(19)
(11)EP 3 473 635 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
22.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/30

(21)Application number: 18211749.9

(22)Date of filing:  05.05.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C07F 15/00(2006.01)
H05B 33/14(2006.01)
H01L 51/00(2006.01)

(54)

STABILIZED IMIDAZOPHENANTHRIDINE MATERIALS

STABILISIERTE IMIDAZOPHENANTHRIDINMATERIALIEN

MATÉRIAUX D'IMIDAZOPHÉNANTHRIDINE STABILISÉS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 08.05.2014 US 201461990239 P
21.11.2014 US 201462082970 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
24.04.2019 Bulletin 2019/17

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
15788845.4 / 3140871

(73)Proprietor: Universal Display Corporation
Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • JASON, Brooks
    Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)
  • SZIGETHY, Geza
    Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)
  • MORELLO, Glenn
    Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)
  • DENG, Jun
    Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)
  • DJUROVICH, Peter I.
    Ewing, NJ 08618 (US)

(74)Representative: Maiwald Patent- und Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH 
Elisenhof Elisenstraße 3
80335 München
80335 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
WO-A1-2008/156879
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description


    [0001] The present invention generally relates to novel compounds, compositions comprising the same, and applications of the compounds and compositions, including organic electroluminescent devices comprising the compounds and/or compositions.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] Generally, an OLED comprises at least one organic layer disposed between and electrically connected to an anode and a cathode. When a current is applied, the anode injects holes and the cathode injects electrons into the organic layer(s). The injected holes and electrons each migrate toward the oppositely charged electrode. When an electron and hole localize on the same molecule, an "exciton," which is a localized electron-hole pair having an excited energy state, is formed. Light is emitted when the exciton relaxes via a photoemissive mechanism. In some cases, the exciton may be localized on an excimer or an exciplex. Non-radiative mechanisms, such as thermal relaxation, may also occur, but are generally considered undesirable.

    [0003] The initial OLEDs used emissive molecules that emitted light from their singlet states ("fluorescence") as disclosed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,769,292. Fluorescent emission generally occurs in a time frame of less than 10 nanoseconds.

    [0004] More recently, OLEDs having emissive materials that emit light from triplet states ("phosphorescence") have been demonstrated. Baldo et al., "Highly Efficient Phosphorescent Emission from Organic Electroluminescent Devices," Nature, vol. 395, 151-154, 1998; ("Baldo-I") and Baldo et al., "Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 75, No. 3, 4-6 (1999) ("Baldo-II"). Phosphorescence may be referred to as a "forbidden" transition because the transition requires a change in spin states, and quantum mechanics indicates that such a transition is not favored. As a result, phosphorescence generally occurs in a time frame exceeding at least 10 nanoseconds, and typically greater than 100 nanoseconds. If the natural radiative lifetime of phosphorescence is too long, triplets may decay by a non-radiative mechanism, such that no light is emitted. Organic phosphorescence is also often observed in molecules containing heteroatoms with unshared pairs of electrons at very low temperatures. 2,2'-bipyridine is such a molecule. Non-radiative decay mechanisms are typically temperature dependent, such that an organic material that exhibits phosphorescence at liquid nitrogen temperatures typically does not exhibit phosphorescence at room temperature. But, as demonstrated by Baldo, this problem may be addressed by selecting phosphorescent compounds that do phosphoresce at room temperature. Representative emissive layers include doped or un-doped phosphorescent organometallic materials such as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,303,238; 6,310,360; 6,830,828 and 6,835,469; U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002-0182441; and WO 2002/074015.

    [0005] WO 2008/156879 discloses compounds comprising phosphorescent metal complexes comprising cyclometallated imidazo [1, 2-f]phenanthridine, or isoelectronic or benzannulated analogs thereof.

    [0006] Phosphorescence may be preceded by a transition from a triplet excited state to an intermediate non-triplet state from which the emissive decay occurs. For example, organic molecules coordinated to lanthanide elements often phosphoresce from excited states localized on the lanthanide metal. However, such materials do not phosphoresce directly from a triplet excited state but instead emit from an atomic excited state centered on the lanthanide metal ion. The europium diketonate complexes illustrate one group of these types of species.

    [0007] Phosphorescence from triplets can be enhanced over fluorescence by confining, preferably through bonding, the organic molecule in close proximity to an atom of high atomic number. This phenomenon, called the heavy atom effect, is created by a mechanism known as spinorbit coupling. Such a phosphorescent transition may be observed from an excited metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) state of an organometallic molecule such as tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III).

    BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0008] In one aspect, the present invention provides a compound having the structural Formula (1a):

    as defined in the claims, wherein A is any suitable linking group; integers "1" and "2" as used herein with nitrogen atoms N1, and N2 have no significance other than being used as labels to facilitate description; labels 1a to 1c as used herein with carbon atoms C1a to C1c have no significance other than being used as labels to facilitate description; Rab, Rga, and R1b to R1f are any suitable substituents; any one of the ring atoms to which Rga, and R1b to R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0009] In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein R is any suitable substituent. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), may or may not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), comprises a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), does not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), comprises a ligand (L) which is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclometallated ligand.

    [0010] In the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is a linking group independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl, or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring or combinations thereof.

    [0011] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), linking group A stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0012] In another aspect, described are compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b):

    wherein A1 and A2 are each a first linking group; R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are any suitable substituents; the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) may be linked together via a second linking group formed between Rab and Rac or between Rga and Rgb or both; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0013] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), first linking groups A1 and A2 comprise 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprises 2 to 3 linking atoms each of which is independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, A1 and A2 are different. In some other embodiments, A1 and A2 are the same. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having 1 to 3 linking atoms each independently selected from the group consisting of B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge or combinations thereof. In one such embodiment, the second linking group is independently selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR"', -CRR"'-CRR"'-, SiRR'", and GeRR"', wherein each R or R'" are any suitable substituents. In some such embodiments, each R or R'" are independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In another such embodiment, Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having at least two linking atoms independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are any suitable substituents. Exemplary second linking groups include:









    , wherein each R is independently selected from H, methyl or phenyl.

    [0014] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0015] In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a triplet excited state and linking groups A1 and A2 that stabilize the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0016] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formula (2a) and (2b), the second linking group is selected from NR, O, -CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR'-, -CR'R"'-CH2-, -CRR"'-CRR"'-, and combinations thereof wherein R' and R'" are independently methyl or phenyl.

    [0017] In another aspect, described is a compound having the structural Formula (3a):

    , wherein A is a first linking group; L2 and L3 are linking groups; R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f are any suitable substituents; any combinations of R1f, R3a, R3c, and R3d are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings; wherein L2 and R1f and/or R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; wherein L3 and R3c and/or R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present. In some embodiments, L2 and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and both R3a and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3c are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings.

    [0018] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), each first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), each first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of a single bond, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f, R and R' are each independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), two adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R and R' are optionally joined together to form a fused ring.

    [0019] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0020] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a triplet excited state and linking group A that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0021] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are methyl or phenyl. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), L3 is selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R1f or R3a and R or R' are joined together to form a fused ring. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R3c or R3d and R or R' are joined together form a fused ring.

    [0022] In one aspect, the present invention provides a compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having the structural Formula (1):

    wherein M is a metal having an atomic weight greater than 40, n has a value of at least 1 and m+n is the maximum number of ligands that may be attached to the metal, as defined in claim 1. In some embodiments, the metal is selected from the group consisting of Re, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au. In other embodiments, M is iridium (Ir); n is 2 or 3; m is 0 or 1; m+n is 3. A is any suitable linking group as defined in claim 1. R1a - R1g are any suitable substituents as defined in claim 1. Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1g are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0023] In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein R is any suitable substituent. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), may or may not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), comprises a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), does not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), comprises a ligand (L) which is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclometallated ligand.

    [0024] In the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is a linking group independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenylor wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring or combinations thereof.

    [0025] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1), linking group A stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0026] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (1), linking group A is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are methyl or phenyl.

    [0027] In another aspect, the present invention provides a device comprising the compound having the structural Formula (1). In some embodiments, the device comprises a first organic light emitting device further comprising an anode; a cathode; and an organic layer, disposed between the anode and the cathode, comprising a compound having the structural Formula (1). In some embodiments of the device the organic layer further comprises a host. In some embodiments of the device the organic layer further comprises a host comprising an organic molecule containing at least one group selected from the group consisting of carbazole, dibenzothiphene, dibenzofuran, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophene, and aza-dibenzofuran.

    [0028] In some embodiments, a device in accordance with the present invention is a consumer product or a lighting panel.

    [0029] In another aspect, the present invention provides a compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having the structural Formula (2):

    wherein M is platinum (Pt); wherein A1 and A2 are each a first linking group; wherein R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are any suitable substituents; and Rab and Rac or Rga and Rgb are substituents that may bond together to form a second linking group. Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present, as defined in the claims.
    In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprise 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprise 2 to 3 linking atoms each of which is independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, A1 and A2 are different. In some other embodiments, A1 and A2 are the same. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having 1 to 3 linking atoms each independently selected from the group consisting of B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge or combinations thereof. In some such embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group independently selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR"', -CRR"'-CRR"'-, and GeRR"', wherein each R or R'" are any suitable substituents. In some such embodiments, each R or R'" are independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In some other embodiments, Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having at least two linking atoms independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are any suitable substituents. Exemplary second linking groups include:









    wherein each R is independently selected from H, methyl or phenyl.

    [0030] In the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0031] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a triplet excited state and a linking group that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0032] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), the second linking group is selected from NR, O, -CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR'-, -CR'R"'-CH2-, -CRR"'-CRR"'-, and combinations thereof, wherein R' and R'" are independently methyl or phenyl.

    [0033] In another aspect, the present invention provides a device comprising a first organic light emitting device, further comprising an anode; a cathode; and an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, and comprising the compound having the structural Formula (2). In some embodiments of the device in accordance with the present invention, the organic layer further comprises a host. In some embodiments of the device in accordance with the present invention, the host comprises an organic molecule containing at least one group selected from the group consisting of carbazole, dibenzothiphene, dibenzofuran, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophene, and aza-dibenzofuran. In some embodiments, the device in accordance with the present invention is a consumer product or a lighting panel, wherein the device comprises a first organic light emitting device, further comprising an anode; a cathode; and an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, and comprising the compound having the structural Formula 2.

    [0034] In another aspect, the present invention provides a compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having the structural Formula (3):

    wherein M is platinum (Pt); A is a first linking group; L2 and L3 are linking groups; R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f are any suitable substituents; and any combinations of R1f, R3a, R3c, and R3d are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings, as defined in the claims. Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present. L2 and R1f, or L2 and R3a, or L2 and both R3a and R1f, are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. L3 and R3c, or L3 and R3d, or L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings.

    [0035] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of a single bond, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f, R and R' are each independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), two adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R and R' are optionally joined together to form a fused ring. In some embodiments, L2 and R1f and/or R3a are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some other embodiments, L3 and R3c and/or R3d are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and both R3a and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3c are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings.

    [0036] In the compound having the structural Formula (3), first linking group A is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0037] In some embodiments.the compound having the structural Formula (3) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3) has a triplet excited state and linking group A that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0038] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), first linking group A is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), L3 is selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), R1f or R3a and R or R' are joined together to form a fused ring. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), R3c or R3d and R or R' are joined together form a fused ring.

    [0039] In another aspect, the present invention provides a device comprising a first organic light emitting device, further comprising an anode; a cathode; an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, comprising a compound having the structural Formula (1), (2) or (3). In some embodiments, the device according to the present invention comprises an organic layer comprising a compound having the structural Formula (1), (2) or (3), wherein the organic layer further comprises a host. In some embodiments, the device according to the present invention comprises an organic layer comprising a compound having the structural Formula (1), (2) or (3), wherein the organic layer further comprises a host, wherein the host comprises an organic molecule containing at least one group selected from the group consisting of carbazole, dibenzothiphene, dibenzofuran, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophene, and aza-dibenzofuran.

    [0040] In some embodiments, the device according to the present invention is a consumer product or a lighting panel, wherein the device comprises a first organic light emitting device, further comprising an anode; a cathode; an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, comprising a compound having the structural Formula (1), (2) or (3).

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0041] The foregoing summary, as well as the following detailed description of exemplary embodiments of the compounds, compositions and devices in accordance with the present invention, will be better understood when read in conjunction with the appended drawings of exemplary embodiments. It should be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the precise arrangements and instrumentalities shown.

    [0042] In the drawings:

    Figure 1 shows an exemplary organic light emitting device 100; and

    Figure 2 illustrates an exemplary organic light emitting device 200 according to the present disclosure.

    Figures 3a and 3b illustrate a computational model of minimized bond-broken geometry (top) and minimized non-bond broken geometry (bottom) for comparative example 1.

    Figure 4 illustrates a MALDI negative mode mass spectrum for comparative compound 4. The highest intensity peak corresponds to fragmentation of the imidazole ring.

    Figure 5 illustrates the x-ray crystal structure of 3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine.

    Figure 6 illustrates the x-ray crystal structure of 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo [fg] aceanthrylene.

    Figure 7 depicts Emission spectrum of Compound 49 in 77 K and room temperature 2-methyl THF solvent and solid state PMMA matrix.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0043] Imidazophenanthridines are useful ligands that can provide 460 nm emission when ligated to both platinum and iridium metals. Phosphorescent imidazophenanthridine complexes can provide deep blue emission with high photoluminescent quantum yield and high device efficiencies. Unfortunately the device lifetime is limited for both iridium and platinum based blue-emitting complexes. We provide a strategy herein to improve the stability of the imidazophenanthridine ligand by addressing a bond on the ligand that is shown by computational theory, mass spec fragmentation analysis, and photooxidative studies to be a weak bond due to polycyclic ring strain and electronic structure.

    [0044] Referring to Figure 1, there is shown an exemplary organic light emitting device 100. Device 100 may include a substrate 110, an anode 115, a hole injection layer 120, a hole transport layer 125, an electron blocking layer 130, an emissive layer 135, a hole blocking layer 140, an electron transport layer 145, an electron injection layer 150, a protective layer 155, and a cathode 160. Cathode 160 is a compound cathode having a first conductive layer 162 and a second conductive layer 164.

    [0045] Referring to Figure 2, there is shown an exemplary organic light emitting device 200 according to the present disclosure. Device 200 may include a substrate 210, an anode 215, a hole injection layer 220, an emissive layer 235, an electron transport layer 245, an electron injection layer 250, and a cathode 260.

    [0046] Substrate 210 may be any suitable substrate that provides desired structural properties. Substrate 210 may be flexible or rigid. Substrate 210 may be transparent, translucent or opaque. Plastic and glass are examples of preferred rigid substrate materials. Plastic and metal foils are examples of preferred flexible substrate materials. Substrate 210 may be a semiconductor material in order to facilitate the fabrication of circuitry. For example, substrate 210 may be a silicon wafer upon which circuits are fabricated, capable of controlling OLEDs subsequently deposited on the substrate. Other substrates may be used. The material and thickness of substrate 210 may be chosen to obtain desired structural and optical properties.

    [0047] Anode 215 may be any suitable anode that is sufficiently conductive to transport holes to the organic layers. The material of anode 215 preferably has a work function higher than about 4 eV (a "high work function material"). Preferred anode materials include conductive metal oxides, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO), aluminum zinc oxide (AlZnO), and metals. Anode 215 (and substrate 210) may be sufficiently transparent to create a bottom-emitting device. A preferred transparent substrate and anode combination is commercially available ITO (anode) deposited on glass or plastic (substrate). A flexible and transparent substrate-anode combination is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,844,363. Anode 215 may be opaque and/or reflective. A reflective anode 215 may be preferred for some top-emitting devices, to increase the amount of light emitted from the top of the device. The material and thickness of anode 215 may be chosen to obtain desired conductive and optical properties. Where anode 215 is transparent, there may be a range of thickness for a particular material that is thick enough to provide the desired conductivity, yet thin enough to provide the desired degree of transparency. Other anode materials and structures may be used.

    I. Definitions



    [0048] As used herein, the term "alkyl" means a straight or branched chain saturated acyclic hydrocarbon radical, which may optionally be substituted with any suitable substituent. Accordingly, an alkyl radical in accordance with the present invention can comprise any combination of primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary carbon atoms. Exemplary alkyl radicals include C1-C20-alkyl, C1-C18-alkYl, C1-C16-alkyl, C1-C14-alkyl, C1-C12-alkyl, C1-C10-alkyl, C1-C8-alkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C3-alkyl, and C2-alkyl. Specific examples include methyl, ethyl, 1-propyl, 2-propyl, 2-methyl-1-propyl, 1-butyl, 2-butyl, t-butyl, n-octyl, n-decyl, and n-hexadecyl.

    [0049] As used herein, the term "heteroalkyl" refers to an alkyl group as described herein in which one or more carbon atoms is replaced by a heteroatom. Suitable heteroatoms include oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus,. Examples of heteroalkyl groups include alkoxy, amino, thioester, poly(ethylene glycol), and alkyl-substituted amino.

    [0050] As used herein, the term "alkenyl" means acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbon radical having one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Exemplary alkenyl radicals include C1-C20-alkenyl radical, C2-C18-alkenyl radical, C2-C16-alkenyl radical, C2-C14-alkenyl radical, C2-C12-alkenyl radical, C2-C10-alkenyl radical, C2-C8-alkenyl radical, C2-C6-alkenyl radical, C2-C4-alkenyl radical, C2-C3-alkenyl radical, and C2-alkenyl radical. Specific examples include ethylenyl, propylenyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, isobutylenyl, 1-pentenyl, 2-pentenyl, 3-methyl-1-butenyl, 2-methyl-2-butenyl, and 2,3-dimethyl-2-butenyl.

    [0051] As used herein, the term "alkylene" means an optionally substituted saturated straight or branched chain hydrocarbon radical. Exemplary alkylene radicals include C1-C20-alkylene, C2-C18-alkylene, C2-C16-alkylene, C2-C14-alkylene, C2-C12-alkylene, C2-C10-alkylene, C2-C8-alkylene, C2-C6-alkylene, C2-C4-alkylene, C2-C3-alkylene, and C2-alkylene. Specific examples of alkylene include methylene, dimethylene, and trimethylene.

