(19)
(11)EP 3 612 599 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 18726865.1

(22)Date of filing:  18.04.2018
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C08L 95/00(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/IL2018/050437
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/193453 (25.10.2018 Gazette  2018/43)

(54)

RUBBER COMPOSITE AND PROCESS FOR OBTAINING SAME

KAUTSCHUKVERBUNDSTOFF UND VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG DAVON

COMPOSITE DE CAOUTCHOUC ET SON PROCÉDÉ D'OBTENTION


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 18.04.2017 US 201715489893

(43)Date of publication of application:
26.02.2020 Bulletin 2020/09

(73)Proprietor: SHRP EQUIPMENT CORP LIMITED
Hong Kong (HK)

(72)Inventor:
  • SOUSA, Jorge B.
    Walnut Creek, California 94596 (US)

(74)Representative: Elzaburu S.L.P. 
Miguel Angel 21, 2nd floor
28010 Madrid
28010 Madrid (ES)


(56)References cited: : 
FR-A1- 2 493 329
US-A1- 2015 080 505
US-A1- 2011 305 508
  
  • ABDELKADER CHAALA, CHRISTIAN ROY, ABDELLATIF AIT-KADI: "Rheological properties of bitumen modified with pyrolytic carbon black", FUEL, vol. 75, no. 13, 1996, pages 1575-1583, XP002783192,
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

TECHNOLOGICAL FIELD



[0001] This disclosure relates to a rubber composite for use in a variety of applications, and processes for its preparation.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] References considered to be relevant as background to the presently disclosed subject matter are listed below:

[I] US patents No. 4,118,137

[2] US Patent No. 4, 166,049

[3] US Patent No. 4, 180,730

[4] US Patent No. 4,021,393

[5] US Patent No. 4,069,182

[6] US Patent No. 6,346,561

[7] PCT Patent Publication No. WO 2012/131605

[8] US Patent Application No. 2010/0056669

[9] US Patent Application No. 2011/0233105

[10] US Patent No. 8, 182,726

[II] PCT Patent Publication No. WO 2013/132488

[12] US Patent Application No. 2013/0116364

[13] US Patent No. 2015/0080505

[14] Portuguese Patent Application No. 108707



[0003] Acknowledgement of the above references herein is not to be inferred as meaning that these are in any way relevant to the patentability of the presently disclosed subject matter.

BACKGROUND



[0004] Bitumen is one of the heaviest fractions of oil distillation processes. Due to the different original raw materials (oils, tars, bituminous sands, etc.) and different technologies of their distillation, bitumen may be used in a variety of applications. One of the main applications for bitumen is as a binder in asphalt mixtures where the bitumen is mixed with mineral aggregates of different sizes, shapes and chemical nature. These asphalt mixtures are particularly used for construction or maintenance of pavements, roads, different service roads and any other rolling surfaces.

[0005] Asphalt mixtures are used in applications exposed to a wide variation of environmental conditions. In this connection, the properties of the asphalt bitumen- based binders in high and low temperature conditions are of a decisive importance. At low temperatures, bituminous materials can become brittle, leading to fissures and cracks due to thermal stresses formed. At higher temperatures the viscosity of the bitumen binders becomes lower, potentially leading to rutting of roads. Resistance to fatigue and impact, and the adherence of bitumen binder to aggregate in asphalt mixtures, are also of particular importance for road construction.

[0006] The use of bitumen-based binders modified with polymers dates back to the 1970s, when those were formulated to improve the mechanical capabilities of the bituminous binder to withstand increasingly severe stresses caused by traffic. Such modifications mainly seek to improve the elasticity and temperature sensitivity of the bituminous binder, leading to an increased resistance to fatigue, reduced permanent deformation and reduction in the propagation of cracks in the asphalt, either in road application or roofing applications.

[0007] The main polymer used, styrene-butadiene-styrene block-copolymer (SBS), helps to increase the softening point of the bituminous binder, thereby increasing flexibility and ductility at low temperatures, and allowing its use in a wider temperature range than conventional, non-modified, bitumen -based binders.

[0008] The use of rubber-modified bitumen binders in hot asphalt began in the 1940s. In the United States, Charles H. MacDonald and other [1-5] have developed a highly elastic material to be used in the maintenance of pavements and roofing industry. This product was composed of bituminous binder and 18 to 24% ground tire rubber (having a particle size of 0.6 to 1.2mm), mixed at around 180°C-190°C for about 45 minutes. The incorporation of granulated recycled tire rubber into bitumen aimed to improve the mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures. Recently a few other advantages of this composition have been recognized, such as decreased environmental pollution, reduction of CO2 emissions, better friction in roads, etc. The modification allowed the bitumen to have greater flexibility and hold stable for much longer periods of time compared to conventional bitumen, resulting in a lower rate of aging. However the wet process described in these publications requires the use of very expensive on- site equipment, which is far from being cost-effective.

