(19)
(11)EP 3 560 831 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
18.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/12

(21)Application number: 18204448.7

(22)Date of filing:  05.11.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B64C 27/39  (2006.01)
B64C 27/35  (2006.01)
B64C 27/51  (2006.01)

(54)

ARTICULATED ROTOR SYSTEMS WITH BLADE-TO-BLADE DAMPING

GELENKIGE ROTORSYSTEME MIT ROTORBLATT-ZU-BLATT DÄMPFUNG

SYSTÈMES DE ROTOR ARTICULÉS À AMORTISSEMENT INTER-PALE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.04.2018 US 201815961713

(43)Date of publication of application:
30.10.2019 Bulletin 2019/44

(73)Proprietor: Bell Helicopter Textron Inc.
Fort Worth, TX 76101 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Haldeman, Andrew Paul
    Fort Worth, TX 76102 (US)
  • Hampton, Dalton T.
    Fort Worth, TX 76104 (US)
  • Stamps, Frank Bradley
    Colleyville, TX 76034 (US)

(74)Representative: Barker Brettell LLP 
100 Hagley Road Edgbaston
Birmingham B16 8QQ
Birmingham B16 8QQ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 4 915 585
US-A1- 2017 129 598
US-A1- 2016 059 959
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE



    [0001] The present disclosure relates, in general, to rotor systems operable for use on rotorcraft and, in particular, to articulated rotor systems including coincident hinges between the yoke and the rotor blades and having a blade-to-blade damping ring providing pitch independent lead-lag damping.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] The main rotor of a helicopter typically includes a plurality of rotor blades that are coupled to a rotor hub. This rotor system is mounted on a vertical mast atop the helicopter such that rotation of the rotor system generates vertical lift that supports the weight of the helicopter and lateral thrust that allows the helicopter to engage in forward, backward and sideward flight. Certain main rotors may be articulated rotor systems in which the rotor blades have three degrees of freedom; namely, blade pitch about a pitch change axis, blade flap about a flapping axis and lead-lag about a lead-lag axis. These articulated rotor systems typically include a lead-lag damper for each rotor blade. In addition, these articulated rotor systems may include a separate hinge for each degree of freedom of each rotor blade requiring, for example, twelve hinges in a rotor system having four rotor blades. One option for reducing the complexity of such articulated rotor systems is to use a centrifugal force bearing that provides a coincident hinge for all three degrees of freedom. It has been found, however, that the damping force of the lead-lag dampers in such coincident hinge articulated rotor systems is affected by the pitch of the rotor blades. Therefore, a need has arisen for an improved articulated rotor system in which the damping force of the lead-lag dampers is not affected by the pitch of the rotor blades.

    [0003] A rotor head having interblade ties with resilient return in lag and with built-in damping is disclosed in US4915585. Each tie is connected, to each of the two rotor blades joined by it, by articulation means comprising a main ball retained on a member connecting a blade to the hub and centered on or in immediate proximity to the pitch change axis of the corresponding blade. A single main ball may be connected to the adjacent ends of two neighboring ties by a connection member having the shape of a V open towards the hub, or else each tie is connected to a connection member by a respective one of two main balls offset transversely in relation to the pitch change axis of the blade and/or radially along said axis.

    [0004] A rotor blade coupling device for coupling with a rotor mast so as to create a rotor head of a rotary-wing aircraft is disclosed in US2016059959. The device encompasses a rotor head central piece, at least two rotor blade holders fastened to the rotor head central piece for accommodating at least two rotor blades lying in a rotor plane, as well as at least one joining means between adjacent rotor blade holders. The rotor blade coupling device as the joining means encompasses at least one closed ring. The ring is arranged so as to cross all rotor blade holders at least at one respective joining location, and at least indirectly join together all rotor blade holders.

    [0005] A rotor blade coupling device for coupling to a rotor mast having a rotor head centrepiece is disclosed in US2017129598. The coupling device has at least three rotor blade mountings mounted on the rotor head centerpiece and accommodating at least three rotor blades lying in a rotor plane, and at least one connecting element between adjacent rotor blade mountings. The rotor blade mountings can carry out pivoting motions about a pivoting axis extending vertical to the rotor plane. The at least one connecting element is a damping device, and the rotor blade coupling device has a plate-shaped transfer element, which respectively crosses a rotor blade mounting and is coupled to at least one damping device.

