(19)
(11)EP 3 482 068 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
02.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/36

(21)Application number: 17737470.9

(22)Date of filing:  05.07.2017
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
F03D 7/04(2006.01)
H02J 3/38(2006.01)
F03D 7/02(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/DK2017/050227
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/006920 (11.01.2018 Gazette  2018/02)

(54)

A WIND POWER PLANT HAVING A PLURALITY OF WIND TURBINE GENERATORS AND A POWER PLANT CONTROLLER

WINDKRAFTANLAGE MIT EINER VIELZAHL VON WINDTURBINENGENERATOREN UND KRAFTWERKSTEUERGERÄT

CENTRALE ÉOLIENNE DOTÉE D'UNE PLURALITÉ DE GÉNÉRATEURS D'ÉOLIENNE ET D'UN DISPOSITIF DE COMMANDE DE CENTRALE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 06.07.2016 DK 201670499

(43)Date of publication of application:
15.05.2019 Bulletin 2019/20

(73)Proprietor: Vestas Wind Systems A/S
8200 Aarhus N (DK)

(72)Inventors:
  • JESSEN, Steve
    8200 Aarhus N (DK)
  • KAPPELGAARD, Søren
    8200 Aarhus N (DK)
  • KJÆRGAARD, Jacob Barsøe
    8382 Hinnerup (DK)
  • NAYEBI, Kouroush
    7430 Ikast (DK)
  • SKJELMOSE, Mads Rajczyk
    8240 Risskov (DK)
  • WEI, Mu
    8355 Solbjerg (DK)

(74)Representative: Vestas Patents Department 
Hedeager 42
8200 Aarhus N
8200 Aarhus N (DK)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 354 541
EP-A1- 2 818 697
EP-B1- 2 603 695
EP-A1- 2 634 422
EP-A1- 2 902 624
  
  • NING CHEN ET AL: "An optimal active power control method of wind farm using power prediction information", POWER SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY (POWERCON), 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON, IEEE, 30 October 2012 (2012-10-30), pages 1-5, XP032368670, DOI: 10.1109/POWERCON.2012.6401255 ISBN: 978-1-4673-2868-5
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The present invention relates to a wind power plant having a plurality wind turbine generators and a power plant controller with a dispatcher.

BACKGROUND



[0002] In an electrical utility grid, consumers can usually consume electric power in an uncontrolled manner. Since hardly any energy is stored in the grid, there can be no imbalance between the power produced and the power consumed. Therefore, the momentary production of power shall match the momentary power consumption. Overproduction leads to an increase of the grid frequency beyond the nominal value (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz), since the conventional synchronous generators accelerate, while over consumption will lead to a decrease of the grid frequency beyond the nominal value (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz), since the conventional synchronous generators will then decelerate.

[0003] In order to stabilize the frequency of the electrical grid, conventionally about 10% of the producers contribute to what is called "primary power control". These producers, also referred to as "primary controllers", increase power output when the frequency falls below the nominal value and decrease power output when it rises above the nominal value.

[0004] Wind turbine generators (WTG) can be used to provide energy to the electrical utility grid. Wind turbine generators are sometimes referred to as wind turbines (WT). A plurality of WTGs can form a wind power plant (WPP) also known as a wind park or a wind farm.

[0005] A Power Plant Controller (PPC), which operates as a wind power plant (WPP) controller, generates proper active power set-points to all WTGs, in order to allow the plant active power follow certain active power reference on the plant level. The part of the PPC which generates the active power set-points to all WTGs is called a dispatcher. The dispatcher coordinates all kinds of control modes, for instance, frequency control mode, active power curtailment mode, active power fast de-rating control mode, and so on. The article by Ning Chen et al, "An Optimal Active Power Control Method of Wind Farm Using Power Prediction Information", in POWER SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY (POWERCON), 2012 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON, IEEE, 30 October 2012, pages 1-5, and document EP 2 818 697 A1 are two examples of such power dispatching in wind farms.

[0006] It is thus highly relevant to provide a method for controlling a wind power plant in a manner which ensures improved control modes by selecting and dispatching proper active power reference to a plurality of wind turbine generators in a WPP, so the aggregated active power of the power plant match the active power reference. Furthermore, it is relevant to provide a wind power plant which reacts fast to changes in the requested active power.

SUMMARY



[0007] This summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further described below in the Detailed Description.

[0008] The dispatching strategy described in this invention is to achieve that the plant level active power follows the plant active power reference with high accuracy. This is done in order to satisfy transmission system operators (TSO) Grid Integration Requirements (GIR), even though each individual WTG's terminal available power in wind varies differently.

[0009] In a first aspect there is a wind power plant having a plurality of wind turbine generators and a power plant controller arranged to communicate with the plurality of wind turbines generators, wherein
each wind turbine generator in the plurality of wind turbine generators being related to a wind turbine controller, the wind turbine controller being arranged to control an active power output in its related wind turbine generator according to an active power set point received from the wind power plant controller;
the wind power plant supplies power to a utility grid in accordance with an active power reference;
such that upon a change in the active power reference the active power set point for each wind turbine generator is changed by a weighting factor;
wherein the weighting factor for an increase of the active power reference depends on a relationship between an available active power of each wind turbine generator and an available active power of the wind power plant, and
wherein the weighting factor for a decrease of the active power reference depends on a relationship between a produced active power of each wind turbine generator and an aggregated active power output of the wind power plant.

[0010] The first aspect ensures that the wind turbines contribute to the increase or decrease in power based on their total available power such that the WTGs that are able to contribute the most do so.

