(19)
(11)EP 3 568 425 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
23.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/52

(21)Application number: 18701992.2

(22)Date of filing:  10.01.2018
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C08G 18/50(2006.01)
C08G 18/76(2006.01)
C08G 18/08(2006.01)
C08G 18/63(2006.01)
C08G 18/81(2006.01)
C08G 18/40(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/US2018/013056
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/132401 (19.07.2018 Gazette  2018/29)

(54)

POLYMER POLYOLS COMPRISING AMINE BASED POLYETHER POLYOLS AND A PROCESS FOR PREPARING THESE POLYMER POLYOLS

POLYMERPOLYOLE MIT POLYETHERPOLYOLEN AUF AMINBASIS UND VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG DIESER POLYMERPOLYOLE

POLYOLS POLYMÈRES COMPRENANT DES POLYOLS DE POLYÉTHER À BASE D'AMINE ET PROCÉDÉ DE PRÉPARATION DE CES POLYOLS POLYMÈRES


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 16.01.2017 US 201715406828

(43)Date of publication of application:
20.11.2019 Bulletin 2019/47

(73)Proprietor: Covestro LLC
Pittsburgh, PA 15205 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • ADKINS, Rick L.
    Canonsburg, Pennsylvania 15317 (US)

(74)Representative: Levpat 
c/o Covestro AG Gebäude 4825
51365 Leverkusen
51365 Leverkusen (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 1 624 006
US-A1- 2007 254 973
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] This invention relates to polymer polyols in which the base polyol comprises an amine based polyether polyol and to a process for the production of these polymer polyols.

    [0002] Various types of filled polyols are known and described in the art. Filled polyols are typically stable dispersions of solid particles in a liquid base polyol. More specifically, the known filled polyols include, for example, polyisocyanate polyaddition (i.e. PIPA) polyols, polyurea and/or polyhydrazodicarbonamide (i.e. PHD) polyols and polymer (i.e. PMPO) polyols.

    [0003] The polymer polyols of the present invention offer distinct advantages that are not available from the present commercially available polymer polyols. These include a potential reduction in total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). The polyurethane foam industry is under increasing pressure to reduce volatile components in the formulations used to produce foam that can migrate out of the finished PU foam article (i.e. components such as raw material byproducts, surfactants, antioxidants, catalysts, etc.) Due to improved reactivity toward isocyanates, it may be possible to reduce the amount of volatile catalyst typically used in a polyurethane foam formulation.

    [0004] US2007254973A1 disclose a process for producing polyurethane foams by reacting a) polyisocyanates with b) compounds having at least two hydrogen atoms which are reactive toward isocyanate groups in the presence of c) catalysts, d) blowing agents, e) if desired, auxiliaries and additives, wherein the compounds having at least two hydrogen atoms which are reactive toward isocyanate groups comprise at least one polar graft polyol.

    [0005] In EP1624006 (A1) a low viscosity polymer polyols and to a process for the preparation of these low viscosity polymer polyols is disclosed. These polymer polyols comprise the free-radical polymerization product of (A) a base polyol, (B) a pre-formed stabilizer, and (C) at least one ethylenically unsaturated monomer, in the presence of (D) at least one free-radical polymerization initiator, and (E) at least one polymer control agent. The total amount of polymer control agent present in the polymer polyols of the present invention ranges from greater than about 5.0% up to about 20% by weight, based on 100% by weight of the polymer polyol.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0006] This invention relates to polymer polyols in which the base polyol comprises an amine initiated polyether polyol. These comprise the free radical polymerization product of:
    1. (a) one or more base polyols comprising at least one amine-initiated polyol wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups and the amine initiated polyol has an equivalent weight of less than 500,
    2. (b) one or more preformed stabilizers,
      with
    3. (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers,
      in the presence of
    4. (d) one or more free-radical polymerization initiators,
      and, optionally,
    5. (e) one or more polymer control agents.


    [0007] The present invention also relates to processes for the production of these polymer polyols.

    [0008] The process of producing these polymer polyols comprises (I) free radically polymerizing (a) one or more base polyols comprising one or more amine-initiated polyol wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups and the amine initiated polyol has an equivalent weight of less than 500; (b) one or more preformed stabilizers; with (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of (d) one or more free radical initiators; and, optionally, (e) one or more polymer control agents.

    [0009] Another aspect of the present invention relates to foams prepared from the above described polymer polyols. The foams comprise the reaction product of (1) a polyisocyanate component, with (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the above described polymer polyols; in the presence of (3) one or more catalysts, (4) one or more blowing agents, and (5) one or more surfactants.

    [0010] The present invention also relates to process for the production of foams from the above described polymer polyols. These processes comprise reacting (1) a polyisocyanate component, with (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the above described polymer polyols; in the presence of (3) one or more catalysts, (4) one or more blowing agents, and (5) one or more surfactants.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



    [0011] As used herein, the following terms shall have the following meanings.

    [0012] The term pre-formed stabilizer is defined as an intermediate obtained by reacting a macromer containing reactive unsaturation (e.g. acrylate, methacrylate, maleate, etc.) with monomers (i.e. acrylonitrile, styrene, methyl methacrylate, etc.), optionally in a diluent or a solvent (i.e. methanol, isopropanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, polyether polyols, etc.) to give a co-polymer (dispersion having e.g. a low solids content (e.g. <25%), or soluble grafts, etc.).

    [0013] The term "monomer" means the simple unpolymerized form of chemical compound having relatively low molecular weight, e.g., acrylonitrile, styrene, methyl methacrylate, and the like.

    [0014] The phrase "free radically polymerizable ethylenically unsaturated monomer" means a monomer containing ethylenic unsaturation (>C = C<, i.e. two double bonded carbon atoms) that is capable of undergoing free radically induced addition polymerization reactions.

    [0015] The term "stability" means the ability of a material to maintain a stable form such as the ability to stay in solution or in suspension.

    [0016] The phrase "polymer polyol" refers to such compositions which are produced by polymerizing one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers dissolved or dispersed in a polyol in the presence of a free radical catalyst to form a stable dispersion of polymer particles in the polyol. These polymer polyols have the valuable property of imparting to, for example, polyurethane foams and elastomers produced therefrom, higher load-bearing properties than are provided by the corresponding unmodified polyols.

    [0017] As used herein, the phrase "mole unsaturation/mole polyol" is a calculated value which is determined by dividing the number of moles of unsaturated compound (e.g. TMI, maleic anhydride, etc.) used by the number of moles of polyol. The number of moles of polyols is based on the molecular weight of the polyol as determined by GPC as described herein.

    [0018] As used herein, the phrase "polyol feed" refers to the amount of base polyol feed present in the polymer polyol or present in the process of preparing the polymer polyol.

    [0019] As used herein, the phrase "total feed" refers to the sum of all quantities of components present in each of the various products (i.e., preformed stabilizers, polymer polyols, etc.) and/or present in the process of preparing each of the various products.

    [0020] Equivalent weights and molecular weights given herein in Daltons (Da) are number average equivalent weights and number average molecular weights respectively, as determined by GPC as described herein, unless indicated otherwise.

