(19)
(11)EP 3 620 476 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
11.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/11

(21)Application number: 19195252.2

(22)Date of filing:  03.09.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C08F 285/00(2006.01)
C08F 8/44(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 04.09.2018 US 201862726631 P

(71)Applicant: Rohm and Haas Company
Collegeville, PA 19426 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • BARDMAN, James K.
    Green Lane, PA Pennsylvania 18054 (US)
  • KELLY, David G.
    Ambler, PA Pennsylvania 19002 (US)
  • LEONARD, Michael W.
    Collegeville, PA Pennsylvania 19426 (US)

(74)Representative: Beck Greener LLP 
Fulwood House 12 Fulwood Place
London WC1V 6HR
London WC1V 6HR (GB)

  


(54)METHOD FOR PREPARING AN AQUEOUS DISPERSION OF MULTISTAGE POLYMER PARTICLES


(57) The present invention relates to a method of preparing an aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles comprising contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions and in a staged fashion an aqueous dispersion of carboxylic acid functionalized core polymer particles with first monomers and second monomers. The core comprises structural units of a high Tg hydrophobic monomer and/or the first monomers comprise a high Tg hydrophobic monomer, and the second monomers comprise at least 80 percent styrene. The high Tg hydrophobic monomer is cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, 4-t-butyl methacrylate, t-butylstyrene, or n-butyl methacrylate, or a combination thereof. The multistage polymer particles are useful as opaque polymers, which are used in pigmented coating formulations to reduce the load of TiO2. The particles exhibit excellent collapse resistance and unusually low dry bulk density, and do not require acrylonitrile to achieve this desired combination of properties.


Description

Background of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to a method for preparing an aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles that is useful for improving hiding efficiency in a pigmented coatings formulation.

[0002] Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the opacifying pigment of choice for use in paint formulations due to its exceptionally high refractive index; however, the high cost of TiO2 has motivated researchers to investigate ways to reduce its loading while maintaining high opacifying (hiding) efficiency. One such approach has been the development and commercialization of high scattering polymeric pigments known as opaque polymers, which have been found to preserve hiding efficiency at a lower pigment volume concentration (PVC) TiO2. US 6,020,435 discloses the preparation of an aqueous dispersion of core-shell polymer particles containing acid-functionalized cores, which are converted to opaque polymers upon neutralization of the core and subsequently coating a substrate with the dispersion, thereby allowing water to evaporate to form a film with voided particles.

[0003] The efficiency improvement from opaque polymers arises primarily from two factors: Low dry bulk density and collapse resistance; unfortunately, efforts to achieve lower dry bulk density to achieve further improvements in hiding efficiency reduces resistance to collapse. This correlation is unsurprising because low dry bulk densities correlate with a larger core, therefore a larger weight-to-weight core-to-shell ratio at the desired particle size; the result is a thinner shell that is more susceptible to collapse. It has been found that acrylonitrile incorporation into an intermediate or post-intermediate polymerization stage - the stage or stages following the core stage - results in the formation of opaque polymers with lower dry bulk density and at an acceptable collapse resistance; nevertheless, acrylonitrile is acutely toxic and has been observed to cause mucous membrane irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea to exposed workers. Therefore, it would be advantageous to prepare collapse resistant low dry bulk density polymer particles without acrylonitrile functionalization.

Summary of the Invention



[0004] The present invention addresses a need in the art by providing a method for preparing an aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles comprising the steps of:
  1. a) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions an aqueous dispersion of core polymer particles with first monomers to form an aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles; and
  2. b) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions the aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles with second monomers to form the aqueous dispersion multistage polymer particles; and
  3. c) neutralizing the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles with a base; wherein
the core polymer particles comprise from 25 to 60 weight percent structural units of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, from 40 to 75 weight percent structural units of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer, and up to a total of 15 weight percent structural units of styrene and a high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein
the high Tg hydrophobic monomer is one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, 4-t-butyl methacrylate, t-butylstyrene, and n-butyl methacrylate;
the first monomers comprise from 5 to 15 weight percent of an carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof; 2) from 45 to 55 weight percent styrene; 3) from 37 to 47 weight percent methyl methacrylate or the high Tg hydrophobic monomer or a combination thereof; and
the second monomers comprise from 80 to 99.9 weight percent styrene and from 0.1 to 0.5 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer; wherein,
the weight-to-weight ratio of the core polymer particles to the sum of the first and second monomers is in the range of from 1:9 to 1:20; and the weight-to-weight ratio of the first monomers to the second monomers is in the range of from 1:3 to 1:8;
with the proviso that the core/first stage polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core/first stage polymer particles, from 2 to 15 weight percent structural units of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer.