[0011] An advantage of the aspect is that when the active power reference (P_reference) changes, e.g. that the WPP needs to deliver more or less power. The PPC then dispatches new set-points to the WTGs hereby complying with the power demand.

[0012] In an embodiment of the first aspect the weighting factor is different for each wind turbine generator.

[0013] There are several advantages of the embodiments of the invention, among these are:
  1. a) Nominal WTG active power set-points are dispatched if wind farm is not curtailed. Herby, providing optimal performance for non-curtailed WTGs.
  2. b) If high step in power demand is requested the WTG performance (available active power) is utilized in order to provide fast response.


[0014] A second aspect relates to a method for operating a wind power plant which supplies power to a utility grid in accordance with an active power reference, the wind power plant comprises a plurality of wind turbine generators and a power plant controller arranged to communicate with a wind turbine controller of each of the plurality of wind turbine generators, wherein each wind turbine generator outputs active power in accordance with an active power set point received from the power plant controller, the method comprises the steps of:
  • receiving a change in the active power reference,
  • changing an active power set point of each wind turbine generator dependent on a weighting factor, wherein

    the weighting factor for an increase of the active power reference depends on a relationship between an available active power of each wind turbine generator and an available active power of the wind power plant, and

    the weighting factor for a decrease of the active power reference depends on a relationship between a produced active power of each wind turbine generator and an aggregated active power output of the wind power plant,

  • dispatching the changed active power set point to the wind turbine controller of each of the plurality of wind turbine generators,
  • having each wind turbine generator output active power in accordance with the active power set point.


[0015] In an embodiment of the second aspect the method switches from one strategy to another, whereby;
  • operating the wind power plant with an active power reference lower than a nominal active power of the wind power plant by curtailing at least a some of the wind turbine generators of the plurality of wind turbine generators,
  • determine a power capability of each of the curtailed wind turbine generators
  • defining a first group comprising wind turbine generators having a power capability higher than a power capability limit,
  • defining a second group comprising wind turbine generators having a power capability lower than a power capability limit,
  • equalize curtailment of the curtailed wind turbines generators by decreasing the active power set point for the wind turbines generators in the first group and increasing the active power set point for the wind turbines generators in the second group.


[0016] Further advantages of the embodiments of the invention is; that the PPC during steady state dispatches set points to the WTGs to maximize WTG dynamic capability and that during curtailment the set points forwarded to the WTGs are not equal to available power of the WTG, if at all possible.

[0017] In an embodiment the step of determine a power capability of each of the curtailed wind turbine generators comprise
  • calculating a positive power capability, as the difference between possible power and production power and/or
  • calculating a negative power capability, as the difference between minimum power and production power.


[0018] An embodiment only a fraction of the power capability is equalized. Further, the step of equalize curtailment of the curtailed wind turbines generators may be repeated a plurality of times. Preferably, in such a way that only a fraction of the power capability is equalized in each repetition..

[0019] An advantage of this embodiment is that equalizing of the curtailment is performed in a controlled manner, in order to prevent stability issues and oscillations in the grid.

[0020] The individual aspects of the present invention may each be combined with any of the other aspects. These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent from the following description with reference to the described embodiments.

[0021] Any of the attendant features will be more readily appreciated as the same become better understood by reference to the following detailed description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings. The preferred features may be combined as appropriate, as would be apparent to a skilled person, and may be combined with any of the aspects of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES



[0022] The wind power plant and its method according to the invention will now be described in more detail with regard to the accompanying figures. The figures show one way of implementing the present invention and is not to be construed as being limiting to other possible embodiments falling within the scope of the attached claim set.

Figure 1 shows a wind turbine generator according to the present invention.

Figure 2 shows an embodiment of a dispatcher.

Figure 3 shows curve with equalized curtailment.

Figure 4 shows sorting of the WTGs.

Figure 5 shows reference change sharing priority.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0023] The embodiments of the present invention pertain to a wind power plant with a plurality of wind turbine generators (e.g. a variable-speed wind turbine generator). The plurality of wind turbine generators (WTG) may form a wind power plant (WPP). The wind power plant seeks to produce an aggregated power from all the wind turbine generators, and to ensure that the measured power (P_measurement) at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) is equal to the desired power (Preference) at the PCC. This is done by dispatching individual or common power set-points to each of the WTG. In other words, the PPC receives a request for a specific output power for the WPP and by measuring the power at the PCC it can determine if it fulfills the request. If not then the PPC change the power set point values for the WTGs.

[0024] The way the Power Plant Controller (PPC) generates the active power set-points for the WTGs is one of the most essential control functions inside the PPC. As shown in Figure 2, using the dispatching strategy, the PPC active power dispatcher splits the plant level active power reference into different active power set-points for each WTG (Psetpoint_WTG1, ..., Psetpoint_WTGn). These set-points may be different for each WTG in the WPP or identical for a two or more of the WTGs in the WPP.

[0025] From the whole wind power plant point of view, WTGs are utilized as actuators for active power (P) control. The WTGs' set-points generated by an active power dispatcher are approached by WTGs with certain ramp rate, when the wind conditions allow. However, if the wind conditions prevent the WTGs to produce the requested active power production, then the dispatching strategy needs to be robust enough to adjust the active power set-points. Therefore each WTG's different wind conditions may also be utilized by the dispatching strategy. By doing this, the WTGs with high available power are allowed to produce more power to compensate the WTGs with low available power. The coordination between the PPC dispatcher and the WPP power system, using WTGs as actuators, is shown in Figure 2.

[0026] An objective of the dispatcher is to ensure that the demanded power (e.g. from the Transmission System Operator (TSO)) is delivered as fast as possible, this applies both to increase and decrease in the active power reference. Thus the objective of the dispatcher can be seen as a method for controlling power ramp rates.