    [0021] The number average and weight average, Mn and Mw, respectively, molecular weights herein were determined by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) using a method based on DIN 55672-1, employing chloroform as the eluent with a mixed bed column (Agilent PL Gel; SDVB; 3 micron Pore diameter: 1xMixed-E + 5 micron Pore diameter: 2xMixed-D), refractive index (RI) detection and calibrated with polyethylene glycol as the standard.

    [0022] Isocyanate index is the relative stoichiometric amount of isocyanate functional groups necessary to react with the isocyanate reactive groups present in the overall foam formulation. It is expressed as a percentage in this application; thus equal stoichiometric amounts of isocyanate functional groups and isocyanate reactive functional groups in the formulation provides an isocyanate index of 100%.

    [0023] The total solids levels (i.e., weight percent of polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene) of the polymer polyols were measured by an analytical technique known as near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The specific NIR measurement of total solids is a variation on ASTM D6342-12, "Polyurethane Raw Materials: Determining Hydroxyl Number of Polyols by Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy". The variations used include (1) substitution of the absorption bands associated with polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene instead of those associated with hydroxyl number, and (2) acquiring the NIR spectra in reflection mode rather than transmission mode. The use of reflection mode is due to polymer polyols being opaque, and thus are scattering materials with respect to infrared radiation. Measurement of the NIR spectra in reflection mode results in higher quality spectra for calibration and measurement purposes as PMPOs reflect more NIR radiation than they transmit. Calibrations to be used as standards were developed in accordance with ASTM D6342-12. In addition, the absorption bands associated with polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene are used to calculate the weight ratio of styrene: acrylonitrile in the total polymer. One skilled in the art will recognize that this is an analytical confirmation of the main mechanism for controlling the S/AN ratio, which is the wt. % of monomers in the total reactor feed.

    [0024] Hydroxyl numbers or OH numbers were determined according to ASTM D4274-11, and are reported in mg [KOH]/g [polyol].

    [0025] As used herein "viscosity" is in millipascals-seconds (mPa.s) measured at 25°C. The viscosity was measured on an Anton Paar SVM3000 viscometer at 25°C that has been demonstrated to give equivalent results as can be generated with ASTM-D4878-15. The instrument was calibrated using mineral oil reference standards of known viscosity.

    [0026] Suitable base polyols (a) include, for example, one or more amine-initiated polyether polyols. Suitable amine-initiated polyether polyols include those polyols which have a functionality of at least 2, or of at least 3. The functionality of suitable amine-initiated polyether polyols is typically less than or equal to 8, or less than or equal to 7. The suitable polyether polyols may also have functionalities ranging between any combination of these upper and lower values, inclusive, such as, from at least 2 to 8 or less, or from at least 3 to 7 or less. The suitable amine-initiated polyether polyols have equivalent weights of greater than 55, or greater than 75. Amine-initiated polyether polyols also typically have equivalent weights of less than 500, or of less than 400. The suitable amine-initiated polyether polyols may also have equivalent weights ranging between any combination of these upper and lower values, inclusive, such as, for example, of from at least 55 to less than 500, or from at least 75 to 400 or less.

    [0027] Suitable amine-initiated polyether polyols are prepared by alkoxylation of an amine starter with an alkylene oxide, optionally in the presence of a catalyst. Amine starters for the amine-initiated polyether polyols herein typically contain primary and/or secondary amine groups and are free of tertiary amine groups.

    [0028] Examples of suitable amine groups containing compounds to be used as amine starters herein include, but are not limited to, any amine group containing compound that is free of tertiary amine groups but contains at least one primary or secondary amine group. Such compounds may also contain one or more hydroxyl groups to ensure that the overall functionality of the amine initiated polyether polyols disclosed herein is satisfied. Some examples of suitable aromatic amines to be used as starters herein include compounds such as crude toluene diamine obtained by the nitration of toluene followed by reduction, 2,3-toluene diamine, 3,4-toluene diamine, 2,4-toluene diamine, and 2,6-toluene diamine or mixtures thereof, aniline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, methylene-bridged polyphenyl polyamines composed of isomers of methylene dianilines and triamines or polyamines of higher molecular weight prepared by reacting aniline with formaldehyde by methods known in the art, ammonia, alkanol amines such as monoethanol amine, diethanolamine, organic amines such as methyl amine, ethylene diamine, diethylene triamine and the like, and Mannich reaction products of phenol or substituted phenols with alkanol amines and formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde. Mixtures of the above amines may also be used. Aliphatic amines or mixtures of aliphatic amines are preferred. Examples of these aliphatic amines are monoethanolamine, diethanolamine, methyl amine, ethylene diamine, diethylene triamine, etc.

    [0029] Examples of alkylene oxides useful in producing the amine-initiated polyether polyols include: ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, and mixtures of these alkylene oxides. The alkylene oxides may be added as mixtures or added sequentially to produce block copolymers. When used in a mixture, ethylene oxide can be added into the backbone (i.e. polyol is terminated with propylene oxide) or can be added to give an ethylene oxide cap.

    [0030] In principle, any alkaline material capable of catalyzing the epoxidation reaction of the present invention may be used. Specific alkaline catalysts which have been found to be particularly suitable include potassium hydroxide, cesium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide.

    [0031] As is known in the art, the epoxidation reaction typically occurs by contacting the amine starter with the alkylene oxide(s) at an elevated temperature in the range of from 90 to 180ºC, under moderately elevated pressure in the presence of the alkaline catalyst. In some embodiments, after 5 to 30% of the total alkylene oxide to be added is contacted with an amine starter and allowed to react, then from 0.001 to 0.1 weight percent of the catalyst, based on the weight of the finished polyol, is added to the epoxidizing mixture, and finally, the remaining amount of alkylene oxide is added to complete the epoxidation of the polyol.

    [0032] In one embodiment, the amine initiated base polyol component is used in combination with a conventional base polyol component to form the polymer polyols herein. Suitable conventional base polyol components include those hydroxyl initiated base polyols which have a functionality ranging from 2 to 8, an OH number of from 10 to 1000, and are selected from the group consisting of polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polyetherester polyols, polycarbonate polyols and mixtures thereof.

    [0033] As used herein, the hydroxyl number is defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required for the complete hydrolysis of the fully phthalylated derivative prepared from 1 gram of polyol. The hydroxyl number can also be defined by the equation:

    wherein:
    OH:
    represents the hydroxyl number of the polyol,
    f:
    represents the functionality of the polyol, i.e. the average number of hydroxyl groups per molecule of polyol,
    and
    mol. wt.
    represents the molecular weight of the polyol.


    [0034] When blends of polyols are used as the base polyol herein, these polyol blends should satisfy the above described equivalent weight ranges for the amine initiated polyol component. Thus, blends of polyols used as the base polyols should have an equivalent weight in the range of greater than 55, or of greater than 75. The polyol blends should also have an equivalent weight range of less than 500, or of less than 400. Suitable polyol blends for the base polyol component should have an equivalent weight in the range of from greater than 55 to less than 500, or of from greater than 75 to less than 400.

