relative amount of a particular peptide, or peptides, from those proteins, and therefore the relative amount of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and their potential isoforms, can be determined, across multiple (e.g., two, three, four, five, or more) biological samples under the same experimental conditions can be determined. In addition, relative quantitation can be determined for a given peptide, or peptides, from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein within a single sample by comparing the signature peak area for that peptide by SRM/MRM methodology to the signature peak area for another and different peptide, or peptides, from a different protein, or proteins, within the same protein preparation from the biological sample.

    [0011] Using such methodologies the amount of a particular peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein, and therefore the amount of each of the corresponding proteins and their potential isoforms can be determined relative one to another within the same sample or in different samples. Since relative quantitation of an individual peptide, or peptides, may be conducted relative to the amount of another peptide, or peptides, within or between samples, it is possible to determine the relative amounts of the peptides present (e.g., by determining the peak area relative one to another), regardless of the absolute weight to volume or weight to weight amounts of the proteins in the biological sample. Thus, the amounts of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide in the protein preparation from the biological sample may be used to determine the amounts of those proteins in and among various samples. Relative quantitative data about individual signature peak areas between different samples are generally normalized to the amount of protein analyzed per sample (e.g., the total protein concentration of a sample and the volume analyzed are used to normalize samples). Relative quantitation can be performed across many peptides from multiple proteins and the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein(s) simultaneously in a single sample and/or across many samples to gain further insight into relative protein amounts, and/or one peptide/protein with respect to other peptides/proteins.

    [0012] Absolute quantitative levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins may be determined by, for example, the SRM/MRM methodology whereby the SRM/MRM signature peak area of an individual peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in one biological sample is compared to the SRM/MRM signature peak area of a known amount of one or more internal standards "spiked" in the sample in known amounts (e.g., isotope labeled standards). In one instance, the internal standard is a synthetic version of the same exact ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide that contains one or more amino acid residues labeled with one or more heavy isotopes. Such isotope labeled internal standards are synthesized so mass spectrometry analysis generates a predictable and consistent SRM/MRM signature peak that is different and distinct from the native ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide signature peak and which can be used as a comparator peak. Thus, when the internal standard is spiked in known amounts into a protein or peptide preparation from a biological sample in known amounts and analyzed by mass spectrometry, the SRM/MRM signature peak area of the native peptide can be compared to the SRM/MRM signature peak area of the internal standard peptide. The numerical comparison permits a calculation of either the absolute molarity and/or absolute weight of the native peptide present in the original protein preparation from the biological sample, from which the concentration or weight of the corresponding protein may be determined. Absolute quantitative data for fragment peptides are typically displayed according to the amount of protein analyzed per sample. Absolute quantitation can be performed across many peptides, which permits a quantitative determination of multiple proteins (e.g., two, three, four, five, etc.) simultaneously in a single sample and/or across multiple samples to gain insight into absolute protein amounts in individual biological samples and/or in entire cohorts of individual samples. In one instance, the quantitation of proteins may be conducted using peptide standards as described by Gygi et al in U.S. Patent 7,501,286.

    [0013] Unless otherwise specified, as used herein the terms quantify, quantifying, measure or measuring mean to determine relative or absolute levels of an analyte, such as a protein, polypeptide, peptide, a standard (e.g., an internal standard).

    [0014] Assay methods described herein can be used as an aid for determining the stage of the cancer when employing, for example, patient-derived or subject-derived tissue, such as formalin fixed tissue. The SRM/MRM assays described herein may also be used as an aid in determining which therapeutic agent would be most advantageous for use in treating that patient or subject.

    [0015] To examine the levels of the proteins associated with lung cancer described herein, analysis can be conducted on cancerous tissue or tissue that is suspected of being cancerous that is removed from a patient or subject, either through surgical removal of partial or entire tumors, or through biopsy procedures conducted to determine the presence or absence of suspected disease. Samples of the tissues are analyzed to determine whether or not one or more of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein(s), and which forms of those proteins, are present in a patient's or subject's tissue. Moreover, the expression level of one or more of those proteins can be determined and compared to a "normal" or reference level found in healthy tissue. Normal or reference levels of proteins found in healthy tissue may be derived from, for example, the relevant tissues of one or more individuals that do not have cancer. Alternatively, normal or reference levels may be obtained for individuals with cancer by analysis of relevant tissues (e.g., portions of the same organ) not affected by the cancer.

    [0016] Levels or amounts of proteins or peptides can be defined as the quantity expressed in moles, mass or weight of a protein or peptide determined by the SRM/MRM assay. The level or amount may be normalized to the total level or amount of protein or another component in the lysate analyzed (e.g., expressed in micromoles/microgram of protein or micrograms /microgram of protein) or even normalized to the amount of DNA on a per weight basis (e.g., micromoles or micrograms/microgram of DNA). In addition, the level or amount of a protein or peptide may be determined on a volume basis, expressed, for example, in micromolar or nanograms/microliter. The level or amount of protein or peptide as determined by the SRM/MRM assay can also be normalized to the number of cells analyzed.

    [0017] Information regarding ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and isoforms of these proteins, can be used to aid in determining histological stage or grade of a cancer by correlating or comparing the level of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and their isoforms, or fragment peptides with the levels observed in normal tissues. Once the histological stage and/or grade, and/or ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein-expression characteristics of the cancer has been determined, that information can be matched to a list of therapeutic agents (chemical and biological) developed to specifically treat cancer tissue that is characterized by, for example, abnormal expression of the protein or protein(s) (e.g., ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1) that were assayed. Matching information from an ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein assay from a specific individual to a list of therapeutic agents that specifically targets cells/tissue expressing the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein(s) represents a personalized medicine approach to treating cancer including lung cancer. The assay methods described herein form the foundation of a personalized medicine approach by using analysis of proteins from the patient's or subject's own tissue as a source for diagnostic and treatment decisions.

    Peptide Generation



    [0018] In principle, any predicted peptide derived from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein, prepared by any proteolytic process of known specificity may be used as a surrogate reporter to determine the abundance of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins. Samples are digested with a protease or proteases of known specificity (e.g. one or more of trypsin and/or Endoproteinase Lys-C). One or more peptides resulting from the proteolytic treatment can be used as a surrogate reporter to determine the abundance of one or more of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a suitable assay such as a mass spectrometry-based SRM/MRM assay. Similarly, any predicted peptide sequence containing an amino acid residue at a site that is known to be modified in the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins may also be used to assay the extent of modification of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a sample.