[0027] Where in one aspect the dispatcher communicates active power set-points to the WTGs based on a set of weighting factors.

[0028] The dispatcher uses, in some embodiments, the surplus of available power from a first subset of wind turbine generators inside a wind power plant to compensate for the lack of power in a second subset of wind turbine generators, thus regulating the WPP power output to a desired value.

[0029] In other words, the first subset of wind turbine generators can be controlled in order to compensate the fluctuations in the second subset of wind turbine generators, with the overall objective of ensuring the desired value of total power output from the wind power plant.

[0030] Figure 1 shows, an exemplary variable-speed wind turbine generator (WTG) 1 is one of a plurality of wind turbine generators of a wind power plant (WPP) 2.

[0031] It has a rotor 3 with a hub to which, e.g., three blades 4 are mounted. The pitch angle of the rotor blades 4 is variable by means of pitch actuators. The rotor 3 is supported by a nacelle 5 and drives a generator 12 via a main shaft 8, a gearbox 10, and a high speed shaft 11. This structure is exemplary; other embodiments, for example, use a direct-drive generator.

[0032] The generator 12 (e.g. Induction or synchronous generator) produces electrical output power of a frequency related to the rotation speed of the rotor 3, which is converted to grid frequency (e.g. about 50 or 60 Hz) by a converter 19. The voltage of the electric power thus produced is up-transformed by a transformer 9. The output of the transformer 9 is the wind turbine generator's terminals 9a. The electric power from the wind turbine generator 1 and from the other wind turbine generators (WT2...WTn) of the wind power plant 2 is fed into a wind power plant grid 18 (symbolized by "a" in Fig. 1). The wind power plant grid 18 is connected at a point of common coupling 21 and an optional further step up transformer 22 to a wind power plant external electrical utility grid 20. The grid 20 can be equipped with regulation capacity against grid-frequency fluctuations, e.g. in the form of conventional producers which can increase and lower production on a short-time scale to control frequency.

[0033] A control system includes a wind turbine controller 13 and a wind power plant controller (PPC) 23. The wind turbine controller 13 controls operation of the individual wind turbine generator 1, e.g. selects full-load or partial-load operation modes, depending i.a. on the current wind speed. In the partial load mode, operation of the wind turbine generator at the optimal working point by adjusting the blade angle and controlling the tip speed ration to the aerodynamic optimum at the current wind speed, and controls the converter 19 to produce electricity according to prescriptions of the power plant controller 23, e.g. an instruction to provide a certain amount of active power and/or a certain amount of reactive power in addition the active power, etc. The wind turbine controller 13 uses different input signals to perform its control tasks, for example signals representing current wind conditions (e.g. from an anemometer 14 and a wind vane 15), feed-back signals representing pitch angle, rotor position, amplitudes and phases of the voltage and current at the generator 12 and the terminals 9a, etc., and command signals from the wind power plant controller 23. The power plant controller 23 receives signals representative of the voltage, current and frequency at the point of common coupling 21 (parameters which may be considered to represent the voltage, current and frequency in the utility grid 20) and receives information, requirements or command signals from a TSO or another operator (at "c" in Fig. 1). Based on some of these and, optionally, further input parameters the power plant controller 23 monitors the grid 20 and, upon detection of a non-compliance with the commands from a TSO or non-compliance with any other grid requirement, the PPC 23 may command the wind turbine controllers 13 of the wind turbine generator 1 and the other wind turbine generators of the wind power plant 2 (at "b" in Fig. 1) to change operation of the output power supplied. Upon receipt of such a command the wind turbine controller 13, may adjust the power output e.g., by adjusting the blade-pitch angle, to comply with the wind-park controller's command. Thus, in the exemplary embodiment of Fig. 1 the control task of the control system to ensure that the TSOs Grid Integration Requirements are complied with. In other embodiments this control task is performed by the wind turbine controller 13 alone; in those embodiments, the "control system" is represented just by the wind turbine controller 13, without a power plant controller 23. In these embodiments the wind turbine controllers 13, so to speak, take over the functionality of the PPC 23.

[0034] Although the wind turbine generator 1 shown in Figure 1 is expected to have three blades 4, it should be noted that a wind turbine generator may have different number of blades. It is common to find wind turbine generators having two to four blades. The wind turbine generator 1 shown in Figure 1 is a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) as the rotor 4 rotates about a horizontal axis. It should be noted that the rotor 4 may rotate about a vertical axis. Such a wind turbine generators having its rotor rotate about the vertical axis is known as a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). The embodiments described henceforth are not limited to HAWT having 3 blades. They may be implemented in both HAWT and VAWT, and having any number of blades 4 in the rotor 4.

[0035] Figure 2 exemplifies the arrangement of the calculation modules inside a dispatcher. It can be seen that the dispatcher is disclosed as being part of a PPC. The dispatcher receives a plant level P reference that in the Active power dispatcher module calculate the active power set point Psetpoint WTG1 ... WTGn, based on a plurality of status feedback signals

[0036] Pavailable_WTG1...WTGn. Where Pavailable_WTG is the active power available from a specific WTG at the given time, calculated based on the current wind speed and other parameters limiting the WTG production, and the available active power of the power system is therefore the aggregated Pavailable_WTG1...WTGn for all the WTGs. The actual production (production power) of the WTGs Pproduction_WTG1...WTGn is fed to a feeder line, which is connected to a Point of common coupling (PCC) via a transformer. At the PCC the aggregated active power production is measured by means of a power meter. The measured active power (P measurement) is communicated to the PPC. Throughout this description, active power reference is used for the demanded power for the wind power plant, whereas active power set-point is used for the demanded power for the individual WTG.

