(19)
(11)EP 3 514 526 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
24.07.2019 Bulletin 2019/30

(21)Application number: 18820234.5

(22)Date of filing:  23.02.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G01N 25/48  (2006.01)
G01N 33/00  (2006.01)
G01N 25/56  (2006.01)
F26B 3/02  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/KR2018/002270
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/236026 (27.12.2018 Gazette  2018/52)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 23.06.2017 KR 20170079445

(71)Applicant: LG Chem, Ltd.
Seoul 07336 (KR)

(72)Inventors:
  • CHOI, Yong Joon
    Daejeon 34122 (KR)
  • PARK, Won Chan
    Daejeon 34122 (KR)
  • SONG, Kyung Hyun
    Daejeon 34122 (KR)

(74)Representative: Goddar, Heinz J. 
Boehmert & Boehmert Anwaltspartnerschaft mbB Pettenkoferstrasse 22
80336 München
80336 München (DE)

  


(54)METHOD FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CARBONIZATION DURING DRYING OF ORGANIC MATERIAL


(57) The present invention relates to a method for early detection of carbonization during the drying of an organic material. The method of the present invention measures temperature variation per unit time of exhaust gas containing water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), or carbon dioxide (CO2), which are to be generated by the pyrolysis of an organic material, and the concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide of the exhaust gas, so as to determine the occurrence of carbonization therethrough, thereby enabling early detection of carbonization within a dryer.




Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


1. Field of the Invention



[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority to Korean Patent Application No. 10-2017-0079445, filed on June 23, 2017, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0002] The present invention relates to a method for the early detection of carbonization phenomenon to prevent safety accidents such as fire due to carbonization during a drying process of products made from organic materials in a dryer after synthesis of the products.

2. Description of the Related Art



[0003] Currently manufactured organic products, such as products of particle-based basic material are dried in a dryer through processes such as synthesis and dehydration and are allowed to meet specifications by controlling a temperature and a wind speed of hot air used in a drying process.

[0004] In general, among the various controllable drying factors, higher temperature of hot air is advantageous in terms of product quality (in terms of reduced residual solvent) and productivity. However, for product quality and safety, the product is dried with hot air below a certain level of temperature. Nevertheless, accidents caused by carbonization in the dryer have been continuously reported. Potential for carbonization is likely to lead to a major fire accident and therefore safety and productivity problems may occur.

[0005] The causes of most of carbonization phenomenon are not clear, so that prevention through the early detection of carbonization could be the best solution. Currently, it is common to check a temperature of exhaust emitted from the dryer or for an operator to directly smell and detect occurrence time of carbonization. However, this method is inaccurate in identifying the occurrence time of carbonization and may lead to safety accidents. Accordingly, a method for more accurately identifying the occurrence time of carbonization has been continuously required. It has found by the present inventors that a method for the early detection of carbonization phenomenon by using an increase in exhaust temperature, an increase in concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide in exhaust, and the like.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0006] An object of the present invention is to provide a method for the early detection of carbonization phenomenon to prevent safety accidents such as fire due to carbonization during a drying process of products made from organic materials in a dryer after synthesis of the products.

[0007] In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a method for detecting exhaust temperature and concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide in exhaust for the prevention of safety accidents caused by unexplained causes inside a dryer using hot air and hot water.

[0008] The products made from organic materials are dried with hot air in a dryer after synthesis, dehydration, etc. When the organic materials are heated, water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and the like are released by pyrolysis. In this process, an exothermic reaction is accompanied and the temperature rises, which causes an increase in the exhaust temperature.

[0009] The present invention provides a method for the detection of carbonization at an early stage by measuring an increase in exhaust temperature and/or a concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide generated according to an exothermic reaction occurred during carbonization. In the present invention, the concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide in exhaust is measured through a laboratory test (Lab Test) under conditions similar to those of actual fields to analyze ability for the detection of carbonization and real applications are presented based on the ability. In the case that the organic materials are dried at a high temperature and substances that are likely to be carbonized are dried, according to the method of the present invention, it can be expected to improve safety and productivity due to prevention of carbonization and fire.