    [0019] ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 fragment peptides may be generated by a variety of means including by the use of the Liquid Tissue™ protocol provided in US Patent 7,473,532. The Liquid Tissue™ protocol and reagents are capable of producing peptide samples suitable for mass spectroscopic analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue by proteolytic digestion of the proteins in the tissue/biological sample. In the Liquid Tissue™ protocol the tissue/biological is maintained at elevated temperatures in a buffer for an extended period of time (e.g., from about 80°C to about 100°C for a period of time from about 10 minutes to about 4 hours) to reverse or release protein cross-linking. The buffer employed is a neutral buffer, (e.g., a Tris-based buffer, or a buffer containing a detergent) and advantageously is a buffer that does not interfere with mass spectrometric analysis. Next, the tissue/biological sample is treated with one or more proteases including, but not limited to, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and Endoproteinase Lys-C for a time sufficient to disrupt the tissue and cellular structure of said biological sample and to liquefy said sample (e.g., a period of time from about 30 minutes to about 24 hours at a temperature from about 37°C to about 65°C). The result of the heating and proteolysis is a liquid, soluble, dilutable biomolecule lysate. In one instance two or more proteases selected from trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and Endoproteinase Lys-C are employed in the proteolytic treatment of the biological sample.

    Peptide Separation and Assay



    [0020] Once lysates are prepared, peptides in the samples may be subject to a variety of techniques that facilitate their analysis and measurement (quantification). Where analysis is conducted by mass spectrometry, one or more chromatographic methods may be employed in order to facilitate the analysis.

    [0021] In one instance the peptides are separated by liquid chromatography (LC) prior to analysis by a mass spectrometer instrument. For example, peptides can be separated on a nanoAcquityLC system (Waters, Milford, MA) or EASY-nLC II (Thermo Scientific, San Jose, CA) with a PicoFrit (100µm ID/10µm tip ID, New Objective) column self-packed to a bed length of 12cm with Jupiter Proteo 90A C12, 4µm resin (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA). Peptides can be eluted over a 12 min chromatography gradient from 1% to 50% acetonitrile, containing 0.1% formic acid and at a flow rate of 800nL/min. Once separated by liquid chromatography, the eluted peptides are directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis. In one instance, the mass spectrometer is equipped with a nanospray source.

    [0022] In another instance, the peptides may be separated by an affinity technique, such as for example immunologically-based purification (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography), chromatography on ion selective media or, if the peptides are modified, by separation using appropriate media such as lectins for separation of carbohydrate modified peptides. In still another instance, the SISCAPA method, which employs immunological separation of peptides prior to mass spectrometric analysis, is employed. The SISCAPA technique is described, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 7,632,686. In still other examples, lectin affinity methods (e.g., affinity purification and/or chromatography may be used to separate peptides from a lysate prior to analysis by mass spectrometry. Methods for separation of groups of peptides, including lectin-based methods, are described, for example, in Geng et al., J. Chromatography B, 752:293-306 (2001). Immunoaffinity chromatography techniques, lectin affinity techniques and other forms of affinity separation and/or chromatography (e.g., reverse phase, size based separation, ion exchange) may be used in any suitable combination to facilitate the analysis of peptides by mass spectrometry.

    [0023] Surprisingly, it was found that many potential peptide sequences from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins are unsuitable or ineffective for use in mass spectrometry-based SRM/MRM assays for reasons that are not evident. In particular it was found that many tryptic peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins could not be detected efficiently or at all in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. As it was not possible to predict the most suitable peptides for MRM/SRM assay, it was necessary to experimentally identify modified and unmodified peptides in actual Liquid TissueTM lysates to develop a reliable and accurate SRM/MRM assay for the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins. While not wishing to be bound by any theory, it is believed that some peptides might, for example, be difficult to detect by mass spectrometry as they do not ionize well or produce fragments distinct from other proteins, peptides may also fail to resolve well in separation (e.g., liquid chromatography), or adhere to glass or plastic ware. Accordingly, those peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that can be detected in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate (e.g., the peptides in Tables 1 and 2) prepared from a formalin fixed tissue sample are the peptides for which SRM/MRM assays can be employed in an ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins SRM/MRM assay. In one instance the protease employed in the simultaneous preparation of fragments of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a single sample will be trypsin.

    [0024] ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides found in various instances described herein (e.g., Tables 1 and/or 2) were derived from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by trypsin digestion of all the proteins within a complex Liquid Tissue™ lysate prepared from cells procured from formalin fixed cancer tissue. Unless noted otherwise, in each instance the protease was trypsin. The Liquid Tissue™ lysate was then analyzed by mass spectrometry to determine those peptides derived from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that are detected and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Identification of a specific preferred subset of peptides for mass spectrometric analysis is based on: 1) experimental determination of which peptide or peptides from a protein ionize in mass spectrometry analyses of Liquid TissueTM lysates, and 2) the ability of the peptide to survive the protocol and experimental conditions used in preparing a Liquid TissueTM lysate. This latter property extends not only to the amino acid sequence of the peptide but also to the ability of a modified amino acid residue within a peptide to survive in modified form during the sample preparation.

    [0025] Protein lysates from cells procured directly from formalin (formaldehyde) fixed tissue were prepared using the Liquid Tissue™ reagents and protocol that entails collecting cells into a sample tube via tissue microdissection followed by heating the cells in the Liquid Tissue™ buffer for an extended period of time. Once the formalin-induced cross linking has been negatively affected, the tissue/cells are then digested to completion in a predictable manner using a protease, such as trypsin, although other proteases can be used. Each protein lysate is turned into a collection of peptides by digestion of intact polypeptides with the protease. Each Liquid Tissue™ lysate was analyzed (e.g., by ion trap mass spectrometry) to perform multiple global proteomic surveys of the peptides where the data was presented as identification of as many peptides as could be identified by mass spectrometry from all cellular proteins present in each protein lysate. An ion trap mass spectrometer or another form of a mass spectrometer that is capable of performing global profiling, for identification of as many peptides as possible from a single complex protein/peptide lysate is typically employed for analysis. Although SRM/MRM assay can be developed and performed on any type of mass spectrometer, including a MALDI, ion trap, or triple quadrupole, the most advantageous instrument platform for SRM/MRM assay is often considered to be a triple quadrupole instrument platform.

    [0026] Once as many peptides as possible were identified in a single MS analysis of a single lysate under the conditions employed, then that list of peptides was collated and used to determine the proteins that were detected in that lysate. That process was repeated for multiple Liquid TissueTM lysates, and the very large list of peptides was collated into a single dataset. That type of dataset can be considered to represent the peptides that can be detected in the type of biological sample that was analyzed (after protease digestion), and specifically in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate of the biological sample, and thus includes the peptides for specific proteins, such as for example the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins.