[0037] The wind turbine generator (e.g. a variable-speed wind turbine generator) which supplies power to an electric grid which may be equipped with regulation capacity against grid-frequency and active power fluctuations. "Electric grid" or "grid" is a utility grid outside the boundary and point of common coupling of a wind power plant; when reference is made to the grid within a wind power plant an expression with explicit indication to the wind power plant is made, e.g., "wind-park grid".

[0038] As the present text deals with active power rather than reactive power, active power is briefly referred to as "power", or "output power". Where reactive power is addressed, it is explicitly referred to as "reactive power". Although the claims refers to active power, implicitly this also means that a change in a reactive power reference, voltage or frequency (or other changes) may, depending on the circumstances, result in a change in the active power reference, as these measures are linked.

[0039] There is an upper limit to the output power which can be produced by the wind turbine generator according to the embodiments, e.g. due to structural limits and a current limit in the wind turbine generator's electric converter. This amount of power is referred to as "nominal power". The wind speed sufficient for the wind turbine generator to produce the nominal power is referred to as "nominal wind speed". When the wind turbine generator according to the embodiments operates at wind speeds above the nominal wind speed, only a fraction of the available wind power is transformed to electric output power which corresponds to the nominal power. This reduction of power production is, e.g., achieved by gradually changing the rotor-pitch angle towards the so-called flag position. In other words, the wind turbine generator intentionally is not operated at optimum efficiency. In some embodiments the wind turbine generator is also operated at a sub-optimal tip-speed ratio so as to reduce structural loads.

[0040] By contrast, during operation in partial load, at a wind speed below the nominal wind speed, the wind turbine generator according to the embodiments is operated at optimum efficiency. Meaning that it is operated with the aerodynamically optimal blade pitch angle and tip-speed ratio.

[0041] In relation to control of the power plant (performed by the PPC) there are several factors which can have a negative impact on the PPC's active power dispatching, and thus prevent an accurate control of the WPP. For example, each WTG may not necessarily be able to follow the active power set-point even if the wind speed is high enough for the required production. The can be due to specific conditions in the turbine such as: A comparability problem between the communication delays on the WTGs' feedback signals and the PPC active power control loop time, an inaccuracy of the WTGs' feedback signals generated from WTGs, uncertainty in the starting up duration for the WTGs. Due to these issues the PPC's active power control encounters significant challenges. Therefore, the active power dispatching strategy has been focused and developed with these issues in mind.

[0042] In an embodiment wherein the P_reference changes, e.g. that the WPP needs to deliver more or less power. The PPC then needs to dispatch new power set-points to the WTGs in order to comply with the demanded power.

[0043] In case where the P_reference is increased it is based on the aggregated P_available such that the WTG contribute to the increased power by a weighting factor which depends on a relationship between the WTGs available power and the available power of the entire plant.

[0044] In case where the Preference is decreased it is based on the P_produced such that WTG decrease its contribution to the WPP output by a weighting factor which depends on a relationship between the WTGs produced power and the power produced of the entire plant. E.g. depends on the fraction P_produced for a WTG divided by the power produced by the WPP.

[0045] These embodiments differs in that the turbines in the embodiments contribute to the increase or decrease in power based on their total available power such that the WTGs that are able to contribute the most do so.

[0046] In an embodiment the weighting factor is identical for a plurality of the WTGs. In a further embodiment, the weighting factors are different for each wind turbine generator.

[0047] In an embodiment, the weighting factor further depends on an estimated wear of each wind turbine.

[0048] The active power reference change may be shared by the weighting factors, according to each WTGs available wind power size or power production size contributing to the whole plant available wind power or the whole site power production. In other words, if a WTG's P_available (or P_production) contributes 10% of the plant level total available wind power (or total P_production), then WTG' may be sharing 10% of the active power reference change.

[0049] Figure 5 illustrates how a change in active power reference (ΔPref or AP_reference) is shared among the WTGs, the percentage of each WTG's Pava (P_availble) or Pprod (P_production) contributing to the total plant Pava (P total P_avalible) or total Pprod (total P_production) is used as a factor to calculate the WTG's set point. The example of a WTG which contributes 10% is seen for the WTG in the right side of Figure 5.

[0050] It is also possible to use an algorithm in the strategy where weighting factors are not used. It means all WTGs no matter their Pava or Pprod are high or low, they are treated relatively equally, there can be mainly two ways of the equalization:

First way, all the WTGs initially get equal set-point. However, the WTGs with higher Pava or Pprod have to compensate the WTGs with lower Pava or Pprod. Thus the initial equalized set-point will be adjusted by comparing with their Pava or Pprod, this adjustment can have several rounds of iterations until either Pref is reached, or all WTGs reach their Pava limit.

Second way, all the WTGs equalize the curtailment in kW or MW or percentage or p.u., so that the WTGs production over time will level towards the same average reduction from available/possible power to actual power production. As shown in Figure 3, PcurtailWTGn at t1= PcurtailWTGm at t1, and similarly PcurtailWTGn at t2= PcurtailWTGm at t2.



[0051] This method will reduce the set-point of the high producing WTGs while increasing set-points for the low producing turbines with high production capability so that turbines equally share the production reduction When to use the different modes such as weighting factor dispatcher or the equalized curtailment dispatcher can be defined in the strategy, and it is possible to shift among the different curtailment strategies. As an example, in the P control loop the active power reference (Pref) and the active power measurement Pmeas are compared by establishing the difference, this difference is termed as Perror (i.e. Perror=Pref-Pmeas). If the Perror is big, then the weighting factor dispatcher can be used, if Perror is small, then the equalized curtailment can be used. Besides the Perror, other indexes can also be used to decide when to use the weighting factor dispatcher or the equalized curtailment dispatcher. It is also possible to use more than one index to decide when to shift the curtailment modes.

