An aircraft engine includes thin-walled ducts and other fluid delivery components to transfer cooling air, fuel, and other fluids throughout the engine. Current components include complex assemblies made from numerous individually formed and cut pieces that are welded or brazed together. The closed channel shape of these fluid ducting components requires tooling mandrels that are removable from the ducting component upon completion of the electroforming process.
 FR 2 092 478 A5
discloses the production of thin metal foil with a smooth and a rough side effected by an electrolytic method using a slowly rotating cathode roller with a passivated Cr surface, which is a replica of the required rough surface of the foil, which is 50% immersed in an acidic Cu electrolyte employing consumable Cu anodes.
 US 6 004 447 A
discloses an electroforming device and a process used to electroform a metal layer on an inner surface of a female mandrel. The electrolytic solution flows only through an electrolytic solution passageway that defines the inner surface as the walls of the passageway. The mandrel may include more than one electrolytic solution passageway, or multiple mandrels may be used in a sequential order to mass produce the electroforms.
 US 3 299 492 A
an electroformed inner tube tank unit which has a profiling accomplished in accordance with the process of the present invention so as provide thereby varying diameters of uniform or nonuniform length increments which may correspond to the liquid level increment chosen from predetermined profiling data.
The invention is defined by the appended claims. In the following, any method or apparatus that do not fall within the scope of the appended claims are to be understood as to be examples helpful in understanding the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of an electrodeposition bath with a mandrel.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a tool die in an open position and a coolant tube for forming the mandrel from FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the tool die of FIG. 2 in a closed position surrounding the coolant tube.
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the tool die of FIG. 3 in the closed position with a structural wax provided around the coolant tube.
FIG. 5 is a partial isometric view of the mandrel of FIG. 1 with the coolant tube illustrated in dashed line.
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of the mandrel of FIG. 1 including fittings according to an aspect of the disclosure discussed herein.
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the mandrel of FIG. 1 including fittings according to another aspect of the disclosure discussed herein.
The present disclosure relates to a mandrel used in electrodeposition having an actively cooled internal core. For purposes of illustration, the aspects of the disclosure discussed herein will be described with a mandrel used during an electro forming process. It will be understood, however, that the disclosure as discussed herein is not so limited and may have general applicability within forms utilized for electroforming processes and cooling in tool dies.
All directional references (e.g., radial, upper, lower, upward, downward, left, right, lateral, front, back, top, bottom, above, below, vertical, horizontal, clockwise, counterclockwise) are only used for identification purposes to aid the reader's understanding of the disclosure, and do not create limitations, particularly as to the position, orientation, or use thereof. Connection references (e.g., attached, coupled, connected, and joined) are to be construed broadly and can include intermediate members between a collection of elements and relative movement between elements unless otherwise indicated. As such, connection references do not necessarily infer that two elements are directly connected and in fixed relation to each other. The exemplary drawings are for purposes of illustration only and the dimensions, positions, order, and relative sizes reflected in the drawings attached hereto can vary.
An electroforming process for forming a metallic component 38 (shown in dashed line) is illustrated by way of an electrodeposition bath 40 in FIG. 1. An exemplary bath tank 50 carries a conductive electrolytic fluid solution 52. The electrolytic fluid solution 52, in one non-limiting example, can include aluminum alloy carrying alloying metal ions. In one alternative, non-limiting example, the electrolytic fluid solution 52 can include a nickel alloy carrying alloying metal ions.
An anode 54 spaced from a cathode 56 is provided in the bath tank 50. The anode 54 can be a sacrificial anode or an inert anode. While one anode 54 is shown, it should be understood that the bath tank 50 can include any number of anodes 54 as desired. The cathode 56 can be a mandrel 58 coated in an electrically conductive material 62, including, by way of non-limiting examples, copper, silver, or nickel. The mandrel 58 defines a body 60 formed from, by way of non-limiting example, structural wax and including a cooling core 82. The body can be made of a reclaimable material, such as the structural wax, where a reclaimable material is one that can be collected after an electroforming process and reused as another body in another electroforming process. For example, the structural wax can be melted from the electroformed component at heightened temperatures to reclaim the material forming the body 60 after the electroforming process. Suitable reclaimable materials can include waxes, plastics, polymer foams, metals, or deformable materials, which as those collectible via melting or leeching in non-limiting examples. Carbon fiber or graphene nano-particles can be used to increase thermal and electrical conductivity of wax and polymer mandrels. The addition of these particles will increase the thermal performance and resistance of slumping or deformation of the composite material. It is further contemplated that a conductive spray or similar treatment can be provided to the mandrel 58 to facilitate formation of the cathode 56. This initial conductive layer is typically thin, with significant variation in thickness over large surface areas. For larger mandrels with complex shapes, this variation will affect early-stage current density distribution across the mandrel surface. Strategic placement of multiple electrical contact locations to the cathodic surface is critical to reduce electrical potential differences. This condition is removed by use of an electrically conductive mandrel that is in continuous, uniformly distributed electrical contact with an electrically conductive coolant core tube with end electrical isolators or couplers. In addition, while illustrated as one cathode 56, it should be appreciated that one or more cathodes are contemplated for use in the bath tank 50.
