(19)
(11)EP 3 602 609 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 19706302.7

(22)Date of filing:  28.02.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 21/265(2006.01)
H01L 29/16(2006.01)
H01L 29/872(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/EP2019/055041
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/166576 (06.09.2019 Gazette  2019/36)

(54)

METHOD FOR P-TYPE DOPING OF SILICON CARBIDE BY AL/BE CO-IMPLANTATION

VERFAHREN ZUR P-TYP-DOTIERUNG VON SILICIUMCARBID DURCH AL/BE-CO-IMPLANTATION

PROCÉDÉ DE DOPAGE DE TYPE P DU CARBURE DE SILICIUM PAR CO-IMPLANTATION AL/BE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 28.02.2018 EP 18159223

(43)Date of publication of application:
05.02.2020 Bulletin 2020/06

(73)Proprietor: ABB Power Grids Switzerland AG
5400 Baden (CH)

(72)Inventors:
  • ALFIERI, Giovanni
    5400 Baden (CH)
  • SUNDARAMOORTHY, Vinoth
    5430 Wettingen (CH)

(74)Representative: Kuhnen & Wacker Patent- und Rechtsanwaltsbüro PartG mbB 
Prinz-Ludwig-Straße 40A
85354 Freising
85354 Freising (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A- 5 710 059
  
      
    Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


    Description

    FIELD OF THE INVENTION



    [0001] The present invention relates to a method for p-type doping of a silicon carbide (SiC) layer, in particular to a method capable of increasing the free hole concentration in p-type regions, and a p-type doped silicon carbide layer with a high free hole concentration in p-type regions.

    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



    [0002] Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive semiconductor material for high-power electronic devices. Since introduction of dopants by thermal diffusion is impaired in SiC due to relatively low diffusion coefficients of relevant dopants in SiC, high energy ion-implantation is a common technique to create p/n-type regions in SiC. During ion implantation, dopant atoms are ionized, accelerated and directed at the semiconductor substrate. There, the dopant atoms collide with substrate atoms, gradually lose energy, and finally come to a rest at some depth within the substrate.

    [0003] During this process, due to the collision of the dopant atoms with substrate atoms, defects are introduced in the substrate's crystal lattice, especially at high implantation doses and implantation energies. Dopant implantation at an elevated temperature (hot implantation) and post-implantation thermal treatments (thermal annealing) is therefore required to reduce the implantation-induced damages. These treatments also place dopants on substitutional sites within the crystal lattice where they are expected to become electrically active.

    [0004] In order to form p-type regions in SiC, implantation of Aluminum (Al) ions or Boron (B) ions is commonly used. Al is attractive for p-type doping because of its smaller ionization energy compared to other acceptors. However, the electrical activation of Al in SiC is rather low. At room temperature, typically only 1 - 3 % of the implanted Al concentration contributes electrically, depending on the doping level. This poor Al acceptor activation could be due to several reasons including the formation of complexes between the Al acceptor implant and C or Si vacancies formed during the implantation and/or annealing process resulting in neutral or donor behavior, Al acceptor implants residing on electrically inactive interstitial sites, lattice damage, or the presence of thermally stable deep donor defects. For example, carbon vacancies in SiC are reported to have a single donor behavior.

    [0005] As a consequence, a high amount of Al has to be implanted to obtain a decent free hole concentration. This requires very high implantation doses further causing increased lattice damage. To mitigate such lattice damage a relatively high annealing temperature typically above 1800 °C is required, which has however further detrimental effects. Also, due to the inherent solubility limit of SiC, there is a natural limit to the amount of Al ions which can be implanted in SiC. Hence, the ability to generate p-type SiC regions with a high free hole concentration (low sheet resistivity) by means of Al implantation is severely limited.

    [0006] Several alternative doping approaches have been studied in the prior art to overcome this limitation.

    [0007] From the article of Ramungul et al., "6H-SiC P+N Junctions Fabricated by Beryllium Implantation" in IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol 46, No. 3, March 1999, it is known that Beryllium (Be) as an alternative p-type dopant for implanted silicon carbide (SiC) p+n junctions can lead to improvement in the forward characteristics compared to Boron (B) implanted p+n junctions while exhibiting higher reverse leakages.

    [0008] From the article from Krieger et al., "Beryllium-Related Defect Centers in 4H-SiC" in Materials Science Forum, Vols. 353 - 356 (2001) pp. 467-470, it is known that Beryllium (Be) implanted in p-type 4H-SiC epilayers doped with a low concentration of Aluminum ([Al] = 8.5x1015 cm-3) is not suited to generate p-type SiC substrates with low resistivity, in particular because it suffers from significant out-diffusion of Be atoms with the consequence that no shallow Be-related acceptors can be formed in 4H-SiC.

    [0009] From US 5 710 059 A it is known a method for producing a semiconductor device, comprising a step of implanting first conductivity type impurity dopants of at least two different elements in a semiconductor layer being doped according to a second opposite conductivity type, and after that anneal the semiconductor layer at such a high temperature that one of said elements is diffusing slowly into the semiconductor layer and the other is diffusing rapidly thereinto.