    SUMMARY



    [0006] An aspect of the invention is set out according to appended claim 1. Embodiments of the invention are set out according to the appended dependent claims.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0007] For a more complete understanding of the features and advantages of the present disclosure, reference is now made to the detailed description along with the accompanying figures in which corresponding numerals in the different figures refer to corresponding parts and in which:

    Figures 1A-1B are schematic illustrations of a helicopter having an articulated rotor system with pitch independent blade-to-blade damping in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure;

    Figures 2A-2B are top and sides views of an articulated rotor system with pitch independent blade-to-blade damping in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure; and

    Figures 3A-3C are various views of component parts of an articulated rotor system with pitch independent blade-to-blade damping in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.


    DETAILED DESCRIPTION



    [0008] While the making and using of various embodiments of the present disclosure are discussed in detail below, it should be appreciated that the present disclosure provides many applicable inventive concepts, which can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts. The specific embodiments discussed herein are merely illustrative and do not delimit the scope of the present disclosure. In the interest of clarity, not all features of an actual implementation may be described in the present disclosure. It will of course be appreciated that in the development of any such actual embodiment, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made to achieve the developer's specific goals, such as compliance with system-related and business-related constraints, which will vary from one implementation to another. Moreover, it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time-consuming but would be a routine undertaking for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.

    [0009] In the specification, reference may be made to the spatial relationships between various components and to the spatial orientation of various aspects of components as the devices are depicted in the attached drawings. However, as will be recognized by those skilled in the art after a complete reading of the present disclosure, the devices, members, apparatuses, and the like described herein may be positioned in any desired orientation. Thus, the use of terms such as "above," "below," "upper," "lower" or other like terms to describe a spatial relationship between various components or to describe the spatial orientation of aspects of such components should be understood to describe a relative relationship between the components or a spatial orientation of aspects of such components, respectively, as the device described herein may be oriented in any desired direction. As used herein, the term "coupled" may include direct or indirect coupling by any means, including moving and nonmoving mechanical connections.

    [0010] Referring now to figures 1A-1B in the drawings, a rotorcraft depicted as helicopter 10 is schematically illustrated. Helicopter 10 includes a body depicted as fuselage 12 and tailboom 14. Helicopter 10 includes a rotor system depicted as main rotor 16 that is supported atop helicopter 10 by a mast 18. Main rotor 16 includes six rotor blades 20 coupled to a rotor hub 22 including a blade-to-blade damping ring 24 operable to provide pitch independent lead-lag damping. The pitch of rotor blades 20 can be collectively and cyclically manipulated by a pitch control assembly 26 including, for example, a rise and fall swashplate. Helicopter 10 includes an anti-torque system depicted as tail rotor 28. Torque and rotational energy is provided to main rotor 16 through mast 18 from a power system depicted as engines 30a, 30b and a main gearbox 32. Main gearbox 32 includes gear systems such as a gear reducing transmission designed to enable optimum engine speed and optimal rotor speed during flight operations. In the illustrated embodiment, engines 30a, 30b are depicted as power turbine engines. The angular velocity or revolutions per minute (RPM) of main rotor 16, the pitch of rotor blades 20 and the like are determined using a flight control system 34, with or without pilot input, to selectively control the direction, thrust and lift of helicopter 10 during flight. Helicopter 10 has a landing gear system 36 to provide ground support for the aircraft.

    [0011] Even though the rotor system of the present disclosure has been depicted and described as having a particular number of rotor blades, it should be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that, a rotor system of the present disclosure could have alternate numbers of rotor blades both greater than or less than six. Also, even through the rotor system of the present disclosure has been depicted and described as be being the main rotor of a helicopter, it should be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that the teachings of certain embodiments relating to the rotor systems described herein may apply to other rotor systems, including, but not limited to, helicopter tail rotors, proprotors for tiltrotor aircraft, rotor systems for quad and multi rotor aircraft and the like. In addition, it should be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that the teachings of certain embodiments relating to the rotor systems of the present disclosure described herein may apply to both manned and unmanned aircraft.