    [0052] As used herein, the term "alkynyl" means an acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbon having at least one carbon-carbon triple bond. Exemplary alkynyl radicals include C1-C20-alkynyl radical, C2-C18-alkynyl radical, C2-C16-alkynyl radical, C2-C14-alkynyl radical, C2-C12-alkynyl radical, C2-C10-alkynyl radical, C2-C8-alkynyl radical, C2-C6-alkynyl radical, C2-C4-alkynyl radical, C2-C3-alkynyl radical, and C2-alkynyl radical. Specific examples of alkynyl include propargyl, and 3-pentynyl, acetylenyl, propynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 1-pentynyl, 2-pentynyl, and 3-methyl-1-butynyl.

    [0053] As used herein, the term "aryl" means an optionally substituted monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Specific examples of aryl include phenyl, 4-methylphenyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl, and phenanthrenyl.

    [0054] As used herein, the term "aralkyl" means one or more aryl radicals as defined herein attached through an alkyl bridge (e.g., -alkyl-(aryl)j, wherein j is 1, 2 or 3). Specific examples of aralkyl include benzyl (-CH2-phenyl, i.e., Bn), diphenyl methyl (-CH2-(phenyl)2) and trityl (-C-(phenyl)3).

    [0055] As used herein, the term "heteroaryl" means an optionally substituted monocyclic or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon having at least one heteroatom and at least one carbon atom. In some embodiments, the at least one heteroatom is selected from nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, selenium, and sulfur. Specific examples of heteroaryl include furyl, benzofuranyl, thiophenyl, benzothiophenyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, azaindolyl, pyridyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, oxazolyl, isooxazolyl, benzoxazolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, thiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl, cinnolinyl, phthalazinyl, and quinazolinyl.

    [0056] Unless stated otherwise, as used herein, the term "heterocycle" and variants of the term, including "heterocyclic group" and "heterocyclyl," means an optionally substituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system having as ring members atoms of at least two different elements and wherein the monocyclic or polycyclic ring system is either saturated, unsaturated or aromatic. In some embodiments, heterocyle comprises carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom. In some embodiments, heterocyle comprises carbon atoms and at least one heteroatom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, selenium, and sulfur, and wherein the nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, selenium, and sulfur heteroatoms may be optionally oxidized, and the nitrogen heteroatom may be optionally quaternized. Examples of heterocycle include furyl, benzofuranyl, thiophenyl, benzothiophenyl, pyrrolyl, indolyl, isoindolyl, azaindolyl, pyridyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, oxazolyl, isooxazolyl, benzoxazolyl, pyrazolyl, imidazolyl, benzimidazolyl, thiazolyl, benzothiazolyl, isothiazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazinyl, triazinyl, cinnolinyl, phthalazinyl, and quinazolinyl. Thus, in addition to the aromatic heteroaryls listed above, heterocycles also include (but are not limited to) morpholinyl, pyrrolidinonyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperizinyl, piperidinyl, hydantoinyl, valerolactamyl, oxiranyl, oxetanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, tetrahydroprimidinyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, tetrahydrothiopyranyl, tetrahydropyrimidinyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl, and tetrahydrothiopyranyl.

    [0057] As used herein, and as would be generally understood by one skilled in the art, a first "Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital" (HOMO) or "Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital" (LUMO) energy level is "greater than" or "higher than" a second HOMO or LUMO energy level if the first energy level is closer to the vacuum energy level. Since ionization potentials (IP) are measured as a negative energy relative to a vacuum level, a higher HOMO energy level corresponds to an IP having a smaller absolute value (an IP that is less negative). Similarly, a higher LUMO energy level corresponds to an electron affinity (EA) having a smaller absolute value (an EA that is less negative). On a conventional energy level diagram, with the vacuum level at the top, the LUMO energy level of a material is higher than the HOMO energy level of the same material. A "higher" HOMO or LUMO energy level appears closer to the top of such a diagram than a "lower" HOMO or LUMO energy level.

    [0058] As used herein, the term "triplet energy" refers to an energy corresponding to the highest energy feature discernable in the phosphorescence spectrum of a given material. The highest energy feature is not necessarily the peak having the greatest intensity in the phosphorescence spectrum, and could, for example, be a local maximum of a clear shoulder on the high energy side of such a peak.

    II. Ligands



    [0059] In one aspect, the present invention provides a compound having the structural Formula (1a):

    wherein A is any suitable linking group; integers "1" and "2" as used herein with nitrogen atoms N1, and N2 have no significance other than being used as labels to facilitate description; labels 1a to 1c as used herein with carbon atoms C1a to C1c have no significance other than being used as labels to facilitate description; and R1a - R1g are any suitable substituents, as defined in the claims. Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0060] In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein R is any suitable substituent. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1a), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), may or may not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), comprises a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), does not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), comprises a ligand (L) which is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclometallated ligand.

    [0061] In the compound having the structural Formula (1a), A is a linking group independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenylor wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring or combinations thereof.

    [0062] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a), linking group A stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1a) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.Specific examples of the compound having the structure of Formula (1a) include compounds (1-1) to (1-181) shown below.













































































































































































































    [0063] In another aspect, described are compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b):



    wherein A1 and A2 are each a first linking group; R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are any suitable substituents; Rab and Rac of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) may be linked together via a second linking group formed between Rab and Rac or between Rga and Rgb or both; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0064] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking groups A1 and A2 comprise 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprises 2 to 3 linking atoms each of which is independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, A1 and A2 are different. In some other embodiments, A1 and A2 are the same. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having 1 to 3 linking atoms independently selected from the group consisting of B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge or combinations thereof. In one such embodiment, the second linking group is independently selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR"', -CRR"'-CRR"'-, SiRR"', and GeRR"', wherein each R or R'" are any suitable substituents. In some such embodiments, each R or R'" are independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In another such embodiments, Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having at least two linking atoms independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are any suitable substituents. Exemplary second linking groups include:









    wherein each R is independently selected from H, methyl or phenyl..

    [0065] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0066] In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a triplet excited state and linking group A1 and A2 that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, each of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0067] In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formulas (2a) and (2b), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl and phenyl. In some embodiments of the compounds having the structural Formula (2a) and (2b), the second linking group is selected from NR, O, -CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR'-, -CR'R"'-CH2-, -CRR"'-CRR"'-, and combinations thereof.

    [0068] Examples of compounds having the structure of Formulas (2a) and (2b) tethered via a second linking group formed by Rga and Rgb and/or Rab and Rac bonding together include compounds (2-1) to (2-3) shown below.



    [0069] In another aspect, described is a compound having the structural Formula (3a):

    wherein A is a first linking group; L2 and L3 are linking groups; R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f are any suitable substituents; and any combinations of R1f, R3a, R3c, and R3d are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings; wherein L2 and R1f and/or R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; where in L3 and R3c and/or R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.

    [0070] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A has 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of a single bond, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', GeRR', wherein each R or R' are any suitable substituents. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f, R and R' are each independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), two adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R and R' are optionally joined together to form a fused ring. L2 and R1f, or L2 and R3a, or L2 and both R3a and R1f, are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. L3 and R3c, or L3 and R3d, or L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and both R3a and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3c are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings.

    [0071] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0072] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a triplet excited state and linking group A that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (3a) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0073] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), first linking group A is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R1f or R3a and R or R' are joined together to form a fused ring. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3a), R3c or R3d and R or R' are joined together form a fused ring.

    [0074] Examples of compounds having the structure of Formula (3a) include compounds (3-1) to (3-6) shown below.






    III. Organometallic Compounds



    [0075] The present disclosure provides for several embodiments of organometallic compounds. In some embodiments, the compounds can be an emissive dopant. In some embodiments, the compounds can produce emissions via phosphorescence, fluorescence, thermally activated delayed fluorescence, i.e., TADF (also referred to as E-type delayed fluorescence), triplet-triplet annihilation, or combinations of these processes.

    [0076] In one aspect, the present invention provides a compound emitting Phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having the structural Formula (1):

    M is a metal having an atomic weight greater than 40, n has a value of at least 1 and m+n is the maximum number of ligands that may be attached to the metal; A is any suitable linking group; R1a - R1g are any suitable substituents as defined in claim 1. Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1g are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present.
    In some embodiments, M represents a metal selected from transition metals of Groups 7 to 11 of the Periodic Table. In some embodiments, M represents a metal selected from ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, rhenium, osmium, iridium, platinum and gold. In some preferred embodiments, M represents iridium (Ir), n is 2 or 3; m is 0 or 1; m+n is 3.

    [0077] In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is linking group having 2 to 3 linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In the compound having the structural Formula (1), A is a linking group independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenylor wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring or combinations thereof.

    [0078] In some preferred embodiments, A is an alkylene radical. In some embodiments, A is an alkylene radical selected from methylene, dimethylene, and trimethylene. In some preferred embodiments, A is independently selected from the group consisting of -CH2-Si(CH3)2-, -CH2-Si(Ph)2-, -CH2-Si(CH3)2-, -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -C(CH3)2-C(CH3)2-, -CH(CH3)-CH(CH3)- -C(Ph)2-C(Ph)2-, -CH(Ph)-CH(Ph)-, and -CH2-CH(Ph)2-. In some preferred embodiments, A is selected from:



    [0079] In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein R is any suitable substituent. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In one embodiment of the compound having the structural Formula (1), - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In one embodiment, the compoound having the structural Formula (1), may or may not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), comprises a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), does not comprise a ligand (L). In one embodiment, the compound having the structural Formula (1), comprises a ligand (L) which is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclometallated ligand.

    [0080] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1), linking group A stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (1) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.

    [0081] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (1), linking group A is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl.

    [0082] Ligand L represents a ligand that bonds to metal M. In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M is a covalent bond, an ionic bond, or a coordination bond. In some embodiments, ligand L coordinates to metal M via a heteroatom. In some embodiments, ligand L coordinates to metal M via a heteroatom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and carbon atoms. In some embodiments, ligand L coordinates to metal M via a heteroatom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms.

    [0083] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M may be a covalent bond, an ionic bond, or a coordination bond. In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M is ionic. In some embodiments, ligand L is an anionic ligand (i.e., a ligand that bonds to a metal with at least one anion of the ligand). In some embodiments, ligand L comprises at least one anionic group. In some embodiments, ligand L comprises 1 to 3 anions. In some embodiments, ligand L comprises 2 anions. In some embodiments, ligand L comprises 1 anion.

    [0084] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M via a carbon atom. Examples of ligands that bond to metal M via a carbon atom include imino ligands, aromatic carbocyclic ligands (for example, benzene-, naphthalene-, anthracene-, phenanthracene-based ligands), heterocyclic ligands (for example, thiophene-, pyridine-, pyrazine-, pyrimidine-, thiazole-, oxazole-, pyrrole-, imidazole-, pyrazole-based ligands, and ligands based on condensed rings containing any combination of these rings).

    [0085] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M is via a nitrogen atom. Examples of ligands that bond to metal M via a nitrogen atom include nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ligands (for example, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine, triazine, thiazole, oxazole, pyrrole, imidazole, pyrazole, triazole, oxadiazole, and thiadiazole ligands, and condensed rings having any combination of the heterocyclic rings), alkyl amino ligands (for example, tetramethylethylenediamine), arylamino ligands (for example, phenylamino), acylamino ligands (for example, acetylamino, benzoylamino), alkoxycarbonylamino ligands (for example, methoxycarbonylamino), aryloxycarbonylamino ligands (for example, phenyloxycarbonylamino), sulfonylamino ligands (for example, methane sulfonylamino, benzene sulfonylamino), and imino ligands.

    [0086] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M is via an oxygen atom. Examples of ligands that bond to metal M via an oxygen atom include alkoxy ligands (for example, methoxy, ethoxy, butoxy, 2-ethylhexyloxy), aryloxy ligands (for example, phenyloxy, 1-naphthyloxy, 2-naphthyloxy), heterocyclic oxy ligands (for example, pyridyloxy, pyrazyloxy, pyrimidyloxy, quinolyloxy), acyloxy ligands (for example, acetoxy, benzoyloxy), silyloxy ligands (for example, trimethylsilyloxy, triphenyl silyloxy), carbonyl ligands (for example, ketone ligands, ester ligands, amide ligands), and ether ligands (for example, dialkylether ligands, diarylether ligands, furyl ligands).

    [0087] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L and metal M is via a sulfur atom. Examples of ligands that bond to metal M via a sulfur atom include alkylthio ligands (for example, methylthio, ethylthio), arylthio ligands (for example, phenylthio), heterocyclic thio ligands (for example, pyridylthio, 2-benzimidazolylthio, 2-benzoxazolylthio, 2-benzthiazolylthio), thiocarbonyl ligands (for example, thioketone ligands, thioester ligands), and thioether ligands (for example, dialkylthioether ligands, diarylthioether ligands, thiofuryl ligands).

    [0088] In some embodiments, ligand L is preferably an aromatic carbocyclic ligand, an alkyloxy ligand, an aryloxy ligand, an ether ligand, an alkylthio ligand, an arylthio ligand, an alkylamino ligand, an arylamino ligand, an acylamino ligand, and a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic ligand (for example, pyridine-, pyrazine-, pyrimidine-, pyridazine-, triazine-, thiazole-, oxazole-, pyrrole-, imidazole-, pyrazole-, triazole-, oxadiazole-, and thiadiazole ligands-, quinoline-, benzoxazole-, benzimidazole-based ligands). In some embodiments, ligand L is more preferably an aromatic carbocyclic ligand, an aryloxy ligand, an arylthio ligand, an arylamino ligand, a pyridine ligand, a pyrazine ligand, an imidazole ligand, a condensed ligand containing any of these ligands (e.g., quinoline, quinoxaline, benzimidazole ligands). In some preferred embodiments, ligand L is an aromatic carbocyclic ligand, an aryloxy ligand, an arylthio ligand, or an arylamino ligand.

    [0089] In some embodiments, ligand L forms a coordinate bond with metal M. Examples of ligand L that form a coordinate bond with metal M include a pyridine ring, a pyrazine ring, a pyrimidine ring, a triazine ring, a thiazole ring, an oxazole ring, a pyrrole ring, a triazole ring, a condensed ring containing any of these rings (e.g., quinoline, benzoxazole, benzimidazole, and indolenine rings).

    [0090] In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L is monodentate. In some embodiments, the bond formed between ligand L is bidentate, tridentate or tetradentate. Further examples of ligand L include, but are not limited to a halogen ligand, a 1,3-diketone ligand (e.g., acetylacetone ligand), a monoanionic bidentate ligand containing a pyridine ligand (e.g., picolinic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine ligands).

    [0091] In some embodiments, each of R1a to R1g, independently represents a hydrogen atom, or any suitable substituent. Examples of suitable substituents include an alkyl group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., methyl, ethyl, iso-propyl, tert-butyl, n-octyl, n-decyl, n-hexadecyl, cyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl), an alkenyl group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., vinyl, allyl, 2-butenyl, 3-pentenyl), an alkynyl group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., propargyl, 3-pentynyl), an aryl group (preferably having 6 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 6 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., phenyl, p-methylphenyl, naphthyl, anthranyl), an amino group (preferably having 0 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 0 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 0 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., amino, methylamino, dimethylamino, diethylamino, dibenzylamino, diphenylamino, ditolylamino), an alkoxy group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, butoxy, 2-ethylhexyloxy), an aryloxy group (preferably having 6 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 6 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., phenyloxy, 1-naphthyloxy, 2-naphthyloxy), a heterocyclic oxy group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., pyridyloxy, pyrazyloxy, pyrimidyloxy, quinolyloxy), an acyl group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., acetyl, benzoyl, formyl, pivaloyl), an alkoxycabonyl group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., methoxycarbonyl, ethoxycarbonyl), an aryloxycarbonyl group (preferably having 7 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 7 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 7 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., phenyloxycarbonyl), an acyloxy group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., acetoxy, benzoyloxy), an acylamino group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 10 carbon atoms, e.g., acetylamino, benzoylamino), an alkoxycarbonylamino group (preferably having 2 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 2 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 2 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., methoxycarbonylamino), an aryloxycarbonylamino group (preferably having 7 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 7 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 7 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., phenyloxycarbonylamino), a sulfonylamino group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., methanesulfonylamino, benzenesulfonylamino), a sulfamoyl group (preferably having 0 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 0 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 0 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., sulfamoyl, methylsulfamoyl, dimethylsulfamoyl, phenylsulfamoyl), a carbamoyl group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., carbamoyl, methylcarbamoyl, diethylcarbamoyl, phenylcarbamoyl), an alkyl thio group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., methylthio, ethylthio), an aryl thio group (preferably having 6 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 6 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., phenylthio), a heterocyclic thio group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., pyridyl thio, 2-benzimidazolyl thio, 2-benzoxazolyl thio, 2-benzthiazolyl thio), a sulfonyl group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., mesyl, tosyl), a sulfinyl group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., methanesulfinyl, benzenesulfinyl), a ureido group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., ureido, methylureido, phenylureido), a phosphoric acid amido group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, e.g., diethyl phosphoamido, phenyl phosphoamido), a hydroxyl group, a mercapto group, a halogen atom (e.g., fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine), a cyano group, a sulfo group, a carboxyl group, a nitro group, a hydroxamic acid group, a sulfino group, a hydrazino group, an imino group, a heterocyclic group (preferably having 1 to 30 carbon atoms, more preferably having 1 to 12 carbon atoms, and containing a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, specifically for example, imidazolyl, pyridyl, quinolyl, furyl, thienyl, piperidyl, morpholino, benzoxazolyl, benzimidazolyl, benzthiazolyl, carbazolyl, azepinyl), a silyl group (preferably having 3 to 40 carbon atoms, more preferably having 3 to 30 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 3 to 24 carbon atoms, e.g., trimethylsilyl, triphenylsilyl), and a silyloxy group (preferably having 3 to 40 carbon atoms, more preferably having 3 to 30 carbon atoms, and particularly preferably having 3 to 24 carbon atoms, e.g., trimethylsilyloxy, triphenylsilyloxy). In some embodiments, any of these substituents may be further substituted by another substituent.