    [0010] From the article from Mulpuri V. Rao et al., "Al, Al/C and Al/Si Implantations in 6H-SiC", Journal of Electronic Materials, Vol. 25., No. 1, 1996, it is known an attempt to improve electrical activation of Al implants in SiC by co-implantation with carbon (C). Since Al occupies Si lattice sites in SiC, C co-implantation was supposed to produce more vacancies on Si lattices sites into which Al implants can move to become electrically active, thereby also reducing the formation of Al complexes. Further, Si co-implantation was performed to see whether complexing of Al with carbon vacancies or carbon vacancies themselves are responsible for a poor activation. The study showed that neither Aluminum (Al) implantation with Carbon (C) co-implantation nor Aluminum (Al) implantation with Silicon (Si) co-implantation produces an improvement in Al activation in SiC but rather introduces more lattice damage resulting into highly resistive layers.

    [0011] Thus, a need remains in the art for an effective method to generate p-type SiC substrates providing a high free hole concentration (low resistivity) at room temperature. To achieve this, it is required a method to increase the electrical activation of implanted dopants. Further it is required a method which provides higher free hole concentration at a lower implantation dose and annealing temperature.

    SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



    [0012] The present invention was made in view of the prior art described above, and the object of the present invention is to provide a method for p-type doping of silicon carbide (SiC) which yields an increased electrical activation of implanted dopants and thus higher free hole concentration in p-type regions, and to provide p-type doped silicon carbide with a higher free hole concentration in p-type regions at room temperature.

    [0013] The object of the invention is attained by a method for p-type doping of a silicon carbide layer wherein the method comprises: a step of providing the silicon carbide layer; a first implantation step of implanting Al into a preselected region of the silicon carbide layer by ion implantation; an annealing step of annealing the silicon carbide layer after the first implantation step; and a second implantation step of implanting Be into the preselected region by ion implantation before the annealing step, wherein a ratio DAl,tot/ DBe,tot of the total Al dose DAl,tot in the first implantation step and the total Be dose DBe,tot in the second implantation step is in a range between 0.1 and 10, exemplarily between 0.3 and 3, more exemplarily in a range between 0.5 and 2 in an area where Al and Be are co-implanted.

    [0014] The present inventors found that by implanting both the Al dopants and Be dopants before performing an annealing step, the electrical activation of the implanted dopants can be increased compared to prior art methods which perform an annealing step immediately after a single implantation step. Thus, a higher free hole concentration at room temperature is obtained. This effect is attributed to the increased formation of Al-C-Be complexes which are shallower (Ev + 0.05 eV) over the valence band edge Ev than Al complexes (Ev + 0.22 eV) or Be complexes (Ev + 0.23 eV), the formation of which is favored when annealing is performed after each implantation step. It was also found out that for a ratio of total doses in this range, superior results can be achieved. It may by beneficial to have a ratio close to 1. When about the same amount of Al and Be is provided, more of the beneficial Al-C-Be complexes can be formed. In contrast, when there is an excess of implanted Al (or Be, respectively), more of the Al complexes (Be complexes) are formed.

    [0015] Further developments of the invention are specified in the dependent claims.

    [0016] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, during a time period between the first implantation step and the second implantation step, the temperature of the silicon carbide layer is kept at a temperature below 1200 °C, exemplarily below 1000 °C, exemplarily below 900 °C, more exemplarily below 700 °C.

    [0017] A temperature in this range is significantly below the typical annealing temperature used for electrical activation of dopants in SiC. Keeping the temperature significantly below such typical annealing temperature until both implantation steps are performed favors the formation of the beneficial Al-C-Be complexes and reduces the formation of the less beneficial Al complexes and Be complexes.

    [0018] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, an annealing temperature in the annealing step is above 1500 °C, exemplarily above 1600 °C, more exemplarily above 1650 °C.

    [0019] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, the annealing temperature in the annealing step is below 1800 °C, exemplarily below 1750 °C.

    [0020] An annealing temperature within this range is advantageous for repairing implantation damages and electrically activating the implanted dopants.

    [0021] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, at least the preselected region of the silicon carbide layer includes nitrogen atoms at a concentration [N] of at least 1016 cm-3, exemplarily at least 1018 cm-3.

    [0022] When nitrogen atoms are present in the silicon carbide layer, additional Al-N-Al complexes (Ev + 0.11 eV), Be-N-Be complexes (Ev + 0.05 eV) and Al-N-Be complexes (Ev + 0.09) can be formed. All of them are shallower than Al complexes (Ev + 0.22 eV) or Be complexes (Ev + 0.23 eV) and therefore beneficial to increase the free hole concentration at room temperature. The higher the nitrogen concentration, the more nitrogen complexes can be formed.

    [0023] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, the first implantation step is performed before the second implantation step.

    [0024] By implanting Al ions first, due to their higher atomic mass compared to Be, more vacancy sites are generated. The vacancy sites can absorb interstitials responsible for the formation of immobile and electrically inactive clusters. By having less of these interstitials, the electrical activation of the dopants can be facilitated.