    [0027] In one instance, the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 tryptic peptides identified as useful in the determination of absolute or relative amounts of: ALK (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: Q9UM73, SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, and SEQ ID NO:5), Ros (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: P08922, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:7, and SEQ ID NO:8; Ron (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: Q04912, SEQ ID NO: 9, SEQ ID NO:10, SEQ ID NO:11. SEQ ID NO:12, and SEQ ID NO:13); Ret (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: P07949, SEQ ID NO:14, SEQ ID NO:15, SEQ ID NO:16, SEQ ID NO:17, SEQ ID NO:18, SEQ ID NO:19, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:21, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:25, and SEQ ID NO:26); TS (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: P04818, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:30, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:34, and SEQ ID NO:35), and/or FGFR1 (e.g., NCBI Accession No.: P11362, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:38, and SEQ ID NO:39), include one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, or ten or more or all of the peptides of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:6, SEQ ID NO:7, SEQ ID NO:8 SEQ ID NO:9, SEQ ID NO:10, SEQ ID NO:11, SEQ ID NO:12, SEQ ID NO:13, SEQ ID NO:14, SEQ ID NO:15, SEQ ID NO:16. SEQ ID NO:17, SEQ ID NO:18, SEQ ID NO:19, SEQ ID NO:20, SEQ ID NO:21, SEQ ID NO:22, SEQ ID NO:23, SEQ ID NO:24, SEQ ID NO:25, SEQ ID NO:26, SEQ ID NO:27, SEQ ID NO:28, SEQ ID NO:29, SEQ ID NO:30, SEQ ID NO:31, SEQ ID NO:32, SEQ ID NO:33, SEQ ID NO:34, SEQ ID NO:35, SEQ ID NO:36, SEQ ID NO:37, SEQ ID NO:38, and SEQ ID NO:39, each of which are listed in Table 1. Each of those peptides was detected by mass spectrometry in Liquid TissueTM lysates prepared from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. Thus, each of the peptides in Table 1, or any combination of those peptides (e.g., one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, or seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, or ten or more of those peptides recited in Table 1) are candidates for use in quantitative SRM/MRM assay for the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins including directly in formalin fixed patient or subject tissue.
    Table 1
    SEQ IDProteinPeptide Sequence
    SEQ ID NO:1 ALK SLAVDFVVPSLFR
    SEQ ID NO:2 ALK DSFPFLSHR
    SEQ ID NO:3 ALK SLSAVDFFALK
    SEQ ID NO:4 ALK SNQEVLEFVTSGGR
    SEQ ID NO:5 ALK DPEGVPPLLVSQQAK
    SEQ ID NO:6 ROS IQDQLQLFR
    SEQ ID NO:7 ROS GEGLLPVR
    SEQ ID NO:8 ROS EGVTVLINEDK
    SEQ ID NO:9 RON ILQVELVR
    SEQ ID NO:10 RON LHVLGPDLK
    SEQ ID NO:11 RON VDGTSVLR
    SEQ ID NO:12 RON DLISFGLQVAR
    SEQ ID NO:13 RON DLDSALLAEVK
    SEQ ID NO:14 RET TLGEGEFGK
    SEQ ID NO:15 RET NILVAEGR
    SEQ ID NO:16 RET ALPSTWIENK
    SEQ ID NO:17 RET ISDFGLSR
    SEQ ID NO:18 RET DVYEEDSYVK
    SEQ ID NO:19 RET VGPGYLGSGGSR
    SEQ ID NO:20 RET AGYTTVAVK
    SEQ ID NO:21 RET DLLSEFNVLK
    SEQ ID NO:22 RET ATAFHLK
    SEQ ID NO:23 RET NLVLGK
    SEQ ID NO:24 RET ILEDPK
    SEQ ID NO:25 RET ADGTNTGFPR
    SEQ ID NO:26 RET QVNHPHVIK
    SEQ ID NO:27 TS GSTNAK
    SEQ ID NO:28 TS VIDTIK
    SEQ ID NO:29 TS TNPDDR
    SEQ ID NO:30 TS HFGAEYR
    SEQ ID NO:31 TS DEFPLLTTK
    SEQ ID NO:32 TS DFLDSLGFSTR
    SEQ ID NO:33 TS GVLEELLWFIK
    SEQ ID NO:34 TS EEGDLGPVYGFQWR
    SEQ ID NO:35 TS AEDFQIEGYNPHPTIK
    SEQ ID NO:36 FGFR1 DDVQSINWLR
    SEQ ID NO:37 FGFR1 DGVQLAESNR
    SEQ ID NO:38 FGFR1 LHAVPAAK
    SEQ ID NO:39 FGFR1 HPAQLANGGLK


    [0028] The ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides listed in Table 1 include those detected from multiple Liquid Tissue™ lysates of multiple different formalin fixed tissues of different human organs including prostate, colon, and breast. Each of those peptides is considered useful for quantitative SRM/MRM assay of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in formalin fixed tissue. Further data analysis of these experiments indicated no preference is observed for any specific peptides from any specific organ site. Thus, each of these peptides is believed to be suitable for conducting SRM/MRM assays of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins on a Liquid TissueTM lysate from any formalin fixed tissue originating from any biological sample or from any organ site in the body.

    [0029] In another instance, an SRM/MRM assay employs one or two peptides for each of TS and FGFR1 (e.g., from the peptides listed in Table 1). In another instance an SRM/MRM assay employs one or two peptides for each of ALK, Ros, Ron, and/or Ret (e.g., from the peptides listed in Table 1).

    [0030] In other instances one or both of the ALK and Ros proteins are assayed and one, two three or four of the Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein are assayed using SRM/MRM assay(s). In one example of such an instance, at least one peptide or at least two peptides for one or both of the Ron and Ret protein are assayed by SRM/MRM assay (e.g., the Ron and Ret peptides listed in Table 1); and at least one peptide or at least two peptides for any one, two, three or four of ALK, Ros, TS, and/or FGFR1 are assayed (e.g., the peptides listed in Table 1). In another example of such an instance: at least one or at least two peptides for one or both of the ALK and Ros protein are assayed by SRM/MRM assay (e.g., peptides listed in Table 1); and at least one or at least two peptides for any of Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 are assayed (e.g., the peptides listed in Table 1). Compositions comprising peptides that are isotopically labeled, but otherwise identical to one or more of the peptides set forth in any of these instances are provided for herein and their preparation and use, particularly for use as mass spectrometry standards, is described below.

    [0031] In one instance one or more peptides in Table 1, or any combination of those peptides (e.g., one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, or all eleven) is assayed by a method that does not rely upon mass spectroscopy, including, but not limited to, immunological methods (e.g., Western blotting or ELISA). According to the invention, the assays are conducted using formalin fixed tissue. Regardless of how information directed to the amount of the peptide(s) (absolute or relative) is obtained, the information may be employed in any of the methods described herein, including indicating (diagnosing) the presence of cancer in a patient or subject, determining the stage/grade/status of the cancer, providing a prognosis, or determining the therapeutic or treatment regimen for a patient or subject.