[0005] The method of the present invention addresses a need by providing a way to make opaque polymers with excellent collapse resistance and unusually low dry bulk density, without acrylonitrile.

Detailed Description of the Invention



[0006] The present invention is a method for preparing an aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles comprising the steps of:
  1. a) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions an aqueous dispersion of core polymer particles with first monomers to form an aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles; and
  2. b) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions the aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles with second monomers to form the aqueous dispersion multistage polymer particles; and
  3. c) neutralizing the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles with a base; wherein
the core polymer particles comprise from 25 to 60 weight percent structural units of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, from 40 to 75 weight percent structural units of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer, and up to a total of 15 weight percent structural units of styrene and a high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein
the high Tg hydrophobic monomer is one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, 4-t-butyl methacrylate, t-butylstyrene, and n-butyl methacrylate;
the first monomers comprise from 5 to 15 weight percent of an carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof; 2) from 45 to 55 weight percent styrene; 3) from 37 to 47 weight percent methyl methacrylate or the high Tg hydrophobic monomer or a combination thereof; and
the second monomers comprise from 80 to 99.9 weight percent styrene and from 0.1 to 0.5 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer; wherein,
the weight-to-weight ratio of the core polymer particles to the sum of the first and second monomers is in the range of from 1:9 to 1:20; and the weight-to-weight ratio of the first monomers to the second monomers is in the range of from 1:3 to 1:8;
with the proviso that the core/first stage polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core/first stage polymer particles, from 2 to 15 weight percent structural units of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer.

[0007] The multistage polymer particles prepared by the process of the present invention have a core-shell morphology. The core may be produced by a single stage or a multistage process, preferably in the presence of a chain transfer agent such as n-dodecyl mercaptan or mercaptoethanol. The core may also be prepared from a seed process. A preferred method of preparing the core is described in US 6,020,435.

[0008] As used herein, the term "structural units" refers to the remnant of the recited monomer after polymerization. For example, a structural unit of methyl methacrylate is as illustrated:



[0009] Preferably, the core polymer particles comprises from 30, more preferably from 35, and most preferably from 38 weight percent, to preferably 50, more preferably to 45, and most preferably to 42 weight percent structural units of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, based on the weight of the first monomers.

[0010] The core polymer particles also preferably comprise from 50, more preferably from 55, and most preferably from 58 weight percent, to preferably 70, more preferably to 65, and most preferably to 62 weight percent structural units of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer.

[0011] The core polymer particles preferably comprise from 5 to 10 weight percent structural units of styrene and/or a high Tg hydrophobic monomer selected from the group consisting of cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, 4-t-butyl methacrylate, t-butylstyrene, and n-butyl methacrylate. The term "high Tg monomer" refers to a monomer that forms a homopolymer that is not film-forming at 25 °C. In one preferred embodiment, the core polymer particles comprises from 5, more preferably from 6 weight percent to 10 weight percent structural units of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer, based on the weight of core polymer particles. In another embodiment, the core comprises, based on the weight of the core, less than 10, more preferably less than 5, and most preferably less than 1 weight percent structural units of styrene.

[0012] Examples of carboxylic acid functionalized monomers include methacrylic acid, acrylic acid, and itaconic acid, with acrylic acid and methacrylic acid being preferred. Examples of nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomers include C1-C10 alkyl acrylates and methacrylates such as methyl methacrylate, ethyl acrylate, ethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; and styrene. Methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate are preferred nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomers used to prepare the first phase.

[0013] The average particle size of the core polymer particles is preferably in the range of from 80 nm to 150 nm as measured by light scattering using a BI-90 Plus Brookhaven Particle Analyzer.

