(19)
(11)EP 3 627 541 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
25.03.2020 Bulletin 2020/13

(21)Application number: 19183494.4

(22)Date of filing:  28.06.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 21/8234(2006.01)
H01L 27/088(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 18.09.2018 US 201816134719

(71)Applicant: INTEL Corporation
Santa Clara, CA 95054 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • GULER, Leonard P.
    Hillsboro, OR Oregon 97124 (US)
  • GUHA, Biswajeet
    Hillsboro, OR Oregon 97124 (US)
  • GHANI, Tahir
    Portland, OR Oregon 97229 (US)
  • SIVAKUMAR, Swaminathan
    Beaverton, OR Oregon 97005 (US)

(74)Representative: HGF Limited 
Fountain Precinct Balm Green
Sheffield S1 2JA
Sheffield S1 2JA (GB)

  


(54)NEIGHBORING GATE-ALL-AROUND INTEGRATED CIRCUIT STRUCTURES HAVING DISJOINED EPITAXIAL SOURCE OR DRAIN REGIONS


(57) Neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, and methods of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, are described. For example, a structure includes first and second vertical arrangements of nanowires, the nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires (404) having a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires (406) of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires. First and second gate stacks are over the first and second vertical arrangements of nanowires, respectively. First epitaxial source or drain structures (412') are at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires, and second epitaxial source or drain structures (410') are at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires. An intervening dielectric structure (432) is between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures (412') and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures (410').




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] Embodiments of the disclosure are in the field of integrated circuit structures and processing and, in particular, neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, and methods of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions.

BACKGROUND



[0002] For the past several decades, the scaling of features in integrated circuits has been a driving force behind an ever-growing semiconductor industry. Scaling to smaller and smaller features enables increased densities of functional units on the limited real estate of semiconductor chips. For example, shrinking transistor size allows for the incorporation of an increased number of memory or logic devices on a chip, lending to the fabrication of products with increased capacity. The drive for ever-more capacity, however, is not without issue. The necessity to optimize the performance of each device becomes increasingly significant.

[0003] In the manufacture of integrated circuit devices, multi-gate transistors, such as tri-gate transistors, have become more prevalent as device dimensions continue to scale down. In conventional processes, tri-gate transistors are generally fabricated on either bulk silicon substrates or silicon-on-insulator substrates. In some instances, bulk silicon substrates are preferred due to their lower cost and because they enable a less complicated tri-gate fabrication process. In another aspect, maintaining mobility improvement and short channel control as microelectronic device dimensions scale below the 10 nanometer (nm) node provides a challenge in device fabrication. Nanowires used to fabricate devices provide improved short channel control.

[0004] Scaling multi-gate and nanowire transistors has not been without consequence, however. As the dimensions of these fundamental building blocks of microelectronic circuitry are reduced and as the sheer number of fundamental building blocks fabricated in a given region is increased, the constraints on the lithographic processes used to pattern these building blocks have become overwhelming. In particular, there may be a trade-off between the smallest dimension of a feature patterned in a semiconductor stack (the critical dimension) and the spacing between such features.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0005] 

Figure 1 illustrates cross-sectional views taken through nanowires and fins for a non-endcap architecture (left-hand side) versus a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) architecture (right-hand side), in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 2 illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) structure with gate-all-around devices, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figures 3A-3C illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) structure with gate-all-around devices having epitaxial source or drain structures, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figures 4A-4E illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 5A illustrates a three-dimensional cross-sectional view of a nanowire-based integrated circuit structure, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 5B illustrates a cross-sectional source or drain view of the nanowire-based integrated circuit structure of Figure 5A, as taken along the a-a' axis, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 5C illustrates a cross-sectional channel view of the nanowire-based integrated circuit structure of Figure 5A, as taken along the b-b' axis, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figures 6A-6E illustrate three-dimensional cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a nanowire portion of a fin/nanowire structure, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 7 illustrates a computing device in accordance with one implementation of an embodiment of the disclosure.

Figure 8 illustrates an interposer that includes one or more embodiments of the disclosure.


DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0006] Neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, and methods of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, are described. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth, such as specific integration and material regimes, in order to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the present disclosure. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known features, such as integrated circuit design layouts, are not described in detail in order to not unnecessarily obscure embodiments of the present disclosure. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the various embodiments shown in the Figures are illustrative representations and are not necessarily drawn to scale.

[0007] Certain terminology may also be used in the following description for the purpose of reference only, and thus are not intended to be limiting. For example, terms such as "upper", "lower", "above", and "below" refer to directions in the drawings to which reference is made. Terms such as "front", "back", "rear", and "side" describe the orientation and/or location of portions of the component within a consistent but arbitrary frame of reference which is made clear by reference to the text and the associated drawings describing the component under discussion. Such terminology may include the words specifically mentioned above, derivatives thereof, and words of similar import.

[0008] Embodiments described herein may be directed to front-end-of-line (FEOL) semiconductor processing and structures. FEOL is the first portion of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication where the individual devices (e.g., transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) are patterned in the semiconductor substrate or layer. FEOL generally covers everything up to (but not including) the deposition of metal interconnect layers. Following the last FEOL operation, the result is typically a wafer with isolated transistors (e.g., without any wires).

[0009] Embodiments described herein may be directed to back end of line (BEOL) semiconductor processing and structures. BEOL is the second portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (e.g., transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) are interconnected with wiring on the wafer, e.g., the metallization layer or layers. BEOL includes contacts, insulating layers (dielectrics), metal levels, and bonding sites for chip-to-package connections. In the BEOL part of the fabrication stage contacts (pads), interconnect wires, vias and dielectric structures are formed. For modern IC processes, more than 10 metal layers may be added in the BEOL.

[0010] Embodiments described below may be applicable to FEOL processing and structures, BEOL processing and structures, or both FEOL and BEOL processing and structures. In particular, although an exemplary processing scheme may be illustrated using a FEOL processing scenario, such approaches may also be applicable to BEOL processing. Likewise, although an exemplary processing scheme may be illustrated using a BEOL processing scenario, such approaches may also be applicable to FEOL processing.

[0011] One or more embodiments are directed to epitaxial region (EPI) splitting or separating or disjoining for multi-width (Wsi) ribbons having as-formed merged EPI regions. One or more embodiments are directed to neighboring semiconductor structures or devices having that are otherwise not separated by self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) structures (e.g., on a die not including SAGE, or in a portion of a die not including SAGE formation).