    [0092] Specific examples of the compound having the structure of Formula (1) include compounds 1-98 shown below.





















































































































    [0093] In some aspects, a compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light in accordance with the present invention has structural Formula (2):

    as defined in the claims, wherein M is any suitable metal; wherein A1 and A2 are each a first linking group; R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are any suitable substituents; and Rab and Rac or Rga and Rgb are substituents that may bond together to form a second linking group; unless otherwise specifically noted herein or is apparent from the context, each of R1b - R1f has the same meaning as defined above for R1b - R1f in sturctural Formula (1); unless otherwise specifically noted herein or is apparent from the context, each of R2b - R2f has the same meaning as defined above for R1b - R1f in sturctural Formula (1); each of R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f has a value that is independently selected from the options for R1b - R1f in structural Formula (1). Any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, wherein R is any suitable radical, including H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. Unless otherwise specifically noted herein or is apparent from the context, M has the same meaning as M in structural Formula (1). In some preferred embodiments of the compound of structural Formula (2) M is platinum (Pt).

    [0094] In some embodiments of Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprises 2 to 3 linking atoms. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 comprises 2 to 3 linking atoms each of which is independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof. In some embodiments, A1 and A2 are different. In some other embodiments, A1 and A2 are the same.

    [0095] In the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.

    [0096] In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), each first linking group A1 and A2 is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are independently methyl or phenyl.

    [0097] In some embodiments of the compound of structural Formula (2), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having 1 to 3 linking atoms each independently selected from the group consisting of B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge or combinations thereof. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb bond together to form a second linking group independently selected from the group consisting of BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C=O, S=O, SO2, CRR"', -CRR"'-CRR"'-, SiRR"', and GeRR"', wherein each R or R'" are any suitable radicals. In some such embodiments, each R or R'" are independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl. In some other embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (2), Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond together to form a second linking group having at least two linking atoms independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are any suitable substituents. Exemplary second linking groups include:









    wherein each R is independently selected from H, methyl or phenyl.

    [0098] In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a triplet excited state and a linking group that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, the compound having the structural Formula (2) has a peak emissive wavelength ranging from 400 nm to 500 nm.Specific examples of the compound having the structure of Formula (1) include compounds 99 and 100 shown below.



    [0099] In some aspects, a compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light in accordance with the present invention has the following structural Formula (3):

    as defined in the claims, wherein M is any suitable metal; A is a first linking group; R1a - R1f and R3a - R3g are any suitable substituents; L2 and L3 are linking groups; adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, and R3d may join together to form one or more fused rings; wherein L2 and R1f and/or R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; where in L3 and R3c and/or R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present. L2 and R1f, or L2 and R3a, or L2 and both R3a and R1f, are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. L3 and R3c, or L3 and R3d, or L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and R3a are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L2 and both R3a and R1f are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and R3c are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings. In some embodiments, L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one, two, or more fused rings.

    [0100] Unless otherwise specifically noted herein or is apparent from the context, M has the same meaning as M in structural Formula (1). In some preferred embodiments of the compound of structural Formula (2) M is platinum (Pt). In some preferred embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), - R1f and R3a - R3f, R and R' are each independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group. In some preferred embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), two adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R and R' may join together to form a fused ring. In the compound having the structural Formula (3), first linking group A independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected together to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments of the compound having the structural Formula (3), L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of a single bond, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR'.

    [0101] Specific examples of the compound having the structure of Formula (1) include compounds 101 to 109 shown below.











    [0102] Metal complexes according to various embodiments of the present invention can exhibit a number of desirable characteristics. In some embodiments, metal complexes having the structural Formulas (1)-(3) can exhibit photoluminescence with a high quantum efficiency, with a narrow spectral width, and/or with a peak emission wavelength located within a desirable range of wavelengths, such as the visible range or the near infrared range. Also, these photoluminescent characteristics can be relatively invariant over a wide range of excitation wavelengths. In some embodiments, metal complexes having the structural Formulas (1)-(3) can have other desirable characteristics, such as relating to their band gap energies and electrical conductivities. Also, advantageously, metal complexes having the structural Formulas (1)-(3) can be inexpensively and readily synthesized from commercially available starting materials.

    [0103] In some embodiments, a metal complex having the structure of Formula (1), (2), or (3) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm. In some embodiments, a metal complexes having the structure of Formula (1), (2), or (3) has a peak emissive wavelength less than 480 nm. In some embodiments, a metal complex having the structure of Formula (1), (2), or (3) has a peak emissive wavelength of 400 nm to 500 nm inclusive.

    [0104] In some embodiments, the metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3) has a triplet excited state and linking group A that stabilizes the bond between N2 and C1b, shown below, from cleavage when the compound is in the triplet excited state.





    [0105] Accordingly, in some embodiments, the metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3) is a phosphorescent light emitting substance. In some embodiments, the metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3) is a fluorescent light emitting substance. In some embodiments, the metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3) is both a fluorescent and a phosphorescent light emitting substance.

    [0106] Metal complexes having the structural Formulas (1)-(3) are suitable, for example, for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which exploit the propensity of materials to emit light when they are excited by an electrical current. Accordingly, in some aspects, the present invention provides an organic light-emitting material comprising at least one metal complex having the structural Formula (1), (2), or (3). In some embodiments, the present invention provides an organic light-emitting material comprising at least two metal complex selected from a compound having the structural Formula (1), (2), or (3).

    [0107] Organic light-emitting materials according to various embodiments of the invention can exhibit a number of desirable characteristics. In some embodiments, the organic light-emitting materials can exhibit photoluminescence with a high quantum efficiency, with a narrow spectral width, and with a peak emission wavelength located within a desirable range of wavelengths, such as the visible range or the near infrared range. Also, these photoluminescent characteristics can be relatively invariant over a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The organic light-emitting materials can have other desirable characteristics, such as relating to their band gap energies and electrical conductivities. Advantageously, the organic light-emitting materials can be inexpensively and readily formed for use in various applications, including consumer products and lighting panels.

    [0108] In some embodiments, the content of a photoluminescent substance in a light emitting material according to the present invention (e.g., a metal complex having the structural Formula (1), (2), or (3)) is between 0.1% by mass to 50% by mass inclusive with respect to the total mass of a light emitting layer comprising the light emitting material. In some embodiments, the content of a photoluminescent substance in a light emitting material according to the present invention is between 0.3% by mass to 40% by mass inclusive with respect to the total mass of a light emitting layer comprising the light emitting material. In some embodiments, the content of a photoluminescent substance in a light emitting material according to the present invention is between 0.5% by mass to 30% by mass inclusive with respect to the total mass of a light emitting layer comprising the light emitting material.

    IV. Devices



    [0109] In some aspects, the present invention provides an organic electroluminescence device which comprises at least one metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3). In some embodiments, an organic electroluminescence device according to the present invention comprises a first organic light emitting device, which further comprises an anode; a cathode; an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, and comprising at least one metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3). In some preferred embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device, the organic layer further comprises a host material. In some preferred embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device, the host material comprises an organic compound. In some preferred embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device, the host material comprises an organic compound having a molecule containing at least one group selected from the group consisting of carbazole, dibenzothiphene, dibenzofuran, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophene, and aza-dibenzofuran.

    [0110] Generally, an organic layer suitable for use in the organic electroluminescence device of the present may have any suitable configuration of layer depending, for example, on application and purpose of the organic electroluminescence device. Accordingly, in some embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device, the organic layer is formed on a transparent electrode or a semitransparent electrode. In some such embodiments, the organic layer is formed on a front surface or any suitable surface of the transparent electrode or the semitransparent electrode. Also, suitable shape, size and/or thickness of the organic layer may be employed depending, for example, on application and the purpose of the organic electroluminescence device. Specific examples of configurations of an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention, having a substrate, a cathode, an anode and an organic layer include the following:
    1. (A) Anode/hole transporting layer/light emitting layer/electron transporting layer/cathode;
    2. (B) Anode/hole transporting layer/light emitting layer/block layer/electron transporting layer/cathode;
    3. (C) Anode/hole transporting layer/light emitting layer/block layer/electron transporting layer/electron injection layer/cathode;
    4. (D) Anode/hole injection layer/hole transporting layer/light emitting layer/block layer/electron transporting layer/cathode; and
    5. (E) Anode/hole injection layer/hole transporting layer/light emitting layer/block layer/electron transporting layer/electron injection layer/cathode.


    [0111] Additional device configuration, including substrate, cathode and anode of an organic electroluminescence device, is described in Japanese Patent Publication No. 2008-270736.

    <SUBSTRATE>



    [0112] A suitable substrate usable in an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention is preferably a substrate which does not scatter or decrease light emitted from an organic layer. In some embodiments, the substrate preferably is composed of an organic material which exhibits superior heat resistance, dimensional stability, solvent resistance, electrical insulating property and/or processability.

    [0113] The substrate suitable for use in the present invention is preferably one which does not scatter or attenuate light emitted from the organic compound layer. Specific examples of materials for the substrate, include but are not limited to, inorganic materials such as zirconia-stabilized yttrium (YSZ) and glass; polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate, polybutylene phthalate, and polyethylene naphthalate; and organic materials such as polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyarylate, polyimide, polycycloolefin, norbornene resin, and polychlorotrifluoroethylene.

    [0114] In some embodiments, when glass is used as the substrate, alkali free glass is preferably used. Specific examples of suitable alkali free glass are found in US patent application publication no. 2013/0237401 by Takahiro Kawaguchi, which published September 12, 2013. In some embodiments, when soda-lime glass is used as the substrate, it is preferred to use glass on which a barrier coat of silica has been applied. In some embodiments, when an organic material is used as the substrate, it is preferred to use a material having one or more of the attributes: excellent in heat resistance, dimensional stability, solvent resistance, electric insulation performance, and workability.

    [0115] Generally, there is no particular limitation as to the shape, the structure, or the size of the substrate, but any of these attributes may be suitably selected according to the application and purposes of the light-emitting element. In general, a plate-like substrate is preferred as the shape of the substrate. A structure of the substrate may be a monolayer structure or a laminate structure. Furthermore, the substrate may be formed from a single member or two or more members.

    [0116] Although the substrate may be transparent and colorless, or transparent and colored, it is preferred that the substrate is transparent and colorless from the viewpoint that the substrate does not scatter or attenuate light emitted from the organic light-emitting layer. In some embodiments, a moisture permeation preventive layer (gas barrier layer) may be provided on the front surface or the back surface of the substrate. Examples of a material of the moisture permeation preventive layer (gas barrier layer), include inorganic substances such as silicon nitride and silicon oxide. The moisture permeation preventive layer (gas barrier layer) may be formed in accordance with, for example, a high-frequency sputtering method.

    [0117] In the case of applying a thermoplastic substrate, a hard-coat layer or an under-coat layer may be further provided as needed.

    <ANODE>



    [0118] Any anode may be used in an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention so long as it serves as an electrode supplying holes into an organic layer. In some embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device of the present invention, any suitable shape, structure and/or size of known electrode material may be used depending, for example, on the application and purpose of the organic electroluminescence device. In some embodiments, a transparent anode is preferred.

    [0119] The anode may generally be any material as long as it has a function as an electrode for supplying holes to the organic compound layer, and there is no particular limitation as to the shape, the structure, or the size. However, it may be suitably selected from among well-known electrode materials according to the application and purpose of the light-emitting element. In some embodiments, the anode is provided as a transparent anode.

    [0120] Materials for the anode preferably include, for example, metals, alloys, metal oxides, electric conductive compounds, and mixtures thereof. Materials having a work function of 4.0 eV or more are preferable. Specific examples of the anode materials include electric conductive metal oxides such as tin oxides doped with antimony, or fluorine (ATO and FTO), tin oxide, zinc oxide, indium oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), and indium zinc oxide (IZO); metals such as gold, silver, chromium, and nickel; mixtures or laminates of these metals and the electric conductive metal oxides; inorganic electric conductive materials such as copper iodide and copper sulfide; organic electric conductive materials such as polyaniline, polythiophene, and polypyrrole; and laminates of these inorganic or organic electron-conductive materials with ITO. Among these, the electric conductive metal oxides are preferred, and particularly, ITO is preferable in view of productivity, high electric conductivity, and transparency.

    [0121] The anode may be formed on the substrate in accordance with a method which is appropriately selected from among wet methods such as printing methods and coating methods; physical methods such as vacuum deposition methods, sputtering methods, and ion plating methods; and chemical methods such as CVD (chemical vapor deposition) and plasma CVD methods, in consideration of the suitability to a material constituting the anode. For instance, when ITO is selected as a material for the anode, the anode may be formed in accordance with a DC or high-frequency sputtering method, a vacuum deposition method, or an ion plating method.

    [0122] In the organic electroluminescence element of the present invention, a position at which the anode is to be formed is not particularly limited, but it may be suitably selected according to the application and purpose of the light-emitting element. The anode may be formed on either the whole surface or a part of the surface on either side of the substrate.

    [0123] For patterning to form the anode, a chemical etching method such as photolithography, a physical etching method such as etching by laser, a method of vacuum deposition or sputtering through superposing masks, or a lift-off method or a printing method may be applied.

    [0124] A thickness of the anode may be suitably selected according to the material constituting the anode and is therefore not definitely decided, but it is usually in a range of from 10 nm to 50 µm, and preferably from 50 nm to 20 µm. The thickness of the anode layer may be properly controlled depending on the material used therefor. The resistance of the anode is preferably A 103Ω/square or less, and more preferably 102Ω/square or less. In the case where the anode is transparent, it may be either transparent and colorless, or transparent and colored. For extracting luminescence from the transparent anode side, it is preferred that a light transmittance of the anode is 60% or higher, and more preferably 70% or higher. A detailed description of transparent anodes can be found in "TOUMEI DENNKYOKU-MAKUNO SHINTENKAI (Novel Developments in Transparent Electrode Films)" edited by Yutaka Sawada, published by C.M.C. in 1999.

    [0125] In the case where a plastic substrate having a low heat resistance is used in the present invention, it is preferred that ITO or IZO is used to obtain a transparent anode prepared by forming the film at a low temperature of 150° C or lower.

    <CATHODE>



    [0126] Any cathode may be used in an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention so long as it serves as an electrode supplying electrons into the organic layer. In some embodiments of the organic electroluminescence device of the present invention, any suitable shape, structure and/or size of known electrode material may be used depending, for example, on the application and purpose of the organic electroluminescence device. In some embodiments, a transparent cathode is preferred.

    [0127] The cathode may generally be any material as long as it has a function as an electrode for injecting electrons to the organic compound layer, and there is no particular limitation as to the shape, the structure, or the size. However it may be suitably selected from among well-known electrode materials according to the application and purpose of the light-emitting element.

    [0128] Materials constituting the cathode include, for example, metals, alloys, metal oxides, electric conductive compounds, and mixtures thereof. Materials having a work function of 4.0 eV or more are preferable. Specific examples thereof include alkali metals (e.g., Li, Na, K, or Cs), alkaline earth metals (e.g., Mg or Ca), gold, silver, lead, aluminum, sodium-potassium alloys, lithium-aluminum alloys, magnesium-silver alloys, rare earth metals such as indium, and ytterbium. They may be used alone, but it is preferred that two or more of them are used in combination from the viewpoint of satisfying both stability and electron injectability.

    [0129] In some embodiments, as the materials for constituting the cathode, alkaline metals or alkaline earth metals are preferred in view of electron injectability, and materials containing aluminum as a major component are preferred in view of excellent preservation stability.

    [0130] The term "material containing aluminum as a major component" refers to a material constituted by aluminum alone; alloys comprising aluminum and 0.01% by weight to 10% by weight of an alkaline metal or an alkaline earth metal; or mixtures thereof (e.g., lithium-aluminum alloys and magnesium-aluminum alloys). Exemplary materials for the cathode are described in detail in JP-ANos. 2-15595 and 5-121172.

    [0131] A method for forming the cathode is not particularly limited, but it may be formed in accordance with a well-known method. For instance, the cathode may be formed in accordance with a method which is appropriately selected from among wet methods such as printing methods, coating methods and the like; physical methods such as vacuum deposition methods, sputtering methods, and ion plating methods; and chemical methods such as CVD and plasma CVD methods, in consideration of the suitability to a material constituting the cathode. For example, when a metal (or metals) is (are) selected as a material (or materials) for the cathode, one or two or more of them may be applied at the same time or sequentially in accordance with a sputtering method.

    [0132] For patterning to form the cathode, a chemical etching method such as photolithography, a physical etching method such as etching by laser, a method of vacuum deposition or sputtering through superposing masks, or a lift-off method or a printing method may be applied.

    [0133] In the present invention, a position at which the cathode is to be formed is not particularly limited, and it may be formed on either the whole or a part of the organic compound layer.

    [0134] Furthermore, a dielectric material layer made of fluorides or oxides of an alkaline metal or an alkaline earth metal may be inserted between the cathode and the organic compound layer with a thickness of from 0.1 nm to 5 nm. The dielectric material layer may be considered to be a kind of electron injection layer. The dielectric material layer may be formed in accordance with, for example, a vacuum deposition method, a sputtering method, or an ionplating method.

    [0135] A thickness of the cathode may be suitably selected according to materials for constituting the cathode and is therefore not definitely decided, but it is usually in a range of from 10 nm to 5 µm, and preferably from 50 nm to 1 µm.

    [0136] Moreover, the cathode may be transparent or opaque. A transparent cathode may be formed by preparing a material for the cathode with a small thickness of from 1 nm to 10 nm, and further laminating a transparent electric conductive material such as ITO or IZO thereon.

    <PROTECTIVE LAYER>



    [0137] A whole body of the organic EL element of the present invention may be protected by a protective layer. Any materials may be applied in the protective layer as long as the materials have a function to protect a penetration of ingredients such as moisture or oxygen which accelerates deterioration of the element into the element. Specific examples of materials for the protective layer include metals such as In, Sn, Pb, Au, Cu, Ag, Al, Ti, and Ni; metal oxides such as MgO, SiO, SiO2, Al2O3, GeO, NiO, CaO, BaO, Fe2O3, Y2O3, and TiO2; metal nitrides such as SiNx and SiNxOy; metal fluorides such as MgF2, LiF, AlF3, and CaF2 ; polyethylene; polypropylene; polymethyl methacrylate; polyimide; polyurea; polytetrafluoroethylene; polychlorotrifluoroethylene; polydichlorodifluoroethylene; a copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and dichlorodifluoroethylene; copolymers obtained by copolymerizing a monomer mixture containing tetrafluoroethylene and at least one comonomer; fluorine-containing copolymers each having a cyclic structure in the copolymerization main chain; water-absorbing materials each having a coefficient of water absorption of 1% or more; moisture permeation preventive substances each having a coefficient of water absorption of 0.1% or less.