[0014] The first monomers preferably comprises from 6, more preferably from 7 weight percent, to 12, more preferably to 9 weight percent structural units of a carboxylic acid monomer, preferably methacrylic acid or acrylic acid. The second monomers preferably comprises from 83 to 91 weight percent styrene; the second monomers further preferably comprise from 8 to 12 weight percent methyl methacrylate; preferably from 0.5 to 4 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer; and preferably from 0.1 to 0.4 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer such as divinyl benzene or allyl methacrylate. In another embodiment, the first monomers comprise from 5 to 15 weight percent structural units of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer, based on the weight of the first monomers. In another embodiment, the first monomers comprise, based on the weight of the first monomers, less than 10, more preferably less than 5, and most preferably less than 1 weight percent structural units of styrene.

[0015] The weight-to-weight ratio of the core polymer particles to the sum of the first and second monomers is preferably in the range of from 1:11, more preferably from 1:12, to 1:18, and more preferably to 1:16; and the weight-to-weight ratio of the first monomers to the second monomers is preferably in the range of from 1:4, more preferably from 1:5, to preferably 1:7.

[0016] The multistage polymer particles are preferably prepared in three stages from the aqueous dispersion of the first phase polymer particles. In a preferred method, the first monomers are added as a first monomer emulsion (ME 1) comprising methacrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, and styrene to a kettle containing an aqueous dispersion of the core polymer particles having a solids content in the range of from 20, more preferably from 25, to 40, more preferably to 35 weight percent, and copolymerized under emulsion polymerization conditions to form a dispersion of core/first stage (also referred to as core/tie-layer) polymer particles. In one embodiment, the core polymer particles comprise from 5, more preferably from 6 weight percent, to 15, and more preferably to 10 weight percent structural units of the hydrophobic high Tg monomer. ME 1 preferably comprises from 6, more preferably from 7 weight percent, to 12, and more preferably to 9 weight percent of methacrylic acid or acrylic acid based on the weight of ME 1 monomers; preferably from 48 to 52 weight percent styrene based on the weight of ME 1 monomers; and preferably from 20 to 40 weight percent methyl methacrylate, based on the weight of ME 1 monomers. In one embodiment, ME 1 comprises 0 weight percent of the hydrophobic high Tg monomer; in another embodiment, ME 1 comprises from 2, and more preferably from 4 weight percent, to 12, and more preferably to 10 weight percent of the hydrophobic high Tg monomer based on the weight of ME 1 monomers. The core polymer particles or the tie-layer or both comprise structural units of a high Tg hydrophobic monomer. The weight-to-weight ratio of ME 1 to core is in preferably the range of from 0.5:1, more preferably from 1:1, to 4:1, and more preferably to 3:1.

[0017] The second monomers are preferably contacted with the dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles over two stages (designated as ME 2A and ME 2B) as follows: Upon completion of addition of ME 1 to the kettle, a second monomer emulsion (ME 2A) comprising from 78 to 86.5 weight percent styrene, from 12 to 18.5 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 1 to 4 weight percent methacrylic acid or acrylic acid, and from 0.1 weight percent to 0.6 weight percent allyl methacrylate of divinyl benzene is added to the kettle under emulsion polymerization conditions.

[0018] ME 2A also preferably includes from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of linseed oil fatty acid. The weight-to-weight ratio of ME 2A to ME 1 is preferably in the range of from 3.5:1, more preferably from 4:1, and most preferably from 4.5:1, to 6:1, more preferably to 5.5:1, and most preferably to 5:1.

[0019] After a suitable hold period of ∼15 minutes, a third monomer emulsion (ME 2B), which contains styrene and 4-hydroxy TEMPO, is fed into the reactor followed by addition of hot deionized water and a neutralizing amount of a base such as NH4OH or an alkali metal hydroxide such as concentrated NaOH. The dispersion is advantageously chased with t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and isoascorbic acid (IAA) and the contents were filtered to remove any coagulum. The weight-to-weight ratio of ME 2B to ME 2A is preferably in the range of from 0.1:1, more preferably from 0.15:1, to 0.5:1, more preferably to 0.3:1, and most preferably to 0.25:1.

[0020] Accordingly, in preferred aspect of the present invention, the second monomer is added under emulsion polymerization conditions in two stages: in a first stage, second monomer A comprising, based on the weight of second monomer A, from 78 to 86.5 weight percent styrene, from 12 to 18.5 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 1 to 4 weight percent methacrylic acid or acrylic acid, and from 0.1 weight percent to 0.6 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer is contacted with the aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles under emulsion polymerization conditions to form an intermediate dispersion of multistage polymer particles; then, second monomer B, which comprises, based on the weight of second monomer B, preferably at least 98 weight percent, preferably 100 weight percent styrene, is contacted with the intermediate dispersion of multistage polymer particles to form the final aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles. The weight-to-weight ratio of second monomer A to second monomer B is in the range of from 3:1, more preferably from 3.5:1, more preferably from 4:1, and most preferably from 4.5:1, to 6:1, more preferably to 5.5:1, and most preferably to 5:1.