    [0035] Suitable preformed stabilizers for the present invention are those preformed stabilizers which are known in the art and include without limitation those described in the references discussed herein. Preferred preformed stabilizers include those discussed in, for example, U.S. Patents 4,148,840 (Shah), 5,196,476 (Simroth), 5,268,418 (Simroth), 5,364,906 (Critchfield) and 6,013,731 (Holeschovsky et al.

    [0036] In accordance with the present invention, the amount of preformed stabilizer (b) in the present invention is typically at least 0.25%, or at least 2%, or at least 4%, or at least 5% by weight, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol. It is also typical to use the preformed stabilizer (b) in accordance in the present invention in amounts of 35% by weight or less, or 32% by weight or less, or 27% by weight of less, or 22% by weight or less, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol. The amount of preformed stabilizer in the polymer polyols of the present invention may range from any combination of these upper and lower values, inclusive, e.g. from 0.25% to 35%, or from 2% to 32%, or from 4% to 27% or from 5% to 22% by weight, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol.

    [0037] Suitable compounds to be used as the ethylenically unsaturated monomers, i.e. component (c) the present invention, include, for example, those ethylenically unsaturated monomers described above with respect to the preformed stabilizer. Suitable monomers include, for example, styrene monomer, acrylonitrile, methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, preferably acrylonitrile and styrene monomer, with styrene monomer being particularly preferred. Other monomers include, for example, aliphatic conjugated dienes such as isoprene, 2,4-hexadiene, etc.; monovinylidene aromatic monomers such as styrene monomer, α-methyl-styrene, (t-butyl)styrene, chlorostyrene, cyanostyrene and bromostyrene; α,β-ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, itaconic acid, maleic anhydride and the like; α,β-ethylenically unsaturated nitriles and amides such as acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, N,N-dimethyl acrylamide, N-(dimethylaminomethyl)-acrylamide and the like; vinyl esters such as vinyl acetate; vinyl ethers, vinyl ketones, vinyl and vinylidene halides as well as a wide variety of other ethylenically unsaturated materials which are copolymerizable with the aforementioned monomeric adduct or reactive monomer. It is understood that mixtures of two or more of the aforementioned monomers are also suitably employed in making the pre-formed stabilizer. Of the above monomers, the monovinylidene aromatic monomers, particularly styrene, and the ethylenically unsaturated nitriles, particularly acrylonitrile are preferred. In accordance with this aspect of the present invention, it is preferred that these ethylenically unsaturated monomers include styrene monomer and its derivatives, acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, vinylidene chloride, with styrene monomer and acrylonitrile being particularly preferred monomers.

    [0038] It is preferred that styrene monomer and acrylonitrile are used in sufficient amounts such that the weight ratio of styrene monomer to acrylonitrile (S:AN) is from 80:20 to 20:80, preferably from 80:20 to 30:70, more preferably from 75:25 to 40:60, and most preferably from 75:25 to 50:50. A particularly preferred weight ratio of styrene monomer to acrylonitrile is from 70:30 to 60:40. These ratios are suitable for polymer polyols and the processes of preparing them.

    [0039] Overall, the solids content present in the polymer polyols of the present invention is greater than 15% by weight, or at least 20%, or at least 30%, or at least 40% by weight, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol. The solids content present in the polymer polyols is 75% by weight or less, or 70% by weight or less, or 65% by weight or less, or 60% by weight or less, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol. The polymer polyols of the present invention typically has a solids content ranging between any combination of these upper and lower values, inclusive, e.g. from 15% to 75% by weight, or from 20% to 70% by weight, or from 30% to 65% by weight, or from 40% to 60% by weight, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol.

    [0040] Suitable free-radical polymerization initiators to be used as component (d) in the present invention include initiators such as, for example, peroxides including both alkyl and aryl hydroperoxides, acyl peroxides, peroxyesters, persulfates, perborates, percarbonates, azo compounds, etc. Some specific examples include catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide, di(t-butyl)-peroxide, t-butylperoxy diethyl acetate, t-butyl peroctoate, t-butyl peroxy isobutyrate, t-butyl peroxy 3,5,5-trimethyl hexanoate, t-butyl perbenzoate, cumene hydroperoxide, t-butyl hydroperoxide, didecanoyl peroxide and dilauroyl peroxide, alkyl peroxides such as t-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate, t-amyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate, t-butyl peroxy pivalate, t-amyl peroxy pivalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)peroxydicarbonate, di-n-propyl peroxydicarbonate, di-(tertiary-amylperoxy)cyclohexane, di-sec-butyl peroxydicarbonate, 3-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylbutyl peroxyneodecanoate, α-cumyl peroxyneodecanoate, 3-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylbutyl peroxyneoheptanoate, α-cumyl peroxyneoheptanoate, t-amyl peroxyneodecanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(2-ethylhexanoylperoxy)hexane, diisononanoyl peroxide, didodecanoyl peroxide, dioctanoyl peroxide, succinic acid peroxide, t-amyl peroctoate, t-butyl perneodecanoate, t-butylperbenzoate and 1,1-dimethyl-3-hydroxybutyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate, dibenzoyl peroxide, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl peroxypivalate, di-(3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl) peroxide, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate, and azo catalysts such as azobis(isobutyronitrile), 2,2'-azo bis-(2-methoxylbutyronitrile), diethyl-2,2'-azobis(isobutyrate), and mixtures thereof. Most preferred are the acyl and peroxyester peroxides described above and the azo catalysts.

    [0041] The quantity of free-radical initiator used herein is not critical and can be varied within wide limits. In general, the amount of initiator is preferably 0.05 to 2.0% by weight, more preferably 0.10 to 1.5% by weight, and most preferably 0.15 to 1.0% by weight, based on the total feed of the components. Increases in catalyst concentration result in increases in monomer conversion up to a certain point, but past this, further increases do not result in substantial increases in conversion. When a peroxide initiator is used, it is preferred that the quantity be limited to that which results in polymer polyols having good filterability without undesirable increases in the viscosity.

    [0042] Polymer control agents, component (e), are optionally present in the stable, low viscosity polymer polyols herein. Suitable polymer control agents (PCA's) for the present invention include, for example, those which are known to be useful in polymer polyols and in the processes of preparing polyols such as those described in, for example, U.S. Patents 3,953,393, 4,119,586, 4,463,107, 5,324,774, 5,814,699, 7,179,882 and 6,624,209. Some examples of suitable compounds to be used as polymer control agents include various monols (i.e. monohydroxy alcohols), aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers, and other liquids.

    [0043] Polymer control agents are also commonly referred to as reaction moderators. These are known to control the molecular weight of the polymer polyol. As long as the compound used as the polymer control agent does not adversely affect the performance of the polymer polyol, it is suitable for use in the practice of the invention. Preferred are the monols because of their ease of stripping from the final polymer/polyol composition. Mixtures of one or more monols may be used as polymer control agents. The choice of monol is not narrowly critical. It should not form two phases at reaction conditions and should be readily stripped from the final polymer/polyol.