[0009] US Patent No. 6,346,561 and WO 2012/131605 [6-7] describes a method of combining crumb rubber with gilsonite or tall oil (both of which are light fraction distillates of oil) in the presence of fatty acids, with curative elastomers to form a liquid concentrate to be added to asphalt compositions. However, according to these publications dry processing led to several failures due to the crumb rubber swelling and absorbing the bitumen binder used in the paving composition, causing lack of homogeneity and thus poor compaction leading to cracking in the roads.

[0010] In WO 2013/132488 [10] a dry surface granulate in which the rubber particles have been reacted and activated was described, that contained at least 15 %wt of heavy- fraction oil distillate and various additives. The additive was used to activate the rubber composite, thereby forming a "reacted and activated rubber", (referred to also as "RAR" for the sake of abbreviation). However, still this process requires relatively large amounts of heavy-oil distillates, which can require the use of complex and expensive equipment.

[0011] Thus, there is a need for a rubber composite that will be easier and cheaper to manufacture, while still providing improved mechanical properties and composition stability.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION



[0012] The present disclosure relates to a rubber composite comprising rubber, oil and a combination of powdered additives, as well as a process for manufacturing same.

[0013] In one of its aspects, the present disclosure provides a rubber composite in particulate form, the composite comprising rubber, at least one first powdered additive, at least one second powdered additive, and at most 15 wt% of at least one oil being a heavy fraction oil distillate selected from bitumens characterized by a PEN grade of 100 or higher (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13), said rubber having an internal structure and an external surface, wherein said oil is substantially contained within the internal structure of the rubber composite, and wherein the rubber's external surface is substantially oil-dry. The term composite is used to denote a composition of matter composing at least 4 components {i.e. rubber, oil and at least two additives). Therefore, this disclosure provides a rubber-based composite, in which the oil is substantially contained within the internal structure of the rubber. Namely at least 99.5% of the oil is contained within the rubber, while the rubber's external surface is substantially oil-dry. In some embodiments, 99.6, 99.7, 99.8, 99.9% of the oil is contained within the rubber. In other embodiments, the oil is completely contained within the internal structure of the rubber, namely no oil exits on the external surface of the rubber.

[0014] The rubber may be a natural rubber (i.e. caoutchouc) or a synthetic rubber. The rubber has an internal structure, being characterized by open cellular structure containing pores that are connected to one another and form an interconnected network; and an external surface, being the outmost surface of the rubber particles.

[0015] The term oil-dry thus stands to mean that the external surface, namely the outmost layer of the rubber composite, is substantially, or completely, free of oil. It should be noted that while the oil is substantially contained within the internal structure, the pores of said structure need not be fully packed.

[0016] The term oil refers herein to oily carbonaceous products, usually obtained by distillation, refining or fractionation processes of crude oil from different origins such as oil wells, oil sands, fossil fuel, etc. Such fractions typically comprise hydrocarbons and other organic compounds containing nitrogen, sulfur and/or oxygen atoms, and are operatively soluble in various organic solvents, including straight chain hydrocarbon solvents, such as pentane or hexane, at a temperature lower than 40°C. Such heavy- fractions may be, for example, bitumens and asphaltenes.

[0017] Bitumen is characterized by various characterizations and International Standards. One of the typical characteristics for classification of bitumens is its PEN grade. In the context of the present disclosure, the PEN grade refers to penetration as measured by ASTM D5 / D5M-13, which is the depth of penetration of a probe into a bitumen sample under the specific test conditions. For example, a PEN grade of 100 means penetration of the probe to a depth of 100 mm into the bitumen sample under the test conditions detailed in ASTM D5 / D5M-13. Thus, the higher the PEN grade, the softer the bitumen is (due to, e.g., its hydrocarbon chains molecular weight, degree of interactions between the chains, the chains' degree of aromaticity, etc.). In the field of the invention, soft bitumens are used in various products, e.g. paving compositions, in order to modify the resilience of the paving product. However, utilizing soft bitumens results in a sticky rubber composite, which is difficult to implement and problematic to produce in bulk quantities. To reduce such stickiness, large quantities of fillers are typically added, thus resulting in an expensive and complex production process.

[0018] It was found by the inventor of the present invention that in the rubber composite of the invention and the process for its production as described herein, relatively soft bitumens, i.e. having a high PEN grade, provide the particulate rubber composite with improved properties on the one hand together with good processing properties (i.e. particulate composite having an oil-free external surface), and on the other hand provides high resilience when implemented in various products, e.g. paving compositions. By utilizing the combination of components in the composite described herein, and/or by implementing the production process described herein, the resulting composite comprises relatively low amounts of bitumen with a high PEN grade, residing substantially entirely within the inner structure of the composite particle, thus providing a dry composite that contains a soft bitumen, and has high resilience, however is not sticky and easy to manufacture and use.

[0019] Thus, in some embodiments, the oil is bitumen which is characterized by a PEN grade of between 100 and 300 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13). In other embodiments, the oil is bitumen which is characterized by a PEN grade of between 160 and 300 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13). In some other embodiments, the oil is bitumen which is characterized by a PEN grade of between 160 and 200 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13).