[0010] The detection method according to the present invention is applied to a situation where it is impossible to visually identify the internal state of the dryer due to a large number of fine particles, that is, a situation where there is no method for identifying carbonization other than scenting odor outside. Also, the method is applied when it is impossible to install a gas concentration meter inside the dryer because of high internal temperature of the dryer and the gas concentration should be measured through a gas which is cooled down to a certain temperature after exhaust in the cyclone and the like.

[0011] In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for the early detection of carbonization during a drying process of an organic material, comprising:
  1. (1) hot-air drying the organic material in a dryer; and
    at least one step of
  2. (2) detecting a change in temperature per unit time of exhaust including water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by the drying; or
  3. (3) detecting a concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust; or
  4. (4) detecting a concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust,
wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the exhaust temperature rises at a rate of 0.5 °C/min or more in the step (2), or when the concentration of carbon monoxide exceeds 2 ppm in the step (3), or when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases by 10% or more in the step (4).

[0012] In one embodiment, the organic material comprises polymer particles having a diameter of 500 µm or less.

[0013] In one embodiment, the area in which the drying and carbonization of the organic material occur is the inside of a large scale (having several tens of square meters) fluidized bed dryer (FBD: a dryer for drying the fluidized state of particles), which is mainly used in industry to dry polymer particles.

EFFECT OF THE INVENTION



[0014] According to the method for the early detection of carbonization of the present invention, it is possible to early detect carbonization in a dryer by determining the occurrence of carbonization through measurement of change in exhaust temperature of the dryer per unit time and/or the increase in the concentration of carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide in the exhaust.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0015] 

Fig. 1 illustrates a method for the detection of carbonization according to a comparative example, in which it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the internal temperature or the exhaust temperature of a dryer is out of a predetermined normal temperature range while monitoring the temperature during drying of products.

Fig. 2 illustrates a method for the detection of carbonization, in which a warning signal is activated when the increase of exhaust temperature is measured to be over predetermined value while monitoring a change in the exhaust temperature per unit time according to the present invention.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0016] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail.

[0017] The terms and words used in the present specification and claims should not be construed as limited to ordinary or dictionary meanings. They should be construed as meaning and concept consistent with the technical idea of the present invention based on the principle that the inventor can properly define the concept of the term in order to explain his invention in the best way.

[0018] In one embodiment, the method for the early detection of carbonization during a drying process of an organic material according to the present invention, comprises:
  1. (1) hot-air drying the organic material in a dryer; and
    at least one step of
  2. (2) detecting a change in exhaust temperature per unit time including water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by the drying; or
  3. (3) detecting a concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust; or
  4. (4) detecting a concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust,
wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the exhaust temperature rises at a rate of 0.5 °C/min or more in the step (2), or when the concentration of carbon monoxide exceeds 2 ppm in the step (3), or when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases by 10% or more in the step (4).

[0019] In one embodiment, the method comprises two or more of the steps (2) to (4).

[0020] In one embodiment, the organic material comprises polymer particles having a diameter of 500 µm or less, for example at least one of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high density polyethylene (HDPE).

[0021] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time of exhaust including water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by drying is 0.5 °C/min or more. This can be changed depending on the materials and dryer conditions, for example, to 2 °C/4 min.

[0022] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm.

[0023] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.

[0024] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm.

[0025] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.

[0026] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.

[0027] In one embodiment, it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.

[0028] As described above, the method for the early detection of carbonization according to the present invention enables to accurately identify the occurrence time of carbonization by using the specific criteria for generation of carbonization as compared with the conventional method. According to the present method, carbonization accident can be prevented, and stability and product productivity can be improved.

[0029] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in more detail with reference to Examples. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that the embodiments described below are intended to be illustrative of the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

Comparative Example - Monitoring of internal/exhaust temperature of dryer



[0030] In this comparative example, the conventional method for the detection of carbonization will be described.