[0052] In an embodiment the different modes: weighting curtailment and the equalized curtailment are both used and an index decides when to change mode.

[0053] In an embodiment the index is the power error, Perror, often the Perror is used the absolute value of the difference, i.e. without the sign.

[0054] Curtailment is defined by the active power set point being below nominal power, however historically there have been cases where sum of the nominal power of WTGs in the WPP (sumOfWTGNominal_kW) is larger than the registered WPP power capacity (SiteRegistredCapacity_kW). To prevent production going above the WPP's nominal power, curtailment is defined by:



[0055] High Demand Criteria is given by:
HighDemandCriteria = HighPosDemandAndHighPosCapability OR HighNegDemandAndHighNegCapability

[0056] In which:





[0057] Where:



[0058] Two subsets are used for handling turbines during steady state control, a control subset and non-control subset. Turbines in the control subset are turbines that are controllable and have control capability whereas turbines in the non-control subset are turbines having poor or no controllability. During steady state control all WTGs have their respective capability constantly evaluated to update the control and non-control subsets. A WTG is moved to the non-control subset under either of the following conditions:
  1. 1. It is producing less than Pmin
  2. 2. Its positive capability is less than a predetermined value


[0059] WTGs in the non-control subset are given a set-point of Pmin if their production is less than minimum power, Pmin and given Possible power/ Available power (plus PercentageOverNominalPower) otherwise. They are moved back to the control subset if their positive capability increases above the controllable level. The predetermined value is a WTG specific value, which may reflect the capability of the turbine; for example, the turbine can have a low ramp rate when operating below a specific power output meaning that it will not be suitable for regulating to power reference. The predetermined value may also be chosen in order to regulate the number of turbines in the non-controllable subset.

[0060] In an embodiment a third non-communication subset is also used in all states to handle turbines which cease communication.

[0061] In Steady-State Control the dispatching strategy focuses on controlling the turbines to optimize the dynamic capability and is the strategy used during steady state control of the wind farm. In an embodiment the strategy is to equalize the WTG production.

[0062] In an embodiment a distribute demand function distributes the active power demand (as Pref-Pmeasured) from the control loop to the WTGs based on their capability. When dispatching positive demand, i.e. increasing wind farm power, the turbine with the highest positive capability (Ppossible - Pproduction) is increased first with a weightinged set point. The following next will be increased with a weightinged lower set point and so on. This way the demand will be distributed to each WTG based on its capability.

[0063] For dispatching negative demand, the turbine set point will be adjusted according to their negative capability (measurement-minimum power).

[0064] For a positive demand where the wind farm production must increase the demand is distributed as:

where n is the index of the WTGs

[0065] For negative demand where the wind farm production must decrease the demand is distributed as



[0066] In an embodiment the power output from the WPP is generated in such a way that each WTG or each WTG in the control subset is curtailed based on a set power curtailment or a set fraction of its available active power. Thus, the curtailed power for each of the WTG or each WTG in the control subset will then either be identical or the same percentage of available active power for that WTG. In both; the result is that the WTG with the highest available active power will contribute the most to the WPP power output.

[0067] In a further embodiment, the available turbines are divided in two groups where one group will comprise controllable turbines and the other group will comprise the non-controllable turbines. Only the controllable turbines will have equalized curtailment.

[0068] In case of high wind; the controllable turbines have set-points close to their possible power. Thus, selected turbines can be moved from the controllable groups to the non-controllable groups and be assigned nominal power. This may be achieved by having an additional clause for moving WTGs into the non-control subset or by setting the predetermined value such that the desired number of turbines is moved to the non-control subset. This is to increase the capability of the remaining controllable turbines by increasing the span between possible power and production reference. Furthermore this will avoid running turbines curtailed and close to possible power.

[0069] This embodiment of the equalized curtailment does not require all WTGs running equalized curtailment as some turbines may be running with nominal set-point, but all curtailed turbines will be controlled towards the equalized curtailment.

[0070] In an embodiment, only a subset of the curtailed turbines in the WPP form part of the WTGs that are equalized.

[0071] The advantages of this embodiment is fast reaction and accuracy in active power. As the curtailment is equalized, meaning that the WTG which are curtailed are curtailed by the same amount of active power.

[0072] The equalize capability strategy maximizes the wind farm performance capability by attempting to ensure all controllable WTGs have the same positive active power capability. The aim is that when demand increases, all the controllable WTGs are able to ramp to comply with the new demand. Further, high producing turbines will decrease while low producing turbines with high wind will increase, such that over time all running WTGs will converge towards the same average positive capability.

[0073] Figure 3 shows an example of the equalized curtailment for WTG(m) and WTG(n), where m and n are index numbers of the WTGs. The possible power as a function of time is shown for both WTGs, where WTG(n) has a higher possible production compared to WTG(m). Production is shown for time t1 and time t2.

[0074] The WTG at positions m and n are compared, and capability is transferred between the two:







[0075] Where "CapToMove" is the capability, meaning the power or the power set point, which are moved from turbine n to m. The constant "k" is there to ensure that only a portion of the power difference is equalized by each dispatcher iteration.

[0076] In an embodiment the portion defined by the constant k is 20%, thus k=0.2 and the EQ_Limit = 50kw.