[0020] In other embodiments, the rubber is in the form of particles (particulate). The rubber composite of this disclosure may be of any shape selected from a particle, a flake, a sheet, a crumb, a grain, a pellet, a granule, etc. In some embodiments, the composite is in a form of particles. In other embodiments, the composition is in a form of pellets. The term particle size typically refers to the average diameter of the particles. When the particles are of non- spheroid shape, the term refers to the average equivalent diameter of the particle, namely the diameter of an equivalent spherical particle based on the longest dimension of the particle. In some embodiments, the particle size of the rubber composite is between about 1 and about 800 µ

η (micrometers). In some embodiments, the rubber may be vulcanized, i.e. cross-linked, or sulfur- cured rubber. In other embodiments, the rubber is a particulate vulcanized rubber.

[0021] As noted above, one of the features of the rubber composite of this disclosure is the relatively low oil (i.e. bitumen) content, thus permitting the entire content of the oil to reside within the internal structure of the rubber, such that the surface of the particles are not sticky or oily. Further, the low content of oil reduces the production costs of the composite and reduces the duration of the manufacturing process, as a smaller quantity of oil needs to be absorbed by the rubber particles. As it will be further demonstrated below, the low content of oil improves the mechanical properties and the composite stability over time. According to some embodiment, the composite of the invention comprises between about 10 and about 20 wt% of oil. According to other embodiments, the composite may comprise between about 10 and about 15 wt% of oil.

[0022] As also noted, the rubber composite comprises at least two powdered additives. A first additive is typically contained within the internal structure of the rubber composite, while a second additive is typically present at the external surface of the composite. Thus, the first additive resides within the pores or the mesh-like structure of the rubber, thereby limiting the amount of oil that the rubber can absorb into its internal structure. The second additive seals the external surface of the composite, preventing it from absorbing further bitumen (i.e. bitumen used as binder) from the paving formulation into which the rubber composite is added, as well as preventing rubber composite particles to adhere to one another, thereby improving the stability of both the rubber composite and the paving formulation. It was further unexpectedly found that the combination of additives improves disperseability and dispersion homogeneity of the composite in paving formulation, and, as will be demonstrated herein, provides for obtaining a rubber composite which highly improves the elasticity of the paving formulation at lower contents of the rubber composite compared to other formulation known in the art.

[0023] The first and second additives are typically mineral-based powders, and may each be independently selected from the group consisting of limestone, hydrated lime, cement, silica, and mica.

[0024] In some embodiments, the at least one first additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between about 15 and about 30 wt%. In other embodiments, the at least one second additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between about 5 and about 10 wt%.

[0025] Another aspect of this disclosure provides a paving composition comprising a rubber composite as described herein, a paving binder (e.g. bitumen or any other suitable heavy oil distillate, typically having a PEN grade of at most 100, or more typically between 50 and 70 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M- 13)) and paving aggregate (e.g. crushed limestone, crushed cement, or any other suitable paving aggregate known in the art).

[0026] In some embodiments the paving compositions comprises up to 40 wt% of the rubber composite, e.g. between 1 and 40 wt%, between 1 and 25 wt%, between 1 and 20 wt%, between 1 and 15 wt% or even between 1 and 10 wt%.

[0027] In a further aspect of the invention, there is provided a process for obtaining a rubber composite in particulate form, the process comprising:
  1. (a) mixing at least one oil being heavy-fraction oil distillate selected from bitumens characterized by a PEN grade of 100 or higher (according to ASTM D5 / D5M- 13), with particulate rubber at a first elevated temperature under conditions of high shear rate to obtain oil-swollen rubber particles;
  2. (b) adding at least one first powdered additive to the oil-swollen rubber particles to obtain a mixture;
  3. (c) reducing the temperature of the first mixture by at least 20°C;
  4. (d) heating the first mixture to a second elevated temperature under conditions of high shear rate;
  5. (e) reducing the temperature of the mixture to about 20°C at a cooling rate of at least 2 °C/min; and
  6. (f) adding at least one second powdered additive to said mixture under conditions of high shear rate to said rubber composite,
such that the rubber composite comprises between about 10 and about 20 %wt of said oil, the oil and said at least one first additive being substantially contained within an internal structure of the rubber, and the rubber's external surface being substantially oil-dry and said at least one second additive is present at the external surface of the rubber composite.

[0028] In some embodiments, the rubber composite comprises between about 10 and about 15 %wt of said oil. The process described herein involves a unique combination of high kinetic energy mixing steps at elevated temperatures with thermal shock stages. This permits obtaining relatively quick absorption of the oil into the rubber at relatively low temperatures (compared to processes known in the art). Without wishing to be bound by theory, the process is designed to first permit absorption of oil (e.g. bitumen) into the rubber particles to form swollen and highly energized rubber. After intensive agitation and introduction of high kinetic energy, and upon reaching a preselected temperature (as a function of the type of rubber used, e.g. recycled car or truck tires or combination), the mixture is subjected to a thermal shock in which the pores of the swollen rubber are closed or blocked by contraction (due to the thermal shock) and the addition of the first additive. It is of note that the mixture is not maintained at elevated temperatures for more than a few minutes (unlike processes known from the art, e.g. wet processes). The conditions applied by the process of this disclosure is specifically designed to controllably degrade the rubber, as to avoid the point where it becomes a "gel". Both the kinetic energy and the temperature shock are intended to partially brake sulfur links to assist in digesting the rubber, thus permitting absorption of the oil and the first additives into the internal structure of the rubber and locking them therein.