    [0138] There is no particular limitation as to a method for forming the protective layer. For instance, a vacuum deposition method, a sputtering method, a reactive sputtering method, an MBE (molecular beam epitaxial) method, a cluster ion beam method, an ion plating method, a plasma polymerization method (high-frequency excitation ion plating method), a plasma CVD method, a laser CVD method, a thermal CVD method, a gas source CVD method, a coating method, a printing method, or a transfer method may be applied.

    <SEALING>



    [0139] The whole organic electroluminescence element of the present invention may be sealed with a sealing cap. Furthermore, a moisture absorbent or an inert liquid may be used to seal a space defined between the sealing cap and the light-emitting element. Although the moisture absorbent is not particularly limited, specific examples thereof include barium oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, calcium oxide, sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, phosphorus pentaoxide, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, copper chloride, cesium fluoride, niobium fluoride, calcium bromide, vanadium bromide, molecular sieve, zeolite, and magnesium oxide. Although the inert liquid is not particularly limited, specific examples thereof include paraffins; liquid paraffins; fluorine-based solvents such as perfluoroalkanes, perfluoroamines, and perfluoroethers; chlorine-based solvents; and silicone oils.

    <DRIVING>



    [0140] In the organic electroluminescence element of the present invention, when a DC (AC components may be contained as needed) voltage (usually 2 volts to 15 volts) or DC is applied across the anode and the cathode, luminescence can be obtained. For the driving method of the organic electroluminescence element of the present invention, driving methods described in JP-A Nos. 2-148687, 6-301355, 5-29080, 7-134558, 8-234685, and 8-241047; Japanese Patent No. 2784615, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,828,429 and 6,023,308 are applicable.

    <APPLICATIONS>



    [0141] Devices fabricated in accordance with embodiments of the inventions described herein may be incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, including flat panel displays, computer monitors, televisions, billboards, lights for interior or exterior illumination and/or signaling, heads up displays, fully transparent displays, flexible displays, laser printers, telephones, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptop computers, digital cameras, camcorders, viewfinders, micro-displays, vehicles, a large area wall, theater or stadium screen, or a sign.

    <ORGANIC LAYER>



    [0142] An organic layer suitable for use in an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention may comprise a plurality of layers, including, for example, light emitting layer, host material, electric charge transporting layer, hole injection layer, and hole transporting layer. In some embodiments of an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention, each organic layer may be formed by a dry-type film formation method such as a deposition method or a sputtering method, or a solution coating process such as a transfer method, a printing method, a spin coating method, or a bar coating method. In some embodiments of an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention, at least one layer of the organic layer is preferably formed by a solution coating process.

    A. Light Emitting Layer


    Light Emitting Material:



    [0143] A light emitting material in accordance with the present invention preferably includes at least one metal complex having the structure Formula (1), (2), or (3). Some embodiments of an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention comprises the light emitting material in an amount of about 0.1% by mass to about 50% by mass with respect to the total mass of the compound constituting the light emitting layer. In some embodiments, an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention comprises the light emitting material in an amount of about 1% by mass to about 50% by mass with respect to the total mass of the compound constituting the light emitting layer. In some embodiments, an organic electroluminescence device of the present invention comprises the light emitting material in an amount of about 2% by mass to about 40% by mass with respect to the total mass of the compound constituting the light emitting layer. In some embodiments, a total amount of the light-emitting materials in the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 0.1% by weight to about 30% by weight with respect to the entire amount of compounds contained in the light-emitting layer. In some embodiments, a total amount of the light-emitting materials in the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 1% by weight to about 20% by weight in view of durability and external quantum efficiency. In some embodiments, a total amount of the host materials in the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 70% by weight to about 99.9% by weight. In some embodiments, a total amount of the host materials in the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 80% by weight to 99% by weight in view of durability and external quantum efficiency.

    [0144] In some embodiments, a light-emitting layer in the present invention may include the light-emitting materials and a host material contained in the light-emitting layer as a combination of a fluorescent light-emitting material which emits light (fluorescence) through a singlet exciton and a host material, or a combination of a phosphorescent light-emitting material which emits light (phosphorescence) through a triplet exciton and a host material. In some embodiments, a light-emitting layer in the present invention may include the light-emitting materials and a host material contained in the light-emitting layer as a combination of a phosphorescent light-emitting material and a host material.

    B. Host Material



    [0145] A suitable host material for use in the present invention, may be a hole transporting host material (sometimes referred to as a hole transporting host), and/or an electron transporting host material (sometimes referred to as an electron transporting host).

    Hole Transporting Host Material



    [0146] Specific examples of the hole transporting host materials include pyrrole, carbazole, azacarbazole, pyrazole, indole, azaindole, imidazole, polyarylalkane, pyrazoline, pyrazolone, phenylenediamine, arylamine, amino-substituted chalcone, styrylanthracene, fluorenone, hydrazone, stilbene, silazane, aromatic tertiary amine compounds, styrylamine compounds, aromatic dimethylidine compounds, porphyrin compounds, polysilane compounds, poly(N-vinylcarbazole), aniline copolymers, electric conductive high-molecular oligomers such as thiophene oligomers and polythiophenes, organic silanes, carbon films, and derivatives thereof,. Some preferred host materials include carbazole derivatives, indole derivatives, imidazole derivatives, aromatic tertiary amine compounds, and thiophene derivatives.

    [0147] Specific examples of the electron transporting host materials include, but are not limited to pyridine, pyrimidine, triazine, imidazole, pyrazole, triazole, oxazole, oxadiazole, fluorenone, anthraquinonedimethane, anthrone, diphenylquinone, thiopyrandioxide, carbodiimide, fluorenylidenemethane, distyrylpyrazine, fluorine-substituted aromatic compounds, aromacyclic tetracarboxylic anhydrides of naphthalene, or perylene, phthalocyanine, derivatives thereof, including a variety of metal complexes represented by metal complexes of 8-quinolinol derivatives, metal phthalocyanine, and metal complexes having benzoxazole or benzothiazole as the ligand.

    [0148] Preferable electron transporting hosts are metal complexes, azole derivatives (benzimidazole derivatives and imidazopyridine derivatives), and azine derivatives (pyridine derivatives, pyrimidine derivatives, and triazine derivatives).

    [0149] As specific examples of the hole transporting host material described above, the following compounds are listed, but the present invention is not limited thereto.

    C. Film Thickness



    [0150] In some embodiments, the film thickness of the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 10 nm to about 500 nm. In some embodiments, the film thickness of the light-emitting layer is preferably from about 20 nm to about 100 nm depending, for example, on desired brightness uniformity, driving voltage and brightness. In some embodiments, the light-emitting layer is configured to have a thickness that optimizes passage of charges from the light-emitting layer to adjacent layers without lowering light-emission efficiency. In some embodiments, the light-emitting layer is configured to have a thickness that maintains minimum driving voltage maximum light-emission efficiency.

    D. Layer Configuration



    [0151] The light-emitting layer may be composed of a single layer or two or more layers, and the respective layers may cause light emission in different light-emitting colors. Also, in the case where the light-emitting layer has a laminate structure, though the film thickness of each of the layers configuring the laminate structure is not particularly limited, it is preferable that a total film thickness of each of the light-emitting layers falls within the foregoing range.

    E. Hole Injection Layer and Hole Transport Layer



    [0152] The hole injection layer and hole transport layer are layers functioning to receive holes from an anode or from an anode side and to transport the holes to a cathode side. Materials to be introduced into a hole injection layer or a hole transport layer is not particularly limited, but either of a low molecular compound or a high molecular compound may be used.

    [0153] Specific examples of the material contained in the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer include pyrrole derivatives, carbazole derivatives, azacarbazole derivatives, indole derivatives, azaindole derivatives, imidazole derivatives, polyarylalkane derivatives, pyrazoline derivatives, pyrazolone derivatives, phenylenediamine derivatives, arylamine derivatives, amino-substituted chalcone derivatives, styrylanthracene derivatives, fluorenone derivatives, hydrazone derivatives, stilbene derivatives, silazane derivatives, aromatic tertiary amine compounds, styrylamine compounds, aromatic dimethylidine compounds, phthalocyanine compounds, porphyrin compounds, organosilane derivatives, and carbon,.

    [0154] An electron-accepting dopant may be introduced into the hole injection layer or the hole transport layer in the organic EL element of the present invention. As the electron-accepting dopant to be introduced into the hole injection layer or the hole transport layer, either of an inorganic compound or an organic compound may be used as long as the compound has electron accepting property and a function for oxidizing an organic compound.

    [0155] Specifically, the inorganic compound includes metal halides such as ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, gallium chloride, indium chloride, and antimony pentachloride, and metal oxides such as vanadium pentaoxide and molybdenum trioxide.

    [0156] In case of employing the organic compounds, compounds having a substituent such as a nitro group, a halogen, a cyano group, or a trifluoromethyl group; quinone compounds; acid anhydride compounds; and fullerenesmay be preferably applied.

    [0157] Specific examples hole injection and hole transport materials include compounds described in patent documents such as JP-A Nos. 6-212153, 11-111463, 11-251067, 2000-196140, 2000-286054, 2000-315580, 2001-102175, 2001-160493, 2002-252085, 2002-56985, 2003-157981, 2003-217862, 2003-229278, 2004-342614, 2005-72012, 2005-166637, and 2005-209643.

    [0158] Specific examples of hole injection and hole transport materials include the organic compounds: hexacyanobutadiene, hexacyanobenzene, tetracyanoethylene, tetracyanoquinodimethane, tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane, p-fluoranil, p-chloranil, p-bromanil, p-benzoquinone, 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone, 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene, 1,4-dicyanotetrafluorobenzene, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone, p-dinitrobenzene, m-dinitrobenzene, o-dinitrobenzene, 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone, 1,3-dinitronaphthalene, 1,5-dinitronaphthalene, 9,10-anthraquinone, 1,3,6,8-tetranitrocarbazole, 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, 2,3,5,6-tetracyanopyridine and fullerene C60. Among these, hexacyanobutadiene, hexacyanobenzene, tetracyanoethylene, tetracyanoquinodimethane, tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane, p-fluoranil, p-chloranil, p-bromanil, 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone, 2,3-dichloronaphthoquinone, 1,2,4,5-tetracyanobenzene, 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone and 2,3,5,6-tetracyanopyridine are more preferable, and tetrafluorotetracyanoquinodimethane.

    [0159] As one or more electron-accepting dopants may be introduced into the hole injection layer or the hole transport layer in the organic EL element of the present invention, these electron-accepting dopants may be used alone or in combinations of two or more. Although precise amount of these electron-accepting dopants used will depend on the type of material, about 0.01% by weight to about 50% by weight of the total weight of the hole transport layer or the hole injection layer is preferred. In some embodiments, the amount of these electron-accepting dopants range from about 0.05% by weight to about 20% by weight of the total weight of the hole transport layer or the hole injection layer. In some embodiments, the amount of these electron-accepting dopants range from about 0.1% by weight to about 10% by weight of the total weight of the hole transport layer or the hole injection layer.

    [0160] In some embodiments, a thickness of the hole injection layer and a thickness of the hole transport layer are each preferably about 500 nm or less in view of decreasing driving voltage. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole transport layer is preferably from about 1 nm to about 500 nm. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole transport layer is preferably from about 5 nm to about 50 nm. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole transport layer is preferably from about 10 nm to about 40 nm. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole injection layer is preferably from about 0.1 nm to about 500 nm. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole injection layer is preferably from about 0.5 nm to about 300 nm. In some embodiments, the thickness of the hole injection layer is preferably from about 1 nm to about 200 nm.

    [0161] The hole injection layer and the hole transport layer may be composed of a monolayer structure comprising one or two or more of the above-mentioned materials, or a multilayer structure composed of plural layers of a homogeneous composition or a heterogeneous composition.

    F. Electron Injection Layer and Electron Transport Layer



    [0162] The electron injection layer and the electron transport layer are layers having functions for receiving electrons from a cathode or a cathode side, and transporting electrons to an anode side. An electron injection material or an electron transporting material used for these layers may be a low molecular compound or a high molecular compound. Specific examples of the materials suitable for use in electron injection and electron transport layers include pyridine derivatives, quinoline derivatives, pyrimidine derivatives, pyrazine derivatives, phthalazine derivatives, phenanthroline derivatives, triazine derivatives, triazole derivatives, oxazole derivatives, oxadiazole derivatives, imidazole derivatives, fluorenone derivatives, anthraquinodimethane derivatives, anthrone derivatives, diphenylquinone derivatives, thiopyrandioxide derivatives, carbodiimide derivatives, fluorenylidenemethane derivatives, distyrylpyrazine derivatives, aromacyclic tetracarboxylic anhydrides of perylene, or naphthalene, phthalocyanine derivatives, metal complexes represented by metal complexes of 8-quinolinol derivatives, metal phthalocyanine, and metal complexes containing benzoxazole, or benzothiazole as the ligand, organic silane derivatives exemplified by silole.

    [0163] The electron injection layer or the electron transport layer may contain an electron donating dopant. Suitable electron donating dopant for use in the electron injection layer or the electron transport layer, include any suitable material that may be used as long as it has an electron-donating property and a property for reducing an organic compound. Specific examples of electron donating dopants include an alkaline metal such as Li, an alkaline earth metal such as Mg, a transition metal including a rare-earth metal, and a reducing organic compound. Other examples of metal donating dopants include, metals having a work function of 4.2 V or less, for example, Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Y, Cs, La, Sm, Gd, and Yb. Specific examples of the reducing organic compounds include nitrogen-containing compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and phosphorus-containing compounds.

    [0164] The electron donating dopants may be used alone or in combinations of two or more. In some embodiments, an electron donating dopant is contained in the electron injection layer or the electron transport layer in an amount ranging from about 0.1% by weight to about 99% by weight of the total weight of the electron transport layer material or the electron injecting layer mater. In some embodiments, an electron donating dopant is contained in the electron injection layer or the electron transport layer in an amount ranging from about 1.0% by weight to about 80% by weight of the total weight of the electron transport layer material or the electron injecting layer material. In some embodiments, an electron donating dopant is contained in the electron injection layer or the electron transport layer in an amount ranging from about 2.0% by weight to about 70% by weight of the total weight of the electron transport layer material or the electron injecting layer material.

    [0165] A thickness of the electron injection layer and a thickness of the electron transport layer are each preferably 500 nm or less in view of decrease in driving voltage. The thickness of the electron transport layer is preferably from 1 nm to 500 nm, more preferably from 5 nm to 200 nm, and even more preferably from 10 nm to 100 nm. A thickness of the electron injection layer is preferably from 0.1 nm to 200 nm, more preferably from 0.2 nm to 100 nm, and even more preferably from 0.5 nm to 50 nm.

    [0166] The electron injection layer and the electron-transport layer may be composed of a monolayer structure comprising one or two or more of the above-mentioned materials, or a multilayer structure composed of plural layers of a homogeneous composition or a heterogeneous composition.

    [0167] The invention is explained in greater detail by the following examples, without wishing to restrict it thereby. The person skilled in the art will be able to produce further electronic devices on the basis of the descriptions without inventive step and will thus be able to carry out the invention throughout the range claimed.

    EXAMPLES



    [0168] The following syntheses are carried out, unless indicated otherwise, in dried solvents under a protective-gas atmosphere. The metal complexes are additionally handled with exclusion of light. The solvents and reagents can be purchased, for example, from Sigma-ALDRICH or ABCR.

    EXAMPLE 1: Synthesis of 3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine was prepared in accordance with Scheme 1.



    [0169] 


    A. Synthesis of 4-chlorobutanal:



    [0170] 



    [0171] A solution of oxalyl chloride (22.54 ml, 263 mmol) in DCM (400 ml) was cooled in an iPrOH/CO2 bath. DMSO (37.3 ml, 525 mmol) was added slowly via syringe and stirred cold for 1 hour. A solution of 4-chlorobutan-1-ol (19 g, 175 mmol) in 50 mL DCM was added dropwise. The cold mixture was stirred for one hour, then, triethylamine (110 ml, 788 mmol) was slowly added. The suspension was stirred cold for 30 minutes, then allowed to warm to room temperature. The reaction was quenched with water, acidified and organics separated. Solvent removal followed by distillation yielded the product as a colorless oil, 8g.

    B. Synthesis of 2-bromo-4-chlorobutanal:



    [0172] 



    [0173] 4-chlorobutanal (7.939 g, 74.5 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (300 ml) and cooled in an ice bath. A solution of dibromine (4.00 ml, 78 mmol) in DCM (50 ml) was added over about 1 hr. After addition the red solution was stirred cold for 30 minutes, then warmed slowly to room temperature and stirred one more hour. Water was added, the organics were separated, and drying and solvent removal yielded the crude product as a pale yellow oil, 1.57g (80%).

    C. Synthesis of 4-bromophenanthridin-6-amine:



    [0174] 



    [0175] 2,6-dibromoaniline (15.33 g, 61.1 mmol), 2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (7.0 g, 30.6 mmol), and potassium phosphate monohydrate (21.11 g, 92 mmol) were combined in dioxane (120 ml) and water (7.49 ml). The mixture was degassed, then added (dppf)PdCl2 complex with DCM (0.749 g, 0.917 mmol) was added and the mixture was refluxed for 4 hours. The black mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water/brine. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried, and solvent was removed. Dissolution in 500 mL EtOAc followed by elution through a silica plug using EtOAc and solvent removal yielded an orange residue that was purified by column chromatography to yield the product as a yellow/orange solid, 5.86 g, 70%.

    D. Synthesis of 5 -bromo-3 -(2-chloroethyl)imidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0176] 



    [0177] 4-bromophenanthridin-6-amine (5.86 g, 21.46 mmol), 2-bromo-4-chlorobutanal (5.36 g, 28.9 mmol), and sodium bicarbonate (3.60 g, 42.9 mmol) were combined in 2-propanol (102 ml) and water (5.11 ml). The suspension was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours, then at reflux overnight. Solvent was removed under vacuum and the residue coated on celite. Column chromatography yielded a mixture of the product and starting amidine, which was treated with excess acetyl chloride and triethylamine in DCM. After workup the desired product was extracted from the acetamide by repeated extraction into heptanes, yielding 3.93 g of yellow, tacky residue (51%).