    [0032] In other instances one or both of the ALK and Ros proteins are assayed and one, two three or four of the Ron, Ret, TS, and FGFR1 proteins are assayed by a method that does not rely upon mass spectroscopy, including, but not limited to, immunological methods (e.g., Western blotting or ELISA). In one example of such an instance: at least one or at least two peptides for one or both of the ALK and Ros proteins are assayed (e.g., the ALK and ROS peptides listed in Table 1); and at least one or at least two peptides for any one, two, three or four of Ron, Ret, TS, and FGFR1 proteins are assayed (e.g., the peptides listed in Table 1). In another example of such an instance: at least one or at least two peptides for one or both of the ALK and Ron proteins are (e.g., the ALK and Ron peptides listed in Table 1); and at least one or at least two peptides for any of Ros, Ret, TS, and FGFR1 proteins are assayed (e.g., the peptides listed in Table 1).

    [0033] An important consideration when conducting an SRM/MRM assay is the type of instrument that may be employed in the analysis of the peptides. Although SRM/MRM assays can be developed and performed on any type of mass spectrometer, including a MALDI, ion trap, or triple quadrupole, presently the most advantageous instrument platform for SRM/MRM assay is often considered to be a triple quadrupole instrument platform. That type of a mass spectrometer may be considered to be the most suitable instrument for analyzing a single isolated target peptide within a very complex protein lysate that may consist of hundreds of thousands to millions of individual peptides from all the proteins contained within a cell.

    [0034] In order to most efficiently implement a SRM/MRM assay for each peptide derived from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins it is desirable to utilize information in addition to the peptide sequence in the analysis. That additional information may be used in directing and instructing the mass spectrometer (e.g. a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer) to perform the correct and focused analysis of specific targeted peptide(s) such that the assay may be effectively performed.

    [0035] The additional information about target peptides in general, and about specific ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides, may include one, two, three, four, or more of the mono isotopic mass of each peptide, its precursor charge state, the precursor m/z value, the m/z transition ions, and the ion type of each transition ion. Additional peptide information that may be used to develop an SRM/MRM assay for the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins is shown in Table 2 for 12 ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides from the list in Table 1. This additional information described for the peptides as shown in Table 2 may be prepared, obtained, and applied to the analysis of any other peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, including those produced by the action of other proteases or combinations of proteases (e.g., trypsin and/or Lys C).
    TABLE 2
     Peptide SequenceMono isotopic massPrecursor Charge StatePrecursor m/zTransition m/zIon Type
    ALK SEQ ID      
    1 SLAVDFVVPSLFR 1448.8027 2 725.409 619.356 y5
          2 725.409 718.424 y6
          2 725.409 817.493 y7
          2 725.409 964.561 y8
          2 725.409 1079.588 Y9
    2 DSFPFLSHR 1104.5352 2 553.275 512.293 y4
          2 553.275 659.362 y5
          2 553.275 756.415 y6
    4 SNQEVLEFVTSGGR 1521.7423 2 761.878 723.378 y7
          2 761.878 852.421 y8
          2 761.878 965.505 y9
          2 761.878 1064.573 y10
    Ros SEQ ID      
    6 IQDQLQLFR 1159.6349 2 580.825 435.271 y3
          2 580.825 563.33 y4
          2 580.825 676.414 y5
          2 580.825 804.472 y6
          2 580.825 919.499 y7
    7 GEGLLPVR 839.4865 2 420.75 371.24 y3
          2 420.75 484.324 y4
          2 420.75 654.429 y6
    Ron SEQ ID      
    9 ILQVELVR 968.6018 2 485.308 516.314 y4
          2 485.308 615.382 y5
          2 485.308 743.441 y6
          2 485.308 856.525 y7
    10 LHVLGPDLK 990.5862 2 496.3 529.298 y5
          2 496.3 642.382 y6
          2 496.3 741.45 y7
    Ret SEQ ID      
    16 ALPSTWIENK 936.4552 2 579.811 390.198 y3
          2 579.811 503.282 y4
          2 579.811 689.361 y5
          2 579.811 790.409 y6
          2 579.811 877.441 y7
     Peptide SequenceMono isotopic massPrecursor Charge StatePrecursor m/zTransition m/zIon Type
    TS SEQ ID      
    31 DEFPLLTTK 1062.5597 2 532.287 462.292 y4
          2 532.287 575.376 y5
          2 532.287 672.429 y6
          2 532.287 819.497 y7
    35 AEDFQIEGYNPHPTI 1857.8897 3 620.304 458.297 y4
          3 620.304 578.293 y10
          3 620.304 634.835 yll
          3 620.304 692.408 y6
          3 620.304 829.912 y14
    FGFR1 SEQ ID      
    36 DDVQSINWLR 1244.6149 2 623.315 588.325 y4
          2 623.315 701.409 y5
          2 623.315 788.441 y6
          2 623.315 916.499 y7
    38 LHAVPAAK 805.481 2 403.748 386.239 y4
          2 403.748 485.308 y5
          2 403.748 556.345 y6


    [0036] In some instances, the peptides suitable for assays of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins (e.g., the peptides set forth in Table 1 and shown as SEQ ID, Nos. 1-39) may contain additional proteolytic sites internal to the peptide sequences that if cleaved would produce sub-peptides. Such sub-peptides are recognizable by assessing the sequence of the identified peptides for proteolytic cleavage sites of a desired protease. In one instance, tryptic peptides may include additional internal trypsin cleavage sites that can lead to sub-peptides upon further cleavage by trypsin. In another instance, tryptic peptides may contain internal sites for proteases including, but not limited to, trypsin GluC, AspN, chymotrypsin, and/or Lys C, which can lead to the formation of sub-peptides upon cleavage by any one, two, or more of trypsin, GluC, AspN, chymotrypsin, and/or Lys C. In another instance, Lys C peptides may contain internal sites for other proteases, such as GluC, AspN, chymotrypsin, and/or trypsin, which can lead to the formation of sub-peptides upon cleavage by any one, two, or more of GluC, AspN, chymotrypsin, and/or trypsin. Such sub-peptides, and specifically trypsin, GluC, AspN, chymotrypsin, and/or Lys C cleavage fragments of any one or more of the peptides set forth in SEQ ID Nos. 1-39 are understood to be set forth in this disclosure.

    [0037] Instances set forth herein include compositions comprising one or more of the peptides in Tables 1 and 2, and may optionally include peptides that are isotopically labeled but otherwise identical to one or more of the peptides found in Tables 1 and 2. In some instances, the compositions comprise one or more, two or more, three or more, four or more, five or more, six or more, seven or more, eight or more, nine or more, or all thirty-nine (39) of the peptides in Tables 1 and 2. Such compositions may optionally include peptides, polypeptides, or proteins whose amino acid sequence comprises peptides that are isotopically labeled but otherwise identical to one or more of the peptides found in Table 1 and Table 2. Where isotopically labeled synthetic or natural peptides, polypeptides, or proteins that comprise one, two, three, four, five, six or more of the peptides in Tables 1 and 2 are employed, protease treatment releases peptides that are isotopically labeled but otherwise identical to the peptides in Tables 1 and 2. Such isotopically labeled biological or biosynthetic peptides may be prepared, for example, in programmed cell lysates or in tissue culture using isotopically labeled amino acids. Each of the isotopically labeled peptides may be labeled with one or more isotopes selected independently from the group consisting of: 18O, 17O, 34S, 15N, 13C, 2H or combinations thereof. Compositions comprising peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, whether isotope labeled or not, do not need to contain all of the peptides from that protein (e.g., a complete set of tryptic peptides). In some instances the compositions do not contain all peptides in combination from ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and particularly all of the peptides appearing in Table 1 and Table 2. Compositions containing peptides may be in the form of dried or lyophilized materials, liquid (e.g., aqueous) solutions or suspensions, arrays, or blots.