[0029] At the consequent steps, the mixture is heated again, undergoes a more drastic thermal shock, and then the second additive is added to the external surface of the rubber composite. This prevents the rubber particles from further absorbing (in the short term) bitumen during the process of preparing a paving composition in the contractor's plant, and during transportation and compaction in the pavements, and also prevents long term absorption of the lighter fraction of bitumen binder (that could cause disintegration of the paved road).

[0030] As noted above, the steps of mixing are conducted under conditions of high shear rate, meaning the mixing is performed under such conditions that high kinetic energy is introduced into the mixture during mixing. Such high-energy input is, in some embodiments, of at least 700 KJ/kg, and may be carried out by applying a mixing at a rate of at least 1200 rpm (revolutions per minute), at least 1300 rpm, at least 1400 rpm or even at least 1500 rpm.

[0031] In some embodiments, the first elevated temperature may be between about 100°C and 170°C. In other embodiments, said first elevated temperature may be carried out at a temperature selected from 100°C, 105°C, 110°C, 115°C, 120°C, 125°C, 130°C, 135°C, 140°C, 145°C, 150°C, 155°C, 160°C, 165°C, or 170°C.

[0032] In some other embodiments, the mixing at step (a) is carried out for a period of time of between about 5 and 30 minutes.

[0033] According to some embodiments, the rubber particles (i.e. prior to applying the process), may have an average particles size of at most 0.65 mm (30 mesh), typically between 0.65 and 0.01 mm (30 mesh to 100 mesh). In some embodiments, the process further comprises a pre-step of grinding the rubber prior to employing the process of this disclosure to reduce the particles to a desired size. It is appreciated that grinding may be carried out by any means known to a person of skill in the art.

[0034] Another pre-step, that may be applied before step (a) of the process, is warming the oil to a temperature which may be between about 160 and 190°C.

[0035] In some embodiments, the temperature of the mixture at step (c) is reduced by at least 20°C, at times by at least 40°C, to induce a first thermal shock. In such embodiments, the mixture may be cooled at a cooling rate of at least 20°C/min.

[0036] In some embodiments, the second elevated temperature may be between about 130 and 180°C, at times between 150 and 180°C. The mixture is typically maintained at said second elevated temperature of a period of time of at least 1 minute, for example between 1 and 15 minutes.

[0037] In some embodiments, the temperature drop at step (e) is carried out in two stages: a first stage in which the temperature is allowed to drop at a rate of at least 20°C/min, followed by a second step in which the temperature is allowed to drop at a rate of at least 2°C/min.

[0038] As used herein, the term "about" is meant to encompass deviation of +10% from the specifically mentioned value of a parameter, such as length, diameter, force, etc.

[0039] Whenever a numerical range is indicated herein, it is meant to include any cited numeral (fractional or integral) within the indicated range. The term "between" or "ranging/ranges between" a first indicate number and a second indicate number and "ranging/ranges from" a first indicate number "to" a second indicate number are used herein interchangeably and are meant to include the first and second indicated numbers and all the fractional and integral numerals therebetween. It should be noted that the range is given as such merely for convenience and brevity and should not be construed as an inflexible limitation on the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the description of a range should be considered to have specifically disclosed all the possible sub-ranges as well as individual numerical values within that range.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0040] In order to understand the disclosure and to see how it may be carried out in practice, embodiments will now be described, by way of non-limiting example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 shows the viscosity change over time of paving compositions comprising various contents of rubber composites of the invention (marked as "RSCR") compared to rubber asphalt.

Fig. 2 shows a comparison of JnR at 3.2 kPa between RSCR and reactive- activated rubber (RAR) as function of additives' content.

Fig. 3 shows a comparison of positive PG Grade level obtained for RSCR and RAR formulations.

Fig. 4 shows Ring and Ball variation function of RSCR and RAR percentages.

Fig. 5 shows variation of resilience of paving compositions as a function of RSCR and RAR percentages.

Fig. 6 shows rutting performance of mixes with RSCR and other known formulations.

Fig. 7 shows variation of resilience in paving composition RSCR containing bitumen with various PEN grades.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



[0041] In the present invention, the rubber composite may be used in asphalt mixtures, thereby providing the following technological and operational advantages, as compared to standard existing asphalt mixtures:

better mechanical stability under low and high usage temperatures;

improved rutting resistance and fatigue resistance;

improved wearing resistance; improved resistance to water damage;

"self-healing" properties - asphalt mixtures comprising the modified-rubber composite show mechanical recovery, as well as recovery of geometrical form and dimensions after unloading;

Improving elasticity of the paving formulation;

Reducing the amount of oil needed to obtain improved mechanical properties of the rubber composite;

Simplifying and reducing costs of the manufacture process.