[0077] Therefore in the static state the turbines n and m will then have equal curtailment after 5 dispatcher iteration. The real world is not static and therefore the constant "k" helps minimizing oscillations in the algorithm. "k" may be understood as the length of the steps for each iteration.

[0078] Further, "PosCapErrorM" is not an actual error, but denotes the difference between the positive capabilities of the turbine M in relation to the average positive capability of the WTGs. It is important to emphasize that the capability here means the ability to deliver power.

[0079] The constant k allows the convergence to slow proportionally as WTGs approach the average capability and avoid oscillating around the target value.

[0080] In practical terms the control subset is sorted two ways from highest to lowest based on the difference between the WTG's positive capability and the average capability of all controllable WTGs.

[0081] This can be seen in Figure 4, where the upper part of the Figure shows the sorting of the WTGs in respect of positive capability error starting from WTGm in the left side descending to WTGn in the right side. The lower part of the Figure shows the sorting in the opposite direction, ascending from WTGn to WTGm. So in a situation where the curtailment is going to be equalized power can be moved from WTGn to WTGm or reverse. Thus, each column represents a WTG, and each WTG is represented in in both the upper and the lower row. The arrow shows that a specific amount of production is moved from one turbine to another. In other words that an amount represented by the column is subtracted from one turbines power set point and added to another turbines power set point. Hereby equal curtailment is achieved.

[0082] The amount of capability moved may be further limited such that neither WTG will be sent to the non-control subset. In the event that no capability can be transferred, the limiting WTG will be ignored and the capability will be transferred with the next WTG in the list.

[0083] In an embodiment where a WTG has stopped communicating, the WTG is moved to a separate non-communication subset to be ignored by whichever dispatching strategy is being used, as the WTG does not provide a controllable change in its power production.

[0084] It will be understood that the benefits and advantages described above may relate to one embodiment or may relate to several embodiments. It will further be understood that reference to 'an' item refer to one or more of those items.


Claims

1. A wind power plant having a plurality of wind turbine generators and a power plant controller arranged to communicate with the plurality of wind turbines generators, wherein

each wind turbine generator in the plurality of wind turbine generators being related to a wind turbine controller, the wind turbine controller being arranged to control an active power output in its related wind turbine generator according to an active power set point received from the wind power plant controller;

the wind power plant supplies power to a utility grid in accordance with an active power reference;

such that upon a change in the active power reference the active power set point for each wind turbine generator is changed by a weighting factor;

wherein the weighting factor for an increase of the active power reference depends on a relationship between an available active power of each wind turbine generator and an available active power of the wind power plant, and

characterized in that the weighting factor for a decrease of the active power reference depends on a relationship between a produced active power of each wind turbine generator and an aggregated active power output of the wind power plant.
 
2. The wind power plant according to claim 1 wherein the weighting factor is different for each wind turbine generator.
 
3. The wind power plant according to any of the preceding claims wherein the available active power is determined by each wind turbine generator and forwarded to the power plant controller.
 
4. The wind power plant according to any of the preceding claims wherein change in the active power reference is occasioned by a transmission system operator, a wind power plant owner or a wind power plant operator.
 
5. The wind power plant according to any of the preceding claims wherein the weighting factor further depends on the rated power of each of the wind turbine generators.
 
6. The wind power plant according to any of the preceding claims wherein weighting factor further depends on an estimated wear of each wind turbine generator.
 
7. A method for operating a wind power plant which supplies power to a utility grid in accordance with an active power reference, the wind power plant comprises a plurality of wind turbine generators and a power plant controller arranged to communicate with a wind turbine controller of each of the plurality of wind turbine generators, wherein each wind turbine generator outputs active power in accordance with an active power set point received from the power plant controller, the method comprises the steps of:

- receiving a change in the active power reference,

- changing an active power set point of each wind turbine generator dependent on a weighting factor, wherein

the weighting factor for an increase of the active power reference depends on a relationship between an available active power of each wind turbine generator and an available active power of the wind power plant, and

the weighting factor for a decrease of the active power reference depends on a relationship between a produced active power of each wind turbine generator and an aggregated active power output of the wind power plant,

- dispatching the changed active power set point to the wind turbine controller of each of the plurality of wind turbine generators,

- having each wind turbine generator output active power in accordance with the active power set point.


 
8. The method according to claim 7 wherein the weighting factor is different for each wind turbine generator.
 
9. The method for operating a wind power system according to any of the claims 7 to 8 wherein the available active power is determined by each wind turbine generator and forwarded to the power plant controller.
 
10. The method for operating a wind power system according to any of the claims 7 to 9 wherein change in the active power reference is occasioned by a transmission system operator, a wind power plant owner or wind power plant operator.
 
11. The method for operating a wind power system according to any of the claims 7 to 10 wherein the weighting factor further depends on the rated power of each of the wind turbine generators.
 
12. The method for operating a wind power system according to any of the claims 7 to 11 wherein weighting factor further depends on an estimated wear of each turbine.
 
13. The method according to claims 7 to 12 further comprising,

- operating the wind power plant with an active power reference lower than a nominal active power of the wind power plant by curtailing at least some of the wind turbine generators of the plurality of wind turbine generators,

- determine a power capability of each of the curtailed wind turbine generators

- defining a first group comprising wind turbine generators having a power capability higher than a power capability limit,

- defining a second group comprising wind turbine generators having a power capability lower than a power capability limit,

- equalize curtailment of the curtailed wind turbines generators by decreasing the active power set point for the wind turbines generators in the first group and increasing the active power set point for the wind turbines generators in the second group.


 
14. The method according to claim 13,
wherein, determine a power capability of each of the curtailed wind turbine generators comprise

- calculating a positive power capability, as the difference between possible power and production power and/or

- calculating a negative power capability, as the difference between minimum power and production power.