    [0025] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, a total Al implantation dose in the first implantation step is at least 5x1013 cm-2, exemplarily at least 1x1014 cm-2.

    [0026] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, a total Al implantation dose in the first implantation step is below 5x1015 cm-2, exemplarily below 2x1015 cm-2.

    [0027] The method according to the invention yields an increased electrical activation of the dopants thus a higher free hole concentration for a given implantation dose. Therefore, a lower implantation dose is sufficient to achieve the same free hole concentration as with prior art methods. Advantageously, due to a lower implantation dose, less implantation damage is created in the crystal lattice.

    [0028] In an exemplary embodiment of the method according to the invention, an activation ratio at room temperature calculated as a ratio between a sheet concentration of free holes in the preselected region after the annealing step and a total dose, which is the sum of the total dose of Be and of the total dose of Al, is above 20 %, exemplarily above 30 %, more exemplarily above 40 %.

    [0029] According to the invention, the method is characterized in yielding a higher electrical activation ratio compared to the prior art.

    [0030] The object is also attained by a silicon carbide layer comprising a p-type region, wherein the following inequality applies: 0.1 < [Al]/[Be] < 10, exemplarily 0.3 < [Al]/[Be] < 3, more exemplarily 0.5 < [Al]/[Be] < 2, wherein [Al] is a concentration of aluminum atoms in the p-type region, and [Be] is a concentration of beryllium atoms in the p-type region.

    [0031] The p-type doped silicon carbide layer according to the invention is characterized in that the concentration of implanted Al and concentration of implanted Be in the p-type region is within the same order of magnitude, exemplary about the same. If this is fulfilled, the free hole concentration at room temperature is increased compared to the prior art.

    [0032] Further developments of the invention are specified in the dependent claims.

    [0033] In an exemplary embodiment of the device according to the invention, the concentration of aluminum in the p-type region is higher than 1x1018 cm-3 (i.e. [Al] > 1x1018 cm-3).

    [0034] The higher the Al concentration, the more of the Al-C-Be can be formed, and the higher is the free hole concentration at room temperature. A high Al concentration in combination with a high Be concentration is characteristic for a highly doped p-type region according to the invention.

    [0035] In an exemplary embodiment of the device according to the invention, a concentration of nitrogen atoms in the p-type region is at least 1x1016 cm-3, exemplarily at least 1x1018 cm-3.

    [0036] The presence of nitrogen in the p-type region enables the formation of shallow nitrogen complexes.

    [0037] In an exemplary embodiment of the device according to the invention, the following inequality applies: 0.1 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1, exemplarily 0.2 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1,wherein [Al] is a concentration of aluminum atoms in the p-type region, [Be] is the concentration of Beryllium in the p-type region, and p is a concentration of free holes in the p-type region.

    [0038] The p-type doped silicon carbide layer according to the invention is characterized in that more of the implanted dopants contribute to the free hole concentration at room temperature.

    [0039] In an exemplary embodiment of the device according to the invention, the free hole concentration in the p-type region at room temperature is higher than 1x1018 cm-3, exemplarily higher than 1x1019 cm-3, more exemplarily higher than 2x1019 cm-3.

    [0040] The p-type doped silicon carbide layer according to the invention is characterized in that it facilitates achieving a higher free hole concentration than in the prior art.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0041] Detailed embodiments of the invention will be explained below with reference to the accompanying figures and table, in which:
    Fig. 1A
    illustrates the first implantation step of the method for p-type doping of a SiC layer according to the invention;
    Fig. 1 B
    illustrates the second implantation step of the method for p-type doping of a SiC layer according to the invention;
    Tab. 1
    illustrates exemplary doses and energies according to the method;
    Fig. 2
    illustrate exemplary implantation profiles according to the method; and
    Fig. 3
    illustrates an exemplary embodiment of a semiconductor device in which the p-type SiC layer according to the invention is used.


    [0042] The reference signs used in the figures and their meanings are summarized in the list of reference signs. Generally, similar elements have the same reference signs throughout the specification. The described embodiments are meant as examples and shall not limit the scope of the invention.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERED EMBODIMENTS



    [0043] In the following there is explained a method for p-type doping of a silicon carbide layer according to an exemplary embodiment of the invention. Reference is made to Figs. 1A and 1B.

    [0044] In a first step, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer 1 is provided. The SiC layer 1 may be formed on a substrate 2 and has a first main side 3 and a second main side 4 opposite to the first main side 3. An ion beam blocking mask 5 exposing a portion of the first main side 3 may be formed on the SiC layer 1. The SiC of the SiC layer 1 may be any polytype of SiC such as 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC or 3C-SiC, for example. The substrate 2 may be a SiC substrate. In one embodiment, the SiC layer 1 is n-type and doped with nitrogen (N).

    [0045] In a first implantation step (see Fig. 1A), Aluminium (Al) dopants are implanted into a preselected region 6 of the SiC layer 1 by ion implantation. Then, in a second implantation step (see Fig. 1B), Beryllium (Be) dopants are implanted into the preselected region 6 of the SiC layer 1 by ion implantation.