[0042] Fig. 1 demonstrates the change in viscosity of various paving compositions, comprising various amounts of rubber composite (marked as "RSCR") over time, compared to standard asphalt rubber formulations. The tests were carried out according to AASHTO TP48 standard test method. As clearly be seen, no significant change in viscosity was observed over time for the compositions containing RSCR over a wide verity of RSCR contents, while significant increase in viscosity was observed for the standard asphalt-rubber formulations. This attests to the improved stability of the RSCR-based compositions, indicating that the rubber composite does not absorb light fractions of the bitumen binder from the paving composition. In comparison it can be seen that crumb rubber alone (either cryogenic from car tires ASPHALT RUBBER 18% CRYOGENIC or ambient grind from truck tires ASPHALT RUBBER 18%) is not stable as the viscosities increase over time (as the rubber swells and absorbs the lighter fractions over time).

[0043] To demonstrate the differences between RSCR and RAR, a series of comparative tests were conducted, using the same base bitumen and same percentages of RSCR and RAR in paving compositions. The PG grade and JnR values (as measured by Multi Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) AASHTO TP 70, standard RTFO test as per AASHTOT 240 and ASTM D 2872 - Effect of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt (Rolling Thin-Film Oven Test) and standard DSR test as per AASHTO T 315: Determining the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder Using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer) were determined as a function of additives' percentage as it can be observed, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. It can be observed that with only 6.5% of RSCR the 1 kPa for JnR@3.2kPa (to simulate very heavy traffic) was reached, while the same values were obtained only when adding at least 12% of RAR. To reach the level 0.5 kPa (for Extremely Heavy Traffic) only 17.2 % of RSCR was needed instead of 20% RAR.

[0044] Similarly to reach the positive grade 76°C, only 10.5% of RSCR was needed instead of 13.3% of RAR. While to reach the 82°C only 18.7% of RSCR were needed instead of 22% of RAR. These temperatures were used since they are typical PG grade test temperatures. Therefore, it is clear that significantly less RSCR compared to RAR needs to be added to the paving composition to reach the same results, attesting to the higher reactivity of RSCR compared to RAR.

[0045] Using traditional tests, the advantage of the rubber composite (RSCR) of the invention is further demonstrated.

[0046] Seen in Fig. 4 are the comparative results of a softening point test, carried out according to ASTM D 36. To reach 65°C of Softening Point, only 21% of RSCR is needed instead of 27% of RAR.

[0047] Resilience was evaluated according to ASTM D 5329-96. As further seen in Fig. 5, to reach a 40% Resilience only 19% of RSCR is needed instead of 27% of RAR. As such, RSCR consistently showed higher activity than RAR, requiring in average about 24% less product to achieve the same level of performance.

[0048] The effect of RSCR in the mixes is also significantly different, especially when it is added in low amounts to the paving composition, for example about 4 wt%, turning the RSCR/bitumen combination far more elastic then mixtures known in the art. Wheel tracking tests executed as per Standard NLT 173/00 (Spanish Norm) show comparatively the effect of those very elastic binders. Fig. 6 shows the most reduced value obtained in a mixture with 3.8% RSCR by weight of the mixture (bitumen content was 6.2%). It is clearly the lowest value as compared with tradition Asphalt Rubber gap graded mixtures (with and without RAR) or even compared with traditional SMA mixtures with highly modified bitumen and fibres.

[0049] The effect of the PEN grade of the bitumen used in the RSCR particles was evaluated according to ASTM D 5329-96, as shown in Table 1 and Fig. 7. In the compositions tested, bitumen having PEN grade of 50-70 was used as binder in all sample, while PEN grade of the bitumen in the RSCR particles was different in each tested sample. As evident from Fig. 7, at the same content of RSCR (35 wt%), the highest recovery is obtained for RSCR containing 160/200 PEN bitumen.
Table 1: Recovery of compositions containing RSCR particles with different PEN grades of bitumen
%wt Bitumen binder (50/70 PEN)RSCR% Resilience
wt%Grade of bitumen
80 20 160/200 PEN 37
75 25 42
70 30 52
65 35 60
65 35 70 PEN 54
65 35 70 PEN 55
65 35 54 PEN 50
65 35 54 PEN 52


[0050] As also evident from Table 1, by utilizing a lower content of RSCR with 160/200 PEN bitumen (30 wt%), a comparable resilience percentage can be obtained as using 35 wt% of RSCR with 70 or 54 PEN. In other words, comparable resilience may be obtained by utilizing less RSCR when utilizing higher grades of bitumen.


Claims

1. A rubber composite in particulate form, the composite comprising:

rubber;

at least one first powdered additive, at least one second powdered additive, wherein said first and second additives are mineral-based powders, each being independently selected from the group consisting of limestone, hydrated lime, cement, silica, and mica and wherein the at least one first additive is contained within the internal structure of the rubber composite and the at least one second additive is present at the external surface of the rubber composite;

and at most 20 wt%, preferably 10 and 15 wt%, of at least one oil being a heavy fraction oil distillate selected from bitumens characterized by a PEN grade of 100 or higher (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13), said rubber having an internal structure and an external surface, wherein said oil is substantially contained within the internal structure of the rubber composite, and wherein the rubber's external surface is substantially oil-dry.


