(19)
(11)EP 3 495 006 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
20.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/21

(21)Application number: 18210730.0

(22)Date of filing:  06.12.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
A61M 1/36  (2006.01)

(54)

PNEUMATIC MANIFOLD FOR A DIALYSIS SYSTEM

PNEUMATISCHER VERTEILER FÜR EIN DIALYSESYSTEM

COLLECTEUR PNEUMATIQUE POUR SYSTÈME DE DIALYSE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 07.12.2017 US 201762595859 P
02.10.2018 US 201816149246

(43)Date of publication of application:
12.06.2019 Bulletin 2019/24

(60)Divisional application:
20160568.0

(73)Proprietor: Medtronic, Inc.
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55432 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Chapman, Paul R.
    Lutz, FL Florida 33548 (US)
  • Hajko, William
    Safety Harbor, FL Florida 34695 (US)
  • Gomes, Carl Wilbert
    Parrish, FL Florida 34219 (US)

(74)Representative: Maschio, Antonio 
Maschio & Soames IP Limited 30 Carlton Crescent
Southampton SO15 2EW
Southampton SO15 2EW (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 883 558
WO-A1-2017/001358
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION



    [0001] This application claims the benefit of and priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/595,859 filed December 7, 2017.

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] The invention relates to a pneumatic manifold for controlling a fluid level in an arterial and/or venous drip chamber of a dialysis system. The pneumatic manifold includes pneumatic valves fluidly connected to conduits and one or more pumps. Selectively activating the pneumatic valves can result in pressure changes for raising or lowering a fluid level in the arterial and/or venous drip chambers.

    BACKGROUND



    [0003] Venous and arterial drip chambers are sometimes used by known systems and methods to separate entrained air bubbles from blood before blood enters a dialyzer or is returned to a patient. The effective removal of air bubbles usually requires specific fluid levels in the drip chambers. However, known systems oftentimes fail to provide for control of fluid levels. Moreover, a required fluid level can depend on a flow rate of the blood, which can be changed during a dialysis session, and may not be monitored or controlled by known systems and methods. Changes in pressure in an extracorporeal circuit can also cause fluid levels in the drip chambers to raise or lower wherein the fluid levels in the drip chambers must be actively raised or lowered in response to changes in the blood flow rate as well as changes in the fluid pressure in the extracorporeal circuit. However, known systems and methods do not 1) actively control fluid levels or 2) effectively control such fluid levels.

    [0004] Hence, there is a need for systems and related methods that can effectively raise or lower the fluid levels in each of the drip chambers. To increase manufacturability and reduce costs, there is a further need for the systems and methods to use a single manifold containing valves and a pump capable of controlling the fluid level in both the arterial and venous drip chamber, rather than one or more separate sets of tubing and valves. EP2883558A1 describes an example of a blood purification device including a liquid level adjustment device (item A of said document) being connected to an arterial air trap chamber (5) and a venous air trap chamber (6). The liquid level adjustment device (A) is incorporated in or externally attached to a dialysis device (B), and is mainly configured to have an arterial air circulating line (L8), a venous air circulating line (L10), a release line (LI2) whose distal end is brought into an atmosphere released state, a communication line (L9) which causes the arterial air circulating line (L8) and the release line (L12) to communicate with each other, a communication line (L11) which causes the venous air circulating line (L10) and the release line (L12) to communicate with each other, and a liquid level adjustment pump (11). Said pump (11) can perform normal rotation and reverse rotation, suctioning air from the distal end of the release line (L12).

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0005] The first aspect of the invention relates to a pneumatic manifold. In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise an internal conduit; a first fluid line fluidly connected to the internal conduit; the first fluid line fluidly connectable to a venous drip chamber in an extracorporeal circuit of a dialysis system; a second fluid line fluidly connected to the internal conduit; the second fluid line fluidly connectable to an arterial drip chamber in an extracorporeal circuit of a dialysis system; a venous valve fluidly connecting the first fluid line to the internal conduit; an arterial valve fluidly connecting the second fluid line to the internal conduit; a negative valve fluidly connecting the internal conduit to an outlet; a positive valve fluidly connecting the internal conduit to an inlet; the inlet and outlet fluidly connectable by a third fluid line containing a pump; and a controller selectively activating or deactivating the venous valve, arterial valve, positive valve, and negative valve; the controller controlling a fluid level in the venous drip chamber and arterial drip chamber by activating or deactivating the valves.

    [0006] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a line clamp valve; the line clamp valve fluidly connecting the internal conduit and a second outlet; the second outlet fluidly connectable to a line clamp in the extracorporeal circuit.

    [0007] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a vent fluidly connected to the positive valve.

    [0008] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a vent fluidly connected to the line clamp valve.

    [0009] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a line clamp check valve positioned between the positive valve and the line clamp valve; the line clamp check valve allowing fluid to move only in a direction from the positive valve to the line clamp valve.

    [0010] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a first flow restrictor positioned between the venous valve and the first fluid line; and a second flow restrictor positioned between the arterial valve and the second fluid line.

    [0011] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a venous pressure sensor positioned between the venous valve and the first fluid line; and an arterial pressure sensor positioned between the arterial valve and the second fluid line.

    [0012] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a pressure sensor positioned in the internal conduit.

    [0013] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a line clamp filter; the line clamp filter fluidly connected to the negative valve and a second inlet of the pneumatic manifold; wherein the internal conduit is fluidly connected to the outlet when the negative valve is activated and fluidly connected to the line clamp filter when the negative valve is deactivated.

    [0014] In any embodiment, the pneumatic manifold can comprise a vent fluidly connected to the line clamp valve; wherein the internal conduit is fluidly connected to the second outlet when the line clamp valve is activated and fluidly connected to the vent when the line clamp valve is deactivated.

    [0015] The features disclosed as being part of the first aspect of the invention can be in the first aspect of the invention, either alone or in combination.

    [0016] A second aspect, which does not form part of the invention claimed, relates to a method of controlling a fluid level in an arterial drip chamber and/or venous drip chamber. The method can comprise selectively activating or deactivating one or more valves in the pneumatic manifold of the first aspect of the invention.

    [0017] The step of controlling the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber can comprise the step of raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber by selectively activating the negative valve and the arterial valve.

    [0018] The step of controlling the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber can comprise the step of lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber by selectively activating the positive valve and the arterial valve.

    [0019] The step of controlling the fluid level in the venous drip chamber can comprise the step of raising the fluid level in the venous drip chamber by selectively activating the negative valve and the venous valve.

    [0020] The step of controlling the fluid level in the venous drip chamber can comprise the step of lowering the fluid level in the venous drip chamber by selectively activating the positive valve and the venous valve.

    [0021] The method can comprise the step of stopping blood flow in a venous line of the extracorporeal circuit by selectively activating the positive valve and a line clamp valve in the pneumatic manifold; the line clamp valve fluidly connecting the internal conduit and a second outlet; the second outlet fluidly connected to a venous line clamp.

    [0022] The step of stopping blood flow in the venous line of the extracorporeal circuit can be performed in response to air detected in the venous line.

    [0023] The step of controlling the fluid level in the venous drip chamber can comprise first opening the venous line clamp and then activating the venous valve and either the positive valve or negative valve.

    [0024] The step of controlling the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber can comprise first opening the venous line clamp and then activating the arterial valve and either the positive valve or negative valve.

    [0025] The controller can be programmed to maintain a set fluid level in the arterial drip chamber and/or venous drip chamber by selectively activating the one or more valves.

    [0026] The method can comprise the steps of monitoring a pressure in the pneumatic manifold in the first fluid line, the second fluid line, or both; and generating an alarm indicating an occlusion if a pressure in the first fluid line, the second fluid line, or both does not show a pulsatile response.