[0012] In a particular embodiment, a high temperature carbon hardmask (HTCHM) material is deposited on a merged or joined structure. A lithographic pattern is defined over an area that needs to be split or disjoined. An etch process is performed to split select merged EPI region. The split area is backfilled with dielectric material, and the HTCHM is optionally removed to enable further processing. In one or more embodiments, merged epitaxial regions are disjoined for gate-all-around structures, such as nano-ribbon/nano-wire technology.

[0013] Particular embodiments may be directed to integration of multiple width (multi-Wsi) nanowires and nanoribbons in a non-SAGE architecture, or in neighboring regions of a SAGE architecture that are not immediately separated by a SAGE wall. In an embodiment, nanowires/nanoribbons are integrated with multiple Wsi in a non-SAGE architecture or non-SAGE portion of a front end process flow. Such a process flow may involve integration of nanowires and nanoribbons of different Wsi to provide robust functionality of next generation transistors with low power and high performance.

[0014] To provide context, balancing non-uniform epitaxial growth across integrated circuit structures can be challenging. Embodiments described herein may address unwanted merged epitaxial growth associated with growing source or drain structures on silicon (Si) regions having differential nanoribbon/nanowire architectures. Epitaxial regions may be embedded (e.g., portions of nanowires removed and then source or drain (S/D) growth is performed) or formed by vertical merging (e.g., epitaxial regions are formed around existing wires), as described in greater detail below in association with Figures 6A-6E.

[0015] To provide further context, advantages of a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) architecture may include the enabling of higher layout density and, in particular, scaling of diffusion to diffusion spacing. However, certain application may not involve the use of SAGE, or regions of a structure may not include SAGE walls, yet high density may still be sought after. In such scenarios, undesirable merging of neighboring epitaxial regions may occur in high density locations.

[0016] To provide illustrative comparison, Figure 1 illustrates cross-sectional views taken through nanowires and fins for a non-endcap architecture (left-hand side (a)) versus a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) architecture (right-hand side (b)), in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0017] Referring to the left-hand side (a) of Figure 1, an integrated circuit structure 100 includes a substrate 102 having fins 104 protruding therefrom by an amount 106 above an isolation structure 108 laterally surrounding lower portions of the fins 104. Corresponding nanowires 105 are over the fins 104. A gate structure may be formed over the integrated circuit structure 100 to fabricate a device. However, breaks in such a gate structure may be accommodated for by increasing the spacing between fin 104/nanowire 105 pairs. Alternatively, without increased spacing, merging of epitaxially grown source or drain structures can occur, as described in greater detail below.

[0018] By contrast, referring to the right-hand side (b) of Figure 1, an integrated circuit structure 150 includes a substrate 152 having fins 154 protruding therefrom by an amount 156 above an isolation structure 158 laterally surrounding lower portions of the fins 104. Corresponding nanowires 155 are over the fins 154. Isolating SAGE walls 160 (which may include a hardmask thereon, as depicted) are included within the isolation structure 158 and between adjacent fin 154/nanowire 155 pairs. The distance between an isolating SAGE wall 160 and a nearest fin 154/nanowire 155 pair defines the gate endcap spacing 162. A gate structure may be formed over the integrated circuit structure 150, between insolating SAGE walls to fabricate a device. Breaks in such a gate structure are imposed by the isolating SAGE walls. Since the isolating SAGE walls 160 are self-aligned, restrictions from conventional approaches can be minimized to enable more aggressive diffusion to diffusion spacing. Furthermore, since gate structures include breaks at all locations, individual gate structure portions may be layer connected by local interconnects formed over the isolating SAGE walls 160. In an embodiment, as depicted, the SAGE walls 160 each include a lower dielectric portion and a dielectric cap on the lower dielectric portion.

[0019] A self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) processing scheme involves the formation of gate/trench contact endcaps self-aligned to fins without requiring an extra length to account for mask mis-registration. Thus, embodiments may be implemented to enable shrinking of transistor layout area. Embodiments described herein may involve the fabrication of gate endcap isolation structures, which may also be referred to as gate walls, isolation gate walls or self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) walls. Other embodiments, however, involve applications, or regions of a die or architecture that include neighboring structures that are not separated by isolation gate walls or self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) walls.

[0020] In an exemplary processing scheme for structures having SAGE walls separating neighboring devices, Figure 2 illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) structure with gate-all-around devices, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0021] Referring to part (a) of Figure 2, a starting structure includes a nanowire patterning stack 204 above a substrate 202. A lithographic patterning stack 206 is formed above the nanowire patterning stack 204. The nanowire patterning stack 204 includes alternating silicon germanium layers 210 and silicon layers 212. A protective mask 214 is between the nanowire patterning stack 204 and the lithographic patterning stack 206. In one embodiment, the lithographic patterning stack 206 is trilayer mask composed of a topographic masking portion 220, an anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer 222, and a photoresist layer 224. In a particular such embodiment, the topographic masking portion 220 is a carbon hardmask (CHM) layer and the anti-reflective coating layer 222 is a silicon ARC layer.

[0022] Referring to part (b) of Figure 2, the stack of part (a) is lithographically patterned and then etched to provide an etched structure including a patterned substrate 202 and trenches 230.

[0023] Referring to part (c) of Figure 2, the structure of part (b) has an isolation layer 240 and a SAGE material 242 formed in trenches 230. The structure is then planarized to leave patterned topographic masking layer 220' as an exposed upper layer.

[0024] Referring to part (d) of Figure 2, the isolation layer 240 is recessed below an upper surface of the patterned substrate 202, e.g., to define a protruding fin portion and to provide a trench isolation structure 241 beneath SAGE walls 242.

[0025] Referring to part (e) of Figure 2, the silicon germanium layers 210 are removed at least in the channel region to release silicon nanowires 212A and 212B. Subsequent to the formation of the structure of part (e) of Figure 2, a gate stacks may be formed around nanowires 212B or 212A, over protruding fins of substrate 202, and between SAGE walls 242. In one embodiment, prior to formation of the gate stacks, the remaining portion of protective mask 214 is removed. In another embodiment, the remaining portion of protective mask 214 is retained as an insulating fin hat as an artifact of the processing scheme.