A controller 64, which can include a power supply, can be electrically coupled to the anode 54 and the cathode 56 by electrical conduits 66 to form a circuit 67 via the electrolytic fluid solution 52. Optionally, a switch 68 or sub-controller can be included along the electrical conduits 66, and can be positioned between the controller 64 and the anodes 54 and cathode 56. During operation, a current can be supplied from the anode 54 to the cathode 56 via the electrolytic fluid solution 52 to electroform a monolithic metallic component 38 at the mandrel 58. During supply of the current, the metal, in this example aluminum, iron, cobalt, or nickel, from the electrolytic fluid solution 52 forms a metallic layer 70 over the mandrel 58.
By way of non-limiting example in an exemplary electroforming process, a pump (P) and filter (F) are utilized to filter and chemically maintain the electrolytic fluid solution 52 at a particular ion concentration, or to remove any foreign matter. The filter (F) can include, by way of non-limiting example, a chemical filtering media. A heater (H) is provided to regulate a temperature of the electrodeposition bath 40. In non-limiting examples, the heater (H) can be disposed within the bath tank 50 or proximate the bath tank 50 exterior to the bath tank 50. Alternatively, the heater (H) can be in fluid communication with the pump (P) to heat the electrolytic fluid solution 52 as it is pumped by the pump (P).
The temperature of the electrodeposition bath 40 is directly related to the level of residual internal stresses and grain size of the deposited material forming the metallic layer 70 and usually ranges from 50°C to 70°C (125°F to 160°F). Therefore, it can be desirable to utilize higher temperature ranges to tailor the residual internal stresses of the deposited material. However, at higher temperatures, a gradual softening of the body 60 of the mandrel 58 can occur, which can result in deformation of the structural wax or the body, which can lead to deformation of the electroformed component or uneven deposition. The softening or deflection temperature for structural wax is about 100°C (220°F). Therefore, even a small increase in temperature of 30°C or more can result in deformation.
A system 42 including a coolant tube 76, a heat exchanger 78, and the mandrel 58 can compensate for this softening by locally cooling the body 60. The coolant tube 76 runs through the mandrel 58 and through the heat exchanger 78 to form a cooling circuit 79 having a closed loop 80 fluidly connected to the cooling core 82 within the mandrel 58. A coolant (Ce), or cool electrolytic fluid, relative to a bath temperature, flows through the closed loop 80 after being cooled by the external heat exchanger 78 and recirculated with a separate pump (P2). A cooling fluid (C), such as cold water, for example, is run through the heat exchanger 78 to cool a warm electrolytic fluid (He) after it has run through the mandrel 58. The mandrel 58 can therefore be actively cooled during the electroforming process by the system 42. After completion of the electroforming process, the body 60 can be reclaimed from the electroformed component, such as through heating and melting of the body 60 at heightened temperatures, to reclaim the structural wax material. In this way, material waste is reduced.
The coolant tube 76 includes exterior components 77 that are in contact with the electrolytic fluid solution 52. Such exterior components 77 or other exterior surfaces should be a thermally non-conductive material, by way of non-limiting example polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Similarly, a material such as PVC is not electrically conductive and does not collect metal ions from the electrolytic fluid solution 52, and no electrodeposition occurs along the coolant tube 76. Therefore, a low thermal conductivity of plastic PVC can serve as a thermal insulation between a coolant (Ce) within the coolant tube 76 and the warmer bath 40 of electrolytic fluid solution 52.