    [0044] Suitable polymer control agents include, for example, one or more monol which is typically an alcohol containing at least one carbon atom, such as methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, sec.-butanol, t-butanol, n-pentanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, allyl alcohol, and the like, and mixtures of the same. The preferred monol is isopropanol. Other known polymer control agents include compounds such as, for example, ethylbenzene and toluene. In accordance with the present invention, the most preferred polymer control agents include isopropanol, ethanol, tert-butanol, toluene, ethylbenzene, etc.

    [0045] Polymer control agents can be used in substantially pure form (i.e. as commercially available) or can be recovered in crude form from the polymer polyol process and reused as-is. For instance, if the polymer control agent is isopropanol, it can be recovered from the polymer polyol process and used at any point in a subsequent product campaign in which the isopropanol is present (i.e. such as the production of PFS A and PFS B in Table 1 of U.S. Patent 7,179,882). The amount of crude polymer control agent in the total polymer control agent can range anywhere from 0% up to 100% by weight.

    [0046] The total amount of polymer control agent (PCA) present in the polymer polyols of the present invention ranges from greater than 3.0% to 20% (or from 4.0 to 15%, or from 5 to 10%) by weight, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol.

    [0047] The quantity of polymer control agent to be employed in the present invention is greater than 3.0% by weight, or at least 3.5%, or at least 4.0%, or at least 5.0% by weight, based on the 100% by weight of all components which comprise the polymer polyol, prior to stripping the product, (i.e. components (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e)). The quantity of total polymer control agent is also employed in amounts of less than or equal to 20% by weight, or less than or equal to 15%, or less than or equal to 10%, or less than or equal to 8% by weight, based on the total weight of all components charged to the reactor. The amount of total polymer control agent may be employed in any amount ranging between any combination of these lower and upper values.

    [0048] In addition, the polymer polyol and the process of preparing the polymer polyol may optionally comprise a chain transfer agent. The use of chain transfer agents and their nature is known in the art. Examples of suitable materials include compounds such as mercaptans including, e.g. dodecane thiol, ethane thiol, octane thiol, toluene thiol, etc., halogenated hydrocarbons such as, e.g. carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, chloroform, etc., amines such as diethylamine, enol-ethers, etc. If used at all in the present invention, a chain transfer agent is used in an amount of from 0.1 to 2 wt.%, or from 0.2 to 1 wt.%, based on the total weight of the polymer polyol (prior to stripping).

    [0049] In one embodiment, the polymer polyols herein have a viscosity ≤ Vbe42x at 25ºC, wherein:
    Vb = the viscosity of the base polyol in millipascal.seconds (mPa.s);
    and



    [0050] The polymer polyols herein are preferably produced by utilizing a low monomer to polyol ratio which is maintained throughout the reaction mixture during the process. This is achieved by employing conditions that provide rapid conversion of monomer to polymer. In practice, a low monomer to polyol ratio is maintained, in the case of semi-batch and continuous operation, by control of the temperature and mixing conditions and, in the case of semi-batch operation, also by slowly adding the monomers to the polyol.

    [0051] The temperature range is not critical and may vary from 80°C to 150°or perhaps greater, or from 90°C to 140° C, or from 100°C to 135°C, or from 110 °C to 130°C. As has been note d herein, the catalyst and temperature should be selected so that the catalyst has a reasonable rate of decomposition with respect to the hold-up time in the reactor for a continuous flow reactor or the feed time for a semi-batch reactor.

    [0052] The mixing conditions employed are those obtained using a back mixed reactor (e.g.-a stirred flask or stirred autoclave). The reactors of this type keep the reaction mixture relatively homogeneous and so prevent localized high monomer to polyol ratios such as occur in tubular reactors when such reactors are operated with all the monomer added to the beginning of the reactor. In addition, more efficient mixing can be obtained by the use of an external pump around loop on the reactor section. For instance, a stream of reactor contents may be removed from the reactor bottom via external piping and returned to the top of the reactor (or vice versa) in order to enhance internal mixing of the components. This external loop may contain a heat exchanger if desired.

    [0053] The polymer polyols of the present invention comprise dispersions in which the polymer particles (the same being either individual particles or agglomerates of individual particles) are relatively small in size and, in the preferred embodiment, have a weight average size less than ten microns. However, when high contents of styrene are used, the particles will tend to be larger; but the resulting polymer polyols are highly useful, particularly where the end use application requires as little scorch as possible.

    [0054] In accordance with the present invention, all of the product (viz. 100%) will pass through the filter employed in the 150 mesh filtration hindrance (filterability) test with low polymer residue (typically < 5 ppm), and/or an exceptionally high amount of the product will pass through a 700 mesh screen within 600 seconds. Thus, typically at least 99% of the polymer polyols of the invention will pass through a 700 mesh screen, or at least 100% of the polymer polyols of the invention will pass through a 700 mesh screen. In one embodiment of the invention, 100% of the polymer polyol product should pass through the 700 mesh screen within 600 seconds. The 150 mesh filtration and 700 mesh filtration tests are described in U.S. Patent 5,196,476.

    [0055] In accordance with the present invention, foams may be prepared from the novel polymer polyols described herein. These foams comprise the reaction product of a polyisocyanate, with an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the novel polymer polyols described herein, optionally, in the presence of a blowing agent, a catalyst and a surfactant. In addition, crosslinking agents, chain extenders, surfactants, and other additives and auxiliary agents which are known to be useful in preparing foams may also be present.

    [0056] The process of preparing the foams comprises reacting a polyisocyanate component, with an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the novel polymer polyols described herein, in the presence of a blowing agent and at least one catalyst. In addition, crosslinking agents, chain extenders, surfactants, and other additives and auxiliary agents may also be present.

    [0057] Suitable polyisocyanates comprise those known in the art, particularly aromatic polyisocyanates such as, for example, toluene diisocyanate, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, etc. These are known in the field of polyurethane chemistry.

    [0058] The isocyanate-reactive component for preparing the polyurethane foams comprises the novel polymer polyols described herein. It is also possible that the isocyanate-reactive component comprises (1) the above described novel polymer polyols and (2) a conventional isocyanate-reactive component such as, for example, a polyoxyalkylene polyol, a polyether polyol, a polyester polyol, etc. Lower molecular weight isocyanate-reactive components such as crosslinkers and/or chain extenders may also be present.

    [0059] Suitable blowing agents for the present invention include, for example chemical blowing agents, i.e. isocyanate reactive agents that generate blowing gases, such as for example water and formic acid and physical blowing agents such as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, highly fluorinated and/or perfluorinated hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, aliphatic and/or cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons such as propane, butane, pentane, hexane, etc., or acetals such as methylal. These physical blowing agents are usually added to the polyol component of the system. However, they can also be added in the isocyanate component or as a combination of both the polyol component and the isocyanate component. It is also possible to use them together with highly fluorinated and/or perfluorinated hydrocarbons, in the form of an emulsion of the polyol component. If emulsifiers are used, they are usually oligomeric acrylates which contain polyoxyalkylene and fluoroalkane radicals bonded as side groups and have a fluorine content of from 5 to 30% by weight. Such products are sufficiently well known from plastics chemistry, e.g. EP-A-0351614. Water is the preferred blowing agent.