 
2. The rubber composite of claim 1, wherein the bitumen is characterized by a PEN grade of between 100 and 300, preferably between 160 and 200 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
3. The rubber composite of any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the rubber is a particulate vulcanized rubber.
 
4. The rubber composite of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the rubber composite is in a form selected from a particle, a flake, a sheet, a crumb, a grain, a pellet and a granule.
 
5. The rubber composite of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the at least one first additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between 15 and 30 wt% and/or wherein the at least one second additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between 5 and 10 wt%.
 
6. A paving composition comprising:

- rubber composite according to any one of claims 1 to 5;

- paving binder; and

- aggregate;
preferably, said paving composition comprises up to 40 wt% of said rubber composite by weight of the binder.


 
7. The paving composition of claim 6, wherein the paving binder is bitumen having a PEN grade of at most 100, preferably of at most 70, more preferably between 50 and 70 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
8. A process for obtaining a rubber composite in particulate form according to claims 1 to 5, the process comprising the steps of:

(a) mixing at least one oil being a heavy-fraction oil distillate selected from bitumens characterized by a PEN grade of 100 or higher (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13), with particulate rubber at a first elevated temperature under conditions of high shear rate to obtain oil-swollen rubber particles;

(b) adding at least one first powdered additive which is as mineral-based powder selected from the group consisting of limestone, hydrated lime, cement, silica, and mica to the oil-swollen rubber particles to obtain a mixture;

(c) reducing the temperature of the first mixture by at least 20°C;

(d) heating the first mixture to a second elevated temperature under conditions of high shear rate;

(e) reducing the temperature of the mixture to 20°C at a cooling rate of at least 2°C/min; and

(f) adding at least one second powdered additive which is a mineral-based powder selected from the group consisting of limestone, hydrated lime, cement, silica, and mica to said mixture under conditions of high shear rate to said rubber composite,

such that the rubber composite comprises between 10 and 20 % wt of said heavy-fraction oil distillate, the heavy-fraction oil distillate and said at least one first additive being substantially contained within an internal structure of the rubber, and the rubber's external surface being substantially oil-dry and said at least one second additive is present at the external surface of the rubber composite.
 
9. The process of claim 8, wherein the bitumen is characterized by a PEN grade of between 100 and 300, preferably of between 160 and 200 (according to ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
10. The process of any one of claims 8 or 9, wherein the at least one first additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between 10 and 30 wt% and/or wherein the at least one second additive is present in the rubber composite at a content of between 5 and 10 wt%.
 
11. The process of any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein said first elevated temperature is between 100 and 170°C.
 
12. The process of any one of claims 8 to 11, wherein said second elevated temperature is between 130 and 180°C.
 
13. The process of any one of claims 8 to 12, wherein the mixture is maintained at said second elevated temperature of a period of time of between 1 and 60 minutes.
 
14. The process of any one of claims 8 to 13, wherein said high shear rate is obtained by mixing at least 1200 rpm.
 
15. The process of any one of claims 8 to 14, wherein the rubber is a particulate vulcanized rubber.
 
16. The process of any one of claims 8 to 15, wherein the particulate form is selected from a particle, a flake, a sheet, a crumb, a grain, a pellet and a granule.
 


Ansprüche

1. Ein Kautschukverbundstoff in Partikelform, wobei der Verbundstoff umfasst:

Kautschuk;

mindestens ein erstes pulverförmiges Additiv, mindestens ein zweites pulverförmiges Additiv, in welchem das erste und das zweite Additiv Pulver auf Mineralbasis sind, die jeweils unabhängig voneinander aus der Gruppe ausgewählt sind, die aus Kalkstein, Kalkhydrat, Zement, Siliciumdioxid und Glimmer besteht, und in welchem das mindestens eine erste Additiv in der inneren Struktur des Kautschukverbundstoffs enthalten ist und das mindestens eine zweite Additiv an der äußeren Oberfläche des Kautschukverbundstoffs vorhanden ist;

und höchstens 20 Massenanteilen, vorzugsweise zwischen 10 und 15 Massenanteilen, mindestens eines Öls ein hochsiedendes Öldestillat ist, das aus Bitumina ausgewählt ist, die durch einen PEN-Grad von 100 oder höher (gemäß ASTM D5 I D5M-13) gekennzeichnet sind, in welchen der genannte Kautschuk eine innere Struktur und eine äußere Oberfläche aufweist, in denen das genannte Öl im Wesentlichen innerhalb der inneren Struktur des Kautschukverbundstoffs enthalten ist und in denen die äußere Oberfläche des Kautschuks im Wesentlichen öltrocken ist.


 
2. Der Kautschukverbundstoff gemäß Anspruch 1, in welchem das Bitumen durch einen PEN-Grad zwischen 100 und 300, vorzugsweise zwischen 160 und 200 (gemäß ASTM D5 / D5M-13) gekennzeichnet ist.
 
3. Der Kautschukverbundstoff gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, in welchem der Kautschuk ein vulkanisierter Kautschuk in Partikelform ist.
 
4. Der Kautschukverbundstoff gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, in welchem der Gummiverbundstoff in einer Form vorliegt, die wahlweise in der Form eines Partikels, einer Flocke, eines Sheets, einer Krume, eines Korns, eines Pellets und eines Granulats besteht.
 