    [0027] The features disclosed as being part of the second aspect of the invention can be in the second aspect of the invention, either alone or in combination.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0028] 

    FIG. 1 is a schematic of an extracorporeal circuit including a pneumatic manifold.

    FIG. 2A is a schematic of a pneumatic manifold configured to hold open a venous line clamp.

    FIG. 2B is a schematic of a pneumatic manifold configured to close a venous line clamp.

    FIG. 2C is a schematic of a pneumatic manifold configured to open a venous line clamp.

    FIG. 2D is a schematic of a pneumatic manifold configured to raise a fluid level in an arterial drip chamber.

    FIG. 2E is a schematic of a pneumatic manifold configured to lower a fluid level in an arterial drip chamber.

    FIG. 3 is a schematic showing communication between components of the pneumatic manifold.

    FIG. 4 is an illustration of possible states for a venous line clamp.

    FIG. 5 is a workflow using the pneumatic manifold for setting up a therapy session.

    FIG. 6 is a graph showing pressures in the pneumatic manifold as a function of blood pump rate.

    FIG. 7 is an exploded view of a non-limiting embodiment of a pneumatic manifold.

    FIG.'s 8A-C are design drawings of a pneumatic manifold.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0029] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used generally have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

    [0030] The articles "a" and "an" are used to refer to one or to over one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. For example, "an element" means one element or over one element.

    [0031] "Activating" or "activated" can refer to connecting or providing power to flow or be electrically conveyed to any component. One non-limiting example can be a valve that can require electrical power to stay in either a closed or an open state.

    [0032] The terms "allowing fluid to move only in a direction" or to "allow fluid to move only in a direction" can refer to preventing fluid movement through a fluid line or conduit in a first direction while permitting fluid movement through the fluid line or conduit in a second direction.

    [0033] The terms "air detected" or to "detect air" can refer to making a determination that air, an air bubble, or combinations thereof being present in a liquid or fluid.

    [0034] An "arterial drip chamber" can refer to a device that separates and captures air mixed with blood. In one non-limiting example, the arterial drip chamber can be placed in an arterial line of an extracorporeal flow path.

    [0035] An "arterial pressure sensor" can be a pressure sensor positioned to measure the pressure of gas in a fluid line. The pressure to be measured can be between an arterial valve and an arterial drip chamber.

    [0036] The term "arterial valve" can refer to a pneumatic valve controlling air movement to and from an arterial drip chamber.

    [0037] The term "comprising" includes, but is not limited to, whatever follows the word "comprising." Use of the term indicates the listed elements are required or mandatory but that other elements are optional and may be present.

    [0038] The term "consisting of' includes and is limited to whatever follows the phrase "consisting of." The phrase indicates the limited elements are required or mandatory and that no other elements may be present.

    [0039] The term "consisting essentially of' includes whatever follows the term "consisting essentially of' and additional elements, structures, acts or features that do not affect the basic operation of the apparatus, structure or method described.

    [0040] A "controller" can refer to a device which monitors and affects the operational conditions of a given system. The operational conditions are typically referred to as output variables of the system wherein the output variables can be affected by adjusting certain input variables.

    [0041] The terms "control," "controlling," or "controls" can refer to the ability of one component to direct the actions of a second component.

    [0042] "Deactivating" or "deactivated" can refer to disconnecting or preventing power from flowing or being electrically conveyed to any component. One non-limiting example can be a valve that can require electrical power to stay in either a closed or an open state.

    [0043] The term "dialysis system" can refer to a set of components configured to carry out dialysis therapy of any type including peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration, or ultrafiltration.

    [0044] An "extracorporeal circuit" can refer to a path through which blood or fluid will travel during dialysis.

    [0045] A "flow restrictor" can refer to an element or grouping of elements that resist the flow of fluid through the element or grouping of elements such that the fluid pressure within a flow stream that passes through the element or grouping of elements is greater upstream of the element or grouping of elements than downstream of the element or grouping of elements. A flow restrictor may be an active or passive device. Non-limiting examples of passive flow restriction devices are orifices, venturis, spray nozzles, a narrowing, or a simple length of tubing with flow cross section that produces the desired pressure drop when the fluid flows through the flow restrictor, such tubing being essentially rigid or compliant. Non-limiting examples of active flow restrictors are pinch valves, gate valves and variable orifice valves.

    [0046] The term "fluid level" can refer to a height of a fluid within a component. For example, the component can be an arterial or venous drip chamber.

    [0047] A "fluid line" can refer to a tubing or conduit through which a fluid or fluid containing gas can pass. The fluid line can also contain air during different modes of operation such as cleaning or purging of a line.

    [0048] The term "fluidly connectable," "fluidly connect," "for fluid connection," and the like, can refer to the ability of providing for the passage of fluid, gas, or a combination thereof, from one point to another point. The two points can be within or between any one or more of compartments, modules, systems, components, and rechargers, all of any type. The connection can optionally be disconnected and then reconnected. The term "fluidly connected" refers to a state of fluid connection, which can be distinguished from the described term of "fluid connectable," which refers to the ability of providing for the passage of fluid, gas, or a combination thereof, and not the state of fluid connection, in fact.

    [0049] The term "generating an alarm" or to "generate an alarm" can refer to generating or signaling to a user a state or condition of a system.

    [0050] The term "inlet" can refer to a portion of a component through which air can be drawn into the component through a fluid line. In one non-limiting example, the component can be a manifold.

    [0051] An "internal conduit" can refer to a fluid pathway partially or entirely inside a manifold.

    [0052] A "line clamp" can refer to a component that can obstruct or otherwise impede fluid flow through a fluid line.

    [0053] A "line clamp check valve" can refer to a valve that only allows fluid movement through a fluid line in a single direction.

    [0054] A "line clamp filter" can refer to an air filter that removes particulate matter of any size or shape from air, fluid, or combinations thereof.

    [0055] A "line clamp valve" can refer to a valve that controls air movement to and from a line clamp. One non-limiting type of valve can be a pneumatic valve.

    [0056] The term "lowering the fluid level" or to "lower the fluid level" can refer to a decrease in a height or level of a fluid in a chamber or component of any type.

    [0057] The term "maintain a set fluid level" means to keep a fluid level in a chamber or component at a specific height, or within a specific height range.

    [0058] The term "monitoring" or to "monitor" refers to determining a state of a system or variable.

    [0059] The term "negative valve" can refer to a valve in a component that allows a pump to cause a pressure decrease in an internal conduit of a component when activated. In one non-limiting example, the component can be a pneumatic manifold.

    [0060] An "occlusion" can be a blockage, either partial or full, of a component, conduit, or flow passage of any type.

    [0061] The terms "opening" or to "open" a line clamp can refer to causing a line clamp to allow fluid or air movement through a fluid line.

    [0062] The term "outlet" refers to a portion of a component through which fluid or air can be pulled out of the component in a fluid line, conduit, or fluid passageway of any type. In one non-limiting embodiment, the component can be a manifold.

    [0063] The term "perform" refers to one or more actions that a component, processer, algorithm, or method carries out. The actions can be set by instructions implemented by a component, processer, algorithm, or method of any type.

    [0064] A "pneumatic manifold" can refer to a component containing one or more fluid pathways that uses air pressure to control one or more components. The pneumatic manifold can be used as part of a dialysis system.

    [0065] The term "positive valve" can refer to a valve that allows a component to cause an increase in pressure in another component. In one non-limiting example, a positive valve can refer to a valve that allows a pump to increase pressure in an internal conduit of a manifold.