    [0046] Specifically, in the first (second) implantation step, Al atoms (Be atoms) are ionized, accelerated and directed in form of an ion beam 7Al (7Be) at a surface portion of the SiC layer 1 exposed by the ion beam blocking mask 5. There, they enter the SiC layer 1, collide with intrinsic atoms within the SiC layer, gradually loose energy, and finally come to a rest at some depth within the SiC layer 1. The average depth at which the Al dopants (Be dopants) come to a rest within the SiC layer 1 depends on the implantation energy EAl (EBe). The amount of implanted Al dopants (Be dopants) depends on the implantation dose DAl (DBe). Implantation energy EAl (EBe) and implantation dose DAl (DBe) can be controlled to obtain a specific dopant implantation profile. How to control the implantation dose DAl (DBe) and implantation energy EAl (EBe) to obtain the specific dopant implantation profile is known in the art and may involve multiple implantations nAl (nBe) with varying implantation doses DAl,i (DBe,j) and implantation energies EAl,i (EBe,j), wherein i = 1 ... nAl (j = 1 ... nBe).

    [0047] For example, the Al (Be) implantation profile shown in Fig. 2 can be obtained by four (three) consecutive implantations of Al dopants (Be dopants) with the energies EAl,i (EBe,j) and doses DAl,i (DBe,j) given in Tab. 1.

    [0048] The first implantation step and the second implantation step are exemplarily carried out at an elevated implantation temperature (hot implantation), exemplarily 500 °C. By having an elevated implantation temperature, implantation damages can be alleviated compared to room temperature. The implantation temperature is however not limited to 500 °C and may also be performed at lower temperature or higher temperature, as long as the implantation temperature is kept sufficiently below the annealing temperature. For example, the temperature of the silicon carbide layer 1 is kept at a temperature below 1200 °C, exemplarily below 1000 °C, more exemplarily below 900 °C.

    [0049] Then, the annealing step is performed. In the annealing step, the SiC layer 1 is heated to a high temperature (annealing temperature), kept at this high temperature for some time and cooled down afterwards. By this, amorphization damages from the implantation process can be repaired. Further, interstitial dopants move to vacancy sites and substitutional sites where they become electrically active.

    [0050] Importantly, in contrast to the prior art in which it is annealed immediately after a single implantation step, herein the annealing step is only carried out when both the first implantation step and the second implantation step are terminated. In this way, more Al-C-Be complexes are formed which are shallower (Ev + 0.05 eV) over the valence band edge Ev than Al complexes (Ev + 0.22 eV) or Be complexes (Ev + 0.23 eV) and therefore advantageous in the sense of the invention to increase the free hole concentration at room temperature. On the other hand, performing an annealing step after each implantation step would favor the formation of Al complexes and Be complexes.

    [0051] For example, experimental Hall-effect measurements performed on samples co-implanted at 500 °C with Al and Be according to the doses DAl,i (DBe,j) and energies EAl,i (EBe,j) given in Tab. 1 and annealed for 30 minutes at a temperature of 1600 °C and 1700 °C, respectively, revealed that p-type conductivity arises after an annealing temperature of 1700 °C and that the activation ratio, calculated as the ratio between the sheet concentration and the total dose is above 50 %. The person skilled in the art understands that these parameters are given as an example and not meant to be limiting. For example, by increasing the annealing temperature, the annealing duration may be shortened. In one embodiment, the annealing temperature is above 1500 °C, exemplarily above 1600 °C, more exemplarily above 1650 °C. In another embodiment, the annealing temperature is below 1800 °C, exemplarily below 1750 °C.

    [0052] According to an embodiment of the invention, the first implantation step and the second implantation step are performed such that in the distribution of the implanted Al dopants substantially overlaps the distribution of the implanted Be dopants. In this way a condition for the formation of Al-C-Be complexes is improved. For example, Al dopants and Be dopants may be implanted such that their implantation profiles substantially match each other (see Fig. 2).

    [0053] To achieve this, the individual implantations (EAl,i, DAl,i, i=1... nAl) performed in the first implantation step and the individual implantations (EBe,j, DBe,j, j=1...nBe) performed in the second implantation step are performed such that the ratio DAl,tot/DBe,tot of the total dose of Al dopants DAl,tot implanted in the first implantation step and the total dose of Be dopants DBe,tot implanted in the second implantation step into the preselected region 6 is in a range between 0.1 and 10, exemplarily between 0.3 and 3, more exemplarily in a range between 0.5 and 2. The individual implantation energies EAl,i (EBe,i) are adjusted accordingly. For example, for a given implantation dose, the implantation energy for Al implantation EAl,i is about three times the implantation energy for Be implantation EBe,i.

    [0054] Optimal results may be obtained when the ratio DAl,tot/ DBe,tot is close to 1. Herein, the total dose DAl,tot (DBe,tot) is defined as the sum of individual doses DAl,i (DBe,i) implanted into the preselected region. For example, with the values given in Tab. 1, the ratio of total doses is DAl,tot/ DBe,tot is 1.03.

    [0055] In one exemplary embodiment according to the invention, the total implantation dose DAl,tot (DBe,tot) is at least 5x1013 cm-2, exemplarily at least 1x1014 cm-2.