    [0012] In general, rotor systems for rotorcraft should be designed to achieve blade flap or out-of-plane frequencies and lead-lag or in-plane frequencies that are sufficiently distant from the excitation frequencies generated by the rotor systems corresponding to 1/rev (1 per revolution), 2/rev, 3/rev, etc. As an example, if a rotor system has an operating speed of 360 RPM, the corresponding 1/rev excitation frequency is 6 Hertz (360 / 60 = 6Hz). Similarly, the corresponding 2/rev excitation frequency is 12 Hz and the corresponding 3/rev excitation frequency is 18 Hz. It should be understood by those having ordinary skill in the art that a change in the operating speed of a rotor system will result in a proportional change in the excitation frequencies generated by the rotor system. Preferably, rotor blades 20 are formed from a high-strength and lightweight material. For example, the structural components of rotor blades 20 may be formed from carbon-based materials such as graphite-based materials, graphene-based materials or other carbon allotropes including carbon nanostructure-based materials such as materials including single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Rotor blades 20 are preferably designed to a desired in-plane stiffness such that when operated within the rotor systems of the present disclosure, the first-in-plane lead-lag frequency of rotor blades 20 is decoupled from the per revolution excitations frequencies and the out-of-plane flapping frequency.

    [0013] Referring next to figures 2A-2B and 3A-3C in the drawings, an articulated rotor system with pitch independent blade-to-blade damping is depicted and generally designated 100. In the illustrated embodiment, rotor system 100 includes a yoke 102 having six rotor blades 104 coupled thereto. As best seen in figure 3A-3B, yoke 102 includes six pockets 102a. A mast 106 couples rotor system 100 to the power system of the rotorcraft including an engine and transmission that provide torque and rotational energy to rotor system 100 to enable rotation about a rotational axis 108. In the illustrated embodiment, each rotor blade 104 includes a root section 110 that is coupled to a respective blade grip assembly 112 using connecting members 114 such as pins, bolts or other suitable means. As best seen in figure 3B, each blade grip assembly 112 includes an upper grip plate 112a and a lower grip plate 112b. A damper anchor support 118 is coupled between each upper and lower grip plate 112a, 112b using connecting members 120 such as pins, bolts or other suitable means. In the illustrated embodiment, each damper anchor support 118 includes a pitch horn 118a and a central opening 118b.

    [0014] Each blade grip assembly 112 is coupled to yoke 102 by a centrifugal force bearing 122. As illustrated, each centrifugal force bearing 122 is a twin spherical bearing having an outboard bearing support 122a and an inboard bearing support 122b. Each inboard bearing support 122b is coupled between an upper and a lower grip plate 112a, 112b using connecting members 116 such as pins, bolts or other suitable means. The inboard spherical surface of each twin spherical bearing corresponds to a spherical surface of inboard bearing support 122b and the outboard spherical surface of each twin spherical bearing corresponds to a spherical surface of outboard bearing support 122a. The connections between the twin spherical bearing and the bearing supports are permanent and may be made by vulcanizing the elastomeric material of each twin spherical bearing directly on these surfaces or by bonded, adhered or otherwise secured the elastomeric material in a non-removable manner to these surfaces. Centrifugal force bearings 122 may include a plurality of rigid shims disposed between layers of the elastomeric material. The durometer and thickness of the materials as well as the stiffness, softness and/or spring rate of centrifugal force bearings 122 may be tailored to achieve the desired operational modes based upon the loads and motions expected in the particular application. In operation, each centrifugal force bearing 122 is operable to provide a centrifugal force retention load path from a rotor blade 104 to yoke 102 via a blade grip assembly 112.

    [0015] Each centrifugal force bearing 122 provides a coincident hinge with a center point 126 for the pitch change degree of freedom, the flapping degree of freedom and the lead-lag degree of freedom of the respective rotor blade 104 relative to yoke 102. As best seen in figure 3C, pitch change axis 128, flapping axis 130 and lead-lag axis 132 all pass through coincident hinge point 126. As such, centrifugal force bearings 122 allow each rotor blade 104 to move independent of the other rotor blades 104 and independent of yoke 102 with a pitch change degree of freedom, a flapping degree of freedom and a lead-lag degree of freedom about coincident hinge point 126.