In one example, the coolant (Ce) in closed loop 80 can be a cooled electrolyte formed from the same solution as the electrolytic fluid solution 52 so that in the event leaking occurs from the closed loop 80, the main electrodeposition bath 40 remains contaminate free or does not result in a decrease in overall metal ion concentration. While the closed loop 80 is separate from the electrodeposition bath 40, a different coolant fluid type solution than that of the electrolytic fluid solution 52 can be considered for the coolant (Ce)., However, where the goal is to remove possible cross-contamination with the bath chemistry, a coolant similar to or identical to the electrolytic fluid solution 52 can be utilized. More specifically, the chemical balance of the bath is critical to the electrodeposition process as well as the resulting material properties, grain size and residual stress.
FIG. 2 is an exemplary cross-section of a tooling die 84, shown in an open position, defining a cavity 86 shaped to form of the metallic component 38 discussed in FIG. 1, as the exemplary fluid carrying duct component. The tooling die 84 includes a tooling die top section 88a and a tooling die bottom section 88b each having confronting faces 89a, 89b. The tooling die top section 88a includes a rounded top portion 87a defining the shape of the metallic component 38. The tooling die bottom section 88b includes, a rectilinear bottom portion 87b including opposite facing slanted walls for the metallic component 38.
The coolant tube 76 can be provided between the tooling die top section 88a and the tooling die bottom section 88b. While illustrated as a circular tube, the coolant tube 76 can be any shape including oval, rectangular, or square, and is not limited by the illustration. It is further contemplated that the coolant tube 76 can include annular radial fins 90 to define at least a portion of the cooling core 82. The annular radial fins 90 can be added to the coolant tube 76 to increase a cooled concentric region 92 via heat transfer extending from the coolant tube 76.
Turning to FIG. 3, the tooling die 84 has been closed into a closed position, with the tooling die top section 88a abutting the tooling die bottom section 88b at the opposing confronting faces 89a, 89b. The cavity 86 defines a wax mold cavity formed around the coolant tube 76.
Referring now to FIG. 4, the cavity 86 of the tooling die 84 is filled with liquid structural wax, for example, to define the body 60. The liquid structural wax is cooled to form the mandrel 58.
FIG. 5 is an isometric view of the mandrel 58 and the metallic component 38, having the mandrel 58 and the metallic component 38 partially cut away to show the coolant tube 76 with exemplary annular radial fins 90 (both shown in dashed line). The coolant tube 76 forms a cooling channel 94 within the mandrel 58 that can define at least a portion of the cooling core 82. While shown as only a single cooling channel 94, it is contemplated that the cooling core 82 can include multiple cooling channels 94. It is further contemplated that the coolant tube 76 can be used to form the cooling core 82 during formation of the body 60, and can be removed before the electroforming process. A complex mandrel, by way of non-limiting example, with multiple bends and elbows can have a continuous segmented coolant tube 76 with multiple bellowed flex-joints to assist in removal. The cooling core 82 can further include the annular radial fins 90, as discussed herein, to cool the expanded concentric region 92. The annular radial fins 90 can provide for both increased local cooling as well as increased local structural rigidity. Finally, prior to electroforming or electro deposition, the mandrel 58 can be coated or treated with a metalized cathode surface, such as the metallic layer 70 of FIG. 1, to form a cathode surface in the electroforming process.
Turning to FIG. 6, a cross-section of the mandrel 58 illustrates the coolant tube 76 passing through the mandrel 58 to define the cooling channel 94. In one non-limiting example, the coolant tube 76 within the mandrel 58 can be a conforming tube 96 having threaded ends 98a, 98b. The conforming tube 96 can be formed from an inert non-consumable material, such as a titanium conduit for example. A fitting 100, such as an inert non-consumable fitting, can be provided at each end 102a, 102b of the mandrel 58 to couple exterior components 77 of the coolant tube 76 to the cooling core 82. In one example, electrically conductive fittings can be threaded to threadably couple and electrically connect to the exterior components 77 of the coolant tube 76.
Referring now to FIG. 7, an exemplary alternative mandrel 158, according to another aspect of the disclosure is shown. The mandrel 158 can be substantially similar to the mandrel 58 of FIG. 6. Therefore, like parts will be identified with like numerals increased by a value of one hundred, with it being understood that the description of the like parts of the mandrel 58 applies to the mandrel 158 unless otherwise noted.