[0031] During drying products made from organic materials after synthesizing them, the internal or exhaust temperature of the dryer is monitored. If the temperature is out of the predetermined normal operation range, it is determined that there is a possibility of carbonization.

[0032] In the case of a large scale dryer, there is a lot of noise in measurement data of the internal temperature. Therefore, even if the actual carbonization does not occur, the temperature may be higher than a certain temperature or may be maintained over a certain temperature for a while, depending on the situation. In addition, there is a disadvantage that even if a rapid temperature change occurs due to carbonization, it is difficult to estimate the exothermic reaction due to carbonization when the temperature is within the normal operation range.

[0033] In this regard, referring to Fig. 1 showing the change of internal temperature of the dryer over time, in the case of "①", it is appeared to be out of the normal operation range, but it is a phenomenon that can occur depending on data noise or situation and a possibility of carbonization is substantially low. On the other hand, in the case of "②", there is a possibility to determine carbonization to be occurred in view of the rapid temperature change, but a real possibility of carbonization is low because the temperature is within the normal operation range.

[0034] Therefore, the conventional method for the detection of carbonization is not reliable in detecting accurate time point of carbonization.

Example



[0035] In the present example, the method for the detection of carbonization according to the present invention will be described.

1. Monitoring of change in exhaust temperature of dryer



[0036] In order to solve the problems of the comparative example, the change of the exhaust temperature per unit time can be analyzed and utilized.

[0037] The change of the exhaust temperature per unit time is monitored and it can be utilized as a method for checking carbonization by activating a warning signal when the temperature rise is measured to be above a certain value even though there is no special temperature change (If carbonization accompanied by an exothermic reaction occurs, a sudden temperature rise occurs).

[0038] In this regard, referring to Fig. 2 showing the change of exhaust temperature per unit time, there is a possibility of carbonization if the temperature rise exceeds the limit of temperature change (corresponding to "②").

[0039] As a result of a laboratory test (Lab Test) on carbonization, it can be determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more.

[0040] In fact, the results of monitoring the change in exhaust temperature per unit time have been applied to mass production.

2. Monitoring of concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust



[0041] In the carbonization process of organic materials, water and carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide are generated. Since carbon dioxide among them is generated in the largest amount, monitoring of the concentration of carbon dioxide can be utilized as a method for checking carbonization by activating a warning signal when the concentration exceeds a certain level.

[0042] As a result of a laboratory test (Lab test) on carbonization, it was confirmed that the concentration of carbon dioxide increased by 10% or more when carbonization and smoke generation were occurred. It can be determined that carbonization is occurred based on this result.

3. Monitoring of concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust



[0043] In the carbonization process of organic materials, it is known that carbon monoxide is generated in a relatively small amount, compared to carbon dioxide, for example, at a level of 1/10 to 1/5 of the amount of carbon dioxide generated.

[0044] Carbon dioxide generally exists in the air at a level of 400 ppm. However, the reference concentration thereof may actually vary by more than 100 ppm depending on the situation and environment, which causes data fluctuation. On the other hand, carbon monoxide exists in the air at 0 to 2 ppm, so that the base line of the reference concentration is clear and there is little data fluctuation.

[0045] Therefore, it can be determined that carbonization proceeds when the concentration of carbon monoxide exceeds 2 ppm.

[0046] The descriptions and results of the laboratory test (Lab test) carried out in the present invention, which reproduces the carbonization at the actual field, are described below.

<Description about laboratory test>



[0047] A laboratory test is for ABS powders that are dried in a fluidized bed dryer (FBD), but also the test is expected to be applicable to various types of dryers for other organic materials.

Purpose of laboratory test



[0048] This is to identify the possibility of the detection of CO/CO2 by installing a detection instrument for monitoring of carbonization of ABS powders.

[0049] Contents of laboratory test
  • Carbonization phenomenon of powders accumulated in a dryer is reproduced.
  • Changes in appearance of ABS powders and changes in CO and CO2 concentration due to the increase of a surface temperature, are observed.