    [0038] In one instance, the additional information about specific ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides includes one or more, two or more, or three or more of the mono isotopic mass of each peptide, its precursor charge state, the precursor m/z value, the m/z transition ions, and the ion type of each transition ion for peptides resulting from Lys C proteolysis of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins.

    [0039] In another instance, the additional information about specific ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides, includes one or more, two or more, or three or more of the mono isotopic mass of each peptide, its precursor charge state, the precursor m/z value, the m/z transition ions, and the ion type of each transition ion for peptides resulting from trypsin proteolysis of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins.

    [0040] In still another instance, the additional information about specific ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptides, includes one or more, two or more, or three or more of the mono isotopic mass of each peptide, its precursor charge state, the precursor m/z value, the m/z transition ions, and the ion type of each transition ion for peptides resulting from trypsin and/or Lys C proteolysis of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins. In one instance, a single tryptic and/or Lys C proteolytic peptide from each of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, along with the relevant additional information is employed in a diagnostic determination. Thus, for example, the peptides of SEQ ID NOs 4, 7, 9, 16, 31 and/or 36, and additional information about those peptides (see Table 3) in employed in a diagnostic analysis.


    Exemplary SRM/MRM Assay Method



    [0041] 
    1. 1. The method described below was used to: 1) identify candidate peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that can be used for a mass spectrometry-based SRM/MRM assay for the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, 2) develop individual SRM/MRM assay, or assays, for target peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, and 3) apply quantitative assays to cancer diagnosis and/or choice of optimal therapy. Identification of SRM/MRM candidate fragment peptides for the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins:
      1. a. Prepare a Liquid TissueTM protein lysate from a formalin fixed biological sample using a protease or proteases, (that may or may not include trypsin), to digest proteins
      2. b. Analyze all protein fragments in the Liquid TissueTM lysate on an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer and identify all fragment peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, where individual fragment peptides do not contain any peptide modifications such as phosphorylations or glycosylations
      3. c. Analyze all protein fragments in the Liquid TissueTM lysate on an ion trap tandem mass spectrometer and identify all fragment peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that carry peptide modifications such as for example phosphorylated or glycosylated residues
      4. d. All peptides generated by a specific digestion method from the entire, full length ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins potentially can be measured, but preferred peptides used for development of the SRM/MRM assay are those that are identified by mass spectrometry directly in a complex Liquid Tissue™ protein lysate prepared from a formalin fixed biological sample
      5. e. Peptides that are specifically modified (phosphorylated, glycosylated, etc.) in a patient or subject tissue and which ionize, and thus can be detected, in a mass spectrometer when analyzing a Liquid Tissue™ lysate from a formalin fixed biological sample are identified as candidate peptides for assaying peptide modifications of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins
    2. 2. Mass Spectrometry Assay for Fragment Peptides from ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins:
      1. a. SRM/MRM assay on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for individual fragment peptides identified in a Liquid TissueTM lysate is applied to peptides from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins
        1. i. Determine optimal retention time for a fragment peptide for optimal chromatography conditions including but not limited to gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, nano-reversed phase liquid chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, or reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography
        2. ii. Determine the mono isotopic mass of the peptide, the precursor charge state for each peptide, the precursor m/z value for each peptide, the m/z transition ions for each peptide, and the ion type of each transition ion for each fragment peptide in order to develop an SRM/MRM assay for each peptide.
        3. iii. An SRM/MRM assay can then be conducted using the information from (i) and (ii) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer where each peptide has a characteristic and unique SRM/MRM signature peak that precisely defines the unique SRM/MRM assay as performed on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer
      2. b. Perform SRM/MRM analysis so that the amount of the fragment peptide of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that is detected, as a function of the unique SRM/MRM signature peak area from an SRM/MRM mass spectrometry analysis, can indicate both the relative and absolute amount of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a particular protein lysate.
        1. i. Relative quantitation may be achieved by:
          1. 1. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area from a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide detected in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate from one formalin fixed biological sample to (b) the same SRM/MRM signature peak area of the same ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 fragment peptide in at least a second, third, fourth or more Liquid Tissue™ lysates from at least a second, third, fourth or more formalin fixed biological samples
          2. 2. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area from a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide detected in a Liquid TissueTM lysate from one formalin fixed biological sample to (b) SRM/MRM signature peak areas developed from fragment peptides from other proteins, in other samples derived from different and separate biological sources, where the SRM/MRM signature peak area comparison between the 2 samples for a peptide fragment is normalized to amount of protein analyzed in each sample.
          3. 3. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by (a) comparing the SRM/MRM signature peak area for a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 peptide to (b) the SRM/MRM signature peak areas from other fragment peptides derived from different proteins within the same Liquid Tissue™ lysate from the formalin fixed biological sample in order to normalize changing levels of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins to levels of other proteins that do not change their levels of expression under various cellular conditions.
          4. 4. These assays can be applied to both unmodified fragment peptides and to modified fragment peptides of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, where the modifications include but are not limited to phosphorylation and/or glycosylation, and where the relative levels of modified peptides are determined in the same manner as determining relative amounts of unmodified peptides.
        2. ii. Absolute quantitation of a given peptide may be achieved by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area for a given fragment peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in an individual biological sample to (b) the SRM/MRM signature peak area of an internal fragment peptide standard spiked into the protein lysate from the biological sample
          1. 1. The internal standard is a labeled synthetic version of the fragment peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that is being interrogated. This standard is spiked into a sample in known amounts, and the SRM/MRM signature peak area can be determined for both the internal fragment peptide standard and the native fragment peptide in the biological sample separately, followed by comparison of both peak areas
          2. 2. This can be applied to unmodified fragment peptides and modified fragment peptides, where the modifications include but are not limited to phosphorylation and/or glycosylation, and where the absolute levels of modified peptides can be determined in the same manner as determining absolute levels of unmodified peptides.
    3. 3. Apply Fragment Peptide Quantitation to Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment
      1. a. Perform relative and/or absolute quantitation of fragment peptide levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins and demonstrate that the previously-determined association, as well understood in the field of cancer, of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein expression to the stage/grade/status of cancer in patient or subject tumor tissue is confirmed
      2. b. Perform relative and/or absolute quantitation of fragment peptide levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins and demonstrate correlation with clinical outcomes from different treatment strategies, wherein this correlation has already been demonstrated in the field or can be demonstrated in the future through correlation studies across cohorts of patients or subjects and tissue from those patients or subjects. Once either previously established correlations or correlations derived in the future are confirmed by this assay then the assay method can be used to determine optimal treatment strategy