    [0056] The method according to the invention yields improved electrical activation. For instance activation ratio at room temperature calculated as a ratio between a sheet concentration of free holes in the preselected region after the annealing step measured by Hall-effect measurements and a total dose, which is the sum of the total dose of Be and of the total dose of Al, is above 20 %, exemplarily above 30 %, more exemplarily above 40 %. This means, that the same free hole concentration p at room temperature can be achieved with a lower implantation dose compared to the prior art. In an exemplary embodiment according to the invention, the total implantation dose DAl,tot (DBe,tot) therefore is below 5x1015 cm-2, exemplarily below 2x1015 cm-2.

    [0057] In a modification of the method, the SiC layer 1 is an n-type SiC layer 1 doped with nitrogen (N). The method is performed according to the steps described above, however additional complexes may be formed due to the presence of N such as Al-N-AI complexes (Ev + 0.11 eV), Be-N-Be complexes (Ev + 0.05 eV) and Al-N-Be complexes (Ev + 0.09) which are also electrically active. All of them are shallower than Al complexes (Ev + 0.22 eV) or Be complexes (Ev + 0.23 eV) generated by prior art methods and are therefore beneficial to increase the free hole concentration at room temperature. The higher the nitrogen concentration [N], the more nitrogen complexes can be formed. For example, the SiC layer 1 includes nitrogen atoms at a concentration [N] of at least 1016 cm-3, exemplarily at least 1018 cm-3.

    [0058] Next, there is shown a Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diode as an exemplary embodiment of a semiconductor device which uses the p-type silicon carbide (SiC) layer according to the invention. Reference is made to Fig. 3.

    [0059] The JBS comprises an anode 9, a cathode 8, a SiC substrate 2, a SiC layer 1, a p-type region 6 and a passivation layer 10. The SiC layer 1 is formed on a SiC substrate 2 and has a first main side 3 and a second main side 4 opposite to the first main side 3. The SiC substrate 2 is formed on the cathode 8. The SiC layer 1 and the SiC substrate 2 may be any polytype of SiC such as 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC or 3C-SiC, for example. The SiC substrate 2 is an n+-type SiC substrate doped with nitrogen (N). The SiC layer 1 is an n-type SiC layer 1 doped at a lower nitrogen concentration than the SiC substrate 2. The SiC layer 1 forms a drift layer. A layer thickness of the SiC layer 1 depends on the nominal blocking voltage of the power semiconductor device. The anode 9 is formed on the SiC layer 1 and forms a Schottky contact with the SiC layer 1. The passivation layer 10 covers the portion of the SiC layer 1 exposed by the anode 9.

    [0060] The SiC layer 1 includes at least one p-type region 6'. The at least one p-type region 6' may form a p+n-junction grid integrated into the SiC layer 1. The p+n-junction grid may be configured to move the peak electric field at reverse bias to the bottom of the p-type region 6' away from the Schottky contact.

    [0061] The p-type region 6' includes Al dopants and Be dopants. A concentration of nitrogen atoms [N] in the p-type region 6' is exemplarily at least 1x1016 cm-3, exemplarily at least 1x1018 cm-3. In an exemplary embodiment, the concentration of aluminum [Al] in the p-type region (6') is higher than 1x1018 cm-3. For example, the Al dopants and Be dopants are implanted according to the implantation profile shown in Fig. 4. The invention is however not limited on this specific implantation profiles. The concentration of the implanted aluminium [Al] and the implanted beryllium [Be] in the p-type region can also be such that the following inequality applies: 0.1 < [Al]/[Be] < 10, exemplarily 0.3 < [Al]/[Be] < 3, more exemplary 0.5 < [Al]/[Be] < 2. This means, the concentration of implanted Al and concentration of implanted Be in the p-type region is within the same order of magnitude, exemplary about the same. Accordingly, more of the beneficial Al-C-Be complexes explained above may be provided. In another exemplary embodiment, the concentration of N, implanted Al and implanted Be is about the same.

    [0062] The p-type region 6' implanted into the n-type SiC layer 1 according to the invention provides a higher free hole concentration p at room temperature than in the prior art. In an exemplary embodiment of the device according to the invention, the following inequality applies: 0.1 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1, exemplarily 0.2 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1, wherein [Al] is a concentration of aluminum dopants in the p-type region 6', [Be] is the concentration of beryllium dopants in the p-type region 6', and p is a concentration of free holes in the p-type region 6'.

    [0063] The higher the concentration of the implanted aluminum dopants [Al] and beryllium dopants [Be], the higher is the free hole concentration which can be achieved. For example, the free hole concentration in the p-type region 6' at room temperature is higher than 1x1018 cm-3, exemplarily higher than 1x1019 cm-3, more exemplarily higher than 2x1019 cm-3. Hence, a p-type SiC layer 1 according to the invention may help to decrease leakage currents and to increase breakdown voltages in the JBS diode presented as an exemplary embodiment.

    [0064] It will be apparent for persons skilled in the art that modifications of the above described methods and embodiments are possible without departing from the invention as defined by the appended claims.