    [0066] The term "pressure" refers to a force exerted by a gas on the walls of a component, container, or conduit.

    [0067] The term "pressure sensor" can refer to a device or any suitable component for measuring the pressure of a gas or fluid in a vessel, container, or fluid line.

    [0068] The term "programmed," when referring to a controller, can mean a series of instructions that cause a controller to perform certain steps.

    [0069] The term "pulsatile response" refers to a change in pressure that rhythmically increases and decreases.

    [0070] The term "pump" can refers to any device that causes the movement of fluids, gases, or combinations thereof, by applying force of any type including suction or pressure.

    [0071] The terms "raising the fluid level" or to "raise the fluid level" can refer to increasing a height of a fluid in a chamber or component of any type.

    [0072] The term "selectively activating or deactivating" can refer to providing power, e.g., electrical power, to one or more components. The selective activating or deactivating can lead to a set of components in an activated state and another set of components in a deactivated state to result in a discriminate activated configuration. In one non-limiting example, the components can be valves activated into a closed or open state. Alternatively, the valves can be deactivated into a closed or open state. In one non-limiting example of a discriminate activated configuration based on "selectively activating or deactivating" one or more valve, a fluid, gas, or combinations thereof, can be directed to a specific flow path based on the activated and deactivated state of the valves.

    [0073] The term "stopping blood flow" or to "stop blood flow" can refer to preventing blood from moving through a fluid flow path.

    [0074] A "venous drip chamber" can refer to a device that separates and captures air mixed with blood. In one non-limiting example, the venous drip chamber can be placed in a venous line of an extracorporeal flow path.

    [0075] A "venous pressure sensor" can refer to a pressure sensor positioned to measure the pressure of gas in a fluid line. In one non-limiting example, the pressure of the gas to be measured can be between a venous valve and a venous drip chamber.

    [0076] The term "venous valve" refers to a pneumatic valve controlling air movement to and from a venous drip chamber.

    [0077] A "vent" can be an opening in a component through which air can escape the component. In one non-limiting embodiment, the vent can be in fluid connection with a fluid line in a manifold.

    Pneumatic Manifold



    [0078] FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of a pneumatic manifold 101 for use with a dialysis system. The pneumatic manifold 101 can control a fluid level in both an arterial drip chamber 123 connected to an arterial line 124 of an extracorporeal circuit, and a venous drip chamber 125 connected to a venous line 126 of the extracorporeal circuit. During treatment, blood from a patient is pumped through an arterial blood access connector 133 and the arterial line 124 to an inlet 129 of a dialyzer 128. Blood pump 127 provides the driving force for moving blood through the extracorporeal circuit. A venous air and blood sensor 148 can be included to detect air and blood in the venous line 126 prior to reaching the patient. A saline administration line can be connected to saline administration line connector 139 to provide saline directly into the extracorporeal circuit. Transducer protectors 145 and 147 can filter out any particulate matter in the venous line 126 and transducer protectors 141 and 143 can filter out any particulate matter in the arterial line 124. Pressure line connector 142 can connect the portions of the arterial line 124 inside and outside of the dialysis console, while pressure line connector 146 can connect the portions of the venous line 126 inside and outside of the dialysis console. Dialysate in a dialysate flow path is pumped through a dialysate inlet 132 to a dialysate outlet 131 of the dialyzer 128. Blood exits the dialyzer 128 through blood outlet 130 and is pumped back to the patient through venous line 126 and venous blood access connector 134. The arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125 can capture air present in the blood. The ability to capture air present in the blood depends in part upon a fluid level in each of the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125.

    [0079] The pneumatic manifold 101 can contain components for controlling the fluid level in both the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125. The pneumatic manifold 101 contains several valves for controlling the fluid levels in the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125, including a negative valve 106, a positive valve 105, a venous valve 104, and an arterial valve 103. The valves can be electrically powered such that an open or closed state can either be an activated or deactivated state. For example, activating a valve can result in a closed state whereupon deactivating the valve returns into an open state. Conversely, deactivating a valve can result in closed state whereupon activating, the valve is an open state. In certain embodiments, the valves can be activated by applying an electrical current to a solenoid valve. However, any type of valve can be used, and the valve can be activated by any means known in the art.

    [0080] An internal conduit 102 connects the valves. Optionally, the pneumatic manifold 101 can contain a line clamp valve 107 for controlling a venous line clamp 137, which can stop blood flow through the venous line 126. Stopping blood flow through the venous line 126 may be performed in response to air detected in the venous line 126, or for any other reason necessitating stopping the blood flow. Lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125 can require an increase in pressure, which may introduce air into the extracorporeal circuit. If air is detected in the extracorporeal circuit, a controller (not shown) can automatically close the venous line clamp 137, stopping blood flow through the extracorporeal circuit. A pneumatic pump 108 provides the force necessary for raising and lowering the fluid levels in the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125. The fluid levels in the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125 depends on a pressure within each drip chamber. By selectively activating and deactivating the valves in the pneumatic manifold 101 while operating pneumatic pump 108, the pressure in the arterial drip chamber 123 and venous drip chamber 125 can be selectively controlled and/or modulated by raising or lowering the fluid level.

    [0081] The pneumatic pump 108 can be positioned either inside or outside of the pneumatic manifold 101. If positioned outside of the pneumatic manifold 101, the pneumatic pump 108 can be positioned in a fluid line fluidly connected to an outlet 109 and an inlet 110 of the pneumatic manifold 101. The arterial valve 103 is fluidly connected to the internal conduit 102 and a fluid line 120, which fluidly connects to the arterial drip chamber 123. When activated, the arterial valve 103 creates a fluid pathway between the arterial drip chamber 123 and the internal conduit 102. Similarly, the venous valve 104 is fluidly connected to the internal conduit 102 and a fluid line 121, which fluidly connects to the venous drip chamber 125. When activated, the venous valve 104 creates a fluid pathway between the venous drip chamber 125 and the internal conduit 102. Depending on which of the positive valve 105 and negative valve 106 are activated, the pneumatic pump 108 will either pump air into the internal conduit 102, raising the pressure, or pump air out of the internal conduit 102, lowering the pressure. A pressure sensor 112 in the internal conduit 102 can determine the pressure. When activated, the arterial valve 103 or venous valve 104 form a pathway from the internal conduit 102 to the respective drip chambers, causing the fluid level to raise or lower depending on the pressure in the internal conduit 102. An arterial pressure sensor 111 and venous pressure sensor 114 can determine the pressure in the fluid lines 120 and 121, respectively. A flow restrictor 113 downstream of the arterial valve 103 and a flow restrictor 115 downstream of the venous valve 104 can prevent the pressure from changing too quickly. A vent 116 fluidly connected to the positive valve 105 can allow air to escape the pneumatic manifold 101 when the positive valve 105 is deactivated. A line clamp filter 117 filters air pulled into the pneumatic manifold 101 when the negative valve 106 is deactivated. A line clamp valve 107, fluidly connected to a venous line clamp 137 through fluid line 122 can also be included in the pneumatic manifold 101. Low pressure in the fluid line 122 will cause the venous line clamp 137 to close, blocking fluid flow through the venous line 126 when the line clamp valve 107 is activated. When deactivated, line clamp valve 107 forms a fluid pathway with vent 118, allowing a decrease in pressure in the fluid line 122, closing the venous line clamp 137. A line clamp check valve 119, which can be positioned either inside or outside of the pneumatic manifold 101, allows fluid to move only in a direction through the line clamp valve 107 from the positive valve 105 to the line clamp valve 107, while prevent fluid movement in the opposite direction.