[0050] Specification of CO/CO2 meter for laboratory test
  • CO meter: accuracy: 5 ppm, range: 0 to 1,000 ppm, reaction time: -30 sec
  • CO2 meter: accuracy: 40 ppm, range: 0 to 4,000 ppm, reaction time: -30 sec
Results of laboratory test
Temperature of hot plateTest 1Test 2
CO (ppm)CO2 (ppm)Appearance changeCO (ppm)CO2 (ppm)Appearance
20 0 380-420 No special 0 485-520 No special
90 1-2 1 475-540
125 2-3 1 470-490
150 4 Weak discoloration 2 490-540 Weak discoloration1)
160 7 Malfunction Severe discoloration 3-4 490-530 Severe discoloration 2)
170 - 4-5 490-500
180 - 6-12 480-530
190 - 13-23 - Carbonization progress 3)
200 - 23-34 480-500 Carbonization progress
210 44 465 Carbonization / smoke generated 65 550-560 Carbonization / smoke generated 4)
*The average concentrations of CO and CO2 in the atmosphere are at a level of 0 ∼ 2 ppm and of 400 ppm, respectively, but may vary depending on the environment.


[0051] The appearance change in the above table, that is, states of 1) to 4) with respect to surface discoloration, are as follows (the circled portion indicates a state of a bottom surface).





[0052] Conclusion on Laboratory test
  • The reproduction of accumulated ABS powders and carbonization phenomenon due to the increase of a surface temperature, the changes of appearance due to the increase of a surface temperature, and the changes of CO and CO2 concentrations are observed.
  • Carbonization phenomenon can be reproduced.
  • Regarding the concentration of carbon monoxide, it is observed that a slight change in concentration is occurred as carbonization progresses. Before smoke is generated and complete carbonization is occurred, it is observed that the change in concentration is relatively rapid. After smoke is generated, a sharp change in concentration is observed. From the results of observation, the ability of detecting carbonization by a carbon monoxide sensor is identified. There is an advantage that the reference concentration thereof is almost 0 ppm.
  • Regarding the concentration of carbon dioxide, the experimental equipment is simple and the accuracy of the equipment is low. Therefore, it is difficult to implement the measurement via a laboratory test. However, when carbonization is occurred and smoke is generated, it is observed that the concentration of carbon dioxide increases by about 10% compared to the reference concentration thereof (which can vary depending on the environment/situation). From the results of observation, the possibility of detecting carbonization by a carbon dioxide sensor is identified.
  • This experiment was carried out in an open space. However, it is considered that carbonization can be monitored by measuring the concentration in a dryer to be detected in a closed space, using a carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide meter with excellent performance.


[0053] While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to figures and embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the scope of the present invention is not limited thereby and that various changes and modifications may be made therein. Therefore, the actual scope of the present invention will be defined by the appended claims and their equivalents.


Claims

1. A method for the early detection of carbonization during a drying process of an organic material, comprising:

(1) hot-air drying the organic material in a dryer; and
at least one step of

(2) detecting a change in temperature per unit time of exhaust including water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO) or carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by the drying; or

(3) detecting a concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust; or

(4) detecting a concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust,

wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the exhaust temperature rises at a rate of 0.5 °C/min or more in the step (2), or when the concentration of carbon monoxide exceeds 2 ppm in the step (3), or when the concentration of carbon dioxide increases by 10% or more in the step (4).
 
2. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein the organic material comprises polymer particles having a diameter of 500 µm or less.
 
3. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 2, wherein the polymer particles are at least one of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and high density polyethylene (HDPE).
 
4. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein the dryer is a fluidized bed dryer (FBD: a dryer for drying the fluidized state of particles).
 
5. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein the method comprise at least two of the steps (2) to (4).
 
6. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more and the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm.
 
7. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.
 
8. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.
 
9. The method for the early detection of carbonization according to claim 1, wherein it is determined that carbonization is occurred when the change in temperature per unit time is 0.5 °C/min or more, the concentration of carbon monoxide in the exhaust exceeds 2 ppm and the concentration of carbon dioxide in the exhaust increases by 10% or more.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description