[0026] Referring again to part (e) of Figure 2, it is to be appreciated that a channel view is depicted, with source or drain regions being locating into and out of the page. In an embodiment, the channel region including nanowires 212B has a width less than the channel region including nanowires 212A. Thus, in an embodiment, an integrated circuit structure includes multiple width (multi-Wsi) nanowires. Although structures of 212B and 212A may be differentiated as nanowires and nanoribbons, respectively, both such structures are typically referred to herein as nanowires. It is also to be appreciated that reference to or depiction of a fin/nanowire pair throughout may refer to a structure including a fin and one or more overlying nanowires (e.g., two overlying nanowires are shown in Figure 2).

[0027] In an exemplary process flow for structures having SAGE walls separating neighboring devices, a planarizing material is formed over structures having uneven epitaxial growth and a non-selective etch is used to recess the planarizing material and the structures having uneven epitaxial growth. For example, Figures 3A-3C illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a self-aligned gate endcap (SAGE) structure with gate-all-around devices having epitaxial source or drain structures, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0028] Referring to Figure 3A, a method of fabricating an integrated circuit structure 300 includes forming a first vertical arrangement of nanowires 306 and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires 304 above a substrate 302. The nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 304 have a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 306 (e.g., nanowires 306 may be referred to as nanowires, and nanowires 304 may be referred to as nanoribbons). A gate endcap isolation structure 308 is formed between the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 306 and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 304. First epitaxial source or drain structures 312 are formed at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 306 (only one end depicted in Figure 3A). Second epitaxial source or drain structures 310 are formed at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 304 (only one end depicted in Figure 3A).

[0029] In an embodiment, the second epitaxial source or drain structures 310 have an uppermost surface above the uppermost surface of the gate endcap isolation structure 308, as is depicted in Figure 3A. In one such embodiment, the first epitaxial source or drain structures 312 have an uppermost surface below the uppermost surface of the gate endcap isolation structure 308, as is also depicted in Figure 3A. In an embodiment, the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 306 is over a first fin, and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 304 is over a second fin, as exemplified in Figure 2.

[0030] Referring to Figure 3B, a planarizing material 314 is formed over the structure of Figure 3A. In one embodiment, the planarizing material 314 is a carbon hardmask material deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and then subjected to a chemical mechanical planarization process. In another embodiment, the planarizing material 314 is a flowable silicon oxide based material. In an embodiment, planarizing material 314 is flowable material and can be used to fill a narrow narrow trench. In some embodiment, the deposition leads to a relatively flat surface and, hence, an actual "planarization" operation may be optional. It is to be appreciated that a carbon hardmask may be used as a flowable material, however, a flowable oxide can also be used as well.

[0031] Referring to Figure 3C, the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 310 are recessed below the uppermost surface of the gate endcap isolation structure 308 to form integrated circuit structure 350 having recessed second epitaxial source or drain structures 310' and recessed planarizing material 314'. In an embodiment, the recessing is performed using an etch process that is not selective between the planarizing material 314 and the second epitaxial source or drain structures 310. The recessed planarizing material 314' may subsequently be removed to enable contact formation. In an embodiment, in the case that a selective etch is performed, a masking or inter-layer dielectric material is first recessed to prior to a pre-epitaxial etch in order to recess masking or inter-layer dielectric material separately.

[0032] Referring again to Figure 3C, in an embodiment, as depicted, the recessing further involves recessing an uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 312 to form recessed first epitaxial source or drain structures 312'. In an embodiment, the uppermost surfaces of the epitaxial source or drain structures are recessed below the uppermost surface of the gate endcap isolation structure 308 to inhibit shorting of devices due to conductive or semiconducting structures protruding above the gate endcap isolation structure 308.

[0033] By contrast, in an exemplary process flow for structures not having SAGE walls separating neighboring devices, Figures 4A-4E illustrate cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0034] Referring to Figure 4A, a method of fabricating an integrated circuit structure 400 includes forming a first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406 and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404 above a substrate 402. The nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404 have a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406 (e.g., nanowires 406 may be referred to as nanowires, and nanowires 404 may be referred to as nanoribbons). First epitaxial source or drain structures 412 are formed at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406 (only one end depicted in Figure 3A). Second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 are formed at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404 (only one end depicted in Figure 3A). Ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 and corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412 have a merged region 413 there between.

[0035] Referring again to Figure 4A, a hardmask 414, such as a carbon hardmask is formed over the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 and the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412, and the merged region 413 there between. Referring to Figure 4B, hardmask 414 is used as a foundation together with a stack 420 to form a trilayer mask composed of a topographic masking portion (hardmask 414), an anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer 422, and a photoresist layer 424 patterned to have an opening 426 therein. In a particular such embodiment, the anti-reflective coating layer 422 is a silicon ARC layer.

[0036] Referring to Figure 4C, the pattern of the opening 426 is extended through the underlying structure to form patterned hardmask 414' and to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 and the corresponding merged ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412. In an embodiment, the merged region 413 is removed to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412, forming disjoined second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' and first epitaxial source or drain structures 412'. In one embodiment, the merged region 413 is removed to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410 and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412 by anisotropically etching the merged region 413. The patterned photoresist layer 424 may then be removed.

[0037] Referring to Figure 4D, a dielectric material 430 is formed over the structure of Figure 4C. Referring to Figure 4E, the dielectric material 430 is planarized (which may involve removal of layer 422) to form an intervening dielectric structure 432 between the ones of the disjoined second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412'. The patterned hardmask 414' may subsequently be removed to enable contact formation. Referring again to Figure 4E, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, an integrated circuit structure 450 includes a first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406 and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404 above a substrate 402. The nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404 have a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406. First epitaxial source or drain structures 412' are at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires 406. Second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' are at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires 404. An intervening dielectric structure 432 is between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412' and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410'.

[0038] In an embodiment, first epitaxial source or drain structures 412' and second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' are asymmetrical in the horizontal direction in the perspective taken in Figure 4E, as is depicted, e.g., as a result of separating a merged structure. Referring again to Figure 4E, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412' is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' is tapered. In an embodiment, the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures 412' is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures 410' is a second vertex, as is depicted. In an embodiment, the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are vertically non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures, as depicted in Figure 4E, and as described in greater detail below. In another embodiment, the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are vertically discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures, as is also described in greater detail below.