    [0016] As best seen in figure 2A, rotor system 100 includes a blade-to-blade damping ring 134 that provides pitch independent lead-lag damping for rotor blades 104. Blade-to-blade damping ring 134 includes a damper anchor 136 coupled to each of the blade grip assemblies 112 along the respective pitch change axis 128, as best seen in figures 3B-3C. Each damper anchor 136 includes a fitting 138 having a hollow shaft 138a that extends through central opening 118b of the respective damper anchor support 118. In the illustrated embodiment, spanwise movement of fitting 138 is prevented by an outboard flange 138b and an inboard nut 140. Preferably, a bearing system 142 such as a rotary bearing 142a and/or an inboard thrust bearing 142b provides low friction contact between fitting 138 and damper anchor support 118. The outboard end of each fitting 138 includes oppositely disposed clevises 138c, 138d that extend in the in-plane direction of rotor system 100, as best seen in figure 3A. Each damper anchor 136 also includes an anti-rotation rod 144 that couples each fitting 138 to yoke 102 to prevent relative rotation therebetween. In the illustrated embodiment, each anti-rotation rod 144 is depicted as a hex rod extending between a bearing cap 146, which is coupled to an outboard surface of yoke 102, and the inner cavity 138e of a fitting 138. A spring 138f may be disposed within inner cavity 138e to support anti-rotation rod 144. The hex rods prevent relative rotation between each fitting 138 and yoke 102 but may allow certain movement in the in-plane (lead-lag) and/or out-of-plane (flapping) directions.

    [0017] Blade-to-blade damping ring 134 also includes a lead-lag damper 148 extending between each pair of adjacent damper anchors 136. In the illustrated embodiment, each lead-lag damper 148 is coupled between a clevis 138c of a first damper anchor 136 and a clevis 138d of a second damper anchor 136, as best seen in figure 2A. As best seen in figure 3C, the couplings between lead-lag dampers 148 and damper anchors 136 include spherical bearings 150 to allow certain degrees of freedom therebetween such as during blade flapping to minimize blade flap and lead-lag coupling. Each lead-lag damper 148 has an in-plane spring rate operable to apply a damping force to the lead-lag degree of freedom of the rotor blades 104 to reduce the in-plane oscillation of the rotor blades 104. The stiffness, softness and/or in-plane spring rate of lead-lag dampers 148 may be tailored to achieve the desired operational modes based upon the loads and motions expected in the particular application. In one example, lead-lag dampers 148 may be elastomeric dampers with an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the rotor blades 104 responsive to shearing of elastomeric layers. In another example, lead-lag dampers 148 may have mechanical springs with an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the rotor blades 104. In a further example, lead-lag dampers 148 may be fluid springs having an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the rotor blades 104. In a yet another example, lead-lag dampers 148 may be mechanical springs in combination with fluid springs having an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the rotor blades 104.

    [0018] As discussed herein, each damper anchor support 118 includes a pitch horn 118a that is coupled to a pitch link 152 of a pitch control assembly 154 depicted as a rise and fall swash plate operable to collectively and/or cyclically control the pitch of rotor blades 104, as best seen in figure 2B. Each rotor blade 104 is operable to independently rotate about its pitch change axis 128 relative to other rotor blades 104 and yoke 102, changing pitch responsive to changes in position of the respective pitch link 152. During pitch change operations, blade grip assemblies 112 rotate relative to damper anchors 136 which are inline with pitch change axes 128 and are rotationally fixed relative to yoke 102 such that clevises 138c, 138d remain extended in the in-plane direction of rotor system 100. As such, rotation of blade grip assemblies 112 responsive to pitch change operations does not affect the in-plane spring rate of lead-lag dampers 148. During flight operations, rotor blades 104 may tend to oscillate forward to a lead position and backwards to a lag position as rotor system 100 rotates as a result of conservation of momentum and acceleration/deceleration caused by the Coriolis effect. Lead-lag dampers 148 have an in-plain spring rate operable to apply a damping force to prevent excess back and forth movement of rotor blades 104. As discussed herein, the lead-lag damping force is unaffected by and/or independent of the flapping degree of freedom of rotor blades 104. In addition, as discussed herein, the lead-lag damping force is unaffected by and/or independent of the pitch change degree of freedom of rotor blades 104.