5. Der Kautschukverbundstoff gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 4, in welchem das mindestens eine erste Additiv in dem Kautschukverbundstoff mit einem Gehalt zwischen 15 und 30 Massenanteilen vorhanden ist und/oder in welchem das mindestens eine zweite Additiv in dem Kautschukverbundstoff mit einem Gehalt zwischen 5 und 10 Massenanteilen vorhanden ist.
 
6. Eine Pflastermischung, bestehend aus:

- einem Kautschukverbundstoff gemäß einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 5,

- einem Pflasterbindemittel und

- einem Zuschlagstoff;

diese Pflastermischung enthält vorzugsweise bis zu 40 Massenanteilen den genannten Kautschukverbundstoff, bezogen auf das Gewicht des Bindemittels.
 
7. Die Pflastermischung gemäß Anspruch 6, in der das Pflasterbindemittel Bitumen mit einem PEN-Grad von höchstens 100, vorzugsweise von höchstens 70, besonders vorzugsweise zwischen 50 und 70 (gemäß ASTM D5 I D5M-13) ist.
 
8. Ein Verfahren zum Erhalten eines Kautschukverbundstoffs in Partikelform gemäß den Ansprüchen 1 bis 5, wobei das Verfahren die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

(a) Mischen mindestens eines Öls, bei dem es sich um ein hochsiedendes Öldestillat handelt, das aus Bitumina ausgewählt ist, die durch einen PEN-Grad von 100 oder höher (gemäß ASTM D5 / D5M-13) gekennzeichnet sind, mit Kautschuk in Partikelform bei einer ersten erhöhten Temperatur unter Bedingungen hoher Schergeschwindigkeit, um ölgequollene Kautschukpartikel zu erhalten;

(b) Zugabe mindestens eines ersten pulverförmigen Additivs, das als Pulver auf Mineralbasis aus der Gruppe bestehend aus Kalkstein, Kalkhydrat, Zement, Siliciumdioxid und Glimmer ausgewählt ist, zu den ölgequollenen Kautschukpartikeln, um eine Mischung zu erhalten;

(c) Absenken der Temperatur der ersten Mischung um mindestens 20 °C;

(d) Erwärmen der ersten Mischung auf eine zweite erhöhte Temperatur unter Bedingungen hoher Schergeschwindigkeit;

(e) Absenken der Temperatur der Mischung auf 20 °C bei einer Abkühlgeschwindigkeit von mindestens 2 °C/min, und

(f) Zugabe mindestens eines zweiten pulverförmigen Additivs, bei dem es sich um ein Pulver auf Mineralbasis handelt, das aus der Gruppe ausgewählt ist, die aus Kalkstein, Kalkhydrat, Zement, Siliciumdioxid und Glimmer besteht, zu der Mischung unter Bedingungen hoher Schergeschwindigkeit zu dem Kautschukverbundstoff, so dass der Kautschukverbundstoff zwischen 10 und 20 Massenanteilen des hochsiedenden Öldestillats umfasst, wobei das hochsiedende Öldestillat und das mindestens eine erste Additiv im Wesentlichen in einer inneren Struktur des Kautschuks enthalten sind und der Kautschuk im Wesentlichen öltrocken ist, und das mindestens eine zweite Additiv an der äußeren Oberfläche des Kautschukverbundstoffs vorhanden ist.


 
9. Das Verfahren gemäß Anspruch 8, in welchem das Bitumen durch einen PEN-Grad zwischen 100 und 300, vorzugsweise zwischen 160 und 200 (gemäß ASTM D5 / D5M-13) gekennzeichnet ist.
 
10. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 oder 9, in welchem das mindestens eine erste Additiv in dem Kautschukverbundstoff mit einem Gehalt zwischen 10 und 30 Massenanteilen vorhanden ist und/oder in welchem das mindestens eine zweite Additiv in dem Kautschukverbundstoff mit einem Gehalt zwischen 5 und 10 Massenanteilen vorhanden ist.
 
11. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 10, in welchem die erste erhöhte Temperatur zwischen 100 und 170 °C liegt.
 
12. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 11, in welchem die zweite erhöhte Temperatur zwischen 130 und 180 °C liegt.
 
13. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 12, in welchem die Mischung bei der zweiten erhöhten Temperatur über einen Zeitraum von 1 bis 60 Minuten gehalten wird.
 
14. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 13, in welchem die hohe Schergeschwindigkeit durch Mischen mit mindestens 1200 min-1 erreicht wird.
 
15. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 14, in welchem der Kautschuk ein vulkanisierter Kautschuk in Partikelform ist.
 
16. Das Verfahren gemäß einem der Ansprüche 8 bis 15, wobei die Partikelform wahlweise in der Form eines Partikels, einer Flocke, eines Sheets, einer Krume, eines Korns, eines Pellets und eines Granulats besteht.
 