[0021] Preferably, the average particle size of the neutralized multistage polymer particles as measured by light scattering using a BI-90 Plus Brookhaven Particle Analyzer is in the range of from 150 nm, more preferably from 200 nm, most preferably from 350 nm; to 600 nm, more preferably to 500 nm, most preferably to 450 nm. The solids content of the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles is preferably in the range of from 10 to 35 weight percent.

[0022] The aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles is useful as an opacifying polymeric additive that allows for the reduced loading of TiO2 in paint formulations. When formulations containing these opacifying polymer additives are applied as a coating to a substrate and allowed to dry, collapse resistant opaque polymers with a dry bulk density in the range of 0.50 to 0.55 g/cc were formed. Collapse resistant opaque polymers with dry bulk densities at this low a level have until now only been achieved with inclusion of acrylonitrile in the second phase; however, it has been surprisingly discovered that acrylonitrile, as well as methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, and methacrylamide, are no longer necessary to achieve the properties heretofore only achievable with the inclusion of these difficult to handle monomers. Accordingly, the second phase of the multistage polymer particles preferably comprises less than 10 weight percent, more preferably less than 1 weight percent, more preferably less than 0.1 weight percent, and most preferably 0 structural units of acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, and methacrylamide, based on the weight of the second phase.

[0023] The aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles of the present invention is useful as a supplementary opacifying pigment in paint formulations. In another aspect, the present invention is a pigmented water-based coatings composition comprising a dispersion of the multistage polymer particles, a rheology modifier, a binder, TiO2, and at least one additive selected from the groups consisting of surfactants, defoamers, biocides, dispersants, coalescents, and neutralizing agents.

S/Mil Measurements


Kubelka-Munk Scattering Coefficient (S/Mil)



[0024] The scattering coefficient (S/Mil) is a measure of the opacity of the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles. A sample of the dispersion was blended with RHOPLEX™ AC-264 Emulsion Polymer (AC-264, A Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company or Its Affiliates) on a solids basis at a weight-to-weight ratio of 15% aqueous dispersion/ 85% AC-264. A 7-mil wet film of the blend is drawn over a sheet of black vinyl that was measured for thickness in four small defined areas with an Ames Gauge. The film was dried for 2 h at low relative humidity (<40% R.H.). The reflectance of the dry film was measured by a Gardner Instrument Reflectometer over the four defined areas. The thickness of the dried film was also determined over the same defined areas using the Ames Gauge. The Scattering coefficient was calculated for each of defined areas as:

R = Reflectance

T = film thickness in mils



[0025] The four S/Mil measurements were then averaged to obtain the S/Mil for the film.

Collapse



[0026] Collapse is an indication of the ability of disperse multistage polymer particles to resist the forces of drying acting on the walls of the internal microvoid. These forces are at their greatest when the humidity is high, which causes the particles to dry slowly. Collapse is determined using essentially the same procedure that is used in determining S/Mil above except that a second drawdown is dried overnight at 85% R.H., then dried at <40% R.H. for 1 h.


Examples



[0027] The preparation of the aqueous dispersion of the core was carried out as described in US 6,020,435. Table 1 illustrates the monomers and relative amounts used to prepare the aqueous dispersions of the cores, as well as the solids content and average particle size of the core particles, as measured by a Brookhaven BI 90 particle size analyzer. MMA refers to methyl methacrylate; MAA refers to methacrylic acid; CHMA refers to cyclohexyl methacrylate; t-BuSty refers to t-butylstyrene; Sty refers to styrene; t-BuMA refers to t-butyl methacrylate; t-BuMA refers to t-butyl methacrylate.