    [0019] The foregoing description of embodiments of the disclosure has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosure to the precise form disclosed, and modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of the disclosure. The embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain the principals of the disclosure and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to utilize the disclosure in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. Other substitutions, modifications, changes and omissions may be made in the design, operating conditions and arrangement of the embodiments. Such modifications and combinations of the illustrative embodiments as well as other embodiments will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to the description. The true scope of protection is therefore only defined by the wording of the appended claims.


    Claims

    1. A rotor system (100) operable for use on a rotorcraft (10), the rotor system (100) comprising:

    a yoke (102);

    a plurality of blade grip assemblies (112);

    a plurality of centrifugal force bearings (122) each coupling one of the blade grip assemblies (112) with the yoke (102);

    a plurality of rotor blades (104) each coupled to one of the blade grip assemblies (112) such that each rotor blade (104) has a coincident hinge (126) located at the respective centrifugal force bearing (122) and such that each rotor blade (104) has three independent degrees of freedom relative to the yoke (102) including blade pitch about a pitch change axis (128), blade flap about a flapping axis (130) and lead-lag about a lead-lag axis (132); and

    a blade-to-blade damping ring (134) including a plurality of damper anchors (136) each coupled to one of the blade grip assemblies (112) along the respective pitch change axis and a plurality of lead-lag dampers (148) each coupled between adjacent damper anchors (136);

    wherein, each damper anchor is coupled to the yoke to prevent relative rotation therebetween; and

    wherein, each blade grip assembly (112) is operable to rotate relative to the respective damper anchor (136) during blade pitch operations, such that the blade-to-blade damping ring (134) is operable to provide pitch independent lead-lag damping.


     
    2. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 wherein the yoke (102) further comprises a plurality of pockets (102a), wherein each centrifugal force bearing (122) further comprises an outboard bearing support (122a), a spherical bearing (122) and an inboard bearing support (122b) and wherein each of the outboard bearing supports (122a) is coupled to one of the pockets (102a).
     
    3. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 2 wherein each of the blade grip assemblies (112) is coupled to one of the inboard bearing supports (122b).
     
    4. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 3 wherein, for each rotor blade (104), the respective blade grip assembly (112) and the respective centrifugal force bearing (122) provide a centrifugal force retention load path from the rotor blade (104) to the yoke (102).
     
    5. A rotorcraft (10) comprising:

    a fuselage (12);

    a power system (30a, 30b, 32) disposed within the fuselage (12);

    a mast (18) coupled to the power system (30a, 30b, 32); and

    a rotor system (100) according to claim 1 coupled to the mast (18) and operable to rotate therewith.


     
    6. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or in any of claims 2 to 4, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 5, further comprising a plurality of damper anchor supports (118) each coupled to one of the blade grip assemblies (112) and wherein each of the damper anchors (136) is rotatably coupled to one of the damper anchor supports (118) such that each blade grip assembly (112) is operable to rotate relative to the respective damper anchor (136) during blade pitch operations.
     
    7. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 6, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 6 wherein each damper anchor support (118) further comprises a pitch horn (118a).
     
    8. The rotor system (100) or rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 7 wherein each pitch horn (118a) is operable to receive input from a pitch control assembly (154) for blade pitch operations.
     
    9. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or in any preceding rotor system claim, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 5 or any preceding rotorcraft claim, wherein each damper anchor (136) further comprises a fitting (138) and an anti-rotation rod (144), each fitting (138) having a shaft (138a) that extends through the respective damper anchor support (118) and a pair of oppositely disposed clevises (138c, 138d) extending in an in-plane direction, each anti-rotation rod (144) coupling the respective fitting (138) and the yoke (102) to prevent relative rotation therebetween.
     
    10. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 9 wherein each lead-lag damper (148) is coupled between clevises (138c, 138d) of adjacent fittings (138), and optionally or preferably wherein each of the couplings between the lead-lag dampers (148) and the clevises (138c, 138d) of fittings (138) further comprises a spherical bearing (150).
     
    11. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or in any preceding rotor system claim, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 5 or any preceding rotorcraft claim, wherein each lead-lag damper (148) further comprises an in-plane spring rate that is independent of blade pitch.
     
    12. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or in any preceding rotor system claim, or as recited in the rotorcraft (10) of claim 5 or in any preceding rotorcraft claim, wherein each lead-lag damper (148) further comprises an elastomer spring having an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the respective rotor blades (104).
     