    [0042] A Mass Spectrometry Assay for Fragment Peptides from ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins
    1. a. SRM/MRM assay to determine the amount of the fragment peptide of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that is detected to determine the relative and/or absolute amount of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a protein lysate.
      1. i. Relative quantitation may be achieved by:
        1. 1. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area from a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein peptide detected in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate from one formalin fixed biological sample to (b) the same SRM/MRM signature peak area of the same ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptide in at least a second, third, fourth or more Liquid Tissue™ lysates from at least a second, third, fourth or more formalin fixed biological samples
        2. 2. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area from a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein peptide detected in a Liquid Tissue™ lysate from one formalin fixed biological sample to (b) SRM/MRM signature peak areas developed from fragment peptides from other proteins, in other samples derived from different and separate biological sources, where the SRM/MRM signature peak area comparison between the 2 samples for a peptide fragment is normalized to amount of protein analyzed in each sample.
        3. 3. Determining increased or decreased presence of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area for a given ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein peptide to (b) the SRM/MRM signature peak areas from other fragment peptides derived from different proteins within the same Liquid Tissue™ lysate from the formalin fixed biological sample in order to normalize changing levels of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins to levels of other proteins that do not change their levels of expression under various cellular conditions.
        4. 4. These assays can be applied to both unmodified fragment peptides and for modified fragment peptides of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, where the modifications include but are not limited to phosphorylation and/or glycosylation, and where the relative levels of modified peptides are determined in the same manner as determining relative amounts of unmodified peptides.
      2. ii. Absolute quantitation of a given peptide or the protein from which it is derived, may be achieved by comparing (a) the SRM/MRM signature peak area for a given fragment peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in an individual biological sample to (b) the SRM/MRM signature peak area of an internal fragment peptide standard spiked into the protein lysate from the biological sample.


    [0043] The internal standard can be a labeled synthetic version of the fragment peptide from the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins that is being interrogated (or a protein or polypeptide comprising the labeled synthetic version of the fragment peptide that is released upon proteolysis). The standard is spiked into a sample in known amounts, and the SRM/MRM signature peak area can be determined for both the internal fragment peptide standard and the native fragment peptide in the biological sample separately, followed by comparison of both peak areas.

    [0044] This can be applied to unmodified fragment peptides and modified fragment peptides, where the modifications include but are not limited to phosphorylation and/or glycosylation, and where the absolute levels of modified peptides can be determined in the same manner as determining absolute levels of unmodified peptides.

    [0045] Assessment of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein levels in tissues based on analysis of formalin fixed patient-derived or subject-derived tissue can provide diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutically-relevant information about each particular patient or subject. Described herein is a method for measuring the levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a biological sample, comprising detecting and/or quantifying the amount of one or more modified or unmodified ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptides in a protein digest prepared from said biological sample using mass spectrometry; and calculating the level of modified or unmodified ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in said sample; and wherein said level is a relative level or an absolute level. In a related instance, quantifying one or more ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptides comprises determining the amount of each of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptides in a biological sample by comparison to an added internal standard peptide of known amount, wherein each of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptides in the biological sample is compared to an internal standard peptide having the same amino acid sequence. In some instances the internal standard is an isotopically labeled internal standard peptide comprises one or more heavy stable isotopes selected from 18O, 17O , 34S , 15N, 13C 2H or combinations thereof.

    [0046] The method for measuring levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins in a biological sample described herein (or fragment peptides as surrogates thereof) may be used as a diagnostic indicator of cancer in a patient or subject. In one instance, the results from measurements of levels of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins may be employed to determine the diagnostic stage/grade/status of a cancer by correlating (e.g., comparing) the levels of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins found in a tissue with the levels of ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins found in normal and/or cancerous or precancerous tissues.

    [0047] The only current method in use for detecting levels of specific proteins in formalin fixed patient tissue is immunohistochemistry (IHC). This method analyzes only one protein at a time on a single tissue section from a patient tumor tissue sample. Thus, in order to analyze multiple proteins, multiple tissue sections must be interrogated, which costs much time and labor. IHC uses an antibody to detect the presence of the target protein and, because of the potential for nonspecific binding of the antibody to proteins there is great inherent potential for signal background in any IHC experiment. In addition, IHC is only semi-quantitative at best. Due to these problems IHC fails to provide for objective quantitative analysis of multiple proteins simultaneously. The methods described here are able to provide for objective quantitation of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins simultaneously with 100% assay specificity utilizing a single section of a patient tissue sample, saving significant time and money while providing for much more valuable data about expression of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins.

    [0048] This multiplex SRM/MRM assay can also include simultaneous analysis of other additional proteins beyond the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins, including drug target proteins such as EGFR, IGF-1R, and cMet. This is valuable because analysis of additional proteins also indicates which additional drugs might be useful for treating a particular cancer. Examples of additional drugs based on analysis of additional example drug target proteins include Erbitux, which targets the EGFR receptor, Figitumumab, which targets IGF-1R, and Foretinib, which targets c-Met and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2).

    [0049] Because both nucleic acids and protein can be analyzed from the same Liquid TissueTM biomolecular preparation, it is possible to generate additional information about disease diagnosis and drug treatment decisions from the nucleic acids in the same sample used for protein analysis. For example, if the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins are expressed by certain cells at increased levels, when assayed by SRM the data can provide information about the state of the cells and their potential for uncontrolled growth, potential drug resistance and the development of cancers can be obtained. At the same time, information about the status of the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 genes and/or the nucleic acids and proteins they encode (e.g., mRNA molecules and their expression levels or splice variations) can be obtained from nucleic acids present in the same biomolecular preparation. In one instance, information about the ALK, Ros, Ron, Ret, TS, and/or FGFR1 proteins and/or one, two, three, four or more additional proteins may be assessed by examining the nucleic acids encoding those proteins. Those nucleic acids can be examined, for example, by one or more, two or more, or three or more of: sequencing methods, polymerase chain reaction methods, restriction fragment polymorphism analysis, identification of deletions, insertions, and/or determinations of the presence of mutations, including but not limited to, single base pair polymorphisms, transitions, transversions, or combinations thereof.