[0039] Although not depicted in the view of Figure 4E, but as exemplified in other embodiments described herein, a first gate stack is over the first vertical arrangement of nanowires, and a second gate stack is over the second vertical arrangement of nanowires. In a particular embodiment, a first gate structure is over a first nanowire or nanowire stack and a corresponding first fin along a first direction. The first gate structure has a longest dimension along a second direction, the second direction orthogonal to the first direction. A second gate structure is over a second nanowire or nanowire stack and over a corresponding second fin. The second gate structure has a longest dimension along the second direction. In one embodiment, the second gate structure is continuous with the first gate structure along the second direction, e.g., a SAGE wall does not separate the first and second gate structures.

[0040] To highlight an exemplary integrated circuit structure having three vertically arranged nanowires, Figure 5A illustrates a three-dimensional cross-sectional view of a nanowire-based integrated circuit structure, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. Figure 5B illustrates a cross-sectional source or drain view of the nanowire-based integrated circuit structure of Figure 5A, as taken along the a-a' axis. Figure 5C illustrates a cross-sectional channel view of the nanowire-based integrated circuit structure of Figure 5A, as taken along the b-b' axis.

[0041] Referring to Figure 5A, an integrated circuit structure 500 includes one or more vertically stacked nanowires (504 set) above a substrate 502. An optional fin between the bottommost nanowire and the substrate 502 is not depicted for the sake of emphasizing the nanowire portion for illustrative purposes. Embodiments herein are targeted at both single wire devices and multiple wire devices. As an example, a three nanowire-based devices having nanowires 504A, 504B and 504C is shown for illustrative purposes. For convenience of description, nanowire 504A is used as an example where description is focused on one of the nanowires. It is to be appreciated that where attributes of one nanowire are described, embodiments based on a plurality of nanowires may have the same or essentially the same attributes for each of the nanowires.

[0042] Each of the nanowires 504 includes a channel region 506 in the nanowire. The channel region 506 has a length (L). Referring to Figure 5C, the channel region also has a perimeter (Pc) orthogonal to the length (L). Referring to both Figures 5A and 5C, a gate electrode stack 508 surrounds the entire perimeter (Pc) of each of the channel regions 506. The gate electrode stack 508 includes a gate electrode along with a gate dielectric layer between the channel region 506 and the gate electrode (not shown). In an embodiment, the channel region is discrete in that it is completely surrounded by the gate electrode stack 508 without any intervening material such as underlying substrate material or overlying channel fabrication materials. Accordingly, in embodiments having a plurality of nanowires 504, the channel regions 506 of the nanowires are also discrete relative to one another.

[0043] Referring to both Figures 5A and 5B, integrated circuit structure 500 includes a pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512. The pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is on either side of the channel regions 506 of the plurality of vertically stacked nanowires 504. Furthermore, the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is adjoining for the channel regions 506 of the plurality of vertically stacked nanowires 504. In one such embodiment, not depicted, the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is directly vertically adjoining for the channel regions 506 in that epitaxial growth is on and between nanowire portions extending beyond the channel regions 506 (as exemplified in Figures 3C and 4E), where nanowire ends are shown within the source or drain structures. In another embodiment, as depicted in Figure 5A, the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is indirectly vertically adjoining for the channel regions 506 in that they are formed at the ends of the nanowires and not between the nanowires.

[0044] In an embodiment, as depicted, the source or drain regions 510/512 are non-discrete in that there are not individual and discrete source or drain regions for each channel region 506 of a nanowire 504. Accordingly, in embodiments having a plurality of nanowires 504, the source or drain regions 510/512 of the nanowires are global or unified source or drain regions as opposed to discrete for each nanowire. In one embodiment, from a cross-sectional perspective orthogonal to the length of the discrete channel regions 506, each of the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is approximately rectangular in shape with a bottom tapered portion and a top vertex portion, as depicted in Figure 5B. In other embodiments, however, the source or drain regions 510/512 of the nanowires are relatively larger yet discrete non-vertically merged epitaxial structures.

[0045] In accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, and as depicted in Figures 5A and 5B, integrated circuit structure 500 further includes a pair of contacts 514, each contact 514 on one of the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512. In one such embodiment, in a vertical sense, each contact 514 completely surrounds the respective non-discrete source or drain region 510/512. In another aspect, the entire perimeter of the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 may not be accessible for contact with contacts 514, and the contact 514 thus only partially surrounds the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512, as depicted in Figure 5B. In a contrasting embodiment, not depicted, the entire perimeter of the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512, as taken along the a-a' axis, is surrounded by the contacts 514.

[0046] Referring to Figures 5B and 5C, the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 are global in the sense that a single unified feature is used as a source or drain region for a plurality (in this case, 3) of nanowires 504 and, more particularly, for more than one discrete channel region 506. In an embodiment, the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is composed of a semiconductor material different than the semiconductor material of the discrete channel regions 506, e.g., the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is composed of a silicon germanium while the discrete channel regions 506 are composed of silicon. In another embodiment, the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 is composed of a semiconductor material the same or essentially the same as the semiconductor material of the discrete channel regions 506, e.g., both the pair of non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 and the discrete channel regions 506 are composed of silicon.

[0047] Referring again to Figure 5A, in an embodiment, integrated circuit structure 500 further includes a pair of spacers 516. As is depicted, outer portions of the pair of spacers 516 may overlap portions of the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512, providing for "embedded" portions of the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 beneath the pair of spacers 516. As is also depicted, the embedded portions of the non-discrete source or drain regions 510/512 may not extend beneath the entirety of the pair of spacers 516.

[0048] Substrate 502 may be composed of a material suitable for integrated circuit structure fabrication. In one embodiment, substrate 502 includes a lower bulk substrate composed of a single crystal of a material which may include, but is not limited to, silicon, germanium, silicon-germanium or a III-V compound semiconductor material. An upper insulator layer composed of a material which may include, but is not limited to, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride or silicon oxy-nitride is on the lower bulk substrate. Thus, the structure 500 may be fabricated from a starting semiconductor-on-insulator substrate. Alternatively, the structure 500 is formed directly from a bulk substrate and local oxidation is used to form electrically insulative portions in place of the above described upper insulator layer. In another alternative embodiment, the structure 500 is formed directly from a bulk substrate and doping is used to form electrically isolated active regions, such as nanowires, thereon. In one such embodiment, the first nanowire (i.e., proximate the substrate) is in the form of an omega-FET type structure.