    13. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or any preceding rotor system claim, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 5 or in any preceding rotorcraft claim, wherein each lead-lag damper (148) further comprises a mechanical spring having an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the respective rotor blade.
     
    14. The rotor system (100) as recited in claim 1 or any preceding rotorcraft claim, or the rotorcraft (10) as recited in claim 5 or in any preceding rotorcraft claim, wherein each lead-lag damper (148) further comprises a fluid spring having an in-plane spring rate operable to provide lead-lag damping to the respective rotor blade.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Rotorsystem (100), das zur Verwendung an einem Rotorflügler (10) betreibbar ist, das Rotorsystem (100) umfassend:

    ein Joch (102);

    eine Vielzahl von Blatthalterbaugruppen (112);

    eine Vielzahl von Fliehkraftlagern (122), die jeweils eine der Blatthalterbaugruppen (112) mit dem Joch (102) koppeln;

    eine Vielzahl von Rotorblättern (104), die jeweils mit einer der Blatthalterbaugruppen (112) derart gekoppelt sind, dass jedes Rotorblatt (104) ein zusammenfallendes Gelenk (126) aufweist, das an dem jeweiligen Fliehkraftlager (122) befindlich ist, und derart, dass jedes Rotorblatt (104) drei unabhängige Freiheitsgrade relativ zu dem Joch (102) aufweist, einschließlich Blattverstellung um eine Blattverstellachse (128) herum, Blattschlag um eine Schlagachse (130) herum und Schwenken um eine Schwenkachse (132) herum; und

    einen Blatt-zu-Blatt-Dämpfungsring (134), der eine Vielzahl von Dämpfungsankern (136) einschließt, die jeweils mit einer der Blatthalterbaugruppen (112) entlang der jeweiligen Blattverstellachse gekoppelt sind, und eine Vielzahl von Schwenkdämpfern (148), die jeweils zwischen benachbarte Dämpferanker (136) gekoppelt sind;

    wobei jeder Dämpferanker mit dem Joch gekoppelt ist, um eine relative Drehung dazwischen zu verhindern; und

    wobei jede Blatthalterbaugruppe (112) betreibbar ist, um sich während der Blattverstellvorgänge relativ zu dem jeweiligen Dämpferanker (136) zu drehen, so dass der Blatt-zu-Blatt-Dämpfungsring (134) betreibbar ist, um eine verstellunabhängige Schwenkdämpfung bereitzustellen.


     
    2. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1, wobei das Joch (102) weiter eine Vielzahl von Taschen (102a) umfasst, wobei jedes Fliehkraftlager (122) weiter einen Außenbord-Lagerträger (122a), ein Kugellager (122) und einen Innenbord-Lagerträger (122b) umfasst und wobei jeder der Außenbord-Lagerträger (122a) mit einer der Taschen (102a) gekoppelt ist.
     
    3. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 2, wobei jede der Blatthalterbaugruppen (112) mit einer der Innenbord-Lagerträger (122b) gekoppelt ist.
     
    4. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 3, wobei für jedes Rotorblatt (104) die jeweilige Blatthalterbaugruppe (112) und das jeweilige Fliehkraftlager (122) einen Fliehkraft-Rückhaltelastpfad von dem Rotorblatt (104) zu dem Joch (102) bereitstellen.
     
    5. Rotorflügler (10), umfassend:

    einen Rumpf (12);

    ein Energieversorgungssystem (30a, 30b, 32), das innerhalb des Rumpfes (12) angeordnet ist;

    einen Mast (18), mit dem Energieversorgungssystem (30a, 30b, 32) gekoppelt ist; und

    ein Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1, das mit dem Mast (18) gekoppelt ist und betreibbar ist, um sich mit diesem zu drehen.


     
    6. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder nach einem der Ansprüche 2 bis 4 oder der Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5, weiter umfassend eine Vielzahl von Dämpferankerträgern (118), die jeweils mit einer der Blatthalterbaugruppen (112) gekoppelt sind, und wobei jeder der Dämpferanker (136) drehbar mit einem der Dämpferankerträger (118) gekoppelt ist, so dass jede Blatthalterbaugruppe (112) betreibbar ist, um sich während Blattverstellvorgängen relativ zu dem jeweiligen Dämpferanker (136) zu drehen.
     