    SEQUENCE LISTING



    [0050] 

    <110> Expression Pathology Inc

    <120> SRM Assay to Indicate Cancer Therapy

    <130> E 10039 EP/D-I

    <150> US 61/791,833
    <151> 2013-03-15

    <160> 39

    <170> PatentIn version 3.5

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    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 8

    <210> 9
    <211> 8
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 9

    <210> 10
    <211> 9
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 10

    <210> 11
    <211> 8
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 11

    <210> 12
    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 12

    <210> 13
    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 13

    <210> 14
    <211> 9
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 14

    <210> 15
    <211> 8
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 15

    <210> 16
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 16

    <210> 17
    <211> 8
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 17

    <210> 18
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 18

    <210> 19
    <211> 12
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 19

    <210> 20
    <211> 9
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 20

    <210> 21
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 21

    <210> 22
    <211> 7
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 22

    <210> 23
    <211> 6
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 23

    <210> 24
    <211> 6
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 24

    <210> 25
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 25

    <210> 26
    <211> 9
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 26

    <210> 27
    <211> 6
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 27

    <210> 28
    <211> 6
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 28

    <210> 29
    <211> 6
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 29

    <210> 30
    <211> 7
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 30

    <210> 31
    <211> 9
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 31

    <210> 32
    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 32

    <210> 33
    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 33

    <210> 34
    <211> 14
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 34

    <210> 35
    <211> 16
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 35

    <210> 36
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 36

    <210> 37
    <211> 10
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 37

    <210> 38
    <211> 8
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 38

    <210> 39
    <211> 11
    <212> PRT
    <213> Homo sapiens

    <400> 39






    Claims

    1. A method for measuring the amount of Ret protein in a human biological sample of formalin-fixed tissue, comprising detecting and quantifying the amount of a Ret protein fragment peptide in a protein digest prepared from said biological sample using mass spectrometry; and calculating the amount of Ret protein in said sample; wherein said Ret protein fragment peptide is the peptide consisting of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO: 20, SEQ ID NO: 21, SEQ ID NO: 22, SEQ ID NO: 23, SEQ ID NO: 24, SEQ ID NO: 25 or SEQ ID NO: 26; and
    wherein said amount is a relative amount or an absolute amount.
     
    2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of fractionating said protein digest prior to detecting and quantifying the amount of said Ret protein fragment peptide.
     
    3. The method of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein said protein digest comprises a protease digest.
     
    4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the human biological sample was obtained from a tumor.
     
    5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, further comprising quantifying one or more Ros, Ron, ALK, TS, and/or FGFR1 protein fragment peptides, wherein
    said Ros protein fragment peptide consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7 or SEQ ID NO: 8,
    said Ron protein fragment peptide consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 12 or SEQ ID NO: 13,
    said ALK protein fragment peptide consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4, or SEQ ID NO: 5,
    said TS protein fragment peptide consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 27, SEQ ID NO: 28, SEQ ID NO: 29, SEQ ID NO: 30, SEQ ID NO: 31, SEQ ID NO: 32, SEQ ID NO: 33, SEQ ID NO: 34 or SEQ ID NO: 35, and
    said FGFR1 protein fragment peptide consists of the sequence of SEQ ID NO: 36, SEQ ID NO: 37, SEQ ID NO: 38 or SEQ ID NO: 39.
     
    6. The method of claim 1, wherein quantifying the Ret protein fragment peptide comprises comparing the amount of said protein fragment peptide in one biological sample to the amount of the same Ret protein fragment peptide in a different and separate biological sample.
     
    7. The method of claim 1, wherein quantifying said Ret protein fragment peptide comprises determining the amount of said Ret protein fragment peptide in a biological sample by comparison to an added internal standard peptide of known amount, wherein said Ret protein fragment peptide in the biological sample is compared to an internal standard peptide having the same amino acid sequence.
     
    8. The method of claim 7, wherein the internal standard peptide is an isotopically labeled peptide.
     
    9. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein detecting and quantifying the amount of said Ret protein fragment peptide in the protein digest indicates the presence of Ret protein in the biological sample and an association with cancer, including lung cancer, in a patient or subject from which said biological sample was obtained.
     
    10. The method of claim 9, further comprising correlating the results of said detecting and quantifying the amount of said Ret protein fragment peptide, or the amount of said Ret protein to the diagnostic stage/grade/status of the cancer, including lung cancer.
     
    11. The method of claim 10, wherein correlating the results of said detecting and quantifying the amount of said Ret protein fragment peptide, or the amount of said Ret protein to the diagnostic stage/grade/status of the cancer is combined with detecting and/or quantifying the amount of other proteins or peptides from other proteins in a multiplex format to provide additional information about the diagnostic stage/grade/status of the cancer, including lung cancer.
     
    12. The method of claim 9, wherein the amount of the Ret protein fragment peptide or the amount of Ret protein is used for selecting a therapeutic agent and/or an amount of the therapeutic agent to be administered to a patient or subject from which said biological sample was obtained.
     
    13. The method of claim 12, wherein the treatment or the therapeutic agent is directed to cancer cells expressing Ret protein.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zum Messen der Menge an Ret-Protein in einer humanbiologischen Probe von formalinfixiertem Gewebe, umfassend das Nachweisen und Quantifizieren der Menge eines Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids in einer Proteinspaltung, die aus der biologischen Probe hergestellt wurde, unter Verwendung von Massenspektrometrie; und Berechnen der Menge an Ret-Protein in der Probe; wobei das Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptid das Peptid ist, das aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 14, SEQ ID NO: 15, SEQ ID NO: 16, SEQ ID NO: 17, SEQ ID NO: 18, SEQ ID NO: 19, SEQ ID NO: 20, SEQ ID NO: 21, SEQ ID NO: 22, SEQ ID NO: 23, SEQ ID NO: 24, SEQ ID NO: 25 oder SEQ ID NO: 26 besteht; und
    wobei die Menge eine relative Menge oder eine absolute Menge ist.
     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, zudem umfassend den Schritt des Fraktionierens der Proteinspaltung vor dem Nachweisen und Quantifizieren der Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder Anspruch 2, wobei die Proteinspaltung eine Proteasespaltung umfasst.
     
    4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei die humanbiologische Probe aus einem Tumor erhalten wurde.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, zudem umfassend das Quantifizieren eines oder mehrerer Ros-, Ron-, ALK-, TS- und/oder FGFR1-Proteinfragmentpeptide, wobei
    das Ros-Proteinfragmentpeptid aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7 oder SEQ ID NO: 8 besteht,
    das Ron-Proteinfragmentpeptid aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 9, SEQ ID NO: 10, SEQ ID NO: 11, SEQ ID NO: 12 oder SEQ ID NO: 13 besteht,
    das ALK-Proteinfragmentpeptid aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 1; SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4 oder SEQ ID NO: 5 besteht,
    das TS-Proteinfragmentpeptid aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 27, SEQ ID NO: 28, SEQ ID NO: 29, SEQ ID NO: 30, SEQ ID NO: 31, SEQ ID NO: 32, SEQ ID NO: 33, SEQ ID NO: 34 oder SEQ ID NO: 35 besteht, und
    das FGFR1-Proteinfragmentpeptid aus der Sequenz von SEQ ID NO: 36, SEQ ID NO: 37, SEQ ID NO: 38 oder SEQ ID NO: 39 besteht.
     