    [0065] The p-type doped SiC layer 1 according to the invention is characterized in that the p-type region 6' has a higher free hole concentration p than prior art. An exemplary use of the p-type doped SiC layer was described with reference to a JBS diode. However, the p-type doped SiC layer 1 according to the invention may also be used in any other SiC based devices, which requires a highly doped p-type region, such as a JFET, or a pn diode, for example, and may also help to achieve higher breakdown voltages and improved on-state characteristics.

    [0066] In the example shown, the n-type SiC layer 1 had an n-type nitrogen pre-doping and the doping was lower than for the SiC substrate 2. The SiC layer 1 may also have the same doping or a higher doping than the SiC substrate. The SiC layer 1 can also be without nitrogen pre-doping.

    [0067] In the exemplary embodiment, the SiC layer was provided on a SiC substrate. The SiC layer may also be provided without the substrate or be the substrate.

    [0068] In the description of the embodiment, an ion beam blocking mask 5 is used. The implantation can also be performed without the ion beam blocking mask 5.

    [0069] In the embodiment shown the ion beams 7Al and 7Be are directed perpendicular to the first main side 3 of the SiC layer 1. However, they can also be tilted at an angle to the normal of the first main side 3.

    [0070] In the embodiment shown, the first implantation step is performed before the second implantation step. The first implantation step may however also be performed after the second implantation step or essentially at the same time.

    [0071] It should be noted that the term "comprising" does not exclude other elements or steps and that the indefinite article "a" or "an" does not exclude the plural. Also, elements described in association with different embodiments may be combined.

    List of reference signs



    [0072] 
    1
    silicon carbide layer
    2
    silicon carbide substrate
    3
    first main side
    4
    second main side
    5
    ion beam blocking layer
    6
    preselected region
    6'
    p-type region
    7Al
    Ion beam of the first implantation step
    7Be
    Ion beam of the second implantation step
    8
    cathode
    9
    anode
    10
    passivation layer
    DAl,i
    implantation dose for the i-th Al implantation
    EAl,i
    implantation energy for the i-th Al implantation
    DBe,j
    implantation dose for the j-th Be implantation
    EBe,j
    implantation energy for the j-th Be implantation
    DAl,tot
    total Al implantation dose (sum of the doses of all Al implantations)
    DBe,tot
    total Be implantation dose (sum of the doses of all Be implantations)
    [Al]
    concentration of implanted Al atoms
    [Be]
    concentration of implanted Be atoms
    [N]
    concentration of N atoms
    p
    concentration of free holes



    Claims

    1. A method for p-type doping of a silicon carbide layer (1), the method comprising:

    a step of providing the silicon carbide layer (1);

    a first implantation step of implanting aluminum (Al) dopants into a preselected region (6) of the silicon carbide layer (1) by ion implantation (7Al);

    an annealing step of annealing the silicon carbide layer (1) after the first implantation step; and

    a second implantation step of implanting Beryllium dopants (Be) into the preselected region (6) by ion implantation (7Be) before the annealing step,

    characterized in that

    a ratio DAl,tot/ DBe,tot of the total aluminum (Al) dose (DAl,tot) in the first implantation step and the total Beryllium (Be) dose (DBe,tot) in the second implantation step is in a range between 0.1 and 10 or between 0.3 and 3 or in a range between 0.5 and 2.


     
    2. The method according to claim 1, wherein during a time period between the first implantation step and the second implantation step the temperature of the silicon carbide layer (1) is kept at a temperature below 1200 °C or below 1000 °C or below 900 °C.
     
    3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein an annealing temperature in the annealing step is above 1500 °C or above 1600 °C or above 1650 °C.
     
    4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the annealing temperature in the annealing step is below 1800 °C or below 1750 °C.
     
    5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein at least the preselected region (6) of the silicon carbide layer (1) includes nitrogen atoms (N) at a concentration [N] of at least 1016 cm-3 or at least 1018 cm-3.
     
    6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the first implantation step is performed before the second implantation step.
     
    7. The method according any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein a total aluminum (Al) implantation dose (DAl,tot) in the first implantation step is at least 5x1013 cm-2 or at least 1x1014 cm-2.
     
    8. The method according to claim 7, wherein a total Aluminum (Al) implantation dose (DAl,tot) in the first implantation step is below 5x1015 cm-2 or below 2x1015 cm-2.
     
    9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein an activation ratio at room temperature calculated as a ratio between a sheet concentration of free holes in the preselected region (6) after the annealing step and a total dose, which is the sum of the total dose of beryllium (DBe,tot) and of the total dose of aluminum (DAl,tot), is above 20 % or above 30 % or above 40 %.
     
    10. A silicon carbide layer (1) comprising a p-type region (6'), wherein the following inequality applies:
    0.1 < [Al]/[Be] < 10 or 0.3 < [Al]/[Be] < 3 or 0.5 < [Al]/[Be] < 2,
    wherein [Al] is a concentration of aluminum (Al) atoms in the p-type region (6'), and [Be] is a concentration of beryllium (Be) atoms in the p-type region (6').
     