    7. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 6 oder Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 6, wobei jeder Dämpferankerträger (118) weiter ein Anstellhorn (118a) umfasst.
     
    8. Rotorsystem (100) oder Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 7, wobei jedes Anstellhorn (118a) betreibbar ist, um eine Eingabe von einer Verstellsteuerbaugruppe (154) für Blattverstellvorgänge zu empfangen.
     
    9. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder einem vorstehenden Rotorsystemanspruch, oder Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5 oder einem vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch, wobei jeder Dämpferanker (136) weiter ein Anschlussstück (138) und eine Anti-Rotationsstange (144) umfasst, jedes Anschlussstück (138) einen Schaft (138a), der sich durch den jeweiligen Dämpferankerträger (118) erstreckt, und ein Paar gegenüberliegend angeordneter Gabelköpfe (138c, 138d) aufweist, die sich in einer Richtung in der Ebene erstrecken, wobei jede Anti-Rotationsstange (144) das jeweilige Anschlussstück (138) und das Joch (102) koppelt, um eine relative Drehung zwischen diesen zu verhindern.
     
    10. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 9, wobei jeder Schwenkdämpfer (148) zwischen Gabelköpfen (138c, 138d) benachbarter Anschlussstücke (138) gekoppelt ist, und wobei optional oder bevorzugt jede der Kupplungen zwischen den Schwenkdämpfern (148) und den Gabelköpfen (138c, 138d) von Anschlussstücken (138) weiter ein Kugellager (150) umfasst.
     
    11. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder einem vorstehenden Rotorsystemanspruch oder der Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5 oder einen vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch, wobei jeder Schwenkdämpfer (148) weiter eine in der Ebene liegende Federkonstante umfasst, die unabhängig von der Blattverstellung ist.
     
    12. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorsystemanspruch oder nach dem Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch, wobei jeder Schwenkdämpfer (148) weiter eine Elastomerfeder aufweisend eine in der Ebene liegende Federkonstante umfasst, die betreibbar ist, um eine Schwenkdämpfung an die jeweiligen Rotorblätter (104) bereitzustellen
     
    13. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorsystemanspruch oder der Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch, wobei jeder Schwenkdämpfer (148) weiter eine mechanische Feder aufweisend eine in der Ebene liegende Federkonstante umfasst, die betreibbar ist, um eine Schwenkdämpfung an das jeweilige Rotorblatt bereitzustellen
     
    14. Rotorsystem (100) nach Anspruch 1 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch oder der Rotorflügler (10) nach Anspruch 5 oder nach einem vorstehenden Rotorflügleranspruch, wobei jeder Schwenkdämpfer (148) weiter eine Fluidfeder aufweisend eine in der Ebene liegende Federkonstante umfasst, die betreibbar ist, um eine Schwenkdämpfung an das jeweilige Rotorblatt bereitzustellen
     


    Revendications

    1. Système de rotor (100) actionnable pour l'utilisation sur un giravion (10), le système de rotor (100) comprenant :

    un étrier (102) ;

    une pluralité d'ensembles de préhension de pale (112) ;

    une pluralité de paliers de force centrifuge (122) couplant chacun un des ensembles de préhension de pale (112) avec l'étrier (102) ;

    une pluralité de pales de rotor (104) couplées chacune à un des ensembles préhension de pale (112) de sorte que chaque pale de rotor (104) présente une articulation coïncidente (126) située au niveau du palier de force centrifuge respectif (122) et de sorte que chaque pale de rotor (104) présente trois degrés de liberté indépendants par rapport à l'étrier (102) incluant un calage de pales autour d'un axe de changement de calage (128), un volet de pales autour d'un axe de volet (130) et une avance et un retard autour d'un axe d'avance et de retard (132) ; et

    un anneau d'amortissement de pale à pale (134) incluant une pluralité d'ancres d'amortisseur (136) couplées chacune à un des ensembles de préhension de pale (112) le long de l'axe de changement de calage respectif et une pluralité d'amortisseurs d'avance et de retard (148) couplés chacun entre des ancres d'amortisseur adjacentes (136) ;

    dans lequel chaque ancre d'amortisseur est couplée à l'étrier pour empêcher la rotation relative entre elles ; et

    dans lequel chaque ensemble de préhension de pale (112) est actionnable pour tourner par rapport à l'ancre d'amortisseur respectif (136) pendant des fonctionnements de calage de pale de sorte que l'anneau d'amortissement de pale à pale (134) soit actionnable pour fournir un amortissement d'avance et de retard indépendant du calage.