    E. Synthesis of 3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0178] 



    [0179] 5-bromo-3-((2-chloroethyl)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (3.93 g, 10.93 mmol) was dissolved in THF (200 ml), cooled in an ice bath, and isopropylmagnesium chloride solution in THF (2.0M, 6.01 ml, 12.02 mmol) was slowly added. The solution was stirred for 30 minutes cold, then warmed to room temperature and stirred for 2 more hours. The reaction was quenched, extracted into DCM, and the reaction product was purified using column chromatography to yield 1.90 g of a pale beige, crystalline solid (71%).

    [0180] An X-ray structure of 3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine is shown in Figure 5. The crystal structure of 3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine may be defined by one or more of the characteristics listed in the following table.
    FormulaC17H12N2Data/restr./param.2107/0/173
    MW 244.29 T [K] 100(1)
    Crystal system Orthorhombic ρcald [g cm-3] 1.410
    Space group P212121 µcaled [mm-1] 0.084
    Color Colorless Total reflections 22768
    a [Å] 6.6974(5) Z 4
    b [Å] 11.0502(8) F(000) 512
    c [Å] 15.5459(10) Tmin/Tmax 0.894
    a [°] 90 Cryst. Size [mm3] 0.42 x 0.22 x 0.08
    β [°] 90 R1 [I>2σ(I)]a 0.0405
    γ [°] 90 wR2 (all data)a 0.1173
    V [Å3] 1150.52(14) GOFa 1.075
    aR1 = Σ||Fo| - |Fc||/∑|Fo|; wR2 = [∑[w(Fo2 - Fc2)2]/∑[w(Fo2)2]]½; GOF = [∑w(|Fo| - |Fc|)2/(n - m)]½

    EXAMPLE 2: Synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-4-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene and 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene:



    [0181] 

    The ligands above are prepared in accordance with Scheme 2 below.


    A. Synthesis of 5 -bromoimidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0182] 



    [0183] 4-bromophenanthridin-6-amine (4.0 g, 14.7 mmol) was dissolved in 100 mL of iPrOH. Chloroacetaldehyde (50 % in water, 3.6g, 22 mmol, 1.5 equiv.) was added, followed by NaHCO3 (2.5 g, 2 equiv.), and the mixture was refluxed for 2 hours, then cooled in an ice bath. The tan solid was filtered off, washing with MeOH. The receiving flask was changed and the solid was washed with water, resulting in clean, off-white product, 3.2 g. The aqueous washes were extracted with EtOAc and these extracts were combined with the alcoholic washes from the initial filtration. Solvent was removed to yield 1.3 g of an orange solid which was recrystallized from EtOAc, yielding more clean product as tan needles, 0.46 g. Total yield: 3.5 g (80%).

    B. Synthesis of 3,5-dibromoimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0184] 



    [0185] Dissolved 5-bromoimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (2.0 g, 6.73 mmol) in DMF (125 ml), then added a solution of NBS (1.318 g, 7.40 mmol) in 10 mL of DMF slowly under nitrogen. After stirring for 3 hours at room temperature, then gentle heating overnight, the reaction mixture was partitioned between 300 mL of water and EtOAc. The aqueous layer was further extracted with EtOAc, the organics washed with water, and the product was isolated by column chromatography as a pale yellow solid, 1.99g (79%).

    C. Synthesis of 5 -bromo-3 -((chloromethyl)dimethylsilyl)imidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0186] 



    [0187] 3,5-dibromoimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (0.48 g, 1.28 mmol) and chloro(chloromethyl)dimethylsilane (0.17 ml, 1.28 mmol) were dissolved in in THF (25 ml) and cooled in iPrOH/CO2 bath. Butyllithium solution in hexanes (2.5 M, 0.51 ml, 1.28 mmol) was added slowly, the mixture was stirred cold for 30 minutes, then allowed to warm to room temperature. Brine was added to quench the reaction, the organics were extracted into EtOAc and purified by column chromatography to yield the product as a colorless, tacky residue, 0.16 g (31%).

    D. Synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-4-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene and 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene:



    [0188] 



    [0189] 5-bromo-3-((chloromethyl)dimethylsilyl)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (0.13 g, 0.322 mmol) was dissolved in THF (25 ml) and cooled in an ice bath. Isopropylmagnesium chloride solution in THF (2.0 M, 0.18 ml, 0.36 mmol) was added slowly, then warmed to room temperature. The reaction was quenched with brine, organics were extracted with DCM, and the mixture chromatographed to yield 16 mg of 4,4-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-4-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene as a tacky residue (17%), and 33 mg of 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene as a crystalline solid (36%).

    [0190] Furthermore, all organic materials used in this example were sublimation-purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (Tosoh TSKgel ODS-100Z), and materials having 99.9% or higher of an absorption intensity area ratio at 254 nm were used.

    [0191] An X-ray structure of 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene is shown in Figure 6. The crystal structure of 3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1,2a1-diaza-3-silabenzo[fg]aceanthrylene may be defined by one or more of the characteristics listed in the following table.
    FormulaC18H16N2SiData/restr./param.5211/0/384
    MW 288.42 T [K] 100(1)
    Crystal system Triclinic ρcald [g cm-3] 1.341
    Space group P-1 µcalcd [mm-1] 0.159
    Color Colorless Total reflections 54823
    a [Å] 9.1888(8) Z 4
    b [Å] 12.5217(11) F(000) 608
    c [Å] 12.5428(12) Tmin/Tmax 0.954
    a [°] 82.769(4) Cryst. Size [mm3] 0.28 x 0.18 x 0.15
    β [°] 89.062(4) R1 [I>2σ(I)]a 0.0324
    γ [°] 86.121(2) wR2 (all data)a 0.0892
    V [Å3] 1428.4(2) GOFa 1.055
    aR1 = ∑||Fo| - |Fc||/∑|Fo|; wR2 = [∑[w(Fo2 - Fc2)2]/∑[w(Fo2)2]]½; GOF = [∑w(|Fo| - |Fc|)2/(n - m)]½

    EXAMPLE 3: Synthesis of platinum(II) complex of 6-isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0192] 


    A. Synthesis of 2-Bromo-5-methoxybenzonitrile:



    [0193] 



    [0194] A mixture of 2-bromo-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (100 g, 0.47 mol, 1 equiv), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (64.8 g, 0.93 mol, 2 equiv), sodium acetate (76.42 g, 0.93 mol, 2 equiv) and glacial acetic acid (500 mL) was refluxed overnight. The acetic acid was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was extracted with dichloromethane (∼400 mL). The organic layer was washed with saturated brine (3 x 200 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue was triturated with heptanes (50 mL) and solids washed with additional heptanes (2 x 50 mL) to give the desired product as a white powder (82.6g, 86% yield)

    B. Synthesis of 5-Methoxy-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile:



    [0195] 



    [0196] A mixture of 2-bromo-5-methoxybenzonitrile (82.6 g, 0.39 mol, 1 equiv), bis(pinacolato)diboron (109.1 g, 0.43 mol, 1.1 equiv) and potassium acetate (115.3 g, 1.17 mol, 3 equiv) in a mixture of 1,4-dioxane (400 mL) and DMSO (40 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 1 hour. Pd(dppf)Cl2 (7.13 g, 5 mol %) was added and reaction mixture was gently heated at 60 °C for 2 hours then refluxed overnight. The mixture was filtered through celite and the solids isolated from the filtrates were washed with isopropanol and heptanes to give the desired product as an off-white solid (57.41 g, 57% yield). Additional product (∼10g) was isolated from the filtrates.

    C. Synthesis of 4-Bromo-2-isopropyl-8-methoxyphenanthridin-6-amine:



    [0197] 



    [0198] A mixture of 5-methoxy-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzo-nitrile (57.41 g, 0.22 mol, 1 equiv), 2,6-dibromo-4-iso-propylaniline (64.92 g, 0.22 mol, 1 equiv) and potassium phosphate (153.1 g, 0.66 mol, 3 equiv) in a 4:1 mixture of toluene and water (1250 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 1 hour. trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (7.8 g, 11 mmol, 0.05 equiv) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 20 hours. Additional potassium phosphate (77 g, 0.33 mol, 1.5 equiv) and trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (1g, 1.43 mmol, 0.0065 equiv) were added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for an additional 3 hours. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with hot water (2 x 400 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solid was triturated sequentially with dichloromethane and heptanes. Column chromatography gave the desired product (30 g).

    D. Synthesis of 6-Isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4dihydro-dibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0199] 



    [0200] A suspension of 4-bromo-2-isopropyl-8-methoxyphenanthridin-6-amine (8.9 g, 25.8 mmol, 1 equiv), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (348 mg), freshly prepared 2-bromo-4-chlorobutanal (24 g, 129 mmol, 5 equiv) and iso-propanol (500 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2.5 hours. Sodium carbonate (6.5 g, 77.4 mmol, 3 equiv) and deionized water (32 ml) were added, and the reaction mixture was refluxed overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the volume of reaction mixture was reduced to ∼100 mL under reduced pressure. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (350 mL) and washed with saturated brine (200 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to yield 8.44 g of product (76% yield).

    E. Synthesis of 6-Isopropyl-10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinoli-zine:



    [0201] 



    [0202] A solution of 6-Isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4dihydro-dibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (8.44 g, 19.6 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in dry THF (250 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 30 minutes). After cooling to 0 °C, 2M isopropylmagnesium chloride (14.7 mL, 29.4 mmol, 1.5 equiv) in THF was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was warmed up to room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction was quenched with water (10 mL) and the THF was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was diluted with ethyl acetate (400 mL) and washed with saturated brine (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and the residue was purified by column chromatography to give 3.6 g of product (58% yield)

    F. Synthesis of 6-Isopropyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-10-ol:



    [0203] 



    [0204] Boron tribromide (5.4 mL, 56.78 mmol, 5 equiv) was added dropwise at -78 °C to a solution of 6-Isopropyl-10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinoli-zine (3.6 g, 11.36 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (200 mL). The reaction was warmed to room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was carefully poured into 300 ml of ice water and the resulting solid was filtered and washed sequentially with water (70 mL), ethyl acetate (40 mL) and heptanes (40 mL) to give 3.6 g of product (quantitative yield).

    G. Synthesis of 4'-Bromo-2-nitro-1,1'-biphenyl:



    [0205] 



    [0206] A solution of potassium carbonate (84 g, 608 mmol, 3.0 equiv) in water (450 mL) was added to a mixture of 2-iodo-nitrobenzene (50 g, 200 mmol, 1.0 equiv) and 4-bromobenzeneboronic acid (40.7 g, 202 mol, 1.0 equiv) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (660 mL). The reaction was sparged with nitrogen for 5.0 minutes. Tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (2.32 g, 2 mmol, 1 mol%) was added and the mixture was sparged with nitrogen for an additional 10 minutes. After refluxing overnight, the reaction was cooled to room temperature and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (500 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated brine (500 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in 25% ethyl acetate in heptanes (300 mL) and vacuum filtered through a pad of silica gel (135 g). The pad was rinsed with 25% ethyl acetate in heptanes (3 x 350 mL). The combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure giving an orange solid. This residue was suspended in heptanes (150 mL) and heated to 40 °C for 20 minutes. The suspension was allowed to cool to room temperature for 1.0 hour. The solid was collected by vacuum filtration, washed with heptanes (50 mL) and dried to give 4'-bromo-2-nitro-1,1 '-biphenyl as a yellow solid (49.16 g, 88.4% yield).

    H. Synthesis of 2-Bromo-9H-carbazole:



    [0207] 



    [0208] Triphenylphosphine (156.3 g, 596 mmol, 2.5 equiv) was added over 5 minutes to a solution 4'-bromo-2-nitro-1,1'-biphenyl (66.25 g, 238 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in 1,2-dichlorobenzene (460 mL). The reaction was sparged with nitrogen 5 minutes, then refluxed overnight. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and vacuum distilled to remove most of the 1,2-dichlorobenzene (450 mL). This dark residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1.5 L) and treated with decolorizing carbon (50 g) at 50 °C for 30 minutes. After cooling, the mixture was filtered through Celite (200 g), then washed with ethyl acetate washes (2 x 650 mL). The combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure to a volume of ∼500 mL. The solution was cooled to room temperature and after 1.5 hours, the resulting pale tan solid (triphenylphosphine oxide) was removed by filtration and discarded. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in methanol (600 mL) and stored at room temperature overnight. The resulting tan solid was filtered, washed with methanol (2 x 100 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40 °C to give 2-bromo-9H-carbazole as a pale tan solid (33.5 g, 57.2% yield).

    I. Synthesis of 2-Bromo-9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole:



    [0209] 



    [0210] A suspension of 2-bromo-9H-carbazole (13.9 g, 56.5 mmol, 1 equiv), 4-isopropyl-2-chloropyridine (15.86 g, 101.7 mmol,1.8 equiv), L-proline (1.3 g, 11.3 mmol, 0.2 equiv), copper (1) iodide (0.95 g, 5.65 mmol, 0.1 equiv), potassium carbonate (19.48 g, 141.25 mmol, 2.5 equiv) and DMSO (80 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 5 minutes. The mixture was heated at 95 °C overnight. Additional 4-isopropyl-2-chloropyridine (1.58 g, 10.12 mmol, 0.18 equiv) was added, the reaction mixture was heated at 155 °C for an additional 24 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, diluted with ethyl acetate (750 mL), and vacuum filtered through celite (70 g). The celite pad was washed with ethyl acetate washes (2 x 100 mL). The combined filtrates were washed with saturated brine (3 x 500 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. This residue was purified by column chromatography to give 1.8 g of product as a brown oil (8.6% yield).

    J. Synthesis of 6-Isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0211] 



    [0212] A mixture of 6-Isopropyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-10-ol (1.5 g, 4.93 mmol, 1 equiv), 2-Bromo-9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole (1.8 g, 4.93 mmol, 1 equiv), potassium phosphate (5.68 g, 24.65 mmol, 5 equiv), copper(I) iodide (0.47 g, 2.47 mmol, 0.5 equiv), picolinic acid (1.52 g, 12.33 mmol, 2.5 equiv) and DMSO (150 mL) was heated at 150 °C for 4.5 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into water (700 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (4 x 150 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated in under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to yield product as a tan solid, 1.25 g (43% yield).

    K. Synthesis of platinum(II) complex of 6-isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0213] 



    [0214] 6-Isopropyl-10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (400 mg, 0.68 mmol, 1 equiv) was dissolved in 60 ml of glacial acetic acid and sparged with nitrogen for 30 minutes. Then K2PtCl4 (283 mg, 0.68 mmol, 1 equiv) was added, and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 40 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the orange precipitate was filtered and washed sequentially with water (3 x 15 mL) and heptanes (10 ml x 2 times). The crude product (340 mg) was dissolved in 10 ml of dichloromethane and filtered through a plug of silica gel to remove residual K2PtCl4, eluting with additional dichloromethane (10 mL). The filtrate was reduced to half its volume and diluted with heptanes (10 mL). The product was filtered and triturated with a 10% solution of dichloromethane in heptanes (10 mL) to give product as a light yellow solid (140 mg, 26% yield). Additional product was isolated from the acetic acid and dichloromethane/heptane filtrates.

    EXAMPLE 4: Synthesis of (3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole)2Ir(MeOH)2(OTf)



    [0215] 


    A. Synthesis of (3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole)2IrCl2 dimer



    [0216] Iridium chloride hydrate (6.00 g, 17.02 mmol) and 1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole (5.89 g, 40.9 mmol) were combined in 2-ethoxyethanol (120 ml) and water (40 ml). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux overnight under nitrogen. The resulting solid was filtered off and washed with methanol and dried to yield 8.3 g of the iridium dimer.

    [0217] The iridium dimer of Example 4A (8.3 g, 8.07 mmol) was dissolved in 100 mL of DCM and a solution of silver triflate (4.36 g, 16.96 mmol) in 20 mL of methanol was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 1 hour. The mixture was filtered through celite and the cake was washed with DCM. The filtrates were evaporated to yield 10.85 g of of (3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole)2Ir(MeOH)2(OTf) (97%).

    EXAMPLE 5: Exemplary Compound 35 was prepared according to Scheme 5.



    [0218] 


    A. Synthesis of imidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridine



    [0219] 



    [0220] A mixture of 2-phenyl-1H-imidazole (10.0 g, 69.3 mmol, 1 equiv), 1,2-dibromobenzene (19.63 g, 83.2 mmol, 1.2 equiv), cesium carbonate (67.79 g, 208.0 mmol, 3 equiv), Xantphos (4.01 g, 6.9 mmol, 0.1 equiv) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (8.01 g, 6.9 mmol, 0.1 equiv) in DMF (550 mL) was sparged with a stream of nitrogen for 15 minutes. The mixture was heated at 140 oC for 24 hours, then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (10 g, 67% yield) as pale yellow solid.

    B. Synthesis of 3-Bromoimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine



    [0221] 



    [0222] N-bromosuccinimide (1.62 g, 9.1 mmol, 1 equiv) was added to a solution of 15 (1.99 g, 9.1 mmol, 1 equiv) in DMF (32 mL) at 0 oC.. After stirring at room temperature for 18 hours, the reaction was diluted with water (300 mL) and sequentially extracted with 10% dichloromethane in methyl t-butyl ether (3 x 500 mL), ethyl acetate (2 x 300 mL) and dichloromethane (400 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to yield 3-Bromoimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (1.66 g, 65% yield) as an off-white solid.

    C. Synthesis of tert-Butyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)acetate



    [0223] 



    [0224] Di-µ-bromobis(tri-t-butylphosphino)dipalladium (I) (2.01 g, 2.5 mmol, 0.05 equiv) was added to a solution of 16 (15.4 g, 51.8 mmol, 1 equiv) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (220 mL) and the solution was sparged with a stream of nitrogen for 15 minutes. 0.5M 2-tert-butoxy-2-oxoethylzinc bromide in diethyl ether (155 mL, 77.7 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added under nitrogen. The reaction was stirred at 60 oC for 16 hours. Additional 0.5M 2-tert-butoxy-2-oxoethylziinc chloride solution (155 mL, 77.7 mmol, 1.5 equiv) and di-µ-bromobis(tri-t-butylphosphino)-dipalladium (I) (2.01 g, 2.5 mmol, 0.05 equiv) were added and the reaction was stirred at 60 oC until LC/MS analysis indicated it was complete. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (1 L) and filtered through a Celite pad. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give tert-Butyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)acetate (5 g, 30% yield) as an orange solid.