    [0082] FIG.'s 2A-E illustrate close-up views of the pneumatic manifold 201. FIG. 2A illustrates the valves selectively activated or deactivated for holding a venous line clamp 243 open; FIG. 2B illustrates the valves selectively activated or deactivated for closing the venous line clamp 243; FIG. 2C illustrates the valves selectively activated or deactivated for opening the venous line clamp 243; FIG. 2D illustrates the valves selectively activated or deactivated for raising a fluid level in an arterial drip chamber 234; and FIG. 2E illustrates the valves selectively activated or deactivated for lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234.

    [0083] In FIG. 2A, the line clamp valve 202 is shown as activated, forming a fluid pathway from the internal conduit 221 to a fluid line 207 fluidly connected to a venous line clamp 243. A line clamp check valve 212 prevents air from moving from the venous line clamp 243 into the rest of the internal conduit 221. The line clamp check valve 212 maintains the positive pressure in fluid line 207, keeping the venous line clamp 243 open. The positive valve 204 and negative valve 203 are shown as deactivated, preventing air from moving into or out of the internal conduit 221. The arterial valve 206 is deactivated, meaning that fluid line 235, fluidly connected to arterial drip chamber 234 is fluidly connected to a blockage 238 rather than connector 239 for connection to the internal conduit 221. The blockage 238 prevents changes in pressure in the arterial drip chamber 234, maintaining the fluid level. The venous valve 205 is also deactivated, meaning that venous line 227, fluidly connected to venous drip chamber 226 is fluidly connected to a blockage 231 rather than connector 230 for connection to the internal conduit 221. The blockage 231 prevents changes in pressure in the venous drip chamber 226, maintaining the fluid level. The selective activating and deactivating of the valves illustrated in FIG. 2A holds the venous line clamp 243 open, allowing fluid movement through the venous line (not shown) of an extracorporeal circuit.

    [0084] In FIG. 2B, the line clamp valve 202 is deactivated, closing the venous line clamp 243. The fluid line 207 is connected to connector 208 when the line clamp valve 202 is deactivated. Connector 208 connects to fluid line 209, which includes a vent. The vent in fluid line 209 allows air to leave the fluid line 207, decreasing the pressure and closing venous line clamp 243.

    [0085] In FIG. 2C, the line clamp valve 202 and positive valve 204 are activated. Activating positive valve 204 forms a fluid pathway, allowing pump 213 to pump air in through line clamp filter 220, through the deactivated negative valve 203, outlet 215, fluid line 214, inlet 216, and through connector 222 of the positive valve 204 into the internal conduit 221. The air flows through line clamp check valve 212 and activated line clamp valve 202 into fluid line 207, raising the pressure in fluid line 207 and opening venous line clamp 243. In FIG. 2C, both the arterial valve 206 and venous valve 205 are shown as deactivated. However, in certain embodiments, either the arterial valve 206 and venous valve 205 can be activated while opening the venous line clamp 243, allowing the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 or venous drip chamber 226 to be lowered simultaneously.

    [0086] In FIG. 2D, both the negative valve 203 and the arterial valve 206 are activated, raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234. Activating the negative valve 203 forms a fluid pathway from the internal conduit 221 through connector 217 to fluid line 214. Activating the arterial valve 206 forms a fluid pathway from arterial drip chamber 234 through fluid line 235 and connector 239 to internal conduit 221. The fluid pathway allows pump 213 to pump air from the arterial drip chamber 234, through the internal conduit 221 and deactivated positive valve 204 to vent 225, lowering the pressure in arterial drip chamber 234 and raising the fluid level. Arterial pressure sensor 236 can determine the pressure in the fluid line 235, and pressure sensor 242 can determine the pressure in internal conduit 221. A pressure difference between arterial pressure sensor 236 and pressure sensor 242 confirms that the pump 213 is properly operating when raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234. Raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 should result in a pressure at pressure sensor 242 that is lower than the pressure at arterial pressure sensor 236. If the pressure difference is not detected, an alert can be generated. A spike in pressure measured by pressure sensor 242 as compared to arterial pressure sensor 236 or a venous pressure sensor 228 could indicate an obstruction in the arterial valve 206 or venous valve 205. Further, because the blood pump (not shown) is generally a pulsatile pump, the pressure as monitored at arterial pressure sensor 236 and venous pressure sensor 228 should give a pulsatile response when the blood pump is operating. A static pressure may also indicate an occlusion. If an occlusion is detected, an alert can be generated by the system. A flow restrictor 237 prevents the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 from rising too rapidly. In FIG. 2D, the line clamp valve 202 is activated, opening the venous line clamp 243. If the extracorporeal circuit has the arterial drip chamber 234 positioned upstream of the blood pump, the venous line clamp 243 can be either opened or closed when raising the fluid level of the arterial drip chamber 234. However, the venous line clamp 243 must be open when raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 if the arterial drip chamber 234 is located downstream of the blood pump. For an arterial drip chamber 234 upstream of the blood pump, the pressure is normally a negative value in the arterial drip chamber 234 when the blood pump is operating during patient connected treatment. Therefore when raising the fluid level of the arterial drip chamber 234, the pressure at pressure sensor 242 becomes more negative. However, for an arterial drip chamber 234 downstream of the blood pump, the drip chamber pressure is normally positive when the blood pump is operating during patient connected treatment. Therefore, when raising the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234, the amount of force required to raise the fluid level can be higher due to the positive pressure in the arterial drip chamber 234 and the pressure difference between pressure sensor 242.

    [0087] In FIG. 2E, both the positive valve 204 and the arterial valve 206 are activated, lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234. Activating the positive valve 204 forms a fluid pathway from the internal conduit 221 through connector 222 to fluid line 214. Activating the arterial valve 206 forms a fluid pathway from arterial drip chamber 234 through fluid line 235 and connector 239 to internal conduit 221. The fluid pathway allows pump 213 to pump air from the line clamp filter 220, through deactivated negative valve 203 to fluid line 214 and then through inlet 216 in connector 222 in positive valve 204. The air can then flow through internal conduit 221, to arterial drip chamber 234 through fluid line 235, raising the pressure in arterial drip chamber 234 and lowering the fluid level. Lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 should result in a pressure at pressure sensor 242 that is higher than the pressure at arterial pressure sensor 236. If the pressure difference is not detected, an alert can be generated. In FIG. 2E, the line clamp valve 202 is activated, opening the venous line clamp 243. If the extracorporeal circuit has the arterial drip chamber 234 upstream of the blood pump the venous line clamp 243 can be either opened or closed when lowering the fluid level of the arterial drip chamber 234. However, the venous line clamp 243 must be open when lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 if the arterial drip chamber 234 is located downstream of the blood pump.

    [0088] In order to adjust the level of either drip chamber, a fluid reservoir is needed to either supply the fluid when raising the drip chamber fluid level or to accept the fluid when lowering a drip chamber fluid level. If the blood pump is not operating when a post-blood pump arterial drip chamber 234 or venous drip chamber 226 fluid level is adjusted, the patient can serve as the fluid reservoir. As such, the venous line clamp should be open to allow the patient to serve as a fluid source for raising the fluid level or to allow the patient to accept fluid when lowering the drip chamber fluid level. In certain embodiments, the ability to adjust the fluid level may be disabled when no fluid reservoir is available because operating the level adjust with no fluid reservoir may result in drip chamber pressure changes without any fluid level changes, triggering a pressure alarm.