[0049] In an embodiment, the nanowires 504 may be sized as wires or ribbons, as described below, and may have squared-off or rounder corners. In an embodiment, the nanowires 504 are composed of a material such as, but not limited to, silicon, germanium, or a combination thereof. In one such embodiment, the nanowires are single-crystalline. For example, for a silicon nanowire 504, a single-crystalline nanowire may be based from a (100) global orientation, e.g., with a <100> plane in the z-direction. As described below, other orientations may also be considered. In an embodiment, the dimensions of the nanowires 504, from a cross-sectional perspective, are on the nano-scale. For example, in a specific embodiment, the smallest dimension of the nanowires 504 is less than approximately 20 nanometers. In an embodiment, the nanowires 504 are composed of a strained material, particularly in the channel regions 506.

[0050] Referring to Figures 5C, in an embodiment, each of the channel regions 506 has a width (Wc) and a height (Hc), the width (Wc) approximately the same as the height (Hc). That is, in both cases, the channel regions 506 are square-like or, if corner-rounded, circle-like in cross-section profile. In another aspect, the width and height of the channel region need not be the same, such as the case for nanoribbbons as described throughout.

[0051] In another aspect, methods of fabricating a nanowire portion of a fin/nanowire integrated circuit structure are provided. For example, Figures 6A-6E illustrate three-dimensional cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a nanowire portion of a fin/nanowire structure, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. It is to be appreciated that, for clarity, a laterally neighboring integrated circuit structure and an intervening dielectric structure implemented between disjoined neighboring source or drain regions are not depicted in association with Figures 6A-6E.

[0052] A method of fabricating a nanowire integrated circuit structure may include forming a nanowire above a substrate. In a specific example showing the formation of two silicon nanowires, Figure 6A illustrates a substrate 602 (e.g., composed of a bulk substrate silicon substrate 602A with an insulating silicon dioxide layer 602B there on) having a silicon layer 604/silicon germanium layer 606/silicon layer 608 stack thereon. It is to be understood that, in another embodiment, a silicon germanium layer/silicon layer/silicon germanium layer stack may be used to ultimately form two silicon germanium nanowires.

[0053] Referring to Figure 6B, a portion of the silicon layer 604/silicon germanium layer 606/silicon layer 608 stack as well as a top portion of the silicon dioxide layer 602B is patterned into a fin-type structure 610, e.g., with a mask and plasma etch process. It is to be appreciated that, for illustrative purposes, the etch for Figure 6B is shown as forming two silicon nanowire precursor portions. Although the etch is shown for ease of illustration as ending within a bottom isolation layer, more complex stacks are contemplated within the context of embodiments of the present disclosure. For example, the process may be applied to a nanowire/fin stack as described in association with Figure 5.

[0054] The method may also include forming a channel region in the nanowire, the channel region having a length and a perimeter orthogonal to the length. In a specific example showing the formation of three gate structures over the two silicon nanowires, Figure 6C illustrates the fin-type structure 610 with three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C thereon. In one such embodiment, the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C are composed of a sacrificial gate oxide layer 614 and a sacrificial polysilicon gate layer 616 which are blanket deposited and patterned with a plasma etch process.

[0055] Following patterning to form the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C, spacers may be formed on the sidewalls of the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C, doping may be performed (e.g., tip and/or source and drain type doping), and an interlayer dielectric layer may be formed to cover the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C. The interlayer dielectric layer may be polished to expose the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C for a replacement gate, or gate-last, process. Referring to Figure 6D, the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C have been removed, leaving spacers 618 and a portion of the interlayer dielectric layer 620 remaining.

[0056] Additionally, referring again to Figure 6D the portions of the silicon germanium layer 606 and the portion of the insulating silicon dioxide layer 602B of the fin structure 610 are removed in the regions originally covered by the three sacrificial gates 612A, 612B, and 612C. Discrete portions of the silicon layers 604 and 608 thus remain, as depicted in Figure 6D.

[0057] The discrete portions of the silicon layers 604 and 608 shown in Figure 6D will, in one embodiment, ultimately become channel regions in a nanowire-based device. Thus, at the process stage depicted in Figure 6D, channel engineering or tuning may be performed. For example, in one embodiment, the discrete portions of the silicon layers 604 and 608 shown in Figure 6D are thinned using oxidation and etch processes. Such an etch process may be performed at the same time the wires are separated by etching the silicon germanium layer 606. Accordingly, the initial wires formed from silicon layers 604 and 608 begin thicker and are thinned to a size suitable for a channel region in a nanowire device, independent from the sizing of the source and drain regions of the device. Thus, in an embodiment, forming the channel region includes removing a portion of the nanowire, and the resulting perimeters of the source and drain regions (described below) are greater than the perimeter of the resulting channel region.

[0058] The method may also include forming a gate electrode stack surrounding the entire perimeter of the channel region. In the specific example showing the formation of three gate structures over the two silicon nanowires, Figure 6E illustrates the structure following deposition of a gate dielectric layer 622 (such as a high-k gate dielectric layer) and a gate electrode layer 624 (such as a metal gate electrode layer), and subsequent polishing, in between the spacers 618. That is, gate structures are formed in the trenches 621 of Figure 6D. Additionally, Figure 6E depicts the result of the subsequent removal of the interlayer dielectric layer 620 after formation of the permanent gate stack. The portions of the silicon germanium layer 606 and the portion of the insulating silicon dioxide layer 602B of the fin structure 610 are also removed in the regions originally covered by the portion of the interlayer dielectric layer 620 depicted in figure 6D. Discrete portions of the silicon layers 604 and 608 thus remain, as depicted in Figure 6E.

[0059] The method may also include forming a pair of source and drain regions in the nanowire, on either side of the channel region, each of the source and drain regions having a perimeter orthogonal to the length of the channel region. Specifically, the discrete portions of the silicon layers 604 and 608 shown in Figure 6E will, in one embodiment, ultimately become at least a portion of the source and drain regions in a nanowire-based device. In one such embodiment, epitaxial source or drain structures are formed by merging epitaxial material around existing nanowires 604 and 608. In another embodiment, epitaxial source or drain structures are embedded, e.g., portions of nanowires 604 and 608 are removed and then source or drain (S/D) growth is performed. In either case, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, such epitaxial source or drain structures are disjoined from corresponding epitaxial source or drain structures from a neighboring device, as exemplified in association with Figures 4A-4E.