    [0060] The amount of blowing agent or blowing agent mixture used is from 0.5 to 20%, or from 0.75 to 10% by weight, based in each case on the total weight of the isocyanate-reactive component. When water is the blowing agent, it is typically present in an amount of from 0.5 to 10%, or from 0.75 to 7% by weight, based on the total weight of the isocyanate-reactive component. The addition of water can be effected in combination with the use of the other blowing agents described.

    [0061] Surfactants are preferably used to prepare the foams. Surfactants are known help to stabilize the foam until it cures. Suitable surfactants for the invention are those well known in the polyurethane industry. A wide variety of organosilicone surfactants are commercially available. Examples of suitable surfactants include DC-5043, DC-5164 and DC-5169, as well as Niax L-620, a product of Momentive Performance Materials, and Tegostab B8244, a product of Evonik-Goldschmidt. Many other silicone surfactants known to those in the art may be substituted for these suitable silicones. The surfactant is typically used in an amount within the range of 0.1 to 4, or from 0.2 to 3, parts per 100 parts of isocyanate-reactive mixture.

    [0062] At least one polyurethane catalyst is required to catalyze the reactions of the monol, polyols and water with the polyisocyanate. It is common to use both an organoamine and an organotin compound for this purpose. Suitable polyurethane catalysts are well known in the art. Suitable organotin catalysts include tin salts and dialkyltin salts of carboxylic acids. Examples include stannous octoate, dibutyltin dilaurate, dibutyltin diacetate, stannous oleate, and the like. Suitable organoamine catalysts are tertiary amines such as trimethylamine, triethylamine, triethylenediamine, bis(2,2'-dimethylamino)ethyl ether, N-ethylmorpholine, diethylenetriamine, and the like. Preferred catalysts are amine catalysts such as, for example, bis(dimethylaminoethyl)ether in dipropylene glycol and triethylene diamine in dipropylene glycol. These are commercially available as Niax A-1 and Niax A-33, respectively.

    [0063] The polyurethane catalysts are typically used in an amount within the range of 0.05 to 3 parts, or from 0.1 to 2 parts, per 100 parts of isocyanate-reactive mixture.

    [0064] Other optional components that may be present in the foam formulations include, for example, flame retardants, antioxidants, pigments, dyes, liquid and solid fillers, etc. Such commercial additives are included in the foams in conventional amounts when used.

    [0065] In a first embodiment, the present invention is directed to a polymer polyol comprising the free-radical polymerization product of: (a) one or more base polyols comprising (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups and the amine initiated polyols have an equivalent weight of less than 500 Da; (b) at least one preformed stabilizer; (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of (d) at least one free radical polymerization catalyst; and, optionally, (e) one or more polymer control agents.

    [0066] In a second embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to the first embodiment in which (a) the one or more base polyols comprises (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups, and (2) one or more hydroxyl initiated polyols having a functionality of from 2 to 8 and a hydroxyl number of from 10 mg KOH/g polyol to 1000 mg KOH/g polyol, wherein the hydroxyl initiated polyols are selected from the group consisting of polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polyetherester polyols and mixtures thereof.

    [0067] In a third embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to the first and/or second embodiments in which the resultant polymer polyol has a viscosity ≤ Vbe4.2x, wherein: Vb = viscosity of the base polyol in millipascal.second (mPa.s); and X = the weight % of solids in the polymer polyol /(100 - the weight % of solids in the polymer polyol).

    [0068] In a fourth embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the third embodiments, in which (c) the ethylenically unsaturated monomers comprise styrene and acrylonitrile.

    [0069] In a fifth embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the fourth embodiments in which (a) the one or more base polyols comprise (1) one or more amine initiated polyols having a functionality of 2 to 8 and an equivalent weight ranging from 75 Da to 400 Da.

    [0070] In a sixth embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the fifth embodiments in which the ethylenically unsaturated monomers comprise styrene and acrylonitrile which are present in a weight ratio of from 80:20 to 20:80.

    [0071] In a seventh embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the sixth embodiments in which the solids content of the polymer polyol ranges from 15% by weight up to 75% by weight.

    [0072] In an eighth embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the seventh embodiments in which (e) a polymer control agent comprising isopropanol is present.

    [0073] In a ninth embodiment, the invention is directed to the polymer polyol according to at least one of the first through the eighth embodiments in which (d) the free radical polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of peroxides, azo compounds and mixtures thereof.

    [0074] In a tenth embodiment, the invention is directed to a process for the preparation of a polymer polyol comprising (I) free-radically polymerizing (a) one or more base polyol comprising (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups and the amine initiated polyols have an equivalent weight of less than 500 Da; (b) at least one preformed stabilizer; (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers; in the presence of (d) at least one free radical polymerization catalyst; and, optionally, (e) one or more polymer control agents.

    [0075] In an eleventh embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to the tenth embodiment in which (a) the one or more base polyols comprises (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups, and (2) one or more hydroxyl initiated polyols having a functionality of from 2 to 8 and a hydroxyl number of from 10 mg KOH/g polyol to 1000 mg KOH/g polyol, wherein the hydroxyl initiated polyols are selected from the group consisting of polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polyetherester polyols and mixtures thereof.

    [0076] In a twelfth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to the tenth and/or eleventh embodiments in which the resultant polymer polyol has a viscosity ≤ Vbe4.2x, wherein: Vb = the viscosity of the base polyol in millipascal.second (mPa.s) and X = the weight % of solids in the polymer polyol /(100 - the weight % of solids in the polymer polyol).

    [0077] In a thirteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the twelfth embodiments, in which (c) the ethylenically unsaturated monomers comprise styrene and acrylonitrile.

    [0078] In a fourteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the thirteenth embodiments, in which (a) the one or more base polyols comprise (1) one or more amine initiated polyether polyols having a functionality of 2 to 8 and an equivalent weight ranging from 75 Da to 400 Da.

    [0079] In a fifteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the fourteenth embodiments in which the ethylenically unsaturated monomer comprise styrene and acrylonitrile which are present in a weight ratio of from 80:20 to 20:80.

    [0080] In a sixteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the fifteenth embodiments in which the solids content of the polymer polyols ranges from 15% by weight up to 75% by weight.

    [0081] In a seventeenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the sixteenth embodiments in which (e) a polymer control agent comprising isopropanol is present.

    [0082] In an eighteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to the process according to at least one of the tenth through the seventeenth embodiments in which (d) the free radical polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of peroxides, azo compounds and mixtures thereof.

    [0083] In a nineteenth embodiment, the invention is directed to a polyurethane foam comprising the reaction product of (1) a polyisocyanate component, with (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the polymer polyol of at least one of the first through the ninth embodiments, in the presence of (3) one or more catalysts, (4) one or more blowing agents, and (5) one or more surfactants.

    [0084] In a twentieth embodiment, the invention is directed to a process for preparing a polyurethane foam comprising reacting (1) a polyisocyanate component, with (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the polymer polyol of at least one of the first through the ninth embodiments, in the presence of (3) one or more catalysts, (4) one or more blowing agents, and (5) one or more surfactants.