    [0089] FIG.'s 2D and 2E illustrate the control of the valves in the pneumatic manifold 201 for raising or lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234. One of skill in the art will understand the same controls can be used to raise or lower the fluid level in the venous drip chamber 226 with the venous valve 205 activated instead of the arterial valve 206. Flow restrictor 229 prevents the fluid level in the venous drip chamber 226 from being changed too quickly, while venous pressure sensor 228 can ensure the pump 213 is functioning properly when venous valve 205 is activated. The fluid levels in both the venous drip chamber 226 and arterial drip chamber 234 can be both raised or lowered simultaneously by activating both the venous valve 205 and the arterial valve 206. However, the fluid level in the venous drip chamber 226 cannot be raised while simultaneously lowering the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber 234 or vice versa.

    [0090] Raising or lowering the fluid level in the venous drip chamber 226 and arterial drip chamber 234 can result in changes in pressure in the extracorporeal circuit. The changes in pressure could cause a transmembrane pressure across the dialyzer to increase beyond a safe limit. Pressure sensors can measure the transmembrane pressure and prevent changes to drip chamber fluid levels if the transmembrane pressure is within a set range of the maximum allowable transmembrane pressure for the dialyzer.

    [0091] The valves of the pneumatic manifold 201 can be operated by a programmable controller (not shown). The controller can automatically adjust the fluid levels in the venous drip chamber 226 and arterial drip chamber 234 as necessary by activating and deactivating the valves as described to maintain a desired fluid level during treatment. The controller can be programmed to maintain a set fluid level in the venous drip chamber 226 and arterial drip chamber 234 and to prevent unwanted fluid level changes.

    [0092] Connectors 210-211 of line clamp valve 202, connectors 218-219 of negative valve 203, connectors 223-224 of positive valve 204, connectors 232-233 of venous valve 205, and connectors 240-241 of arterial valve 206 are unused portions of the valves, and in certain embodiments can be eliminated.

    [0093] FIG. 3 illustrates a non-limiting example of communication between the controller or controllers and the described components. The communication is shown generally by line arrows connecting the respective components. The controller can include a control processor 301, as well as a protective processor 302. A driver 303 can be in communication with the control processor 301 and controls the valves of the pneumatic manifold, including the line clamp valve 307, the venous valve 308, the arterial valve 309, the positive valve 310 and the negative valve 311, represented by valve set 317. The driver 303 can be any driver chip known in the art, including a TI DRV8860 driver chip. Both the control processor 301 and protective processor 302 can enable the driver 303 to operate any of the valves in valve set 317. Either the control processor 301 or protective processor 302 can disable all valves in valve set 317, however, only the control processor 301 can turn on or off individual valves. Field effect transistor 320 can be used to supply power to each of the valves in valve set 317. Optional light emitting diodes 321-325 can be included to indicate application of electrical power to each of the valves 307-311, respectively.

    [0094] The pump 312 can enabled or disabled by either of the control processor 301 and protective processor 302, allowing the pump to be started or shut down as needed during therapy or if required for safety. However, both the control processor 301 and protective processor 302 must send an enable signal to the pump 312 for the pump 312 to run. A field effect transistor 305 can be included to supply power to the pump 312. Connector board 318 can be included for communication between the pump 312, control processor 301, and protective processor 302. A light emitting diode 326 can be included to indicate the application of power to the pump 312.

    [0095] Pressure sensors, illustrated as pressure sensor set 314 can include an arterial pressure sensor, a venous pressure sensor, and an internal conduit pressure sensor. The pressure sensors are in communication with the control processor 301 and protective processor 302 through differential amplifier 304. A multiplexer 306 can be included for communication with the pressure sensors of pressure sensor set 314.

    [0096] Level sensors 313 can monitor the fluid level in the arterial drip chamber and venous drip chamber. The level sensors 313 are in communication with both the control processor 301 and protective processor 302 to control the fluid level in each drip chamber. Connector board 319 can be included for communication between the level sensors 313, control processor 301, and protective processor 302. The venous line clamp, and an arterial line clamp can be monitored by a venous line clamp sensor 315 and an arterial line clamp sensor 316. The line clamp sensors can monitor the state of the line clamps to ensure the line clamps are functioning properly.

    [0097] The arrows shown in FIG. 3 that do not connect to either the control processor 301 or the protective processor 302 represent either wires from a power supply to the components, or ground wires from the components. The voltages applied between the components and the power supply or ground can vary depending on the needs and requirements of the particular electronics used. In one non-limiting example, the six arrows to and from differential amplifier 304 that do not connect to either the control processor 301 or the protective processor 302 can represent + 3.3 volts, a digital ground, +1.5 volts, +5 volts, an analog ground, and -5 volts, respectively.

    [0098] FIG. 4 illustrates potential line clamp positions that can be monitored by the line clamp sensors. Position 401 is an open position. Position 401 is a calibrated range of positions. If in the open range, the venous line clamp may not be in physical contact with the blood tubing. Position 402 is a recharge position. The recharge position is a calculated offset from the last position in the open range. In the recharge position 402, the venous line clamp may not occlude any venous line that might be in the venous line clamp. If the recharge state is reached while the controller commanded venous line clamp state is open, the pressure holding the clamp open will be increased in order to return the clamp to the open position. Position 403 is a transient position between the lower limit of the recharge range and the top of the closed on line range. Position 403 is expected to be a transient condition, and should only be detected when the venous line clamp is in the process of opening or closing. If blood tubing is present in the venous line clamp while in transient position 403, the blood tubing can be partially occluded which could result in hemolysis of the blood. Therefore the venous line clamp should never remain in position 403 while blood is in the venous patient line. Position 404 is a closed on line position. The closed on line position 404 is a calibrated range of positions. The venous line is within an acceptable range of the calibrated position for the clamp to fully occlude the blood tubing to a level sufficient to prevent liquid flow. Position 405 is a transient position between closed on line and closed. Position 405 is expected to be a transient condition, and should only be detected when the clamp is in the process of opening or closing. Position 406 is a closed position. In the closed position 406, the venous line clamp is in a calibrated fully closed position without the presence of tubing.

    [0099] During pre-treatment, the system can verify the functionality and operational status of the venous line clamp. When the operator initiates the start of treatment preparation, before installation of the tubing set, the system commands the venous line clamp to the open state in position 401, and verifies that the venous line clamp sensor detects the venous line clamp to be in the open range. The system then commands the venous line clamp to the closed state in position 406, and verifies that the venous line clamp sensor detects the venous line clamp to be in the closed range. The venous line clamp sensor can be monitored to ensure the venous line clamp closes within a pre-determined time window. If any part of venous line clamp test fails, the system can generate an alarm. The operator may be allowed to reset the alarm, and retry the test.

    [0100] After a first subset of tests are successfully completed, the venous line clamp is opened and the operator is prompted to install the blood disposables, which includes the blood tubing set. Once the user confirms that the disposables are installed, the system commands the venous line clamp to the closed state, and verifies that the venous line clamp sensor detects the venous line clamp to be in the closed on line range in position 404. The venous line clamp sensor will be monitored to ensure the venous line clamp closes on the tube within a pre-determined time window. Finally the system tests that the clamp can be commanded to the open state in position 401, and verifies that the venous line clamp sensor detects the clamp to be in the open range. If any part of the venous line clamp test fails, the system can generate an alarm. The operator may be allowed to reset the alarm, and retry the test.

    [0101] The monitoring of the venous line clamp can be initiated in parallel with the activation of the remaining blood set monitors (i.e., blood pump, blood line pressures, and heparin pump) as illustrated in FIG. 5. The system continues to monitor the venous line clamp until the user confirms that the patient has been disconnected (following a completed blood return process). Once activated, the monitoring of the venous line clamp activity monitors the position of the venous line clamp and resolves the position to one of the six ranges illustrated in FIG. 4. Monitoring the venous line clamp can occur on both the control processor 301 and protective processor 302 illustrated in FIG. 3. A monitor venous line clamp protective protocol can be used by the control processor to send notifications of a change in the state to the protective processor. The monitoring criteria can include (1) determining that the venous line clamp closes on tubing within the time required to prevent an air hazard from reaching the patient, such as 2 seconds; (2) determining that the blood tubing is properly installed in the VLC during the course of the treatment; (3) ensuring there are no hardware or software faults with the line clamp system during treatment; (4) ensuring that the VLC attains the expected range when commanded; and (5) ensuring the venous line clamp remains in the state and position the venous line clamp was last commanded to. The monitoring is performed by both the control and protective system, and either can generate an alarm relating to the venous line clamp condition.