[0028] Also, the term tie-coat is used to describe the polymers formed from monomers in ME 1.
Table 1 - Monomer Distribution, Particle Size, and Solids Content of Cores
Intermediate Ex #Monomer DistributionParticle Size% Solids
1 66 MMA/34 MAA 140 nm 32.1 %
2 62 MMA/34 MAA/4 CHMA 140 nm 32.1 %
3 58 MMA/34 MAA/8 CHMA 138 nm 32.1 %
4 56 MMA/34 MAA/10 t-BuSty 141 nm 32.4 %
5 56 MMA/10 Sty/34 MAA 135 nm 31.9 %
6 56 MMA/10 t-BuMA/34 MAA 140 nm 31.6 %
7 55 MMA/10 BMA/35 MAA 140 nm 31.7 %
8 56 MMA/8 IBOMA/34 MAA 140 nm 31.7 %

Comparative Example 1 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with no Hydrophobic High Tg monomer in Core or ME 1



[0029] Deionized water (800 g) was added to a 5-L 4-necked round bottom flask (kettle) equipped with a paddle stirrer, thermometer, nitrogen inlet, and reflux condenser; the kettle was heated to 89 °C under N2 at which time sodium persulfate (3.2 g) dissolved deionized water (30 g) was added, followed immediately the addition the core of Intermediate Example 1 (186.9 g). A monomer emulsion (ME 1), which was prepared by mixing deionized water (60.0 g), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 4.0 g, 23% active), styrene (60.0 g), MMA (50.4 g), and MAA (9.6 g) was added to the kettle at a rate of 3.0 g/ min at a temperature of 77-79 °C. Upon completion of ME 1 addition, a second monomer emulsion (ME 2), which was prepared by mixing deionized water (187.0 g), SDS (8.0 g, 23% active), styrene (491.4 g), MMA (72.0 g), MAA (10.8 g), linseed oil fatty acid (LOFA 3.6 g), and allyl methacrylate (ALMA 1.80 g), was fed to the reactor at a rate of 10 g/m for 15 min during which time the temperature was allowed to rise to 84 °C. After 15 min, the feed rate of ME 2 was increased to 20 g/min and a separate mixture of sodium persulfate (0.75 g) dissolved in deionized water (62.0 g) was co-fed to the reactor at a rate of 1.5 g/min. The temperature of the reaction mixture was allowed to increase to 92-93 °C during the course of the ME 2 feed. Upon completion of addition of ME 2 and the co-feed, a mixture of 0.1% FeSO4.7H2O (20.0 g) / 1% VERSENE™ Chelating Agent (2.0 g, A Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company or its Affiliates) was added to the kettle; the temperature was held for 15 min at ~92 °C, after which time a third monomer emulsion (ME 3), which was prepared by mixing deionized water (46 g), SDS (1.7 g), styrene (144.0 g), and 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (4-hydroxy TEMPO, 3.0 g), was fed to the kettle at a rate of 40 g/min. After completion of ME 3 addition, hot deionized water (300 g) was added to the kettle followed by addition of a mixture of 50% sodium hydroxide (26.6 g) and hot water (450 g) over 10 min. The reaction mixture was then held for 5 min at a temperature of 80-85 °C, after which time a mixture of t-BHP (1.2 g) and deionized water (25 g) was added to the kettle. A mixture of isoascorbic acid (IAA, 0.65 g) and deionized water (50 g) was then fed to the kettle over 25 min. Upon completion of the IAA co-feed, the kettle was cooled to room temperature and the contents filtered to remove any coagulum formed. The final latex had a solids content of 28.5%, a pH of 8.6, and a particle size of 427 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.517 g/mL. Low RH S/Mil was 1.34, High RH S/Mil was 0.97, and % Collapse was 28%.

Example 1 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with CHMA in ME 1



[0030] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 1 core (188.1 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (44.4 g), MAA (9.6 g), and CHMA (6.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.5%, a pH of 8.9, and a particle size of 384 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.533 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.31, High RH S/Mil was 1.23, and % Collapse was 6%.

Example 2 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with CHMA in ME 1



[0031] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was followed except that Intermediate Example 1 core (188.7 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (26.4 g), MAA (9.6 g), and CHMA (24.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.8%, a pH of 8.9, and a particle size of 415 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.541 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.28, High RH S/Mil was 1.22, and % Collapse was 5%.

Example 3 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with CHMA in the Core



[0032] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 3 core (186.9 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (26.4 g), MAA (9.6 g), and CHMA (12.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.2%, a pH of 8.9, and a particle size of 412 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.541 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.32, High RH S/Mil was 1.32, and % Collapse was 0%.