    11. The silicon carbide layer (1) according to claim 10, wherein [Al] > 1x1018 cm-3
     
    12. The silicon carbide layer (1) according to claim 10 or 11, wherein a concentration of nitrogen atoms [N] in the p-type region (6') is at least 1x1016 cm-3, exemplarily at least 1x1018 cm-3.
     
    13. The silicon carbide layer (1) according to any one of claims 10 to 12, wherein the following inequality applies:
    0.1 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1, exemplarily 0.2 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1,
    wherein [Al] is a concentration of aluminum atoms in the p-type region (6'), [Be] is the concentration of beryllium atoms in the p-type region (6'), and p is a concentration of free holes in the p-type region (6').
     
    14. The silicon carbide layer (1) according to any one of claims 10 to 13, wherein the free hole concentration p in the p-type region (6') at room temperature is higher than 1x1018 cm-3 or higher than 1x1019 cm-3 or higher than 2x1019 cm-3.
     


    Ansprüche

    1. Verfahren zur p-Typ-Dotierung einer Siliziumcarbidschicht (1), wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

    einen Schritt des Bereitstellens der Siliziumcarbidschicht (1);

    einen ersten Implantierungsschritt des Implantierens von Aluminium(A1)-Dotierstoffen in ein vorgewähltes Gebiet (6) der Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) durch Ionenimplantierung (7Al);

    einen Ausheilschritt des Ausheilens der Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) nach dem ersten Implantierungsschritt; und

    einen zweiten Implantierungsschritt des Implantierens von Beryllium-Dotierstoffen (Be) in das vorgewählte Gebiet (6) durch Ionenimplantierung (7Be) vor dem Ausheilschritt,

    dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass ein Verhältnis DAl,tot/DBe,tot der gesamten Aluminium(Al)-Dosis (DAl,tot) in dem ersten Implantierungsschritt und der gesamten Beryllium(Be)-Dosis (DBe,tot) in dem zweiten Implantierungsschritt in einem Bereich zwischen 0,1 und 10 oder zwischen 0,3 und 3 oder in einem Bereich zwischen 0,5 und 2 liegt.


     
    2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, wobei während einer Zeitperiode zwischen dem ersten Implantierungsschritt und dem zweiten Implantierungsschritt die Temperatur der Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) auf einer Temperatur unter 1200°C oder unter 1000°C oder unter 900°C gehalten wird.
     
    3. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1 oder 2, wobei eine Ausheiltemperatur in dem Ausheilschritt über 1500°C oder über 1600°C oder über 1650°C liegt.
     
    4. Verfahren nach Anspruch 3, wobei die Ausheiltemperatur in dem Ausheilschritt unter 1800°C oder unter 1750°C liegt.
     
    5. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, wobei mindestens das vorgewählte Gebiet (6) der Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) Stickstoffatome (N) mit einer Konzentration [N] von mindestens 1016 cm-3 oder mindestens 1018 cm-3 enthält.
     
    6. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5, wobei der erste Implantierungsschritt vor dem zweiten Implantierungsschritt durchgeführt wird.
     
    7. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 6, wobei eine gesamte Aluminium (Al)-Implantierungsdosis (DAl,tot) in dem ersten Implantierungsschritt mindestens 5x1013 cm-2 oder mindestens 1X1014 cm-2 beträgt.
     
    8. Verfahren nach Anspruch 7, wobei eine gesamte Alumunium(Al)-Implantierungsdosis (DAl,tot) in dem ersten Implantierungsschritt unter 5x1015 cm-2 oder unter 2x1015 cm-2 liegt.
     
    9. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 8, wobei ein Aktivierungsverhältnis bei Raumtemperatur, berechnet als ein Verhältnis zwischen einer Flächenkonzentration von freien Löchern in dem vorgewählten Gebiet (6) nach dem Ausheilschritt und einer Gesamtdosis, die die Summe aus der Gesamtdosis von Beryllium (DBe,tot) und der Gesamtdosis von Aluminium (DAl,tot) ist, über 20% oder über 30% oder über 40% liegt.
     
    10. Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) umfassend ein p-Typ-Gebiet (6'), wobei die folgende Ungleichung gilt:
    0,1 < [Al]/[Be] < 10 oder 0,3 < [Al]/[Be] < 3 oder 0,5 < [Al]/[Be] < 2,
    wobei [Al] eine Konzentration von Aluminium(Al)-Atomen in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') ist und [Be] eine Konzentration von Beryllium(Be)-Atomen in dem p-Typ-Gebiet 6' ist.
     
    11. Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) nach Anspruch 10, wobei [Al] > 1x1018 cm-3.
     
    12. Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) nach Anspruch 10 oder 11, wobei eine Konzentration von Stickstoffatomen [N] in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') mindestens 1x1016 cm-3 beträgt, beispielsweise mindestens 1x1018 cm-3.
     
    13. Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 12,
    wobei die folgende Ungleichung gilt:
    0,1 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1, beispielhaft 0,2 < p/([Al]+[Be]) < 1,
    wobei [Al] eine Konzentration von Aluminiumatomen in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') ist, [Be] die Konzentration von Berylliumatomen in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') ist und p eine Konzentration von freien Löchern in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') ist.
     