Revendications

1. Un composite de caoutchouc sous une forme particulière, le composite comprenant
du caoutchouc ;
au moins un premier adjuvant en poudre, au moins un deuxième adjuvant en poudre, lorsque ce premier et ce deuxième adjuvant sont des poudres à base minérale, chacun étant sélectionné indépendamment du groupe composé de calcaire, de chaux hydratée, de ciment, de silice et de mica et lorsque au moins le premier adjuvant est contenu dans la structure interne du composite de caoutchouc et au moins le deuxième adjuvant est présent à la superficie externe du composite de caoutchouc ;
et au maximum 20 % en poids (de préférence 10 et 15 %), d'une huile au moins, celle-ci étant un distillat d'huile lourde sélectionné parmi les bitumes se caractérisant par un degré PEN de 100 ou plus (selon ASTM D5/ D5M-13) ; ce caoutchouc ayant une structure interne et une surface externe où l'huile en question est substantiellement contenue dans la structure interne du composite de caoutchouc et où la surface externe du caoutchouc est essentiellement sèche de toute trace d'huile.
 
2. Le composite de caoutchouc de la revendication 1, où le bitume se caractérise par un degré PEN de 100 et 300, de préférence entre 160 et 200 (selon ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
3. Le composite de caoutchouc de l'une des revendications 1 ou 2, où le caoutchouc est un caoutchouc vulcanisé particulaire.
 
4. Le composite de caoutchouc de l'une des revendications 1 à 3, où le composite de caoutchouc affiche l'une des formes suivantes : particule, flocon, feuille, miette, grain, pellet et granulé.
 
5. Le composite de caoutchouc de l'une des conditions 1 à 4 où au moins le premier adjuvant est présent dans le composite de caoutchouc à une teneur comprise entre 15 et 30 % de poids et/ou au moins le deuxième adjuvant est présent dans le composite de caoutchouc à une teneur comprise entre 5 et 10 % de poids
 
6. Une composition de pavement comprenant :

- un composite de caoutchouc comme indiqué à l'une des conditions 1 à 5 ;

- un liant pour pavement ; et

- un granulat ;
de préférence, cette composition de pavement comprend jusqu'à 40 % de poids de ce composite de caoutchouc par poids de liant.


 
7. La composition de pavement de la revendication 6, où le liant de pavement est un bitume affichant un degré PEN de 100 au maximum (de préférence 70, ou mieux encore entre 50 et 70, selon ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
8. Un process visant à obtenir un composite de caoutchouc sous une forme particulière selon les revendications 1 à 5, le process comprenant les étapes suivantes :

(a) mélange d'au moins une huile, à savoir un distillat d'huile lourde sélectionné parmi les bitumes se caractérisant par un degré PEN de 100 ou plus (selon ASTM D5 / D5M-13), avec un caoutchouc particulaire à une première température d'élévation et un taux de cisaillement élevé pour obtenir des particules de caoutchouc gonflées d'huile ;

(b) ajout d'au moins un adjuvant en poudre à base minérale choisi parmi le groupe composé de calcaire, de chaux hydratée, de ciment, de silice et de mica, aux particules de caoutchouc gonflées d'huile pour obtenir un mélange ;

(c) réduction de la température du premier mélange d'au moins 20 ºC ;

(d) chauffage du premier mélange à une deuxième température d'élévation et un taux
de cisaillement élevé ;

(e) réduction de la température du mélange à 20 ºC à un taux de refroidissement d'au moins 2 ºC/min ; et ajout d'au moins un deuxième adjuvant en poudre à base minérale choisi parmi le groupe composé de calcaire, de chaux hydratée, de ciment, de silice et de mica, à ce mélange affichant un taux de cisaillement élevé pour ce composite de caoutchouc,

de sorte que le composite de caoutchouc comprenne entre 10 et 20 % de poids du distillat d'huile lourde précité, ce distillat et au moins un premier adjuvant étant essentiellement contenus dans une structure interne du caoutchouc et la surface externe du caoutchouc étant essentiellement sèche de toute trace d'huile et au moins le deuxième adjuvant étant présent à la surface externe du composite de caoutchouc.
 
9. Le process de la revendication 8, où le bitume se caractérise par un degré PEN compris entre 100 et 300 au maximum (de préférence entre 160 et 200 selon ASTM D5 / D5M-13).
 
10. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 9, où au moins le premier adjuvant est présent dans le composite de caoutchouc à une teneur comprise entre 10 et 30 % de poids et/ou au moins un deuxième adjuvant est présent dans le composite de caoutchouc à une teneur comprise entre 5 et 10 % de poids.
 
11. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 10, où la première température d'élévation se trouve entre 100 et 170 ºC.
 
12. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 11, où la deuxième température d'élévation se trouve entre 130 et 180 ºC.
 
13. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 12, où le mélange est maintenu à la deuxième température d'élévation pour une période de temps comprise entre 1 et 60 minutes.
 
14. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 13, où le taux de cisaillement élevé est obtenu par mélange à au moins 1 200 tpm.
 
15. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 14, où le caoutchouc est un caoutchouc vulcanisé particulaire.
 
16. Le process de l'une des revendications 8 à 15, où la forme particulaire affiche l'une des formes suivantes : particule, flocon, feuille, miette, grain, pellet et granulé.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description