Example 4 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with t-Butyl Styrene in the Core



[0033] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was followed except that the core (185.2 g) was made as described in Intermediate Example 4. The final latex had a solids content of 28.4%, a pH of 8.75, and a particle size of 409 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.541 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.40, High RH S/Mil was 1.28, and % Collapse was 8.5%.

Example 5 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with t-Butyl Styrene in the Core and Tiecoat



[0034] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried except that Intermediate Example 4 core (185.2 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (44.4 g), MAA (9.6 g), t-BuSty (6.4 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.4%, a pH of 8.85, and a particle size of 403 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.543 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.40, High RH S/Mil was 1.33, and % Collapse was 5%.

Comparative Example 2 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with Styrene in the Core



[0035] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was followed except that the core (188.1 g) was made as described in Intermediate Example 5. The final latex had a solids content of 28.5%, a pH of 8.7, and a particle size of 403 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.539 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.40, High RH S/Mil was 1.19, and % Collapse was 15.0%.

Example 6 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with Styrene in the Core and CHMA in Tie-coat



[0036] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 5 core (186.3 g) was use; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (38.4. g), MAA (9.6 g), and CHMA (12.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.4%, a pH of 8.5, and a particle size of 405 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.536 g/cc.
Low RH S/Mil was 1.38, High RH S/Mil was 1.33, and % Collapse was 3.5%.

Example 7 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with t-Butyl Methacrylate in the Core and the Tie-coat



[0037] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 6 core (189.9 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (38.4. g), MAA (9.6 g), and t-BuMA (12.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.6%, a pH of 8.5, and a particle size of 437 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.543 g/cc.
Low RH S/Mil was 1.35, High RH S/Mil was 1.25, and % Collapse was 7.5%.

Example 8 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with t-Butyl Methacrylate in the Core and Cyclohexyl Methacrylate in the Tie-coat



[0038] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 6 core (189.9 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (44.4. g), MAA (9.6 g), and CHMA (6.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.6%, a pH of 8.4, and a particle size of 424 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.531 g/cc.
Low RH S/Mil was 1.40, High RH S/Mil was 1.31, and % Collapse was 6.5%.

Example 9 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with t-Butyl Methacrylate in the Core and Tie-coat



[0039] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 7 core (189.3 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (38.4. g), MAA (9.6 g), and t-BMA (12.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.8%, a pH of 8.5, and a particle size of 427 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.569 g/cc.
Low RH S/Mil was 1.29, High RH S/Mil was 1.22, and % Collapse was 5.5%.

Example 10 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with Isobornyl Methacrylate in the Core



[0040] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that the core (186.3 g) was made as described in Intermediate Example 8. The final latex had a solids content of 28.5%, a pH of 8.8, and a particle size of 424 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.540 g/cc. Low RH S/Mil was 1.31, High RH S/Mil was 1.21 and % Collapse was 7.5%.

Example 11 - Preparation of Aqueous Dispersion of Polymer Particles with Isobornyl Methacrylate in the Tie-Coat



[0041] The procedure of Comparative Example 1 was carried out except that Intermediate Example 1 core (188.7 g) was used; and ME 1 monomers were styrene (60.0 g), MMA (38.4. g), MAA (9.6 g), and IBOMA (12.0 g). The final latex had a solids content of 28.6%, a pH of 8.9, and a particle size of 413 nm. The dry density of this polymer was calculated to be 0.539 g/cc.
Low RH S/Mil was 1.27, High RH S/Mil was 1.23, and % Collapse was 3.0%.

[0042] The data demonstrate that dispersions of multistage polymer particles having a dry bulk density of less than 0.55 g/cc can be prepared with a collapse resistance of less than 10%, which is considered acceptable in the field of opaque polymers.