    [0102] Too frequent inflations of the venous line clamp from the recharge position 402 to the open position 401 can be indicative of an air leak in the venous line clamp apparatus. If an air leak is detected before the system is in a hemodialysis patient connection state, a blood side malfunction alarm can be raised and the system can disallow further processing. If the leak is detected after the system enters hemodialysis patient connection state, the treatment can be allowed to continue. The operator may choose to reset an instance of the alarm, or may chose for the machine to pause the audio component of the alarm until the end of the treatment.

    [0103] During the venous line clamp tests, both the control processor and protective processor check the position of the venous line clamp, as reported by the venous line clamp sensor. If the venous line clamp sensor does not detect the correct position, or the position is not reached within the expected time, either the control or protective processors can generate an alarm. The control processor can responsible for reporting the venous line clamp test results to a user interface, which can be responsible for logging the T1 test results. The control processor can be responsible for monitoring for alarm conditions and reporting the alarm conditions to the user interface. The user interface is responsible for reporting the alarm conditions to the user and allowing the user to reset alarms if appropriate.

    [0104] FIG. 5 illustrates a non-limiting embodiment of a work flow can be conducted prior to initiating treatment. The initial state is 501. Treatment preparation begins in step 502. A series of tests on a blood side of a dialysis system can begin in step 509. Test 503 is a zero comparison test of the venous pressure sensor and the arterial pressure sensor, as well as the pressure sensor in the internal conduit. While exposed to atmospheric pressure, the pressure sensors should provide a "zero" reading relative to a pressure sensor measuring atmospheric pressure. Test 504 is a venous line clamp open/closed test, ensuring that the venous line clamp fully opens and fully closes. Passing the venous line clamp open/closed test shows that the pump, positive valve, and line clamp valve are properly functioning. Test 505 is an arterial and venous level test. The arterial and venous level test 505 can begin by activating the negative valve and arterial valve and activating the pump. A pressure change of a predetermined amount in the internal conduit should occur. If the necessary pressure change occurs, the pump is stopped while the arterial valve is kept activated. The pressure in the internal conduit should drop into a predetermined range within a predetermined time period. The negative valve can then be deactivated, the positive valve activated, and the pump started. A pressure change in the internal conduit can occur. The arterial and venous level test 505 can continue with the venous test. The negative valve and venous valve can be activated and the pump activated. A pressure change of a predetermined amount in the internal conduit should occur. If the necessary pressure change occurs, the pump is stopped while the venous valve is kept activated. The pressure in the internal conduit should drop into a predetermined range within a predetermined time period. The negative valve can then be deactivated, the positive valve activated, and the pump started. A pressure change in the internal conduit should again occur. If any of the necessary pressure changes do not occur, an alarm can be generated by the system. The system can prompt the user to retry the test. If the system continues to fail the test, treatment can occur without the ability to use the pneumatic manifold to adjust the arterial or venous drip chamber fluid levels. During the test, only the pressure in the internal conduit should change due to the flow restrictors at the air outlets. If the arterial pressure sensor or venous pressure sensor change in sync with the internal conduit pressure, the system can inform the user to check for either a wetted internal transducer protector or a clamped blood tubing pressure line connected to the pressure port. The venous line clamp test described with reference to FIG. 4 can also be conducted during the arterial and venous level test 505.

    [0105] In test 506, the blood pump is shut down to ensure proper control of the blood pump. If a heparin pump is being used, the heparin pump is fully opened in test 507. In test 508, optical sensors in the arterial and venous lines are read to ensure no tubing is installed.

    [0106] The series of steps illustrated as 510 can be carried out to activate the blood side of the dialysis system for installation of consumables. In step 511, the venous line clamp is opened. In step 512 the pre-treatment blood set monitors are activated. In step 513, the blood pump is enabled in a reverse direction. In step 514, the drip chamber level adjust is activated. In step 515, the heparin pump is activated, if a heparin pump is being used. After the steps in 510, the user can be notified that the system is ready to install blood disposable components in step 516. In step 517 the system can verify the pump door as a background task.

    [0107] The series of steps illustrated as 518 can be carried out to install disposables and perform pre-prime tasks. In step 519, the operator can configure the extracorporeal circuit, install the blood tubing, and as applicable, install the dialyzer, saline, saline administration set, waste bag, and heparin. The venous line is primed in step 520, and the venous line connected to the dialyzer in step 521. The venous drip chamber level is adjusted in step 522. The arterial line is connected to the dialyzer in step 523. If heparin is being used, the user can initialize the heparin pump in step 524. After the blood installation process is completed, the user can be asked to confirm. The user confirms the blood consumables are installed in step 525 and obtains the extracorporeal circuit configuration in step 526. In step 526, the user is prompted to confirm or enter the dialyzer and blood set configurations. The user can be asked whether the dialyzer is being used for the first time, or whether the dialyzer is being reused with peracetic acid or formalin. The user can be asked whether the blood set is 6 or 8 mm, or any other size. The user can be asked whether the arterial drip chamber is upstream or downstream of the blood pump. The user can also be asked whether the priming method is saline or transmembrane. Steps 525 and 526 can be done in parallel or sequentially.

    [0108] Test 527 includes any open tasks, including verification that the pump door is closed, that the venous line clamp is closed on tube, reading the optical sensors to confirm tubing is installed, and activation of monitoring the optical sensors. Each step in test 527 can have a retry or stop treatment option. In step 528, the disposable preparation can continue.

    [0109] After preparing the disposables in step 528, the extracorporeal circuit can be flushed and primed in step 529, shown as series 530. After flushing the extracorporeal circuit, an additional test to verify the response of the arterial pressure sensor and venous pressure sensor can be conducted as part of series 530. The blood pump can be activated in reverse, which will generate changes in the static blood line pressures as measured by the arterial and venous pressure sensors.

    [0110] An example of the response with drip chambers upstream of the blood pump is shown in FIG. 6. Because the blood pump is a pulsatile pump, the pressure should show a pulsatile response. If a pulsatile pressure profile change is not detected during the test, an alert indicating that the arterial and venous level connection should be checked can be generated. In FIG. 6, the bottom line is the blood pump rate, the middle line is the pressure measured by an venous pressure sensor in the pneumatic manifold, and the top line is the pressure measured by a venous pressure sensor in the pneumatic manifold. The x-axis in FIG. 6 is time in seconds, and the y-axis is both pressure relative to atmospheric pressure and blood pump rate relative to the initial blood flow rate. Because the blood pump is running in a reverse direction, the value for the blood pump rate is negative in FIG. 6. When the blood pump is activated in reverse, the venous pressure decreases. As illustrated in FIG. 6, both the arterial pressure and venous pressure show a pulsatile profile after reversal of the blood pump. One of skill in the art will understand that when using an arterial drip chamber downstream of the blood, pump, the pressure change will be in a positive direction and will mirror the venous response. If all tests are passed, the system can be placed in a final state 531 until treatment starts. If any tests are not passed, treatment preparation can be halted in step 532, and the system placed in a non-final state 533.