It is contemplated that at least a portion of a coolant tube 176 includes a removable portion 196. The removable portion 196 can be removed to form a tubeless cooling core 182 prior to the electroforming process to form at least one cooling channel 194. While shown as a single cooling channel 194, it is contemplated that the tubeless cooling core 182 can have multiple cooling channels 194. Such cooling channels 194 can be discrete and fluidly isolated within the mandrel 158, for example. In one non-limiting example, the removable portion 196 of the coolant tube 176 can be used for complex multi-bend ducts where removal of a solid, rigid tube is not possible after completion of the electroforming or electrodeposition process. In one non-limiting example, the removable portion 196 can be a water-soluble wax or plastic. A fitting 200 can be provided at either end 202a, 202b of the mandrel 158. The fittings 200 can include multiple electrically conductive o-ring seals 198a, 198b, such as three or more, for example, to fluidly seal and couple the exterior components 177 of the mandrel 158 to the tubeless cooling core 182.
A method for producing a metallic component 38 with a mandrel 58, 158 that is actively cooled during the electroforming process includes placing the mandrel 58, 158 in an electrodeposition bath 40 and flowing a coolant, such as the coolant (Ce) of FIG. 1, through a cooling core 82, 182 to actively cool the mandrel 58, 158 during the electroforming process. The method further includes flowing the coolant (Ce) through a heat exchanger 78. Actively cooling the cooling core 82, 182 along with the concentric region 92 keeps the body 60, formed from structural wax, at an overall temperature of below 100°C (220°F) and therefore resists deflection, deformation, or softening.
It is further contemplated that the method can include coating the mandrel 58, 158 with an electrically conductive material 62 to form a metallic layer 70. To complete the electroforming process the metallic layer 70 is cooled, the body 60 of structural wax forming the mandrel 58, 158 can be removed leaving behind the metallic component 38 as discussed herein. The structural wax forming the body 60 can be removed using heating or a leeching process after the electroforming process. The melting temperature for structural wax is about 120°C (250°F). The structural wax used to form the body 60 can then be melted after the electroforming process at temperatures of 120°C or greater, and reused or poured into a tooling die to form another mandrel.
As described herein, electroforming components having thin walls or electroforming components for complex thin-walled fluid delivery implementations in an aircraft engine can significantly reduce manufacturing costs and increasing quality, having greater consistency, stress-resistance, and component lifetime. Inexpensive mandrels for electroformed components can be critical to controlling costs. The use of reclaimable materials, like structural high-temperature wax, that are easily removed from closed channel electrodeposited shapes can provide for reducing cost and increasing quality. Reclaimable low-cost mandrel tooling is beneficial for the overall economic value of electroformed components. Structural wax is a material solution that is also easy to remove, thereby reducing post-processing costs.
Additionally, the process as described herein increases the thermal and dimensional stability of the wax mandrel in the hot electrodeposition bath. External loads from gravity and buoyancy can distort long and slender components of the mandrel, in addition to increased bath temperatures. Dimensional distortions of the mandrel from the gravitational and buoyance body-force loads as well as impingement velocity forces are decreased or removed with the method described herein, particularly when electroforming on a wax mandrel that is more resistant to deformation than one that is not cooled. Implementing a core that is cooled with low temperature electrolyte increases the temperature insensitivity of the wax mandrel by maintaining the structural integrity of the wax mandrel during the electroforming process. The location and impinging force of hot fluid mixing jets on long unsupported components with small cross-sectional modulus also decreases. The mandrel described herein is removable and reusable creating a cost-effective solution for creating a stable temporary mandrel form and subsequent post-process removal.
To the extent not already described, the different features and structures of the various aspects can be used in combination with each other as desired. That one feature cannot be illustrated in all of the aspects is not meant to be construed that it cannot be, but is done for brevity of description. Thus, the various features of the different aspects can be mixed and matched as desired to form new examples, whether or not the new examples are expressly described. Combinations or permutations of features described herein are covered by this disclosure. Many other possible embodiments and configurations in addition to that shown in the above figures are contemplated by the present disclosure.
This written description uses examples to describe aspects of the disclosure described herein, including the best mode, and also to enable any person skilled in the art to practice aspects of the disclosure, including making and using any devices or systems and performing any incorporated methods. The patentable scope of aspects of the disclosure is defined by the claims, and may include other examples that occur to those skilled in the art.