Claims

1. A method for preparing an aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles comprising the steps of:

a) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions an aqueous dispersion of core polymer particles with first monomers to form an aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles; and

b) contacting under emulsion polymerization conditions the aqueous dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles with second monomers to form the aqueous dispersion multistage polymer particles; and

c) neutralizing the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles with a base; wherein

the core polymer particles comprise from 25 to 60 weight percent structural units of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, from 40 to 75 weight percent structural units of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer, and up to a total of 15 weight percent structural units of styrene and a high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein
the high Tg hydrophobic monomer is one or more monomers selected from the group consisting of cyclohexyl methacrylate, isobornyl methacrylate, 4-t-butyl methacrylate, t-butylstyrene, and n-butyl methacrylate;
the first monomers comprise from 5 to 15 weight percent of an carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof; 2) from 45 to 55 weight percent styrene; 3) from 37 to 47 weight percent methyl methacrylate or the high Tg hydrophobic monomer or a combination thereof; and
the second monomers comprise from 80 to 99.9 weight percent styrene and from 0.1 to 0.5 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer; wherein,
the weight-to-weight ratio of the core polymer particles to the sum of the first and second monomers is in the range of from 1:9 to 1:20; and the weight-to-weight ratio of the first monomers to the second monomers is in the range of from 1:3 to 1:8;
with the proviso that the core/first stage polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core/first stage polymer particles, from 2 to 15 weight percent structural units of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer.
 
2. The method of Claim 1 wherein the weight-to-weight ratio of the core polymer particles to the first monomers is in the range of from 1:11 to 1:18; and wherein the weight-to-weight ratio of the first polymer of the second phase to the second polymer of the second phase is in the range of from 1:4 to 1:7.
 
3. The method of Claim 2 wherein

a) the core polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core polymer particles, from 25 to 50 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, from 40 to 70 weight percent of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer; and from 5 to 10 weight percent of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein

b) the first monomers comprise, based on the weight of the first monomers, from 6 to 12 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof; and wherein

c) the second monomers comprise, based on the weight of the second monomers, from 83 to 91 weight percent styrene; from 8 to 12 weight percent methyl methacrylate; from 0.5 to 4 weight percent methacrylic acid or acrylic acid; and from 0.1 to 0.4 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer.


 
4. The method of Claim 2 wherein

a) the core polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core polymer particles, from 30 to 50 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, and from 50 to 70 weight percent of a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer; wherein

b) the first monomers comprise, based on the weight of the first monomers, from 6 to 12 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, and from 5 to 15 weight percent of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer; and wherein

c) the second monomers comprise, based on the weight of the second monomers, from 83 to 91 weight percent styrene; from 8 to 12 weight percent methyl methacrylate; from 0.5 to 4 weight percent of methacrylic acid or acrylic acid; and from 0.1 to 0.4 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer.


 
5. The method of Claim 2 wherein

a) the core polymer particles comprise, based on the weight of the core polymer particles, from 25 to 50 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, and from 40 to 70 weight percent a nonionic ethylenically unsaturated monomer, and from 5 to 10 weight percent of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein

b) the first monomers comprise, based on the weight of the first monomers, from 6 to 12 weight percent of a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, and from 5 to 15 weight percent of the high Tg hydrophobic monomer; wherein

c) the second monomers comprise, based on the weight of the second monomers, from 83 to 91 weight percent styrene; from 8 to 12 weight percent methyl methacrylate; from 0.5 to 4 weight percent of methacrylic acid or acrylic acid; and from 0.1 to 0.4 weight percent of a multiethylenically unsaturated monomer.


 
6. The method of Claim 5 wherein the second monomers are contacted with the dispersion of core/first stage polymer particles under emulsion polymerization conditions in a first stage and a second stage, wherein

a) the first stage second monomers comprises, based on the weight of the first stage second monomers, from 78 to 86.5 weight percent styrene, from 12 to 18.5 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 1 to 4 weight percent methacrylic acid or acrylic acid, and from 0.1 weight percent to 0.4 weight percent allyl methacrylate of divinyl benzene, are contacted with the; and

b) the second stage second monomers comprise, based on the weight of the second stage second monomers, greater than 98 weight percent styrene;

wherein the weight-to-weight ratio of first stage second monomers to second stage second monomers is in the range of from 3:1 to 6:1.
 
7. The method of Claim 2 wherein the first and second monomers comprise less than 1 weight percent structural units of acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, and methacrylamide, based on the weight of the first and second monomers.
 
8. The method of Claim 7 wherein the first and second monomers comprise less than 0.1 weight percent acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, acrylamide, and methacrylamide, based on the weight of the first and second monomers.
 
9. The method of Claim 1 which further comprises contacting the aqueous dispersion of multistage polymer particles with a rheology modifier, a binder, TiO2, and at least one additive selected from the groups consisting of surfactants, defoamers, biocides, dispersants, coalescents, and neutralizing agents.
 





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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description