    [0111] FIG. 7 illustrates an exploded view of a non-limiting embodiment of a pneumatic manifold. The pneumatic manifold can include a base 702 and a body 701. Holes 703 in the base 702 can be used to attach the base 702 to the body 701 by screws or other fasteners. The pneumatic manifold can include an arterial valve 708, a venous valve 712, a positive valve 713, a negative valve 714, and a line clamp valve 704. In FIG. 7, the venous valve 712, positive valve 713, and negative valve 714 are illustrated attached to the body 701, while the arterial valve 708 and line clamp valve 704 are shown unattached. The line clamp valve 704 can include connectors 706 which can connect to the body 701 through gasket 705 and openings 707. Similarly, the arterial valve 708 can include connectors 709 for connection to the body 701 through gasket 710 and openings 711. Outlet 730 can connect the arterial valve 708 to an arterial drip chamber, outlet 731 can connect the venous valve 712 to a venous drip chamber, and inlet 732 can connect a pump to the positive valve 713. Additional inlets and outlets (not shown) can be provided for connection to the negative valve 714 and line clamp valve 704.

    [0112] As illustrated in FIG. 7, in certain embodiments the internal conduit can be segmented into a first segment 715, a second segment 716, and a third segment 717. Alternatively, the internal conduit can be provided as a single conduit through the pneumatic manifold. Fitting 720 can connect the internal conduit to arterial valve 708 through opening 721. Fitting 722 can connect the internal conduit to venous valve 712 through opening 723. Fitting 724 can connect the internal conduit to positive valve 713 through opening 725. Fitting 726 can connect the internal conduit to negative valve 714 through opening 727. Fitting 728, which in certain embodiments can serve as a check valve, can connect the internal conduit to line clamp valve 704 through opening 729.

    [0113] FIG. 8A shows a non-limiting design of a pneumatic manifold 801. The pneumatic manifold 801 can include an arterial valve in position 802, a venous valve in position 803, a positive valve in position 804, a negative valve in position 805, and a line clamp valve in position 806. Openings 807 and 808 connect the arterial valve to an internal conduit, while opening 809 connects the arterial valve to an arterial drip chamber. Openings 811 and 812 connect the venous valve to the internal conduit, while opening 813 connects the venous valve to a venous drip chamber. Openings 814 and 815 connect the positive valve to the internal conduit, while opening 816 connects the positive valve to an inlet and a fluid line having a pump. Openings 817 and 818 connect the negative valve to the internal conduit, while opening 819 connects the negative valve to an outlet and a fluid line having a pump. The line clamp valve can be connected to the internal conduit through openings 821 and 823, and connected to a venous line clamp through opening 825.

    [0114] FIG. 8B is a cross section of the bottom of the pneumatic manifold 801 illustrated in FIG. 8A. Outlet 831 can connect to the negative valve through connector 830. Outlet 831 can be fluidly connected to a fluid line having a pump. The fluid line can also be fluidly connected to inlet 828, which is connected to the positive valve through connector 829. The venous valve can connect to a venous drip chamber through connector 827, and the arterial valve can connect to an arterial drip chamber through connector 826.

    [0115] FIG. 8C is a cross section of the upper portion of the pneumatic manifold 801 illustrated in FIG. 8A. An internal conduit 835 can be fluidly connected to the arterial valve through connector 836, the venous valve through connector 837, the positive valve through connector 838, and the negative valve through connector 839. The line clamp valve can be fluidly connected to an internal conduit 840 through connectors 841 and 842.

    [0116] One skilled in the art will understand that various combinations and/or modifications and variations can be made in the described systems and methods depending upon the specific needs for operation. Moreover features illustrated or described as being part of an aspect of the invention may be used in the aspect of the invention, either alone or in combination.


    Claims

    1. A pneumatic manifold (101), comprising:

    an internal conduit (102);

    a first fluid line (121) fluidly connected to the internal conduit (102); the first fluid line (121) fluidly connectable to a venous drip chamber (125) in an extracorporeal circuit of a dialysis system;

    a second fluid line (120) fluidly connected to the internal conduit (102); the second fluid line (120) fluidly connectable to an arterial drip chamber (123) in the extracorporeal circuit of the dialysis system;

    a venous valve (104) fluidly connecting the first fluid line (121) to the internal conduit (102);

    an arterial valve (103) fluidly connecting the second fluid line (120) to the internal conduit (102);

    a negative valve (106) fluidly connecting the internal conduit (102) to an outlet (109);

    a positive valve (105) fluidly connecting the internal conduit (102) to an inlet (110);

    the inlet (110) and outlet (109) fluidly connectable by a third fluid line containing a pump (108); and

    a controller selectively activating or deactivating the venous valve (104), arterial valve (103), positive valve (105), and negative valve (106); the controller controlling a fluid level in the venous drip chamber (125) and arterial drip chamber (123) by activating or deactivating the valves.


     
    2. The pneumatic manifold (101) of claim 1, further comprising a line clamp valve (107); the line clamp valve (107) fluidly connecting the internal conduit (102) and a second outlet; the second outlet fluidly connectable to a line clamp (137) in the extracorporeal circuit.
     
    3. The pneumatic manifold (101) of any preceding claim, further comprising a vent (116) fluidly connected to the positive valve (105).
     
    4. The pneumatic manifold (101) of claim 2, further comprising a vent (118) fluidly connected to the line clamp valve (107).
     
    5. The pneumatic manifold (101) of claim 2, further comprising a line clamp check valve (119) positioned between the positive valve (105) and the line clamp valve (107); the line clamp check valve (119) allowing fluid to move only in a direction from the positive valve (105) to the line clamp valve (107).
     
    6. The pneumatic manifold (101) of any preceding claim, further comprising a first flow restrictor (115) positioned between the venous valve (104) and the first fluid line (121); and a second flow restrictor (113) positioned between the arterial valve (103) and the second fluid line (120).
     
    7. The pneumatic manifold (101) of any preceding claim, further comprising a venous pressure sensor (114) positioned between the venous valve (104) and the first fluid line (121); and an arterial pressure sensor (111) positioned between the arterial valve (103) and the second fluid line (120).
     
    8. The pneumatic manifold (101) of any preceding claim, further comprising a pressure sensor (112) positioned in the internal conduit (102).
     
    9. The pneumatic manifold (101) of any preceding claim, further comprising a line clamp filter; the line clamp filter (117) fluidly connected to the negative valve (106) and a second inlet of the pneumatic manifold (101); wherein the internal conduit (102) is fluidly connected to the outlet when the negative valve (106) is activated and fluidly connected to the line clamp filter (117) when the negative valve (106) is deactivated.
     
    10. The pneumatic manifold (101) of claim 2, further comprising a vent (118) fluidly connected to the line clamp valve (107); wherein the internal conduit (102) is fluidly connected to the second outlet when the line clamp valve (107) is activated and fluidly connected to the vent (118) when the line clamp valve (107) is deactivated.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101), Folgendes umfassend:

    einen internen Kanal (102);

    eine erste Fluidleitung (121), die mit dem internen Kanal (102) fluidisch verbunden ist; wobei die erste Fluidleitung (121) mit einer venösen Tropfkammer (125) in einem extrakorporalen Kreislauf eines Dialysesystems fluidisch verbindbar ist;

    eine zweite Fluidleitung (120), die mit dem internen Kanal (102) fluidisch verbunden ist; wobei die zweite Fluidleitung (120) mit einer arteriellen Tropfkammer (123) in dem extrakorporalen Kreislauf des Dialysesystems fluidisch verbindbar ist;

    ein venöses Ventil (104), das die erste Fluidleitung (121) mit dem internen Kanal (102) fluidisch verbindet;

    ein arterielles Ventil (103), das die zweite Fluidleitung (120) mit dem internen Kanal (102) fluidisch verbindet;

    ein negatives Ventil (106), das den internen Kanal (102) mit einem Auslass (109) fluidisch verbindet;

    ein positives Ventil (105), das den internen Kanal (102) mit einem Einlass (110) fluidisch verbindet;

    der Einlass (110) und der Auslass (109), die durch eine dritte Fluidleitung, die eine Pumpe (108) enthält, fluidisch verbindbar sind; und

    eine Steuervorrichtung, das venöse Ventil (104), das arterielle Ventil (103), das positive Ventil (105) und das negative Ventil (106) wahlweise aktiviert oder deaktiviert; wobei die Steuervorrichtung einen Fluidstand in der venösen Tropfkammer (125) und der arteriellen Tropfkammer (123) durch Aktivieren oder Deaktivieren der Ventile steuert.