    6. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Quantifizieren des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids das Vergleichen der Menge des Proteinfragmentpeptids in einer biologischen Probe mit der Menge des gleichen Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids in einer anderen und getrennten biologischen Probe umfasst.
     
    7. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Quantifizieren des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids das Bestimmen der Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids in einer biologischen Probe durch Vergleich mit einem zugesetzten internen Standardpeptid bekannter Menge umfasst, wobei das Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptid in der biologischen Probe mit einem internen Standardpeptid mit der gleichen Aminosäuresequenz verglichen wird.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei das interne Standardpeptid ein isotopenmarkiertes Peptid ist.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei das Nachweisen und Quantifizieren der Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids bei der Proteinspaltung das Vorhandensein von Ret-Protein in der biologischen Probe und eine Assoziation mit Krebs, einschließlich Lungenkrebs, bei einem Patienten oder Individuum, von dem die biologische Probe erhalten wurde, anzeigt.
     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, zudem umfassend das Korrelieren der Ergebnisse des Nachweisens und Quantifizierens der Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids oder der Menge des Ret-Proteins mit dem diagnostischen Stadium/Grad/Status der Krebserkrankung, einschließlich Lungenkrebs.
     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, wobei das Korrelieren der Ergebnisse des Nachweisens und Quantifizierens der Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids oder der Menge des Ret-Proteins mit dem diagnostischen Stadium/Grad/Status der Krebserkrankung mit dem Nachweisen und/oder Quantifizieren der Menge anderer Proteine oder Peptide aus anderen Proteinen in einem Multiplex-Format kombiniert wird, um zusätzliche Informationen in Bezug auf das diagnostische Stadium/den diagnostischen Grad/den diagnostischen Status der Krebserkrankung, einschließlich Lungenkrebs, bereitzustellen.
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 9, wobei die Menge des Ret-Proteinfragmentpeptids oder die Menge des Ret-Proteins zur Auswahl eines therapeutischen Mittels und/oder einer Menge des therapeutischen Mittels verwendet wird, die einem Patienten oder Individuum verabreicht werden soll, aus dem die biologische Probe erhalten wurde.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 12, wobei die Behandlung oder das therapeutische Mittel auf Krebszellen gerichtet ist, die Ret-Protein exprimieren.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé de mesure de la quantité de protéine Ret dans un échantillon biologique humain de tissu fixé par le formol, comprenant la détection et la quantification de la quantité d'un peptide de fragment de protéine Ret dans un produit de digestion de protéine préparé à partir dudit échantillon biologique par spectrométrie de masse ; et le calcul de la quantité de protéine Ret dans ledit échantillon ; dans lequel ledit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret est le peptide constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 14, SEQ ID NO : 15, SEQ ID NO : 16, SEQ ID NO : 17, SEQ ID NO : 18, SEQ ID NO : 19, SEQ ID NO : 20, SEQ ID NO : 21, SEQ ID NO : 22, SEQ ID NO : 23, SEQ ID NO : 24, SEQ ID NO : 25 ou SEQ ID NO : 26 ; et
    dans lequel ladite quantité est une quantité relative ou une quantité absolue.
     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre l'étape de fractionnement dudit produit de digestion de protéine avant la détection et la quantification de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou la revendication 2, dans lequel ledit produit de digestion de protéine comprend un produit de digestion de protéase.
     
    4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, dans lequel l'échantillon biologique humain est un échantillon obtenu à partir d'une tumeur.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, comprenant en outre la quantification d'un ou plusieurs peptides de fragment de protéine Ros, Ron, ALK, TS et/ou FGFR1, dans lequel
    ledit peptide de fragment de protéine Ros est constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 6, SEQ ID NO : 7 ou SEQ ID NO : 8
    ledit peptide de fragment de protéine Ron est constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 9, SEQ ID NO : 10, SEQ ID NO : 11, SEQ ID NO : 12 ou SEQ ID NO : 13,
    ledit peptide de fragment de protéine ALK est constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 1, SEQ ID NO : 2, SEQ ID NO : 3, SEQ ID NO : 4 ou SEQ ID NO : 5,
    ledit peptide de fragment de protéine TS est constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 27, SEQ ID NO : 28, SEQ ID NO : 29, SEQ ID NO : 30, SEQ ID NO : 31, SEQ ID NO : 32, SEQ ID NO : 33, SEQ ID NO : 34 ou SEQ ID NO : 35, et ledit peptide de fragment de protéine FGFR1 est constitué de la séquence de SEQ ID NO : 36, SEQ ID NO : 37, SEQ ID NO : 38 ou SEQ ID NO : 39.
     
    6. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la quantification du peptide de fragment de protéine Ret comprend la comparaison de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine dans un échantillon biologique à la quantité du même peptide de fragment de protéine Ret dans un échantillon biologique différent et séparé.
     
    7. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la quantification dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret comprend la détermination de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret dans un échantillon biologique par comparaison à un peptide étalon interne ajouté de quantité connue, dans lequel ledit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret dans l'échantillon biologique est comparé à un peptide étalon interne ayant la même séquence d'acides aminés.
     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le peptide étalon interne est un peptide marqué de façon isotopique.
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel la détection et la quantification de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret dans le produit de digestion de protéine indique la présence de protéine Ret dans l'échantillon biologique et une association avec un cancer, comprenant un cancer du poumon, chez un patient ou sujet à partir duquel ledit échantillon biologique a été obtenu.
     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 9, comprenant en outre la corrélation des résultats desdites détection et quantification de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret, ou de la quantité de ladite protéine Ret au stade/grade/statut diagnostique du cancer, comprenant un cancer du poumon.
     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 10, dans lequel la corrélation des résultats desdites détection et quantification de la quantité dudit peptide de fragment de protéine Ret, ou de la quantité de ladite protéine Ret au stade/grade/statut diagnostique du cancer est combinée avec la détection et/ou la quantification de la quantité d'autres protéines ou peptides d'autres protéines dans un format multiplexe pour fournir des informations supplémentaires concernant le stade/grade/statut diagnostique du cancer, comprenant un cancer du poumon.
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 9, dans lequel la quantité du peptide de fragment de protéine Ret ou la quantité de protéine Ret est utilisée pour sélectionner un agent thérapeutique et/ou une quantité de l'agent thérapeutique à administrer à un patient ou sujet à partir duquel ledit échantillon biologique a été obtenu.
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 12, dans lequel le traitement ou l'agent thérapeutique est dirigé vers des cellules cancéreuses exprimant la protéine Ret.
     




    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description