    [0085] The following examples further illustrate details for the preparation and use of the compositions of this invention. The invention, which is set forth in the foregoing disclosure, is not to be limited either in spirit or scope by these examples. Those skilled in the art will readily understand that known variations of the conditions and processes of the following preparative procedures can be used to prepare these compositions. Unless otherwise noted, all temperatures are degrees Celsius and all parts and percentages are parts by weight and percentages by weight, respectively.

    EXAMPLES



    [0086] The following components were used in the examples.
    Polvol A:
    An propylene oxide adduct of ethylenediamine with a hydroxyl number of 630 and a 18,000 mPa.s viscosity
    Polvol B:
    An propylene oxide adduct of monoethanolamine with a hydroxyl number of 150 and a 250 mPa.s viscosity
    Polvol C:
    A propylene oxide adduct of ortho-toluenediamine containing 27% ethylene oxide with a hydroxyl number of 395 and a viscosity of 8800 mPa.s
    Polvol D:
    A propylene oxide adduct of glycerine with a hydroxyl number of 238 and a 265 mPa.s viscosity
    Polvol E:
    A propylene oxide adduct of sorbitol containing an 8% ethylene oxide cap with a hydroxyl number of 28 and a viscosity of 2500 mPa.s
    Polvol F:
    A propylene oxide adduct of sorbitol containing a 16% ethylene oxide cap with a hydroxyl number of 28 and a viscosity of 1700 mPa.s
    Polvol G:
    a propylene oxide adduct of ethylenediamine with a hydroxyl number of 60 and a viscosity of 675 mPa.s
    PCA:
    Isopropanol, a polymer control agent
    TMI:
    Isopropenyl dimethyl benzyl isocyanate (an unsaturated aliphatic isocyanate) sold as TMI® by Allnex
    MDI:
    A monomeric MDI comprising 42% by weight of the 4,4'-isomer of MDI, 57% by weight of the 2,4'-isomer of MDI and the balance being the 2,2'-isomer of MDI
    TBPEH:
    tert-Butylperoxy-2-ethylhexanoate
    AIBN:
    2,2'-Azobisisobutyronitrile, a free-radical polymerization initiator commercially available as VAZO 64 from Chemours
    Viscosity:
    Dynamic viscosities measured on an Anton Parr Stabinger viscometer and reported in mPa.s at 25°C


    [0087] The macromers were prepared as follows.
    Macromer A:
    Prepared by heating Polyol E (100g), TMI (2g), and 100 ppm of CosCat 83 (i.e. bismuth(III) neodecanoate) catalyst at 75°C for 4 hours.
    Macromer B:
    Prepared by heating Polyol F (100g), TMI (0.5g), MDI (0.5g), and 100 ppm of CosCat 83 catalyst at 75°C f or 4 hours.

    Test Methods:


    OH Number (Hydroxyl Number):



    [0088] The OH number was determined according to ASTM D4274-11, reported in mg [KOH]/g [polyol].

    Viscosity:



    [0089] Viscosity was conducted on an Anton-Paar SVM 3000 viscometer at 25 °C that has been demonstrated to g ive equivalent results as can be generated with ASTM-D4878-15. The instrument was calibrated using mineral oil reference standards of known viscosity.

    Gel Permeation Chromatography:



    [0090] The number average and weight average, Mn and Mw, respectively, molecular weights were determined by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) using a method based on DIN 55672-1, employing chloroform as the eluent with a mixed bed column (Agilent PL Gel; SDVB; 3 micron Pore diameter: 1xMixed-E + 5 micron Pore diameter: 2xMixed-D), refractive index (RI) detection and calibrated with polyethylene glycol as the standard.

    Solids Content and S:AN Ratio:



    [0091] The total solids levels (i.e., weight percent of polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene) of the polymer polyols were measured by an analytical technique known as near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The specific NIR measurement of total solids is a variation on ASTM D6342-12, "Polyurethane Raw Materials: Determining Hydroxyl Number of Polyols by Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy". The variations used include (1) substitution of the absorption bands associated with polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene instead of those associated with hydroxyl number, and (2) acquiring the NIR spectra in reflection mode rather than transmission mode. The use of reflection mode is due to polymer polyols being opaque, and thus are scattering materials with respect to infrared radiation. Measurement of the NIR spectra in reflection mode results in higher quality spectra for calibration and measurement purposes as PMPOs reflect more NIR radiation than they transmit. Calibrations to be used as standards were developed in accordance with ASTM D6342-12. In addition, the absorption bands associated with polyacrylonitrile and polystyrene are used to calculate the weight ratio of styrene: acrylonitrile in the total polymer. One skilled in the art will recognize that this is an analytical confirmation of the main mechanism for controlling the S/AN ratio, which is the wt. % of monomers in the total reactor feed.

    PREFORMED STABILIZER (PFS) PREPARATION:



    [0092] The pre-formed stabilizer was prepared in a two-stage reaction system comprising a continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fitted with an impeller and 4 baffles (first-stage) and a plug-flow reactor (second stage). The residence time in each reactor was 60 minutes. The reactants were pumped continuously to the reactor from feed tanks through an in-line static mixer and then through a feed tube into the reactor, which was well mixed. The temperature of the reaction mixture was controlled at 120 ± 5°C. The product from the second-stage reactor overflowed continuously through a pressure regulator designed to control the pressure in each stage at 65 psig. The product, i.e. the pre-formed stabilizer, then passed through a cooler and into a collection vessel. The preformed stabilizer formulations are disclosed in Table 1.
    Table 1: Preformed Stabilizer Compositions
    ComponentPFS APFS B
    PCA type Isopropanol Isopropanol
    PCA concentration in feed, wt. % 60.0% 60.0%
    Macromer Macromer A Macromer B
    Macromer concentration in feed, wt. % 24.0% 24.0%
    Monomer concentration in feed, wt. % 15.9% 15.9%
    Styrene/acrylonitrile ratio in feed, wt. % 50:50 50:50
    TBPEH concentration, wt. % 0.1% 0.1 %

    POLYMER POLYOL PREPARATION:



    [0093] This series of examples relates to the preparation of polymer polyols. The polymer polyols were prepared in a two-stage reaction system comprising a continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fitted with an impeller and 4 baffles (first-stage) and a plug-flow reactor (second stage). The residence time in each reactor was 60 minutes. The reactants were pumped continuously from feed tanks through an in-line static mixer and then through a feed tube into the reactor, which was well mixed. The temperature of the reaction mixture was controlled at 115 ± 5°C. The product from the second-stage reactor overflowed continuously through a pressure regulator designed to control the pressure in each stage at 45 psig. The product, i.e. the polymer polyol, then passed through a cooler and into a collection vessel. The crude product was vacuum stripped to remove volatiles. The wt. % total polymer in the product was calculated from the concentrations of monomers measured in the crude polymer polyol before stripping.
    Table 2: Polymer Polyols A-D:
     PMPO APMPO BPMPO CPMPO D
    Base Polyol A/G (40/60) A/G (60/40) B C/D (75/25)
    Base Polyol Viscosity, mPa.s 1738 3193 250 2977
    Base Polyol (wt.% in feed) 46.90 46.90 46.90 70.30
    PFS A A A B
    PFS (wt.% in feed) 12.50 12.50 12.50 12.50
    Styrene (wt.% in feed) 25.68 25.68 25.68 10.23
    Acrylonitrile (wt.% in feed) 14.60 14.60 14.60 6.66
    Catalyst (wt. % AIBN in feed) 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.32
    PCA (wt% in feed) 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
             
    Total Solids (%) 27.0 26.0 28.4 18.0
    Viscosity mPa.s @ 25ºC 5652 12930 921 6636
    Filterability - 700 mesh (sec) 225 209 175 187



    Claims

    1. A polymer polyol comprising the free-radical polymerization product of:

    (a) one or more base polyols comprising (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups and said amine initiated polyols have an equivalent weight of less than 500 Da;

    (b) at least one preformed stabilizer;

    (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers;
    in the presence of

    (d) at least one free radical polymerization catalyst;
    and, optionally,

    (e) one or more polymer control agents.