     
    2. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1, dans lequel l'étrier (102) comprend en outre une pluralité de poches (102a), dans lequel chaque palier de force centrifuge (122) comprend en outre un support de palier extérieur (122a), un palier sphérique (122) et un support de palier intérieur (122b) et dans lequel chacun des supports de palier extérieur (122a) est couplé à une des poches (102a).
     
    3. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 2, dans lequel chacun des ensembles de préhension de pale (112) est couplé à l'un des supports de palier intérieur (122b).
     
    4. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 3, dans lequel pour chaque pale de rotor (104), l'ensemble de préhension de pale respectif (112) et le palier de force centrifuge respectif (122) fournissent un trajet de charge de retenue de force centrifuge de la pale de rotor (104) à l'étrier (102).
     
    5. Giravion (10) comprenant :

    un fuselage (12) ;

    un système d'alimentation (30a, 30b, 32) disposé dans le fuselage (12) ;

    un mât (18) couplé au système d'alimentation (30a, 30b, 32) ; et

    un système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 couplé au mât (18) et actionnable pour tourner avec celui-ci.


     
    6. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications 2 à 4, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5, comprenant en outre une pluralité de supports d'ancre d'amortisseur (118) couplés chacun à un des ensembles de préhension de pale (112) et dans lequel chacune des ancres d'amortisseur (136) est couplée en rotation à un des supports d'ancre d'amortisseur (118) de sorte que chaque ensemble de préhension de pale (112) soit actionnable pour tourner par rapport à l'ancre d'amortisseur respective (136) pendant des fonctionnements de calage de pales.
     
    7. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 6, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 6, dans lequel chaque support d'ancre d'amortisseur (118) comprend en outre une corne de calage (118a).
     
    8. Système de rotor (100) ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 7, dans lequel chaque corne de calage (118a) est actionnable pour recevoir une entrée d'un ensemble de commande de calage (154) pour des fonctionnements de calage de pales.
     
    9. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de système de rotor, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de giravion, dans lequel chaque ancre d'amortisseur (136) comprend en outre un raccord (138) et une tige antirotation (144), chaque raccord (138) présentant un arbre (138a) qui s'étend au travers du support d'ancre d'amortisseur respectif (118) et une paire de manilles disposées à l'opposé (138c, 138d) s'étendant dans une direction dans le plan, chaque tige antirotation (144) couplant le raccord respectif (138) et l'étrier (102) pour empêcher la rotation relative entre eux.
     
    10. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 9, dans lequel chaque amortisseur d'avance et de retard (48) est couplé entre des manilles (138c, 138d) de raccords adjacents (138), et en option ou de préférence dans lequel chacun des couplages entre les amortisseurs d'avance et de retard (148) et les manilles (138c, 138d) de raccords (138) comprend en outre un palier sphérique (150).
     
    11. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de système de rotor, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5 ou l'une quelconque des revendications de giravion, dans lequel chaque amortisseur d'avance et de retard (148) comprend en outre une constante de rappel dans le plan qui est indépendante du calage de pales.
     
    12. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de système de rotor, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de giravion, dans lequel chaque amortisseur d'avance et de retard (148) comprend en outre un ressort en élastomère présentant une constante de rappel dans le plan actionnable pour fournir un amortissement d'avance et de retard aux pales de rotor respectives (104).
     
    13. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de système de rotor, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de giravion, dans lequel chaque amortisseur d'avance et de retard (148) comprend en outre un ressort mécanique présentant une constante de rappel dans le plan actionnable pour fournir un amortissement d'avance et de retard à la pale de rotor respective.
     
    14. Système de rotor (100) selon la revendication 1 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de giravion, ou giravion (10) selon la revendication 5 ou l'une quelconque des revendications précédentes de giravion, dans lequel chaque amortisseur d'avance et de retard (148) comprend en outre un ressort de fluide présentant une constante de rappel dans le plan actionnable pour fournir un amortissement d'avance et de retard à la pale de rotor respective.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description