    D. Synthesis of Methyl 2-(imidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)acetate hydrochloride



    [0225] 



    [0226] A solution of 17 (2.8 g, 8.4 mmol, 1 equiv) in 1.25M HCl (55 mL, 68.7 mmol, 6.5 equiv) in methanol was stirred at 60 oC overnight. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was washed with diethyl ether and dried under vacuum overnight at 40 oC to give methyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)acetate hydrochloride (2.5 g, 100% yield) as an off-white solid.

    E. Synthesis of Methyl 2-(imidazo [1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoate



    [0227] 



    [0228] A 60% dispersion of sodium hydride in mineral oil (2.45 g, 61.2 mmol, 5 equiv) and iodomethane (2 mL, 32.1 mmol, 2.6 equiv) were sequentially added to a solution of methyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)acetate hydrochloride (4.0 g, 12.24 mmol, 1 equiv) in anhydrous DMF (45 mL) at 5 oC. The mixture was stirred in a cooling bath for 30 minutes, warmed to room temperature and stirred for 6 hours. Additional iodomethane (1.2 mL, 19.2 mmol, 1.6 equiv) was added. The reaction was stirred at room temperature over a weekend, quenched with methanol (32 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual oil was diluted with dichloromethane (350 mL) and washed with water (100 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with saturated ammonium chloride (100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give methyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (1.6 g, 41% yield) as an off-white solid.

    F. Synthesis of 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoic acid



    [0229] 



    [0230] A solution of methyl 2-(imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoate (1.6 g, 5.0 mmol, 1 equiv) in methanol (100 mL) was treated with aqueous IN sodium hydroxide (30 mL, 30 mmol, 6 equiv) and further diluted with water (100 mL). After refluxing for 5 days, the reaction was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in water (100 mL) and acidified with conc. HCl to pH 5-6. The resulting white suspension was extracted with 1 to 2 mixture of isopropanol and dichloro-methane (4 × 200 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dried under high vacuum at 40 oC overnight to give 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoic acid (1.3 g, 82% yield) as white solid.

    G. Synthesis of 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoyl chloride



    [0231] 



    [0232] Thionyl chloride (1 mL, 13.7 mmol, 2 equiv) and anhydrous DMF (0.05 mL, 0.6 mmol, 0.11 equiv) were added to a suspension of 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoic acid (1.3 g, 4.2 mmol, 1 equiv) in anhydrous dichloromethane (100 mL). After stirring at room temperature overnight, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give the 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoyl chloride (1.37 g, 100% yield) as an off-white solid.

    H. Synthesis of 3,3-Dimethyldibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4(3H)-one



    [0233] 



    [0234] A mixture of 2-(Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridin-3-yl)-2-methylpropanoyl chloride (1.37 g, 4.2 mmol, 1 equiv) and anhydrous aluminum chloride (6.0 g, 44.9 mmol, 10 equiv) in anhydrous dichloromethane (60 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled with an ice-water bath, quenched with ice, diluted with saturated sodium bicarbonate (300 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (4 x 400 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified using column chromatography to give 3,3-dimethyldibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4(3H)-one (1 g, 81% yield) as a white solid.

    I. Synthesis of 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-ol



    [0235] 



    [0236] Sodium borohydride (0.24 g, 6.3 mmol, 2 equiv) was added in one portion to a solution of 3,3-dimethyldibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4(3H)-one (0.9 g, 3.1 mmol, 1 equiv) in ethanol (70 mL) at 5 °C. The reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours and then quenched with acetone (2 mL). The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in methyl t-butyl ether (300 mL), washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (2 x 60 mL) and saturated brine (60 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-ol (0.9 g, 100% yield) as a white solid.

    J. o-(3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-yl) S-methyl carbonodithioate



    [0237] 



    [0238] A 60% dispersion of sodium hydride (0.48 g, 20.2 mmol, 5 equiv) in mineral oil was added to a solution of 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-ol (0.71 g, 2.46 mmol, 1 equiv) in anhydrous THF (70 mL) at 0 °C. After stirring for 30 minutes at 5 °C, a solution of imidazole (0.0168 g, 0.24 mmol, 0.1 equiv) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (3.2 mL) was added, followed by the dropwise addition of carbon disulfide (0.89 mL, 14.8 mmol, 6 equiv). The reaction was allowed to slowly warm to 12 °C over 30 minutes. Iodomethane (0.92 mL, 14.7 mmol, 6 equiv) was added dropwise (exothermic) and the reaction was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5 °C, diluted with saturated brine (140 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (5 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give o-(3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-yl) S-methyl carbonodithioate (0.86 g, 93% yield) as a white solid.

    K. Synthesis of 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine



    [0239] 



    [0240] A solution of o-(3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-4-yl) S-methyl carbonodithioate (0.98 g, 2.6 mmol, 1 equiv), 2,2'-azabis(2-methylpropionitrile) (0.098 g, 0.6 mmol, 0.2 equiv) and tributyltin hydride (1.81 mL, 6.7 mmol, 2.6 equiv) in anhydrous toluene (70 mL) was stirred at 80 °C for 3.5 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure at 35 °C and absorbed onto silica gel (10 g). The crude material was purified by column chromatography to give 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (0.53 g, 72% yield) as a white solid.

    L. Synthesis of (3-chloropropyl)(methyl)sulfane



    [0241] 



    [0242] Sodium methanethiolate (6.14 g, 88 mmol) was dissolved in 150 mL of EtOH, cooled in an ice bath, then 1-bromo-3-chloropropane (8.6 ml, 87 mmol) was added. The solution was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 2 hours. The precipitated solids were filtered and the filtrates condensed under vacuum. The residue was distilled under vacuum to yield the product as a colorless oil, 36%.

    M. Synthesis of tris-[(3-methylthio)propyl]iridium(III)



    [0243] 



    [0244] Tris-[(3-methylthio)propyl)]iridium(III) was synthesized by stirring the Grignard made from (3-chloropropyl)(methyl)sulfane and magnesium turnings with IrCl3(THT)3 in THF, followed by column chromatography to yield a white solid, 32%.

    N. Synthesis of Compound 35



    [0245] 



    [0246] tris-[(3-methylthio)propyl]iridium(III) from Example 5M (0.020 g, 0.044 mmol) and 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine from Example 5K (0.036 g, 0.131 mmol) were combined in ethylene glycol (0.5 ml), degassed by vacuum/backfill cycles, and stirred at reflux, turning yellow then black. The cooled residue was partitioned between water and DCM, the organics were dried and coated on celite. Purification by column chromatography yielded 4 mg of Compound 35 as a beige solid (9%).

    EXAMPLE 6: Synthesis of Compound 48 was carried out as in Scheme 6.



    [0247] 



    [0248] (3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole)2Ir(MeOH)2(OTf) from Example 4 (0.031 g, 0.045 mmol) and 3,3-Dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine from Example 5K (0.024 g, 0.090 mmol) were combined in 2-ethoxyethanol (0.5 ml), vacuum/backfill quickly three times, then heated at reflux under nitrogen for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was dissolved in DCM, coated on celite, and purified by column chromatography to yield Compound 35 as a nearly colorless residue, 6 mg (18%).

    EXAMPLE 7: Synthesis of Compound 49 was carried out according to Scheme 7 below.



    [0249] 


    A. Synthesis of 1-Methylphenanthridin-6-amine:



    [0250] 



    [0251] A mixture of 2-bromo-3-methylaniline (38.8 g, 208 mmol, 1 equiv), (chloro(2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl)[2-(2'-amino-1,1'-biphenyl)]palladium(II) (2.99 g, 4.16 mmol, 0.02 equiv), 2-dicyclohexyl-phosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (1.71 g, 4.16 mmol, 0.02 equiv) in THF (832 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes. (2-Cyanophenyl)zinc bromide solution (500 mL, 0.5 M in THF, 250 mmol, 1.2 equiv) was added to the mixture and the reaction was refluxed overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction was diluted with saturated brine (10 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The solids were dissolved in 10% methanol in dichloromethane (500 mL) and 24% wt. aqueous sodium hydroxide (500 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 500 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The brown solid was sequentially triturated with 25% MTBE in heptanes (1.5 L) and dichloromethane (5 x 25 mL) to give 26 (10.7 g, 25% yield, >95% purity) as a pale yellow solid.

    B. Synthesis of 8-Methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0252] 



    [0253] A mixture of 1-methylphenanthridin-6-amine (10.7 g, 51 mmol, 1 equiv), 50% wt chloroacetaldehyde in water (16 mL, 102 mmol, 2 equiv), sodium carbonate (13.5 g, 128 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in isopropanol (340 mL) was refluxed for 2 hours. The reaction was cooled to 4 °C and diluted with dichloromethane (250 mL) and saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 250 mL). The combined organics layers were dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give crude 8-methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (23.8 g) as a brown solid, which was used subsequently.

    C. Synthesis of 3-Bromo-8-methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0254] 



    [0255] A mixture of crude 8-methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (23.8 g), N-bromosuccinimide (9.1 g, 51 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (306 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Water (500 mL) was added and the layers were separated. The aqueous was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 500 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The solids were pre-absorbed onto silica gel and purified by column chromatography to give 3-bromo-8-methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (12 g, 98% purity) as a light brown solid.

    D. Synthesis of 8-Methyl-3-(2-methylprop-1 -en-1 -yl)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0256] 



    [0257] A mixture of 3-bromo-8-methylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (12 g, 38.5 mmol, 1 equiv), 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (10.5 g, 58 mmol, 1.5 equiv), and potassium carbonate (16 g, 115.5 mmol, 3 equiv) in a 5 to 1 mixture of 1,4-dioxane and water (185 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes. (Chloro(2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl)[2-(2'-amino-1,1'-biphenyl)]palladium(II) (4.16 g, 5.78 mmol, 0.15 equiv) and 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (2.38 g, 5.78 mmol, 0.15 equiv) were added and the reaction was refluxed for 36 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction was diluted with water (200 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 200 mL). The combined organics layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude solid was purified by column chromatography to give 8-methyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)imidazo[1,2-f]henanthridine (8.5 g, 70% yield, 90% purity) as a light brown solid.

    E. Synthesis of 4,4,7-Trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0258] 



    [0259] A mixture of 8-methyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (1.6 g, 5.69 mmol, 1 equiv) and anhydrous aluminum chloride (3.8 g, 28.4 mmol, 5 equiv) in dichloromethane (57 mL) were stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was cooled in an ice bath and water (10 mL) was added dropwise. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude solids purified by column chromatography to give 4,4,7-Trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (1.43 g, 88% yield, 98% purity) as a light yellow solid.

    F. Synthesis of 2-Bromo-4,4,7-trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0260] 



    [0261] A mixture of 4,4,7-Trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (500 mg, 1.75 mmol, 1 equiv) and N-bromosuccinimide (311 mg, 1.75 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (11 mL) was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was diluted with water (20 mL) and dichloromethane (10 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous were extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give 2-bromo-4,4,7-trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (575 mg, 90% yield, 97% purity) as a light brown solid.

    G. Synthesis of 2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0262] 



    [0263] A mixture of 2-bromo-4,4,7-trimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (265 mg, 0.73 mmol, 1 equiv), trimethylboroxine (0.6 mL, 4.4 mmol, 6 equiv) and potassium carbonate (608 mg, 4.4 mmol, 6 equiv) in a 10 to 1 mixture of 1,4-dioxane and water (7 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 15 minutes. (Chloro(2dicyclo-hexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl)[2-(2'-amino-1,1'-biphenyl)]palladium(II) (108 mg, 0.15 mmol, 0.2 equiv) and 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (62 mg, 0.15 mmol, 0.2 equiv) were added and the reaction was refluxed overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction was diluted with water (10 mL) and ethyl acetate (10 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous were extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 20 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to give 2,4,4,7-Tetramethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (100 mg, 46% yield, 95% purity) as a pale yellow solid.

    H. Synthesis of Compound 49:



    [0264] 



    [0265] Compound 49 was synthesized in an analogous way to Compound 35, yielding 13 mg of yellow powder (15%).

    EXAMPLE 8: Synthesis of Compound 50 was carried out according to Scheme 8 below.



    [0266] 


    A. Synthesis of 1-chlorophenanthridin-6-amine:



    [0267] 



    [0268] A mixture of 3-chloro-2-iodoaniline (8.77 g, 34.6 mmol), CyJohnPhos (0.462 g, 1.319 mmol), and Pd(CH3CN)2Cl2 (0.171 g, 0.659 mmol) was dissolved in dioxane (80 ml). Triethylamine (13.78 ml, 99 mmol) and 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (10.04 ml, 69.2 mmol) were added to the solution in sequence via syringe. The reaction was reflux for 4 h. The reaction was cooled to room temperature and a solid mixture of 2-bromobenzonitrile (6 g, 33.0 mmol), S-Phos Pd G2 (0.475 g, 0.659 mmol), S-Phos (0.271 g, 0.659 mmol), and potassium carbonate (9.11 g, 65.9 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture followed by dioxane (20 ml) and water (20 ml) and the reaction was heated to 85°C overnight. The crude product was extracted with DCM and vacuumed down to yield an orange oil. This was dissolved in THF (80 mL) and sodium hydride (1.978 g, 49.4 mmol) was added at 0°C and stirred for 20 min. The reaction was quenched with brine and extracted with DCM. Evaporation of the reaction mixture followed by trituration with ether yielded 1-chlorophenanthridin-6-amine as an off-white solid (52% yield).

    B. Synthesis of 8-chloroimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0269] 



    [0270] 1-chlorophenanthridin-6-amine (864 mg, 3.78 mmol), 2-chloroacetaldehyde (50wt% in water, 1.02 mL, 7.56 mmol), and sodium bicarbonate (635 mg, 7.56 mmol) were combined in iPrOH and refluxed for 1 h. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into water and filtered (99% yield).

    C. Synthesis of 8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0271] 



    [0272] A mixture of 8-chloroimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (955 mg, 3.78 mmol), phenylboronic acid (829 mg, 6.80 mmol), S-Phos Pd G2 (109 mg, 0.151 mmol), S-Phos (62.1 mg, 0.151 mmol), and potassium carbonate (522 mg, 3.78 mmol) was vacuumed and back-filled with nitrogen several times. Dioxane (20 ml) and water (4 ml) were added and refluxed for 1 h. The crude product was extracted with DCM and brine and purified by column chromatography to yield product (99% yield).

    D. Synthesis of 3-bromo-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0273] 



    [0274] 8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (1.15 mg, 3.91 mmol) and NBS (0.765 g, 4.30 mmol) were combined in DMF and stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes, followed by quenching with water. The resultant solid was filtered and dried in vacuum, yielding 3-bromo-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine in 75% yield

    E. Synthesis of 3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0275] 



    [0276] A mixture of 3-bromo-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (980 mg, 2.63 mmol), SPhos Pd G2 (76 mg, 0.105 mmol), SPhos (43.1 mg, 0.105 mmol), and potassium carbonate (363 mg, 2.63 mmol) was vacuumed and back-filled with nitrogen several times. Toluene (15 ml), Water (3 ml), and 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-2-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,3,2-dioxaborolane (1.077 ml, 5.25 mmol) were added and heated at reflux overnight. The product was extracted with DCM and brine and purified by column chromatography to give 3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine in 20% yield.

    F. Synthesis of 4,4-dimethyl-7-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0277] 



    [0278] 3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-8-phenylimidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (160 mg, 0.459 mmol) was dissolved in DCM (10 ml) and aluminum trichloride (184 mg, 1.378 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred for 40 min at room temperature. The mixture was quenched with KOH(aq)/brine and extracted several times with DCM. The product was purified by column chromatography to give 4,4-dimethyl-7-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine in 63% yield.

    G. Synthesis of Compound 50:



    [0279] 



    [0280] (3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole)2Ir(MeOH)2(OTf) from Example 4 (0.03 g, 0.043 mmol) and 4,4-dimethyl-7-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (0.030 g, 0.087 mmol) were combined in 2-ethoxyethanol (0.5 ml), vacuum/backfilled quickly three times with nitrogen, then heated at reflux under nitrogen for 2 h. The product was purified by column chromatography to give Compound 50 in 56% yield.

    EXAMPLE 9: Synthesis of Compound 108 was carried out according to Scheme 9 below.



    [0281] 


    A. Synthesis of tert-Butyl (4-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenyl)carbamate:



    [0282] 



    [0283] Triisopropylchlorosilane (32 mL, 0.15 mol, 1.2 equiv) and triethylamine (21 mL, 0.15 mol, 1.2 equiv) were sequentially added to a solution of tert-butyl (4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamate (26.1 g, 0.125 mol, 1 equiv) in THF (200 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. The reaction was filtered and the solids were washed with THF (2 x 30 mL). The combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give tert-Butyl (4-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenyl)carbamate (39.66 g, 87% yield) as yellow oil.

    B. Synthesis of 4-((Triisopropylsilyl)oxy)aniline:



    [0284] 



    [0285] Trifluoroacetic acid (41.51 mL, 0.54 mol, 5 equiv) was added at room temperature to a solution of tert-Butyl (4-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenyl)carbamate (39.66 g, 0.1085 mol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (400 mL). After stirring for 16 hours the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was azeotroped with toluene (3 x 50 mL). The crude product was purified over silica to give 4-((Triisopropylsilyl)oxy)aniline (25 g, 87% yield).

    C. Synthesis of 2,6-Dibromo-4-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)aniline:



    [0286] 



    [0287] Bromine (8.2 mL, 0.16 mol, 2.5 equiv) was added dropwise at 0 °C to a solution of 4-((Triisopropylsilyl)oxy)aniline (17 g, 64.4 mmol, 1 equiv) in a 1:1 mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (60 mL). The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to room temperature and stirred for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL) and washed sequentially with 1M NaOH (2 x 100 mL) and saturated brine (2 x 100 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 2,6-Dibromo-4-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)aniline (26.37 g, 97% yield) as a brown oil, which was used subsequently.

    D. Synthesis of 4-Bromo-8-methoxy-2-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenanthridin-6-amine:



    [0288] 



    [0289] A mixture of 5-methoxy-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (16.14 g, 62.3 mmol, 1 equiv), 51 (26.37 g, 62.3 mmol, 1 equiv) and potassium phosphate (43.04 g, 0.187 mol, 3 equiv) in a 4 to 1 mixture of toluene and water (500 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 1 hour. trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (2.8 g, 3.11 mmol, 0.05 equiv) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 20 hours. Additional 5-methoxy-2-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)benzonitrile (2.2 g, 8.5 mmol, 0.14 equiv) and trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (0.3 g, 0.43 mmol, 0.0069 equiv) were added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for an additional 4 hours. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with hot water (2 x 200 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by column chromatography to yield 4-bromo-8-methoxy-2-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenanthridin-6-amine in 20% yield.