[0060] The method may subsequently include forming a pair of contacts, a first of the pair of contacts completely or nearly completely surrounding the perimeter of the source region, and a second of the pair of contacts completely or nearly completely surrounding the perimeter of the drain region. Specifically, contacts are formed in the trenches 625 of Figure 6E following epitaxial growth and recess. In an embodiment, the contacts are formed from a metallic species. In one such embodiment, the metallic species is formed by conformally depositing a contact metal and then filling any remaining trench volume. The conformal aspect of the deposition may be performed by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), or metal reflow.

[0061] In an embodiment, as described throughout, an integrated circuit structure includes non-planar devices such as, but not limited to, a finFET or a tri-gate device with corresponding one or more overlying nanowire structures. In such an embodiment, a corresponding semiconducting channel region is composed of or is formed in a three-dimensional body with one or more discrete nanowire channel portions overlying the three-dimensional body. In one such embodiment, the gate structures surround at least a top surface and a pair of sidewalls of the three-dimensional body, and further surrounds each of the one or more discrete nanowire channel portions.

[0062] In an embodiment, as described throughout, a substrate may be composed of a semiconductor material that can withstand a manufacturing process and in which charge can migrate. In an embodiment, the substrate is a bulk substrate composed of a crystalline silicon, silicon/germanium or germanium layer doped with a charge carrier, such as but not limited to phosphorus, arsenic, boron or a combination thereof, to form an active region. In one embodiment, the concentration of silicon atoms in a bulk substrate is greater than 97%. In another embodiment, a bulk substrate is composed of an epitaxial layer grown atop a distinct crystalline substrate, e.g. a silicon epitaxial layer grown atop a boron-doped bulk silicon mono-crystalline substrate. A bulk substrate may alternatively be composed of a group III-V material. In an embodiment, a bulk substrate is composed of a III-V material such as, but not limited to, gallium nitride, gallium phosphide, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, indium antimonide, indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide, indium gallium phosphide, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, a bulk substrate is composed of a III-V material and the charge-carrier dopant impurity atoms are ones such as, but not limited to, carbon, silicon, germanium, oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium.

[0063] In an embodiment, as described throughout, a trench isolation layer may be composed of a material suitable to ultimately electrically isolate, or contribute to the isolation of, portions of a permanent gate structure from an underlying bulk substrate or isolate active regions formed within an underlying bulk substrate, such as isolating fin active regions. For example, in one embodiment, a trench isolation layer is composed of a dielectric material such as, but not limited to, silicon dioxide, silicon oxy-nitride, silicon nitride, or carbon-doped silicon nitride.

[0064] In an embodiment, as described throughout, self-aligned gate endcap isolation structures may be composed of a material or materials suitable to ultimately electrically isolate, or contribute to the isolation of, portions of permanent gate structures from one another. Exemplary materials or material combinations include a single material structure such as silicon dioxide, silicon oxy-nitride, silicon nitride, or carbon-doped silicon nitride. Other exemplary materials or material combinations include a multi-layer stack having lower portion silicon dioxide, silicon oxy-nitride, silicon nitride, or carbon-doped silicon nitride and an upper portion higher dielectric constant material such as hafnium oxide.

[0065] In an embodiment, as described throughout, gate structures may be composed of a gate electrode stack which includes a gate dielectric layer and a gate electrode layer. In an embodiment, the gate electrode of the gate electrode stack is composed of a metal gate and the gate dielectric layer includes a high-K material.

[0066] In an embodiment, the gate dielectric of region is composed of a material such as, but not limited to, hafnium oxide, hafnium oxy-nitride, hafnium silicate, lanthanum oxide, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate, tantalum oxide, barium strontium titanate, barium titanate, strontium titanate, yttrium oxide, aluminum oxide, lead scandium tantalum oxide, lead zinc niobate, or a combination thereof. Furthermore, a portion of gate dielectric layer may include a layer of native oxide formed from the top few layers of a corresponding substrate. In an embodiment, the gate dielectric layer is composed of a top high-k portion and a lower portion composed of an oxide of a semiconductor material. In one embodiment, the gate dielectric layer is composed of a top portion of hafnium oxide and a bottom portion of silicon dioxide or silicon oxy-nitride. In an embodiment, the top high-k portion consists of a "U"-shaped structure that includes a bottom portion substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate and two sidewall portions that are substantially perpendicular to the top surface of the substrate. In an embodiment, a gate dielectric of region includes a layer of non-native silicon oxide in addition to a layer of high-k material. The layer of non-native silicon oxide may be formed using a CVD process and may be formed below or above the layer of high-k material. In an exemplary embodiment, a layer of non-native silicon oxide is formed beneath a layer of high-k material.

[0067] In an embodiment, a gate electrode is composed of a metal layer such as, but not limited to, metal nitrides, metal carbides, metal silicides, metal aluminides, hafnium, zirconium, titanium, tantalum, aluminum, ruthenium, palladium, platinum, cobalt, nickel or conductive metal oxides. In a specific embodiment, the gate electrode is composed of a non-workfunction-setting fill material formed above a metal workfunction-setting layer. In some implementations, the gate electrode may consist of a "U"-shaped structure that includes a bottom portion substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate and two sidewall portions that are substantially perpendicular to the top surface of the substrate. In another implementation, at least one of the metal layers that form the gate electrode may simply be a planar layer that is substantially parallel to the top surface of the substrate and does not include sidewall portions substantially perpendicular to the top surface of the substrate. In further implementations of the disclosure, the gate electrode may consist of a combination of U-shaped structures and planar, non-U-shaped structures. For example, the gate electrode may consist of one or more U-shaped metal layers formed atop one or more planar, non-U-shaped layers.

[0068] Spacers associated with the gate electrode stacks may be composed of a material suitable to ultimately electrically isolate, or contribute to the isolation of, a permanent gate structure from adjacent conductive contacts, such as self-aligned contacts. For example, in one embodiment, the spacers are composed of a dielectric material such as, but not limited to, silicon dioxide, silicon oxy-nitride, silicon nitride, or carbon-doped silicon nitride.