 
15. The method according to claims 13 or 14, wherein only a fraction of the power capability is equalized.
 


Ansprüche

1. Windpark mit einer Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen und einer Parksteuervorrichtung, die angeordnet ist, mit der Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen zu kommunizieren, wobei
jede Windkraftanlage in der Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen einem Windkraftanlagenregler zugehörig ist wobei der Windkraftanlagenregler angeordnet ist, einen Wirkleistungsausgang in seiner zugehörigen Windkraftanlage gemäß einem Wirkleistungssollwert zu regeln, der von der Windparksteuervorrichtung empfangen wird;
der Windpark einem Energieversorgungsnetz Energie gemäß einer Wirkleistungsreferenz zuleitet;
sodass bei Änderung in der aktiven Wirkleistungsreferenz der Wirkleistungssollwert für jede Windkraftanlage um einen Gewichtungsfaktor geändert wird;
wobei der Gewichtungsfaktor für eine Erhöhung der Wirkleistungsreferenz von einem Verhältnis zwischen einer verfügbaren Wirkleistung jeder Windkraftanlage und einer verfügbaren Wirkleistung des Windparks abhängig ist; und
dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass
der Gewichtungsfaktor für eine Senkung der Wirkleistungsreferenz von einem Verhältnis zwischen einer produzierten Wirkleistung jeder Windkraftanlage und einem aggregierten Wirkleistungsausgang des Windparks abhängt.
 
2. Windpark nach Anspruch 1, wobei der Gewichtungsfaktor für jede Windkraftanlage unterschiedlich ist.
 
3. Windpark nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei die verfügbare Wirkleistung durch jede Windkraftanlage bestimmt wird und zur Parksteuervorrichtung weitergeleitet wird.
 
4. Windpark nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei Änderung in der Wirkleistungsreferenz durch einen Übertragungssystembetreiber, einen Windparkeigentümer oder einen Windparkbetreiber erfolgt.
 
5. Windpark nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei der Gewichtungsfaktor weiter von der Nennleistung jeder der Windkraftanlagen abhängt.
 
6. Windpark nach einem der vorstehenden Ansprüche, wobei Gewichtungsfaktor weiter von einem geschätzten Verschleiß jeder Windkraftanlage abhängt.
 
7. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Windparks, der einem Energieversorgungsnetz Energie gemäß einer Wirkleistungsreferenz zuleitet, wobei der Windpark eine Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen und eine Windparksteuervorrichtung umfasst, die angeordnet ist, mit einem Windkraftanlagenregler jeder der Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen zu kommunizieren, wobei jede Windkraftanlage Wirkleistung gemäß einem Wirkleistungssollwert ausgibt, der von der Parksteuervorrichtung empfangen wird, wobei das Verfahren die Schritte umfasst:

- Empfangen einer Änderung in der Wirkleistungsreferenz,

- Ändern eines Wirkleistungssollwerts jeder Windkraftanlage abhängig von einem Gewichtungsfaktor, wobei

der Gewichtungsfaktor für eine Erhöhung der Wirkleistungsreferenz von einem Verhältnis zwischen einer verfügbaren Wirkleistung jeder Windkraftanlage und einer verfügbaren Wirkleistung des Windparks abhängig ist; und

der Gewichtungsfaktor für eine Senkung der Wirkleistungsreferenz von einem Verhältnis zwischen einer produzierten Wirkleistung jeder Windkraftanlage und einem aggregierten Wirkleistungsausgang des Windparks abhängt.

- Leiten des geänderten Wirkleistungssollwerts zum Windkraftanlagenregler jeder der Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen,

- Veranlassen jeder Windkraftanlage, Wirkleistung gemäß dem Wirkleistungssollwert auszugeben.


 
8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei der Gewichtungsfaktor für jede Windkraftanlage unterschiedlich ist.
 
9. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Windenergiesystems nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 8, wobei die verfügbare Wirkleistung durch jede Windkraftanlage bestimmt wird und zur Parksteuervorrichtung weitergeleitet wird.
 
10. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Windenergiesystems nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 9, wobei Änderung in der Wirkleistungsreferenz durch einen Übertragungssystembetreiber, einen Windparkeigentümer oder einen Windparkbetreiber erfolgt.
 
11. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Windenergiesystems nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 10, wobei der Gewichtungsfaktor weiter von der Nennleistung jeder der Windkraftanlagen abhängt.
 
12. Verfahren zum Betreiben eines Windenergiesystems nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 11, wobei Gewichtungsfaktor weiter von einem geschätzten Verschleiß jeder Turbine abhängt.
 
13. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 7 bis 12, weiter umfassend

- Betreiben des Windparks mit einer Wirkleistungsreferenz, die niedriger als eine Nennwirkleistung des Windparks ist, durch Beschränken mindestens einiger der Windkraftanlagen der Vielzahl von Windkraftanlagen,

- Bestimmen einer Leistungskapazität jeder der beschränkten Windkraftanlagen

- Definieren einer ersten Gruppe, umfassend Windkraftanlagen mit einer höheren Leistungskapazität als ein Leistungskapazitätsgrenzwert,

- Definieren einer zweiten Gruppe, umfassend Windkraftanlagen mit einer niedrigeren Leistungskapazität als ein Leistungskapazitätsgrenzwert,

- Ausgleichen von Beschränkungen der beschränkten Windkraftanlagen durch Senken des Wirkleistungssollwerts für die Windkraftanlagen in der ersten Gruppe und Erhöhen des Wirkleistungssollwerts für die Windkraftanlagen in der zweiten Gruppe.