    14. Siliziumcarbidschicht (1) nach einem der Ansprüche 10 bis 13, wobei die Konzentration p von freien Löchern in dem p-Typ-Gebiet (6') bei Raumtemperatur über 1x1018 cm-3 oder über 1x1019 cm-3 oder über 2x1019 cm-3 liegt.
     


    Revendications

    1. Procédé pour le dopage de type p d'une couche de carbure de silicium (1), le procédé comprenant :

    une étape consistant à fournir la couche de carbure de silicium (1) ;

    une première étape d'implantation consistant à implanter des dopants aluminium (Al) dans une zone présélectionnée (6) de la couche de carbure de silicium (1) par implantation ionique (7Al) ;

    une étape de recuit consistant à recuire la couche de carbure de silicium (1) après la première étape d'implantation ; et

    une seconde étape d'implantation consistant à implanter des dopants béryllium (Be) dans la zone présélectionnée (6) par implantation ionique (7Be) avant l'étape de recuit,

    caractérisé en ce que

    un rapport DAl,tot/DBe,tot de la dose totale d'aluminium (Al) (DAl,tot) dans la première étape d'implantation et de la dose totale de béryllium (Be) (DBe,tot) dans la seconde étape d'implantation est dans une plage comprise entre 0,1 et 10 ou entre 0,3 et 3 ou dans une plage comprise entre 0,5 et 2.


     
    2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel pendant un laps de temps entre la première étape d'implantation et la seconde étape d'implantation la température de la couche de carbure de silicium (1) est maintenue à une température au-dessous de 1200 °C ou au-dessous de 1000 °C ou au-dessous de 900 °C.
     
    3. Procédé selon la revendication 1 ou 2, dans lequel une température de recuit dans l'étape de recuit est au-dessus de 1500 °C ou au-dessus de 1600 °C ou au-dessus de 1650 °C.
     
    4. Procédé selon la revendication 3, dans lequel la température de recuit dans l'étape de recuit est au-dessous de 1800 °C ou au-dessous de 1750 °C.
     
    5. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 4, dans lequel au moins la zone présélectionnée (6) de la couche de carbure de silicium (1) comprend des atomes d'azote (N) en une concentration [N] d'au moins 1016 cm-3 ou d'au moins 1018 cm-3.
     
    6. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 5, dans lequel la première étape d'implantation est effectuée avant la seconde étape d'implantation.
     
    7. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 6, dans lequel une dose totale d'implantation d'aluminium (Al) (DAl,tot) dans la première étape d'implantation est d'au moins 5 x 1013 cm-2 ou d'au moins 1x1014 cm-2.
     
    8. Procédé selon la revendication 7, dans lequel une dose totale d'implantation d'aluminium (Al) (DAl,tot) dans la première étape d'implantation est au-dessous de 5x1015 cm-2 ou au-dessous de 2 x 1015 cm-2.
     
    9. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 8, dans lequel un taux d'activation à température ambiante calculé sous forme d'un rapport entre une concentration de trous libre en couche dans la zone présélectionnée (6) après l'étape de recuit et une dose totale, qui est la somme de la dose totale de béryllium (DBe,tot) et de la dose totale d'aluminium (DAl,tot), est au-dessus de 20 % ou au-dessus de 30 % ou au-dessus de 40 %.
     
    10. Couche de carbure de silicium (1) comprenant une zone de type p (6'), dans laquelle l'inégalité suivante s'applique :
    0,1 < [Al]/[Be] < 10 ou 0,3 < [Al]/[Be] < 3 ou 0, 5 < [Al]/[Be] < 2,
    [Al] étant une concentration d'atomes d'aluminium (Al) dans la zone de type p (6') et [Be] étant une concentration d'atomes de béryllium (Be) dans la zone de type p (6').
     
    11. Couche de carbure de silicium (1) selon la revendication 10, dans laquelle [Al] > 1 x 1018 cm-3.
     
    12. Couche de carbure de silicium (1) selon la revendication 10 ou 11, dans laquelle une concentration d'atomes d'azote [N] dans la zone de type p (6') est d'au moins 1 x 1016 cm-3, par exemple d'au moins 1 x 1018 cm-3.
     
    13. Couche de carbure de silicium (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 12, dans laquelle l'inégalité suivante s'applique :
    0,1 < p/([Al] + [Be]) < 1, par exemple 0,2 < p/([Al] + [Be]) < 1,
    [Al] étant une concentration d'atomes d'aluminium dans la zone de type p (6'), [Be] étant une concentration d'atomes de béryllium dans la zone de type p (6') et p étant une concentration de trous libres dans la zone de type p (6').
     
    14. Couche de carbure de silicium (1) selon l'une quelconque des revendications 10 à 13, dans laquelle la concentration p de trous libres dans la zone de type p (6') à température ambiante est supérieure à 1 x 1018 cm-3 ou supérieure à 1 x 1019 cm-3 ou supérieure à 2 x 1019 cm-3.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description