[0069] In an embodiment, as described throughout, local interconnects, gate contacts, overlying gate contact vias, and overlying metal interconnects may be composed of a conductive material. In an embodiment, one or more of the contacts or vias are composed of a metal species. The metal species may be a pure metal, such as tungsten, nickel, or cobalt, or may be an alloy such as a metal-metal alloy or a metal-semiconductor alloy (e.g., such as a silicide material). A common example is the use of copper structures that may or may not include barrier layers (such as Ta or TaN layers) between the copper and surrounding ILD material. As used herein, the term metal includes alloys, stacks, and other combinations of multiple metals. For example, the metal interconnect lines may include barrier layers, stacks of different metals or alloys, etc.

[0070] In an embodiment (although not shown), a contact pattern which is essentially perfectly aligned to an existing gate pattern is formed while eliminating the use of a lithographic step with exceedingly tight registration budget. In one such embodiment, this approach enables the use of intrinsically highly selective wet etching (e.g., versus conventionally implemented dry or plasma etching) to generate contact openings. In an embodiment, a contact pattern is formed by utilizing an existing gate pattern in combination with a contact plug lithography operation. In one such embodiment, the approach enables elimination of the need for an otherwise critical lithography operation to generate a contact pattern, as used in conventional approaches. In an embodiment, a trench contact grid is not separately patterned, but is rather formed between poly (gate) lines. For example, in one such embodiment, a trench contact grid is formed subsequent to gate grating patterning but prior to gate grating cuts.

[0071] Furthermore, gate structures described herein may be fabricated by a replacement gate process. In such a scheme, dummy gate material such as polysilicon or silicon nitride pillar material, may be removed and replaced with permanent gate electrode material. In one such embodiment, a permanent gate dielectric layer is also formed in this process, as opposed to being carried through from earlier processing. In an embodiment, dummy gates are removed by a dry etch or wet etch process. In one embodiment, dummy gates are composed of polycrystalline silicon or amorphous silicon and are removed with a dry etch process including use of SF6. In another embodiment, dummy gates are composed of polycrystalline silicon or amorphous silicon and are removed with a wet etch process including use of aqueous NH4OH or tetramethylammonium hydroxide. In one embodiment, dummy gates are composed of silicon nitride and are removed with a wet etch including aqueous phosphoric acid.

[0072] In an embodiment, one or more approaches described herein contemplate essentially a dummy and replacement gate process in combination with a dummy and replacement contact process to fabricate an integrated circuit structure. In one such embodiment, the replacement contact process is performed after the replacement gate process to allow high temperature anneal of at least a portion of the permanent gate stack. For example, in a specific such embodiment, an anneal of at least a portion of the permanent gate structures, e.g., after a gate dielectric layer is formed, is performed at a temperature greater than approximately 600 degrees Celsius. The anneal is performed prior to formation of the permanent contacts.

[0073] In an embodiment, an integrated circuit structure has contact structures that contact portions of a gate electrode formed over an active region. In general, prior to (e.g., in addition to) forming a gate contact structure (such as a via) over an active portion of a gate and in a same layer as a trench contact via, one or more embodiments of the present disclosure include first using a gate aligned trench contact process. Such a process may be implemented to form trench contact structures for integrated circuit structure or semiconductor structure fabrication, e.g., for integrated circuit fabrication. In an embodiment, a trench contact pattern is formed as aligned to an existing gate pattern. By contrast, conventional approaches typically involve an additional lithography process with tight registration of a lithographic contact pattern to an existing gate pattern in combination with selective contact etches. For example, a conventional process may include patterning of a poly (gate) grid with separate patterning of contact features.

[0074] In an embodiment, as used throughout the present description, interlayer dielectric (ILD) material is composed of or includes a layer of a dielectric or insulating material. Examples of suitable dielectric materials include, but are not limited to, oxides of silicon (e.g., silicon dioxide (SiO2)), doped oxides of silicon, fluorinated oxides of silicon, carbon doped oxides of silicon, various low-k dielectric materials known in the arts, and combinations thereof. The interlayer dielectric material may be formed by conventional techniques, such as, for example, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), or by other deposition methods.

[0075] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, metal lines or interconnect line material (and via material) is composed of one or more metal or other conductive structures. A common example is the use of copper lines and structures that may or may not include barrier layers between the copper and surrounding ILD material. As used herein, the term metal includes alloys, stacks, and other combinations of multiple metals. For example, the metal interconnect lines may include barrier layers (e.g., layers including one or more of Ta, TaN, Ti or TiN), stacks of different metals or alloys, etc. Thus, the interconnect lines may be a single material layer, or may be formed from several layers, including conductive liner layers and fill layers. Any suitable deposition process, such as electroplating, chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition, may be used to form interconnect lines. In an embodiment, the interconnect lines are composed of a conductive material such as, but not limited to, Cu, Al, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Ru, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, W, Ag, Au or alloys thereof. The interconnect lines are also sometimes referred to in the art as traces, wires, lines, metal, or simply interconnect.

[0076] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, hardmask materials, capping layers, or plugs are composed of dielectric materials different from the interlayer dielectric material. In one embodiment, different hardmask, capping or plug materials may be used in different regions so as to provide different growth or etch selectivity to each other and to the underlying dielectric and metal layers. In some embodiments, a hardmask layer, capping or plug layer includes a layer of a nitride of silicon (e.g., silicon nitride) or a layer of an oxide of silicon, or both, or a combination thereof. Other suitable materials may include carbon-based materials. Other hardmask, capping or plug layers known in the arts may be used depending upon the particular implementation. The hardmask, capping or plug layers maybe formed by CVD, PVD, or by other deposition methods.

[0077] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, lithographic operations are performed using 193nm immersion litho (i193), EUV and/or EBDW lithography, or the like. A positive tone or a negative tone resist may be used. In one embodiment, a lithographic mask is a trilayer mask composed of a topographic masking portion, an anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer, and a photoresist layer. In a particular such embodiment, the topographic masking portion is a carbon hardmask (CHM) layer and the anti-reflective coating layer is a silicon ARC layer.