An electroforming system (42) for forming a component (77) with an electroforming process, the electroforming system (42) comprising:
an electrodeposition bath (52) within a bath tank (50);
a circuit (67) including an anode (54) and a cathode (56) in the form of a mandrel (58) made from a reclaimable material, the anode (54) and cathode (56) provided in the bath tank (50); and
a coolant circuit (79) at least partially passing through the electrodeposition bath (52) including:
a heat exchanger (78),
a cooling core (82) formed within the mandrel (58), and
a coolant tube (76) fluidly coupling the heat exchanger (78) with the cooling core (82) through which a coolant (Ce) can flow;
wherein the reclaimable material forming the mandrel (58) is a structural wax material.
2. The electroforming system (42) of claim 1, wherein the cooling core (82) further comprises a cooling channel (94).
3. The electroforming system (42) of claim 2, wherein the coolant tube (76) fluidly couples the heat exchanger (78) to the cooling channel (94).
4. The electroforming system (42) of claim 3, wherein the coolant tube (76) and cooling core (82) form a closed loop (80).
5. The electroforming system (42) of claim 4, wherein the cooling channel (94) is defined by the coolant tube (76).
6. The electroforming system (42) of either of claim 4 or 5, wherein at least a portion of the coolant tube (76) is removable.
7. The electroforming system (42) of claim 6 when dependent on claim 4, wherein the cooling core (82) is a tubeless cooling core (82).
8. The electroforming system (42) of any preceding claim, wherein the coolant (Ce) is an electrolytic fluid solution.
9. The electroforming system (42) of any preceding claim, wherein the mandrel (58) is coated in an electrically conductive material.
A method for producing a metallic component (77) with a mandrel (58) in an electroforming process, the method comprising:
placing the mandrel in an electrodeposition bath (52); and
flowing a coolant through a cooling core (82) within the mandrel to actively cool the mandrel;
wherein a reclaimable material forming the mandrel (58) is a structural wax material.
11. The method of claim 10, further including maintaining the mandrel (58) at a temperature below 100°C.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the maintaining the mandrel (58) at a temperature below 100°C includes maintaining the structural wax material at the temperature below 100°C.
13. The method of any of claims 10 to 12, further including flowing the coolant through a heat exchanger.
14. The method of any of claims 10 to 13, further including coating the mandrel (58) with an electrically conductive material.
Elektroformungssystem (42) zum Formen einer Komponente (77) mit einem Elektroformungsprozess, wobei das Elektroformungssystem (42) umfasst:
ein galvanisches Abscheidungsbad (52) in einem Badtank (50);
eine Schaltung (67), die eine Anode (54) und eine Kathode (56) in Form eines Dorns (58) aus einem wiedergewinnbaren Material beinhaltet, wobei die Anode (54) und die Kathode (56) in dem Badtank (50) vorgesehen sind; und
einen Kühlmittelkreislauf (79), der zumindest teilweise durch das galvanische Abscheidungsbad (52) läuft, der beinhaltet:
einen Wärmetauscher (78), einen im Dorn (58) ausgebildeten Kühlkern (82) und einen Kühlmittelschlauch (76), der den Wärmetauscher (78) mit dem Kühlkern (82), durch den ein Kühlmittel (Ce) fließen kann, fluidverbindet;
wobei das den Dorn (58) bildende wiedergewinnbare Material ein strukturelles Wachsmaterial ist.
2. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Kühlkern (82) ferner einen Kühlkanal (94) umfasst.
3. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach Anspruch 2, wobei der Kühlmittelschlauch (76) den Wärmetauscher (78) mit dem Kühlkanal (94) fluidverbindet.
4. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach Anspruch 3, wobei der Kühlmittelschlauch (76) und der Kühlkern (82) einen geschlossenen Kreislauf (80) bilden.
5. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach Anspruch 4, wobei der Kühlkanal (94) durch den Kühlmittelschlauch (76) umgrenzt ist.
6. Elektroformungssystem (42) entweder nach Anspruch 4 oder 5, wobei zumindest ein Teil des Kühlmittelschlauches (76) abnehmbar ist.
7. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach Anspruch 6, wenn von Anspruch 4 abhängig, wobei der Kühlkern (82) ein schlauchloser Kühlkern (82) ist.
8. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach einem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei das Kühlmittel (Ce) eine elektrolytische fluide Lösung ist.
9. Elektroformungssystem (42) nach einem vorhergehenden Anspruch, wobei der Dorn (58) mit einem elektrisch leitfähigen Material beschichtet ist.
Verfahren zum Herstellen eines metallischen Bauteils (77) mit einem Dorn (58) in einem Elektroformungsprozess, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:
Platzieren des Dorns in einem galvanischen Abscheidungsbad (52); und
Fließenlassen eines Kühlmittels durch einen Kühlkern (82) innerhalb des Dorns, um den Dorn aktiv zu kühlen;
wobei ein den Dorn (58) bildendes wiedergewinnbares Material ein strukturelles Wachsmaterial ist.
11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 10, das ferner das Halten des Dorns (58) auf einer Temperatur unter 100 °C beinhaltet.
12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 11, wobei das Halten des Dorns (58) auf einer Temperatur unter 100 °C das Halten des strukturellen Wachsmaterials auf einer Temperatur unter 100 °C beinhaltet.
13. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 12, das ferner das Fließenlassen des Kühlmittels durch einen Wärmetauscher beinhaltet.
14. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 13, das ferner das Beschichten des Dorns (58) mit einem elektrisch leitfähigen Material beinhaltet.
Système d'électroformage (42) pour former un composant (77) avec un processus d'électroformage, le système d'électroformage (42) comprenant :
un bain d'électrodéposition (52) à l'intérieur d'un réservoir de bain (50) ;
un circuit (67) comprenant une anode (54) et une cathode (56) sous la forme d'un mandrin (58) fabriqué à partir d'un matériau récupérable, l'anode (54) et la cathode (56) prévues dans le réservoir de bain (50) ; et
un circuit de refroidissement (79) traversant au moins partiellement le bain d'électrodéposition (52) comprenant :
un échangeur de chaleur (78), un noyau de refroidissement (82) formé à l'intérieur du mandrin (58), et un tube de réfrigérant (76) couplant fluidiquement l'échangeur de chaleur (78) avec le noyau de refroidissement (82) à travers lequel un réfrigérant (Ce) peut s'écouler ;
le matériau récupérable formant le mandrin (58) étant un matériau structurel en cire.
2. Système d'électroformage (42) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel le noyau de refroidissement (82) comprend en outre un canal de refroidissement (94).
3. Système d'électroformage (42) selon la revendication 2, dans lequel le tube de refroidissement (76) couple fluidiquement l'échangeur de chaleur (78) au canal de refroidissement (94).
4. Système d'électroformage (42) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel le tube de refroidissement (76) et le noyau de refroidissement (82) forment une boucle fermée (80).
5. Système d'électroformage (42) selon la revendication 4, dans lequel le canal de refroidissement (94) est défini par le tube de refroidissement (76).
6. Système d'électroformage (42) selon l'une des revendications 4 ou 5, dans lequel au moins une partie du tube de refroidissement (76) est amovible.
7. Système d'électroformage (42) selon la revendication 6 lorsqu'elle dépend de la revendication 4, dans lequel le noyau de refroidissement (82) est un noyau de refroidissement sans tube (82).
8. Système d'électroformage (42) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le liquide de refroidissement (Ce) est une solution de fluide électrolytique.
9. Système d'électroformage (42) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans lequel le mandrin (58) est revêtu d'un matériau électriquement conducteur.
Procédé de production d'un composant métallique (77) avec un mandrin (58) dans un processus d'électroformage, le procédé consistant à :
placer le mandrin dans un bain d'électrodéposition (52) ; et à
faire s'écouler un réfrigérant à travers un noyau de refroidissement (82) à l'intérieur du mandrin pour refroidir activement le mandrin ;
un matériau récupérable formant le mandrin (58) étant un matériau structurel en cire.
11. Procédé selon la revendication 10, comprenant en outre le maintien du mandrin (58) à une température inférieure à 100 °C.
12. Procédé selon la revendication 11, dans lequel le maintien du mandrin (58) à une température inférieure à 100 °C comprend le maintien du matériau structurel en cire à la température inférieure à 100 °C.
13. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 12, comprenant en outre l'écoulement du liquide de refroidissement à travers un échangeur de chaleur.
14. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 13, comprenant en outre le revêtement du mandrin (58) avec un matériau électriquement conducteur.