    E. Synthesis of 5-Bromo-3-(2-chloroethyl)-11-methoxy-7-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine:



    [0290] 



    [0291] A suspension of 4-bromo-8-methoxy-2-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)phenanthridin-6-amine (5.95 g, 12.53 mmol, 1 equiv), p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (175 mg) and fresh prepared 2 (6.67 g, 62.63 mmol, 5 equiv) in i-propanol (500 mL) was stirred at the room temperature for 2 hours. Sodium carbonate (3.25 g, 37.6 mmol, 3 equiv) and deionized water (12 ml) were added and the reaction mixture was refluxed overnight. After cooling to room temperature, the volume of reaction mixture was reduced to ∼60 ml under reduced pressure. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (300 mL) and washed with saturated brine (200 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give 5-bromo-3-(2-chloroethyl)-11-methoxy-7-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (5.53 g, 79% yield).

    F. Synthesis of 10-Methoxy-6-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0292] 



    [0293] A solution of 5-bromo-3-(2-chloroethyl)-11-methoxy-7-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine (5.53 g, 9.84 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in dry THF (300 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 30 minutes. After cooling to 0 °C, 2M isopropylmagnesium chloride in THF (7.4 mL, 14.76 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added dropwise via syringe. The reaction mixture was warmed to the room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction was quenched with water (10 mL) and the THF was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (500 mL). The organic layer was washed with water (2 x 200 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give 10-methoxy-6-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (3 g, 68% yield).

    G. Synthesis of 10-Methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-ol:



    [0294] 



    [0295] Tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate in THF (30 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 10-methoxy-6-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (3 g, 6.72 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (100 mL). After stirring at room temperature for 16 hours, the solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was extracted with dichloromethane. (80 mL). The organic layer was washed with saturated brine (2 x 100 mL). Upon washing with saturated brine, a large precipitate started to form in the organic layer. The precipitation was filtered and washed with heptanes (2 x 10 mL) to give pure 10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-ol (1.83 g, 94% yield).

    H. Synthesis of 10-Methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate:



    [0296] 



    [0297] Trifluoroacetic anhydride (1.14 mL, 6.77 mmol, 1.1 equiv) and pyridine (0.744 mL, 9.24 mmol, 1.5 equiv) were sequentially added at 0 °C to a mixture of 10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-ol (1.79 g, 6.16 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (100 mL). After stirring for 15 minutes, the reaction was warm to room temperature and stirred for 6 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL) and washed with water (3 x 100 mL). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was triturated with a 10 to 1 mixture of heptanes and dichloromethane (10 mL) to give 10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (2.17 g, 83% yield).

    I. Synthesis of 10-Methoxy-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0298] 



    [0299] A mixture of 10-methoxy-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-6-yl trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.65 g, 1.54 mmol, 1 equiv), phenylboronic acid (0.188 g, 1.54 mmol, 1 equiv) and potassium phosphate (1.06 g, 4.62 mmol, 3 equiv) in a 3:1:1 mixture of toluene: 1,4-dioxane:water (500 mL) was sparged with nitrogen for 1 hour. trans-Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 (54 mg, 0.077 mmol, 0.05 equiv) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (200 mL). The organic layer was washed with warm water (2 x 100 mL), dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 10-methoxy-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (0.527 g, 97% yield).

    J. Synthesis of 6-Phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b, ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-10-ol:



    [0300] 



    [0301] 1M Boron tribromide in dichloromethane (7.5 mL, 7.5 mmol, 5 equiv) was added dropwise at -78 °C to a solution of 10-methoxy-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (0.527 g, 1.5 mmol, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane (100 mL). The reaction warmed to the room temperature and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was carefully poured in ice water (150 mL) and the resulting solid was filtered and washed sequentially with water (30 ml) and heptanes (10 mL) to give 6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-10-ol (0.47 g, 93% yield).

    K. Synthesis of 10-((9-(4-Isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-dibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine:



    [0302] 



    [0303] A mixture of 2-Bromo-9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole (0.528 g, 1.446 mmol, 1 equiv), 6-phenyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizin-10-ol (0.486 g, 1.446 mmol, 1 equiv), potassium phosphate (1.67 g, 7.23 mmol, 5 equiv), copper (I) iodide (0.138 g, 0.723 mmol, 0.5 equiv), and picolinic acid (0.445 g, 3.62 mmol, 2.5 equiv) in DMSO (50 mL) was heated at 150 °C for 4.5 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the reaction mixture was poured into water (300 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (4 x 100 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude product was purified by column chromatography to give 10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-dibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine as a tan solid (0.55 g, 61% yield).

    L. Synthesis of Compound 108:



    [0304] 



    [0305] A solution of 10-((9-(4-isopropylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazol-2-yl)oxy)-6-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-dibenzo[b,ij]imidazo[2,1,5-de]quinolizine (350 mg, 0.564 mmol, 1 equiv) glacial acetic acid (60 mL) was sparged with argon for 40 minutes. K2PtCl4 (234 mg, 0.564 mmol, 1 equiv) was added and the reaction mixture was refluxed for 16 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the yellow-greenish precipitate was filtered and washed sequentially with water (4 x 15 mL) and heptanes (2 x 10 mL) and dried under vacuum at 20°C for 18 hours. The crude product was dissolved in dichloromethane (500 mL) and passed through a plug of silica gel 10 g) to remove residual K2PtCl4. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was triturated with a 1 to 1 mixture of dichloromethane and heptanes (20 mL), filtered and washed with dichloromethane (2 x 3 mL) to give Compound 108 (40 mg, yield 8.7% yield, 83.2%).

    [0306] DISCUSSION: The general structure of one embodiment of the metal-coordinated imidazophenanthridine ligand is shown below. The bonds of interest in the computational study are the four carbon-nitrogen (C-N) single bonds. They are labeled as C-N1, C-N2, C-Nph for the nitrogen that has three single C-N bonds, and C-Nm for the nitrogen that is coordinated to the metal.



    [0307] Geometry optimizations of all complexes and ligands were performed in the Gaussian 09 software package using the hybrid B3LYP functional with the CEP-31 g effective core potential basis set. All results use this method unless otherwise stated in the results and discussion.

    [0308] Bond strengths were calculated by breaking a bond to form a diradical species on the imidazophenanthridine ligand. The bond-broken diradical species was calculated as a triplet state as this is normally lower in energy than a diradical singlet and therefore the more likely product formed in a bond breaking event. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31g(d) level and thermodynamics reported for the ground state singlet → bond broken triplet and a lowest energy triplet (excited state) → bond broken triplet.

    [0309] Calculated TD-DFT values for the lowest triplet excited state (T1) were also performed at the B3LYP/CEP-31g level of theory but included the CPCM continuum solvent field using THF as the solvent which has been shown to better match experimental results.

    [0310] Bond strength calculations were performed on the following compounds:









    [0311] Calculated bond strengths are shown in table 1.
    Table 1:
     StructureCalc T1 (nm)C-N1 bond strength (kcal/mol)C-Nph bond strength (kcal/mol)C-N2 bond strength (kcal/mol)C-Nm bond strength (kcal/mol)Weakest bond (kcal/mol)
    Comparative compound 1

    468 11.81 25.92 n/a 39.80 11.81
    74.06 88.17 102.05
    Comparative compound 2

    474 -1.54 22.00 n/a 46.85 -1.54
    61.26 84.79 109.64
    Comparative compound 3

    476 -0.55 22.34 n/a 45.18 -0.55
    60.08 82.96 105.80
    Comparative compound 4

      5.31 28.66 n/a 45.57 5.31
    Compound 1

    468 35.38 90.51 n/a 36.56 35.38
    Comparative ligand 1

    470 18.73 34.85 n/a 45.62 18.73
    83.76 99.87 110.64
    Compound (1-3)

    472 40.35        


    [0312] Table 1 shows calculated bond strengths for a series of comparative examples and invention Compound 1. Where two numbers are seen in the same cell, the top number represents the thermodynamic difference between the excited state triplet → bond broken triplet. The lower number represents the ground state singlet → bond broken triplet. If there is only one number in the cell, it represents the triplet → triplet bond strength (T→T). For all comparative compounds 1-4, the C-N1 bond is shown to be the weakest bond. Bond strengths are found to be weaker in the excited triplet state compared to the ground state singlet. This is due to the complex having the energy of the excited state available as the starting point to the, generally, higher energy bond broken state. In some cases, as shown for comparative compound 2 and 3, the bond broken state is lower in energy than the starting triplet state. Therefore a bond breaking event may be considered thermodynamically favorable or exothermic. It is found that when aryl substitutions are added at the C-N1 bond carbon atom, the bond strength decreases, as seen comparing comparative compound 1 to comparative compounds 2 and 3. This effect may be due to resonance stabilization of the radical species at the bond breaking site which is stabilized by the aryl substitution.

    [0313] Stabilization of the weak C-N1 bond can be achieved by a linking substitution that links the C-N1 carbon to the carbon on the adjacent fused aryl ring as depicted by "A" in Formula (1a). This linking group is preferably comprised of elements that provide the proper structural geometry to form a bridge across the two carbons of the phenanthridine ring system, providing the necessary rigidity to stabilize the C-N1 bond while not lowering the triplet energy of the resulting ligand and complex.

    [0314] The effect of the stabilizing linker is shown in table 1 for invention Compound 1. Here the triplet C-N1 bond strength has greatly improved from 11.81 kcal/mol, for the analogous comparative Compound 1, to 35.38 kcal/mol for the invention compound, an increase in theromodynmic bond strength of > 20 kcal/mol. The two carbon linking substituent prevents the ligand from being able to obtain the appropriate relaxed geometry of a CN1 bond broken state. Importantly, the triplet energy is not affected by this substitution as both invention Compound 1 and Comparative Compound 1 both have identical triplet energies of 468 nm by calculation.

    [0315] The minimized non bond-broken and bond-broken geometries of comparative example 1 are shown in Figures 3a and 3b. It can be seen that the bond broken geometry relaxes the ring strain of the fused ring system of the imidazophenanthridine ligand. The tethering substitution, as shown for invention Compound 1, inhibits the relaxed bond broken geometry, thereby increasing the thermodynamic bond strength of the C-N1 bond.

    [0316] Further experimental evidence of the weakness of the C-N1 bond is shown by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS). MALDI-MS can be used to probe weaknesses in bonds in the excited states of molecules. It is believed that as a measure of photochemical stability, MALDI-MS can simulate some of the conditions found inside an OLED device, where both charged and excited states are present. Figure 3 shows the MALDI-MS taken in the negative mode for comparative compound 3. The peak for the parent ion is identified at 1529 amu. However the highest intensity peak is found at 1275 amu. This mass corresponds to a fragment of comparative compound 3 where the imidazole ring has lost the mass of two carbons and the terphenyl substitution. The structure of proposed fragment is shown in Figure 3. The isotopic pattern confirms this fragment contains iridium and is consistent with the chemical formula of the proposed fragment. Further fragments are identified for ligand loss at 1083 amu and imidazole ring decomposition for two ligands at 1020 amu, as shown in Figure 4. The data suggests that the formation of the major fragment requires the rupture of the C-N1 bond that is predicted to be a weak bond by calculation.

    Photophysical Properties of the Compounds of the invention



    [0317] The measured photophysical properties of the invention compounds are reported in the Table 2 below. Complexes were measured at 77K and at room temperature in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent at highly dilute concentrations. Photoluminescent quantum yields (PLQY, ΦPL) were measured at 1 wt % in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) solid state matrix or 0.4 wt % polystyrene (PS) solid state matrix using a Hamamatsu C9920 system equipped with a xenon lamp, integrating sphere and a model C10027 photonic multi-channel analyzer. PL transient measurements (τ) were carried out by time correlated single photon counting method using a Horiba Jobin Yvon Fluorolog-3 integrated with an IBH datastation hub using a 335 nm nanoLED as the excitation source.
    Table 2:
    Compoundλmax (nm) @ 77 Kτ (µs) @ 77 Kλmax (nm) @ 298 KΦPL PMMAΦPL PS


    451 5.1 461 0.05 -


    440 9.5 448 0.04 -


    464 2.9 467 0.62 -


    - - - 0.09 -


    444 7.5 448 - 0.85


    448 6.7 452 - -


    - - - 0.68 -


    - - - - 0.87


    441 18 447 0.14 -


    [0318] Compound 35 was measured to have deep blue emission, with a highest energy peak at 77 K of 451 nm, however, the PLQY for the complex is only 5%. Compound 49 demonstrates how modifications to the ligand can be used to improve PLQY. The methyl substitution on the imidazole ring has been found to improve the PLQY of non-ethyl bridged phenanthridine imidazole analogues. In addition, methyl substitution on the exterior phenyl ring is shown by calculation to affect the ligand bite angle due to the steric influence of the methyl substituent and the proton on the adjacent aryl ring. This steric effect pushes the phenanthridine imidazole polycyclic ring system geometry closer to the geometry of a non-bridged ligand where the coordinating sites can more closely connect to the metal. This subtle change in the geometry of the ligand allows for a stronger interaction between the metal and neutrally coordinated nitrogen, improving the metal-nitrogen bond strength. It is believed that a stronger metal-nitrogen bond strength can improve the emissivity of a complex by reducing metal-nitrogen bond breaking non-radiative decay. Therefore both methyl substitutions might be responsible for enhancing the PLQY of Compound 49 compared to Compound 35. Compound 49 was measured to have a PLQY of 62% in PMMA matrix, which is very close to the PLQY value of the non-bridged analog, Comparative Compound 6, which is measured to have a PLQY of 68%. In addition, Compound 49 is measured to have a much shorter excited state lifetime at 77 K of 2.9 microseconds, compared to an excited state lifetime of 5.1 microseconds for Compound 35. This further demonstrates that the methyl substituents improved the radiative properties of Compound 49.

    [0319] Heteroleptic examples with phenylpyrazole ligands (ppz), Compound 48 and Compound 50, are measured to have deep blue emission, but low PLQY. However, the non-bridged reference compound, Comparative Compound 8, is also measured to have a low PLQY of 14%. It is believed that the low efficiency may be due to the weak metal-nitrogen bond of the pyrazole ligand. To further support this assumption, tris Ir(ppz)3 has been shown in the literature to be non-emissive in room temperature solution, but highly emissive at 77 K. The non emissivity at room temperature is attributed to a weak metal nitrogen bond.

    [0320] Platinum complexes with bridged phenanthridine imidazole ligands are also found to be highly emissive with deep blue color. Compound 105 and Comparative Compound 7 are both measured to have high PLQY values of 85% and 87%, respectively, in the optically inert polystyrene matrix. Platinum complexes may not require the ligand modifications for improving PLQY as described for the iridium analogue, Compound 49, due to a relatively stronger platinum-nitrogen bond strength compared to iridium.

    [0321] It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes could be made to the exemplary embodiments shown and described above without departing from the broad inventive concept thereof. It is understood, therefore, that this invention is not limited to the exemplary embodiments shown and described, but it is intended to cover modifications within the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the claims. For example, specific features of the exemplary embodiments may or may not be part of the claimed invention and features of the disclosed embodiments may be combined. Unless specifically set forth herein, the terms "a", "an" and "the" are not limited to one element but instead should be read as meaning "at least one".


    Claims

    1. A compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having formula 1:

    M is a metal having an atomic weight greater than 40, n has a value of at least 1 and m+n is the maximum number of ligands that may be attached to the metal;

    wherein A is a linking group having two to three linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof, and

    wherein R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl; any one of the ring atoms to which R1b to R1g are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present; and

    L is a substituted or unsubstituted cyclometallated ligand; and

    wherein the linking group A is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.


     
    2. The compound of claim 1, wherein the linking group is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are methyl or phenyl.
     
    3. The compound of claim 1 or 2, wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of Re, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au.
     
    4. The compound of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the metal is Ir and n is 2 or 3; m is 0 or 1; m+n is 3.
     
    5. A compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having formula 2:

    wherein M is Pt;

    wherein A1 and A2 are each a first linking group having two to three linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof, and

    wherein R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group; any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f and R2b - R2f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present; and

    wherein Rab and Rac and/or Rga and Rgb may bond to form a second linking group having one to three linking atoms each independently selected from the group consisting of B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge or combinations thereof; and

    wherein each first linking group A1 and A2 is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.


     
    6. A compound emitting phosphorescent or fluorescent light, the compound having formula (3):

    wherein M is Pt;

    wherein A is a first linking group having two to three linking atoms, wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof,

    wherein L2 and L3 are independently selected from the group consisting of a single bond, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', and GeRR';

    wherein R1a - R1f and R3a - R3f, R and R' are each independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group, and wherein two adjacent R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R and R' are optionally joined to form a fused ring; any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present;

    wherein L2 and R1f, L2 and R3a, or L2 and both R1f and R3a are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings; where in L3 and R3c and/or R3d L3 and R3c, L3 and R3d, or L3 and both R3c and R3d are optionally joined to form one or more fused rings;

    wherein the first linking group is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.


     
    7. An organic light emitting device, comprising:

    an anode;

    a cathode;

    an organic layer disposed between the anode and the cathode, comprising a compound according to any one of the previous claims.


     
    8. The device of claim 7 wherein the organic layer further comprises a host.
     
    9. The device of claim 8, wherein the host comprises an organic molecule containing at least one group selected from the group consisting of carbazole, dibenzothiphene, dibenzofuran, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophene, and aza-dibenzofuran.
     
    10. A device comprising the organic light emitting device of any one of claims 7 to 9.
     
    11. The device of claim 10, wherein the device is a consumer product or a lighting panel.
     
    12. The consumer product of claim 11, being selected from one of flat panel displays, fully transparent displays, and flexible displays.
     
    13. The consumer product of claim 11, being selected from one of computer monitors, televisions, laser printers, laptop computers, heads up displays, and flat panel displays.
     
    14. The consumer product of claim 11, being selected from one of telephones, cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), digital cameras, camcorders, viewfinders, and micro-displays.
     
    15. The consumer product of claim 11, being selected from one of lights for interior or exterior illumination and/or signaling, billboards, vehicles, a large area wall, theater or stadium screen, and a sign.
     