     
    2. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein (a) said one or more base polyols comprises (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups, and (2) one or more hydroxyl initiated polyols having a functionality of from 2 to 8 and a hydroxyl number of from 10 mg KOH/g polyol to 1000 mg KOH/g polyol, wherein said hydroxyl initiated polyols are selected from the group consisting of polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polyetherester polyols and mixtures thereof.
     
    3. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein the resultant polymer polyol has a viscosity ≤ Vbe4.2x
    wherein:
    Vb = viscosity of the base polyol in millipascal.second (mPa.s); and

    wherein the viscosity were measured at 25°C accord ing to ASTM-D4878-15.
     
    4. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein (c) said ethylenically unsaturated monomers comprise styrene and acrylonitrile.
     
    5. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein (a) said one or more base polyols comprise (1) one or more amine initiated polyols having a functionality of 2 to 8 and an equivalent weight ranging from 75 Da to 400 Da.
     
    6. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein (e) a polymer control agent comprising isopropanol is present.
     
    7. The polymer polyol of Claim 1, wherein (d) said free radical polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of peroxides, azo compounds and mixtures thereof.
     
    8. A process for the preparation of a polymer polyol comprising (I) free-radically polymerizing:

    (a) one or more base polyols comprising (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine group and said amine initiated polyols have an equivalent weight of less than 500 Da;

    (b) at least one preformed stabilizer;

    (c) one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers;
    in the presence of

    (d) at least one free radical polymerization catalyst;
    and, optionally,

    (e) one or more polymer control agents.


     
    9. The process of Claim 8, wherein (a) said one or more base polyols comprises (1) one or more amine initiated polyols wherein the amine initiator is free of tertiary amine groups, and (2) one or more hydroxyl initiated polyols having a functionality of from 2 to 8 and a hydroxyl number of from 10 mg KOH/g polyol to 1000 mg KOH/g polyol, wherein said hydroxyl initiated polyols are selected from the group consisting of polyether polyols, polyester polyols, polyetherester polyols and mixtures thereof.
     
    10. The process of Claim 8, wherein the resultant polymer polyol has a viscosity ≤ Vbe4.2x wherein:
    Vb = the viscosity of the base polyol in millipascal.second (mPa.s) and


     
    11. The process of Claim 8, wherein (c) said ethylenically unsaturated monomers comprise styrene and acrylonitrile.
     
    12. The process of Claim 8, wherein (a) said one or more base polyols comprise (1) one or more amine initiated polyether polyols having a functionality of 2 to 8 and an equivalent weight ranging from 75 Da to 400 Da.
     
    13. The process of Claim 8, wherein (d) said free radical polymerization catalyst is selected from the group consisting of peroxides, azo compounds and mixtures thereof.
     
    14. A polyurethane foam comprising the reaction product of:

    (1) a polyisocyanate component,
    with

    (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the polymer polyol of Claim 1;
    in the presence of

    (3) one or more catalysts,

    (4) one or more blowing agents,
    and

    (5) one or more surfactants.


     
    15. A process for preparing a polyurethane foam, comprising reacting:

    (1) a polyisocyanate component,
    with

    (2) an isocyanate-reactive component comprising the polymer polyol of Claim 1; in the presence of

    (3) one or more catalysts,

    (4) one or more blowing agents,
    and

    (5) one or more surfactants.


     


    Ansprüche

    1. Polymerpolyol, umfassend das Produkt der radikalischen Polymerisation von:

    (a) einem oder mehreren Basispolyolen, umfassend (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyole, wobei der Amin-Starter frei von tertiären Amingruppen ist und die amingestarteten Polyole ein Äquivalentgewicht von weniger als 500 Da aufweisen;

    (b) mindestens einem vorgebildeten Stabilisator;

    (c) einem oder mehreren ethylenisch ungesättigten Monomeren;
    in Gegenwart von

    (d) mindestens einem Katalysator der radikalischen Polymerisation
    und gegebenenfalls

    (e) einem oder mehreren Polymerreglern.


     
    2. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei (a) das eine oder die mehreren Basispolyole (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyole, wobei der Amin-Starter frei von tertiären Amingruppen ist, und (2) ein oder mehrere hydroxylgestartete Polyole mit einer Funktionalität von 2 bis 8 und einer Hydroxylzahl von 10 mg KOH/g Polyol bis 1000 mg KOH/g Polyol umfasst bzw. umfassen, wobei die hydroxylgestarteten Polyole aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Polyetherpolyolen, Polyesterpolyolen, Polyetheresterpolyolen und Mischungen davon ausgewählt sind.
     
    3. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei das resultierende Polymerpolyol eine Viskosität ≤ Vbe4,2x aufweist,
    wobei
    Vb = Viskosität des Basispolyols in Millipascal.Sekunde (mPa.s) und

    wobei die Viskosität bei 25 °C gemäß ASTM-D4878-15 gemessen wurde.
     
    4. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei (c) die ethylenisch ungesättigten Monomere Styrol und Acrylnitril umfassen.
     
    5. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei (a) das eine oder die mehreren Basispolyole (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyole mit einer Funktionalität von 2 bis 8 und einem Äquivalentgewicht im Bereich von 75 Da bis 400 Da umfasst bzw. umfassen.
     
    6. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei (e) ein Isopropanol umfassender Polymerregler zugegen ist.
     
    7. Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1, wobei (d) der Katalysator der radikalischen Polymerisation aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Peroxiden, Azoverbindungen und Mischungen davon ausgewählt ist.
     
    8. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Polymerpolyols, umfassend

    (I) die radikalische Polymerisation von:

    (a) einem oder mehreren Basispolyolen, umfassend (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyole, wobei der Amin-Starter frei von tertiären Amingruppen ist und die amingestarteten Polyole ein Äquivalentgewicht von weniger als 500 Da aufweisen;

    (b) mindestens einem vorgebildeten Stabilisator;

    (c) einem oder mehreren ethylenisch ungesättigten Monomeren;
    in Gegenwart von

    (d) mindestens einem Katalysator der radikalischen Polymerisation
    und gegebenenfalls

    (e) einem oder mehreren Polymerreglern.