 
14. Verfahren nach Anspruch 13, wobei Bestimmen einer Leistungskapazität jeder der beschränkten Windkraftanlagen umfasst

- Berechnen einer positiven Leistungskapazität als die Differenz zwischen möglicher Leistung und Produktionsleistung und/oder

- Berechnen einer negativen Leistungskapazität als die Differenz zwischen minimaler Leistung und Produktionsleistung.


 
15. Verfahren nach Anspruch 13 oder 14, wobei nur ein Bruchteil der Leistungskapazität ausgeglichen ist.
 


Revendications

1. Centrale éolienne présentant une pluralité d'éoliennes et un dispositif de commande de centrale électrique agencé pour communiquer avec la pluralité d'éoliennes, dans laquelle
chaque éolienne dans la pluralité d'éoliennes étant liée à un dispositif de commande d'éolienne, le dispositif de commande d'éolienne étant agencé pour commander une sortie de puissance active dans son éolienne liée selon un point de consigne de puissance active reçu par le dispositif de commande de centrale éolienne ;
la centrale éolienne fournit une puissance à un réseau de distribution selon une référence de puissance active ;
de sorte que suite à un changement dans la référence de puissance active le point de consigne de puissance active pour chaque éolienne est changé par un facteur de pondération ;
dans laquelle le facteur de pondération pour une augmentation de la référence de puissance active dépend d'une relation entre une puissance active disponible de chaque éolienne et une puissance active disponible de la centrale éolienne, et
caractérisée en ce que
le facteur de pondération pour une diminution de la référence de puissance active dépend d'une relation entre une puissance active produite de chaque éolienne et une sortie de puissance active cumulative de la centrale éolienne.
 
2. Centrale éolienne selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle le facteur de pondération est différent pour chaque éolienne.
 
3. Centrale éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle la puissance active disponible est déterminée par chaque éolienne et transmise au dispositif de commande de centrale électrique.
 
4. Centrale éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle le changement dans la référence de puissance active est occasionné par une transmission de l'opérateur système, un propriétaire de centrale éolienne ou un opérateur de centrale éolienne.
 
5. Centrale éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle le facteur de pondération dépend en outre de la puissance nominale de chacune des éoliennes.
 
6. Centrale éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, dans laquelle le facteur de pondération dépend en outre d'une usure estimée de chaque éolienne.
 
7. Procédé de fonctionnement d'une centrale éolienne qui fournit une puissance à un réseau de distribution selon une référence de puissance active, la centrale éolienne comprend une pluralité d'éoliennes et un dispositif de commande de centrale éolienne agencé pour communiquer avec un dispositif de commande d'éolienne de chacun de la pluralité d'éoliennes, dans lequel chaque éolienne sort une puissance active selon un point de consigne de puissance active reçu par le dispositif de commande de centrale électrique, le procédé comprenant les étapes de :

- la réception d'un changement dans la référence de puissance active,

- le changement d'un point de consigne de puissance active de chaque éolienne dépendant d'un facteur de pondération, dans lequel
le facteur de pondération pour une augmentation de la référence de puissance active dépend d'une relation entre une puissance active disponible de chaque éolienne et une puissance active disponible de la centrale éolienne, et
le facteur de pondération pour une diminution de la référence de puissance active dépend d'une relation entre une puissance active produite de chaque éolienne et une sortie de puissance active cumulative de la centrale éolienne,

- la répartition du point de consigne de puissance active changé au dispositif de commande d'éolienne de chacun de la pluralité d'éoliennes,

- présentant chaque puissance active de sortie d'éolienne selon le point de consigne de puissance active.


 
8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel le facteur de pondération est différent pour chaque éolienne.
 
9. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un système d'éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 8, dans lequel la puissance active disponible est déterminée par chaque éolienne et transmise au dispositif de commande d'éolienne.
 
10. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un système d'éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 9, dans lequel le changement de référence de puissance active est occasionné par un opérateur de système de transmission, un propriétaire de centrale éolienne ou un opérateur de centrale éolienne.
 
11. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un système d'éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 10, dans lequel le facteur de pondération dépend en outre de la puissance nominale de chacune des éoliennes.
 
12. Procédé de fonctionnement d'un système d'éolienne selon l'une quelconque des revendications 7 à 11, dans lequel le facteur de pondération dépend en outre d'une usure estimée de chaque turbine.
 
13. Procédé selon les revendications 7 à 12, comprenant en outre :

- le fonctionnement de la centrale éolienne avec une référence de puissance active inférieure à une puissance active nominale de la centrale éolienne par délestage d'au moins certaines des éoliennes de la pluralité d'éoliennes,

- la détermination d'une capacité de puissance de chacune des éoliennes délestées,

- la définition d'un premier groupe comprenant des éoliennes présentant une capacité de puissance supérieure à une limite de capacité de puissance,

- la définition d'un second groupe comprenant des aérogénérateurs présentant une capacité de puissance inférieure à une limite de capacité de puissance,

- l'égalisation de délestage des éoliennes délestées par diminution du point de consigne de puissance active pour les éoliennes dans le premier groupe et l'augmentation du point de consigne de puissance active pour les éoliennes dans le second groupe.


 
14. Procédé selon la revendication 13, dans lequel la détermination d'une capacité de puissance de chacune des éoliennes délestées comprend

- le calcul d'une capacité de puissance positive comme la différence entre la puissance possible et la puissance de production et/ou

- le calcul d'une capacité de puissance négative comme la différence entre la puissance minimum et la puissance de production.


 
15. Procédé selon la revendication 13 ou 14, dans lequel une seule fraction de la capacité de puissance est égalisée.
 




Drawing

















Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description