     
    2. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach Anspruch 1, ferner umfassend ein Leitungsklammerventil (107); wobei das Leitungsklammerventil (107) den internen Kanal (102) mit einem zweiten Auslass verbindet; wobei der zweite Auslass mit einer Leitungsklammer (137) in dem extrakorporalen Kreislauf fluidisch verbindbar ist.
     
    3. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend eine Entlüftungsöffnung (116), die mit dem positiven Ventil (105) fluidisch verbunden ist.
     
    4. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach Anspruch 2, ferner umfassend eine Entlüftungsöffnung (118), die mit dem Leitungsklammerventil (107) fluidisch verbunden ist.
     
    5. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach Anspruch 2, ferner umfassend ein Leitungsklammerrückschlagventil (119), das zwischen dem positiven Ventil (105) und dem Leitungsklammerventil (107) angeordnet ist; wobei das Leitungsklammerrückschlagventil (119) ermöglicht, dass sich Fluid nur in der Richtung von dem positiven Ventil (105) zu dem Leitungsklammerventil (107) bewegt.
     
    6. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend einen ersten Durchflussbegrenzer (115), der zwischen dem venösen Ventil (104) und der ersten Fluidleitung (121) angeordnet ist; und einen zweiten Durchflussbegrenzer (113), der zwischen dem arteriellen Ventil (103) und der zweiten Fluidleitung (120) angeordnet ist.
     
    7. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend einen venöser Drucksensor (114), der zwischen dem venösen Ventil (104) und der ersten Fluidleitung (121) angeordnet ist; und einen arteriellen Drucksensor (111), der zwischen dem arteriellen Venil (103) und der zweiten Fluidleitung (120) angeordnet ist.
     
    8. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend einen Drucksensor (112), der in dem internen Kanal (102) angeordnet ist.
     
    9. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach einem der vorhergehenden Ansprüche, ferner umfassend einen Leitungsklammerfilter; wobei der Leitungsklammerfilter (117) mit dem negativen Ventil (106) und einem zweiten Einlass des pneumatischen Verteilers (101) fluidisch verbunden ist; wobei der interne Kanal (102) mit dem Auslass fluidisch verbunden ist, wenn das negative Ventil (106) deaktiviert ist, und mit dem Leitungsklammerfilter (117) fluidisch verbunden ist, wenn das negative Ventil (106) deaktiviert ist.
     
    10. Pneumatischer Verteiler (101) nach Anspruch 2, ferner umfassend eine Entlüftungsöffnung (118), das mit dem Leitungsklammerventil (107) fluidisch verbunden ist; wobei der interne Kanal (102) mit dem zweiten Auslass fluidisch verbunden ist, wenn das Leitungsklammerventil (107) aktiviert ist, und mit der Entlüftungsöffnung (118) fluidisch verbunden ist, wenn das Leitungsklammerventil (107) deaktiviert ist.
     


    Revendications

    1. Collecteur pneumatique (101), comprenant :

    un conduit interne (102) ;

    une première ligne de fluide (121) raccordée de manière fluide au conduit interne (102) ; la première ligne de fluide (121) pouvant être raccordée de manière fluide à une chambre compte-gouttes veineuse (125) dans un circuit extra-corporel d'un système de dialyse ;

    une deuxième ligne de fluide (120) raccordée de manière fluide au conduit interne (102) ; la deuxième ligne de fluide (120) pouvant être raccordée de manière fluide à une chambre compte-gouttes artérielle (123) dans le circuit extra-corporel du système de dialyse ;

    une valve veineuse (104) raccordant de manière fluide la première ligne de fluide (121) au conduit interne (102) ;

    une valve artérielle (103) raccordant de manière fluide la deuxième ligne de fluide (120) au conduit interne (102) ;

    une valve négative (106) raccordant de manière fluide le conduit interne (102) à un orifice de sortie (109) ;

    une valve positive (105) raccordant de manière fluide le conduit interne (102) à un orifice d'entrée (110) ;

    l'orifice d'entrée (110) et l'orifice de sortie (109) pouvant être raccordés de manière fluide par une troisième ligne de fluide contenant une pompe (108) ; et

    un dispositif de commande activant ou désactivant de manière sélective la valve veineuse (104), la valve artérielle (103), la valve positive (105) et la valve négative (106) ; le dispositif de commande commandant un niveau de fluide dans la chambre compte-gouttes veineuse (125) et la chambre compte-gouttes artérielle (123) en activant ou en désactivant les valves.


     
    2. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon la revendication 1, comprenant en outre une valve de clamp de ligne (107) ; la valve de clamp de ligne (107) raccordant de manière fluide le conduit interne (102) et un second orifice de sortie ; le second orifice de sortie pouvant être raccordé de manière fluide à un clamp de ligne (137) dans le circuit extra-corporel.
     
    3. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un filtre à évent (116) raccordé de manière fluide à la valve positive (105).
     
    4. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon la revendication 2, comprenant en outre un filtre à évent (118) raccordé de manière fluide à la valve de clamp de ligne (107).
     
    5. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon la revendication 2, comprenant en outre une valve anti-retour de clamp de ligne (119) positionnée entre la valve positive (105) et la valve de clamp de ligne (107) ; la valve anti-retour de clamp de ligne (119) permettant au fluide de se déplacer uniquement dans une direction allant de la valve positive (105) à la valve de clamp de ligne (107).
     
    6. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un premier réducteur de débit (115) positionné entre la valve veineuse (104) et la première ligne de fluide (121) ; et un second réducteur de débit (113) positionné entre la valve artérielle (103) et la deuxième ligne de fluide (120).
     
    7. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un premier réducteur de débit (114) positionné entre la valve veineuse (104) et la première ligne de fluide (121) ; et un second réducteur de débit (111) positionné entre la valve artérielle (103) et la deuxième ligne de fluide (120).
     
    8. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre une sonde de pression (112) positionnée dans le conduit interne (102).
     
    9. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes, comprenant en outre un filtre à clamp de ligne ; le filtre de clamp de ligne (117) étant raccordé de manière fluide au clapet négatif (106) et à un second orifice d'entrée du collecteur pneumatique (101) ; dans lequel le conduit interne (102) est raccordé de manière fluide à l'orifice de sortie lorsque la valve négative (106) est activée et raccordé de manière fluide au filtre de clamp de ligne (117) lorsque la valve négative (106) est désactivée.
     
    10. Collecteur pneumatique (101) selon la revendication 2, comprenant en outre un filtre à évent (118) raccordé de manière fluide à la valve de clamp de ligne (107) dans lequel le conduit interne (102) est raccordé de manière fluide au second orifice de sortie lorsque le clapet de clamp de ligne (107) est activé et raccordé de manière fluide au filtre à évent (118) lorsque le clapet de clamp de ligne (107) est désactivé.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description