    16. A compound having formula (1a):

    wherein A is a linking group having two to three linking atoms,

    wherein the linking atoms are each independently selected from the group consisting of C, Si, O, S, N, B or combinations thereof, and

    wherein R1a - R1g are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryl, heteroaryl, substituted aryl, substituted heteroaryl, or a heterocyclic group;

    each R is independently selected from H, halo, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, aralkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl; and any one of the ring atoms to which R1b - R1f are attached may be replaced with a nitrogen atom, wherein when the ring atom is replaced with a nitrogen atom the corresponding R group is not present,

    wherein the linking group is independently selected from the group consisting of -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wherein R' and R" are independently H, alkyl having 1 to 6 carbon atoms, phenyl and substituted phenyl or wherein R' and R" are connected to form a saturated five membered ring or a saturated six membered ring, and combinations thereof.


     
    17. The compound of claim 16, wherein the linking group is selected from -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wherein R' and R" are methyl or phenyl.
     
    18. The compound of claim 16, wherein the compound is selected from the group consisting of:




















































































































































































     


    Ansprüche

    1. Eine Verbindung emittierend phosphoreszentes oder fluoreszentes Licht, die Verbindung die Formel 1 aufweisend:

    wobei M ein Metall mit einer Atommasse von mehr als 40 ist, n einen Wert von mindestens 1 aufweist und m+n die maximale Zahl an Liganden ist, die an das Metall gebunden sein können;

    wobei A eine Verknüpfungsgruppe mit zwei bis drei Verknüpfungsatomen ist, wobei die Verknüpfungsatome jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus C, Si, O, S, N, B oder Kombinationen davon, und

    wobei R1a - R1g unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus Wasserstoff, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, Halogen, Aryl, Heteroaryl, substituiertes Aryl, substituiertes Heteroaryl, oder eine heterozyklische Gruppe, jedes R ist unabhängig ausgewählt aus H, Halogen, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Heteroalkyl, Aralkyl, Aryl, und Heteroaryl; beliebige der Ringatome an welche R1b bis R1g geknüpft sind können ersetzt sein durch ein Stickstoffatom, wobei das Ringatom mit einem Stickstoffatom ersetzt ist die entsprechende R Gruppe nicht vorliegt; und

    L ist ein substituierter oder unsubstituierter cyclometallierter Ligand; und

    wobei die Verknüpfungsgruppe A unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wobei R' und R" unabhängig für H, Alkyl mit 1 bis 6 Kohlenstoffatomen, Phenyl und substituiertes Phenyl stehen, oder wobei R' und R" verknüpft sind um einen gesättigten fünfgliedrigen Ring oder einen gesättigten sechsgliedrigen Ring zu bilden, sowie Kombinationen davon.


     
    2. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Verbindungsgruppe ausgewählt ist aus -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wobei R' und R" Methyl oder Phenyl sind.
     
    3. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei das Metall ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Re, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, und Au.
     
    4. Die Verbindung nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, wobei das Metall Ir ist und n ist 2 oder 3; m ist 0 oder 1; m+n ist 3.
     
    5. Eine Verbindung emittierend phosphoreszentes oder fluoreszentes Licht, die Verbindung die Formel 2 aufweisend:

    wobei M für Pt steht;

    wobei A1 und A2 jeweils eine erste Verknüpfungsgruppe sind mit zwei bis drei Verknüpfungsatomen, wobei die Verknüpfungsatome jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus C, Si, O, S, N, B oder Kombinationen davon, und

    wobei R1b - R1f und R2b - R2f unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus Wasserstoff, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, Halogen, Aryl, Heteroaryl, substituiertes Aryl, substituiertes Heteroaryl, oder eine heterozyklische Gruppe; beliebige der Ringatome an welche R1b - R1f und R2b - R2f gebunden sind können ersetzt werden mit einem Stickstoffatom, wobei das Ringatom mit einem Stickstoffatom ersetzt wird die entsprechende R Gruppe nicht vorliegt; und

    wobei Rab und Rac und/oder Rga und Rgb verbunden sein kann um eine zweite Verknüpfungsgruppe zu bilden mit zwei bis drei Verknüpfungsatomen die unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge oder deren Kombinationen; und

    wobei die erste Verknüpfungsgruppe A1 und A2 unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wobei R' und R" unabhängig für H, Alkyl mit 1 bis 6 Kohlenstoffatomen, Phenyl und substituiertes Phenyl stehen, oder wobei R' und R" verknüpft sind um einen gesättigten fünfgliedrigen Ring oder einen gesättigten sechsgliedrigen Ring zu bilden, sowie Kombinationen davon.


     
    6. Eine Verbindung emittierend phosphoreszentes oder fluoreszentes Licht, die Verbindung die die Formel (3) aufweisend:

    wobei M gleich Pt ist;

    wobei A eine erste Verknüpfungsgruppe mit zwei bis drei Verknüpfungsatomen ist, wobei die Verknüpfungsatome unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus C, Si, O, S, N, B oder Kombinationen davon,

    wobei L2 und L3 unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus einer einfachen Bindung, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR', und GeRR';

    wobei R1a - R1f und R3a - R3f, R und R' jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus Wasserstoff, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, Halogen, Aryl, Heteroaryl, substituiertes Aryl, substituiertes Heteroaryl, oder eine heterozyklische Gruppe, und wobei zwei benachbarte R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R und R' gegebenenfalls miteinander verknüpft sind um einen fusionierten Ring zu bilden; beliebige der Ringatome an welche R1b - R1f gebunden sind können ersetzt werden durch ein Stickstoffatom, wobei wenn das Ringatom mit einem Stickstoffatom ersetzt wird die entsprechende R Gruppe nicht vorhanden ist;

    wobei L2 und R1f, L2 und R3a, oder L2 und sowohl R1f und R3a gegebenenfalls verbunden sind um einen oder mehrere fusioniert Ringe zu bilden; wobei L3 und R3c und/oder R3d L3 und R3c , L3 und R3d, oder L3 und sowohl R3c und R3d gegebenenfalls verknüpft sind um einen oder mehrere fusionierte Ringe zu bilden;

    wobei die erste Verknüpfungsgruppe unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wobei R' und R" unabhängig für H, Alkyl mit 1 bis 6 Kohlenstoffatomen, Phenyl und substituiertes Phenyl stehen oder wobei R' und R" verbunden sind um einen gesättigten fünfgliedrigen Ring oder einen gesättigten sechsgliedrigen Ring zu bilden, sowie deren Kombinationen.


     
    7. Eine organische Licht emittierende Vorrichtung, umfassend:

    eine Anode;

    eine Kathode;

    eine organische Schicht angeordnet zwischen der Anode und der Kathode, umfassend eine Verbindung gemäß einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche.


     
    8. Die Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 7, wobei die organische Schicht ferner einen Wirt umfasst.
     
    9. Die Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 8, wobei der Wirt ein organisches Molekül enthaltend mindestens eine Gruppe ausgewählt aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Carbazol, Dibenzothiophen, Dibenzofuran, Azacarbazol, Aza-dibenzothiophen, und Aza-dibenzofuran enthält.
     
    10. Eine Vorrichtung umfassend die organische Licht emittierende Vorrichtung nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9.
     
    11. Die Vorrichtung nach Anspruch 10, wobei die Vorrichtung ein Konsumentenprodukt oder eine Lichtleiste ist.
     
    12. Das Konsumentenprodukt nach Anspruch 11, ausgewählt aus einem aus Flachbildschirmen, vollständig transparenten Bildschirmen, und flexiblen Bildschirmen.
     
    13. Das Konsumentenprodukt nach Anspruch 11, ausgewählt aus einem aus Computermonitoren, Fernsehern, Laserdruckern, Laptopcomputern, Heads-up Displays, und Flachbildschirmen.
     
    14. Das Konsumentenprodukt nach Anspruch 11, ausgewählt aus einem von Telefonen, Mobiltelefonen, persönlichen digitalen Assistenten (PDAs), Digitalkameras, Camcorder, Sucher, und Mikrobildschirmen.
     
    15. Das Konsumentenprodukt nach Anspruch 11, ausgewählt aus einem von Lichtern für interne oder externe Beleuchtung und/oder Signalgebung, Anzeigetafeln, Fahrzeuge, eine großflächige Wand, einen Theater- oder Stadionbildschirm, und ein Zeichen.
     
    16. Eine Verbindung mit der Formel (1a):

    wobei A eine Verknüpfungsgruppe mit zwei bis drei Verknüpfungsatomen ist,

    wobei die Verknüpfungsatome jeweils unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus der Gruppe bestehend aus C, Si, O, S, N, B oder deren Kombination, und

    wobei R1a - R1g unabhängig ausgewählt sind aus Wasserstoff, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Aralkyl, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, Halogen, Aryl, Heteroaryl, substituiertes Aryl, substituiertes Heteroaryl, oder eine heterozyklische Gruppe, jedes R ist unabhängig ausgewählt aus H, Halogen, Alkyl, Alkenyl, Alkinyl, Heteroalkyl, Aralkyl, Aryl, und Heteroaryl; beliebige der Ringatome an welche R1b bis R1g geknüpft sind können ersetzt sein durch ein Stickstoffatom, wobei das Ringatom mit einem Stickstoffatom ersetzt ist die entsprechende R Gruppe nicht vorliegt; und

    L ist ein substituierter oder unsubstituierter Cyclometallierter Ligand; und

    wobei die Verknüpfungsgruppe A unabhängig ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, wobei R' und R" unabhängig für H, Alkyl mit 1 bis 6 Kohlenstoffatomen, Phenyl und substituiertes Phenyl stehen, oder wobei R' und R" verknüpft sind um einen gesättigten fünfgliedrigen Ring oder einen gesättigten sechsgliedrigen Ring zu bilden, sowie Kombinationen davon.


     
    17. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 16, wobei die Verbindungsgruppe ausgewählt ist aus -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, wobei R' und R" Methyl oder Phenyl sind.
     
    18. Die Verbindung nach Anspruch 16, wobei die Verbindung ausgewählt ist aus der Gruppe bestehend aus:
















































































































































































     


    Revendications

    1. Composé émettant une lumière phosphorescente ou fluorescente, le composé ayant la formule 1 :

    M est un métal ayant un poids atomique supérieur à 40, n a une valeur d'au moins 1 et m+n est le nombre maximal de ligands qui peuvent être attachés au métal ;

    où A est un groupe de liaison ayant deux à trois atomes de liaison, où les atomes de liaison sont chacun indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par C, Si, O, S, N, B ou des combinaisons de ceux-ci, et

    où R1a - R1g sont indépendamment choisis parmi hydrogène, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, aralkyle, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryle, hétéroaryle, aryle substitué, hétéroaryle substitué, ou un groupe hétérocyclique, chaque R est indépendamment choisi parmi H, halo, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, hétéroalkyle, aralkyle, aryle et hétéroaryle ; l'un quelconque des atomes de cycle auxquels R1b à R1g sont attachés peut être remplacé par un atome d'azote, où lorsque l'atome de cycle est remplacé par un atome d'azote, le groupe R correspondant n'est pas présent ; et

    L est un ligand cyclométallé substitué ou non substitué ; et

    où le groupe de liaison A est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, où R' et R" sont indépendamment H, alkyle ayant 1 à 6 atomes de carbone, phényle et phényle substitué ou où R' et R" sont reliés pour former un cycle saturé à cinq chaînons ou un cycle saturé à six chaînons, et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.


     
    2. Composé selon la revendication 1, où le groupe de liaison est choisi parmi -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, où R' et R" sont méthyle ou phényle.
     
    3. Composé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, où le métal est choisi dans le groupe constitué par Re, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, et Au.
     
    4. Composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, où le métal est Ir et n vaut 2 ou 3 ; m vaut 0 ou 1 ; m+n vaut 3.
     
    5. Composé émettant une lumière phosphorescente ou fluorescente, le composé ayant la formule 2 :

    où M est Pt ;

    où A1 et A2 sont chacun un premier groupe de liaison ayant deux à trois atomes de liaison, où les atomes de liaison sont chacun indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par C, Si, O, S, N, B ou des combinaisons de ceux-ci, et

    où R1b - R1f et R2b - R2f sont indépendamment choisis parmi hydrogène, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, aralkyle, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryle, hétéroaryle, aryle substitué, hétéroaryle substitué, ou un groupe hétérocyclique ; l'un quelconque des atomes de cycle auxquels R1b - R1f et R2b - R2f sont attachés peut être remplacé par un atome d'azote, où lorsque l'atome de cycle est remplacé par un atome d'azote, le groupe R correspondant n'est pas présent ; et

    où Rab et Rac et/ou Rga et Rgb peuvent se lier pour former un deuxième groupe de liaison ayant un à trois atomes de liaison chacun indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par B, N, P, O, S, Se, C, Si, Ge ou des combinaisons de ceux-ci ; et

    où chaque premier groupe de liaison A1 et A2 est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, où R' et R" sont indépendamment H, alkyle ayant 1 à 6 atomes de carbone, phényle et phényle substitué ou où R' et R" sont reliés pour former un cycle saturé à cinq chaînons ou un cycle saturé à six chaînons, et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.


     
    6. Composé émettant une lumière phosphorescente ou fluorescente, le composé ayant la formule (3) :

    où M est Pt ;

    où A est un premier groupe de liaison ayant deux à trois atomes de liaison, où les atomes de liaison sont chacun indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par C, Si, O, S, N, B ou des combinaisons de ceux-ci,

    où L2et L3 sont indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par une liaison simple, BR, NR, PR, O, S, Se, C-O, S-O, SO2, CRR', SiRR' et GeRR' ;

    où R1a - R1f et R3a - R3f, R et R' sont chacun indépendamment choisis parmi hydrogène, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, aralkyle, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryle, hétéroaryle, aryle substitué, hétéroaryle substitué, ou un groupe hétérocyclique, et où deux R1f, R3a, R3c, R3d, R et R' adjacents sont facultativement liés pour former un cycle fusionné ; l'un quelconque des atomes de cycle auxquels R1b - R1f sont attachés peut être remplacé par un atome d'azote, où lorsque l'atome de cycle est remplacé par un atome d'azote, le groupe R correspondant n'est pas présent ;

    où L2 et R1f, L2 et R3a, ou L2 et à la fois R1f et R3a sont facultativement liés pour former un ou plusieurs cycles fusionnés ; où dans L3 et R3c et/ou R3d L3 et R3c, L3 et R3d, or L3 et à la fois R3c et R3d sont facultativement liés pour former un ou plusieurs cycles fusionnés ;

    où le premier groupe de liaison est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, où R' et R" sont indépendamment H, alkyle ayant 1 à 6 atomes de carbone, phényle et phényle substitué ou où R' et R" sont reliés pour former un cycle saturé à cinq chaînons ou un cycle saturé à six chaînons, et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.


     
    7. Dispositif électroluminescent organique, comprenant :

    une anode ;

    une cathode ;

    une couche organique disposée entre l'anode et la cathode, comprenant un composé selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes.


     
    8. Dispositif selon la revendication 7, où la couche organique comprend en outre un hôte.
     
    9. Dispositif selon la revendication 8, où l'hôte comprend une molécule organique contenant au moins un groupe choisi dans le groupe constitué par carbazole, dibenzothiophène, dibenzofurane, azacarbazole, aza-dibenzothiophène, et aza-dibenzofurane.
     
    10. Dispositif comprenant le dispositif électroluminescent organique selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9.
     
    11. Dispositif selon la revendication 10, où le dispositif est un produit de consommation ou un panneau d'éclairage.
     
    12. Produit de consommation selon la revendication 11, qui est l'un choisi parmi des écrans plats, des écrans entièrement transparents et des écrans souples.
     
    13. Produit de consommation selon la revendication 11, qui est l'un choisi parmi des écrans d'ordinateur, des téléviseurs, des imprimantes laser, des ordinateurs portables, des affichages tête haute et des écrans plats.
     
    14. Produit de consommation selon la revendication 11, qui est l'un choisi parmi des téléphones, des téléphones cellulaires, des assistants numériques personnels (PDAs), des appareils photo numériques, des caméscopes, des viseurs et des micro-écrans.
     
    15. Produit de consommation selon la revendication 11, qui est l'un choisi parmi des éclairages d'intérieur ou d'extérieur et/ou de signalisation, des panneaux d'affichage, des véhicules, un mur d'images, un écran de cinéma ou de stade et un panneau.
     
    16. Composé ayant la formule (la) :

    où A est un groupe de liaison ayant deux à trois atomes de liaison,

    où les atomes de liaison sont chacun indépendamment choisis dans le groupe constitué par C, Si, O, S, N, B ou des combinaisons de ceux-ci, et

    où R1a - R1g sont indépendamment choisis parmi hydrogène, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, aralkyle, CN, CF3, CO2R, C(O)R, C(O)NR2, NR2, NO2, OR, SR, SO2, SOR, SO3R, halo, aryle, hétéroaryle, aryle substitué, hétéroaryle substitué, ou un groupe hétérocyclique ;

    chaque R est indépendamment choisi parmi H, halo, alkyle, alcényle, alcynyle, hétéroalkyle, aralkyle, aryle et hétéroaryle ; et l'un quelconque des atomes de cycle auxquels R1b - R1f sont attachés peut être remplacé par un atome d'azote, où lorsque l'atome de cycle est remplacé par un atome d'azote, le groupe R correspondant n'est pas présent,

    où le groupe de liaison est indépendamment choisi dans le groupe constitué par -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CR'R"-NR"-, -CR'=CR'-CR'R"-, -O-SiR'R"-, -CR'R"-S-, -CR'R"-O-, -C-SiR'R"-, où R' et R" sont indépendamment H, alkyle ayant 1 à 6 atomes de carbone, phényle et phényle substitué ou où R' et R" sont reliés pour former un cycle saturé à cinq chaînons ou un cycle saturé à six chaînons, et des combinaisons de ceux-ci.


     
    17. Composé selon la revendication 16, où le groupe de liaison est choisi parmi -CH2-CH2-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CHR'-CHR"-, -CR'R"-CH2-, -CR'R"-CR'R"-, -CH2-CH2-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -S-CH2-, -O-SiR'R"-, -SiR'R"-O-, où R' et R" sont méthyle ou phényle.
     
    18. Composé selon la revendication 16, où le composé est choisi dans le groupe constitué par :




















































































































































































     




    Drawing





























    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description