     
    9. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei (a) das eine oder die mehreren Basispolyole (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyole, wobei der Amin-Starter frei von tertiären Amingruppen ist, und (2) ein oder mehrere hydroxylgestartete Polyole mit einer Funktionalität von 2 bis 8 und einer Hydroxylzahl von 10 mg KOH/g Polyol bis 1000 mg KOH/g Polyol umfasst bzw. umfassen, wobei die hydroxylgestarteten Polyole aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Polyetherpolyolen, Polyesterpolyolen, Polyetheresterpolyolen und Mischungen davon ausgewählt sind.
     
    10. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei das resultierende Polymerpolyol eine Viskosität ≤ Vbe4,2x aufweist, wobei
    Vb = Viskosität des Basispolyols in Millipascal.Sekunde (mPa.s) und


     
    11. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei (c) die ethylenisch ungesättigten Monomere Styrol und Acrylnitril umfassen.
     
    12. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei (a) das eine oder die mehreren Basispolyole (1) ein oder mehrere amingestartete Polyetherpolyole mit einer Funktionalität von 2 bis 8 und einem Äquivalentgewicht im Bereich von 75 Da bis 400 Da umfasst bzw. umfassen.
     
    13. Verfahren nach Anspruch 8, wobei (d) der Katalysator der radikalischen Polymerisation aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Peroxiden, Azoverbindungen und Mischungen davon ausgewählt ist.
     
    14. Polyurethanschaumstoff, umfassend das Reaktionsprodukt von

    (1) einer Polyisocyanatkomponente mit

    (2) einer Isocyanat-reaktiven Komponente, die das Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1 umfasst;
    in Gegenwart von

    (3) einem oder mehreren Katalysatoren,

    (4) einem oder mehreren Treibmitteln und

    (5) einem oder mehreren Tensiden.


     
    15. Verfahren zur Herstellung eines Polyurethanschaumstoffs, umfassend das Umsetzen von

    (1) einer Polyisocyanatkomponente mit

    (2) einer Isocyanat-reaktiven Komponente, die das Polymerpolyol nach Anspruch 1 umfasst;
    in Gegenwart von

    (3) einem oder mehreren Katalysatoren,

    (4) einem oder mehreren Treibmitteln und

    (5) einem oder mehreren Tensiden.


     


    Revendications

    1. Polyol polymère comprenant le produit de polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre de :

    (a) un ou plusieurs polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type amine, l'initiateur de type amine étant exempt de groupes amine tertiaire et lesdits polyols à initiateur de type amine possédant un poids équivalent inférieur à 500 Da ;

    (b) au moins un stabilisant préformé ;

    (c) un ou plusieurs monomères éthyléniquement insaturés ;
    en présence

    (d) d'au moins un catalyseur de polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre ;
    et, éventuellement,

    (e) d'un ou plusieurs agents de contrôle de polymère.


     
    2. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, (a) ledit ou lesdits polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type amine, l'initiateur de type amine étant exempt de groupes amine tertiaire, et (2) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type hydroxyle possédant une fonctionnalité allant de 2 à 8 et un indice d'hydroxyle allant de 10 mg de KOH/g à 1 000 mg de KOH/g, lesdits polyols à initiateur de type hydroxyle étant choisis dans le groupe constitué par des polyéther polyols, des polyester polyols, des polyétherester polyols et des mélanges correspondants.
     
    3. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, le polyol polymère résultant possédant une viscosité ≤ Vbe4,2x
    où :
    Vb = viscosité du polyol de base en millipascal.seconde (mPa.s) ;
    et

    la viscosité ayant été mesurée à 25 °C selon la norme ASTM-D4878-15.
     
    4. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, (c) lesdits monomères éthyléniquement insaturés comprenant le styrène et l'acrylonitrile.
     
    5. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, (a) ledit ou lesdits polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type amine possédant une fonctionnalité de 2 à 8 et un poids équivalent dans la plage de 75 Da à 400 Da.
     
    6. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, (e) un agent de contrôle de polymère comprenant de l'isopropanol étant présent.
     
    7. Polyol polymère selon la revendication 1, (d) ledit catalyseur de polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre étant choisi dans le groupe constitué par des peroxydes, des composés azo et des mélanges correspondants.
     
    8. Procédé pour la préparation d'un polyol polymère comprenant

    (I) la polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre :

    (a) d'un ou plusieurs polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type amine, l'initiateur de type amine étant exempt de groupe amine tertiaire et lesdits polyols à initiateur de type amine possédant un poids équivalent inférieur à 500 Da ;

    (b) d'au moins un stabilisant préformé ;

    (c) d'un ou plusieurs monomères éthyléniquement insaturés ;
    en présence

    (d) d'au moins un catalyseur de polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre ;
    et, éventuellement,

    (e) un ou plusieurs agents de contrôle de polymère.


     
    9. Procédé selon la revendication 8, (a) ledit ou lesdits polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type amine, l'initiateur de type amine étant exempt de groupes amine tertiaire, et (2) un ou plusieurs polyols à initiateur de type hydroxyle possédant une fonctionnalité allant de 2 à 8 et un indice d'hydroxyle allant de 10 mg de KOH/g à 1 000 mg de KOH/g, lesdits polyols à initiateur de type hydroxyle étant choisis dans le groupe constitué par des polyéther polyols, des polyester polyols, des polyétherester polyols et des mélanges correspondants.
     
    10. Procédé selon la revendication 8, le polyol polymère résultant possédant une viscosité ≤ Vbe4,2x où :
    Vb = la viscosité du polyol de base en millipascal.seconde (mPa.s) ;
    et


     
    11. Procédé selon la revendication 8, (c) lesdits monomères éthyléniquement insaturés comprenant le styrène et l'acrylonitrile.
     
    12. Procédé selon la revendication 8, (a) ledit ou lesdits polyols de base comprenant (1) un ou plusieurs polyéther polyols à initiateur de type amine possédant une fonctionnalité de 2 à 8 et un poids équivalent dans la plage de 75 Da à 400 Da.
     
    13. Procédé selon la revendication 8, (d) ledit catalyseur de polymérisation par voie radicalaire libre étant choisi dans le groupe constitué par des peroxydes, des composés azo et des mélanges correspondants.
     
    14. Mousse de polyuréthane comprenant le produit de réaction:

    (1) d'un composant de polyisocyanate,
    avec

    (2) un composant réactif envers isocyanate comprenant le polyol polymère selon la revendication 1 ;
    en présence

    (3) d'un ou plusieurs catalyseurs,

    (4) d'un ou plusieurs agents de gonflement,
    et

    (5) d'un ou plusieurs tensioactifs.


     
    15. Procédé pour la préparation d'une mousse de polyuréthane, comprenant la mise en réaction :

    (1) d'un composant de polyisocyanate,
    avec

    (2) un composant réactif envers isocyanate comprenant le polyol polymère selon la revendication 1 ;
    en présence

    (3) d'un ou plusieurs catalyseurs,

    (4) d'un ou plusieurs agents de gonflement,
    et

    (5) d'un ou plusieurs tensioactifs.


     






    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description