[0078] Embodiments disclosed herein may be used to manufacture a wide variety of different types of integrated circuits and/or microelectronic devices. Examples of such integrated circuits include, but are not limited to, processors, chipset components, graphics processors, digital signal processors, micro-controllers, and the like. In other embodiments, semiconductor memory may be manufactured. Moreover, the integrated circuits or other microelectronic devices may be used in a wide variety of electronic devices known in the arts. For example, in computer systems (e.g., desktop, laptop, server), cellular phones, personal electronics, etc. The integrated circuits may be coupled with a bus and other components in the systems. For example, a processor may be coupled by one or more buses to a memory, a chipset, etc. Each of the processor, the memory, and the chipset, may potentially be manufactured using the approaches disclosed herein.

[0079] Figure 7 illustrates a computing device 700 in accordance with one implementation of an embodiment of the present disclosure. The computing device 700 houses a board 702. The board 702 may include a number of components, including but not limited to a processor 704 and at least one communication chip 706. The processor 704 is physically and electrically coupled to the board 702. In some implementations the at least one communication chip 706 is also physically and electrically coupled to the board 702. In further implementations, the communication chip 706 is part of the processor 704.

[0080] Depending on its applications, computing device 700 may include other components that may or may not be physically and electrically coupled to the board 702. These other components include, but are not limited to, volatile memory (e.g., DRAM), non-volatile memory (e.g., ROM), flash memory, a graphics processor, a digital signal processor, a crypto processor, a chipset, an antenna, a display, a touchscreen display, a touchscreen controller, a battery, an audio codec, a video codec, a power amplifier, a global positioning system (GPS) device, a compass, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a speaker, a camera, and a mass storage device (such as hard disk drive, compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD), and so forth).

[0081] The communication chip 706 enables wireless communications for the transfer of data to and from the computing device 700. The term "wireless" and its derivatives may be used to describe circuits, devices, systems, methods, techniques, communications channels, etc., that may communicate data through the use of modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. The term does not imply that the associated devices do not contain any wires, although in some embodiments they might not. The communication chip 706 may implement any of a number of wireless standards or protocols, including but not limited to Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 family), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 family), IEEE 802.20, long term evolution (LTE), Ev-DO, HSPA+, HSDPA+, HSUPA+, EDGE, GSM, GPRS, CDMA, TDMA, DECT, Bluetooth, derivatives thereof, as well as any other wireless protocols that are designated as 3G, 4G, 5G, and beyond. The computing device 700 may include a plurality of communication chips 706. For instance, a first communication chip 706 may be dedicated to shorter range wireless communications such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and a second communication chip 706 may be dedicated to longer range wireless communications such as GPS, EDGE, GPRS, CDMA, WiMAX, LTE, Ev-DO, and others.

[0082] The processor 704 of the computing device 700 includes an integrated circuit die packaged within the processor 704. The integrated circuit die of the processor 704 may include one or more structures, such as integrated circuit structures built in accordance with implementations of embodiments of the present disclosure. The term "processor" may refer to any device or portion of a device that processes electronic data from registers and/or memory to transform that electronic data into other electronic data that may be stored in registers and/or memory.

[0083] The communication chip 706 also includes an integrated circuit die packaged within the communication chip 706. The integrated circuit die of the communication chip 706 may include one or more structures, such as integrated circuit structures built in accordance with implementations of embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0084] In further implementations, another component housed within the computing device 700 may contain an integrated circuit die that includes one or structures, such as integrated circuit structures built in accordance with implementations of embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0085] In various implementations, the computing device 700 may be a laptop, a netbook, a notebook, an ultrabook, a smartphone, a tablet, a personal digital assistant (PDA), an ultra mobile PC, a mobile phone, a desktop computer, a server, a printer, a scanner, a monitor, a set-top box, an entertainment control unit, a digital camera, a portable music player, or a digital video recorder. In further implementations, the computing device 700 may be any other electronic device that processes data.

[0086] Figure 8 illustrates an interposer 800 that includes one or more embodiments of the present disclosure. The interposer 800 is an intervening substrate used to bridge a first substrate 802 to a second substrate 804. The first substrate 802 may be, for instance, an integrated circuit die. The second substrate 804 may be, for instance, a memory module, a computer motherboard, or another integrated circuit die. Generally, the purpose of an interposer 800 is to spread a connection to a wider pitch or to reroute a connection to a different connection. For example, an interposer 800 may couple an integrated circuit die to a ball grid array (BGA) 806 that can subsequently be coupled to the second substrate 804. In some embodiments, the first and second substrates 802/804 are attached to opposing sides of the interposer 800. In other embodiments, the first and second substrates 802/804 are attached to the same side of the interposer 800. And in further embodiments, three or more substrates are interconnected by way of the interposer 800.

[0087] The interposer 800 may be formed of an epoxy resin, a fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin, a ceramic material, or a polymer material such as polyimide. In further implementations, the interposer may be formed of alternate rigid or flexible materials that may include the same materials described above for use in a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, germanium, and other group III-V and group IV materials.

[0088] The interposer may include metal interconnects 808 and vias 810, including but not limited to through-silicon vias (TSVs) 812. The interposer 800 may further include embedded devices 814, including both passive and active devices. Such devices include, but are not limited to, capacitors, decoupling capacitors, resistors, inductors, fuses, diodes, transformers, sensors, and electrostatic discharge (ESD) devices. More complex devices such as radio-frequency (RF) devices, power amplifiers, power management devices, antennas, arrays, sensors, and MEMS devices may also be formed on the interposer 800. In accordance with embodiments of the disclosure, apparatuses or processes disclosed herein may be used in the fabrication of interposer 800 or in the fabrication of components included in the interposer 800.

[0089] Thus, embodiments of the present disclosure include neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions, and methods of fabricating neighboring gate-all-around integrated circuit structures having disjoined epitaxial source or drain regions.

[0090] The above description of illustrated implementations of embodiments of the disclosure, including what is described in the Abstract, is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the disclosure to the precise forms disclosed. While specific implementations of, and examples for, the disclosure are described herein for illustrative purposes, various equivalent modifications are possible within the scope of the disclosure, as those skilled in the relevant art will recognize.

[0091] These modifications may be made to the disclosure in light of the above detailed description. The terms used in the following claims should not be construed to limit the disclosure to the specific implementations disclosed in the specification and the claims. Rather, the scope of the disclosure is to be determined entirely by the following claims, which are to be construed in accordance with established doctrines of claim interpretation.

Example embodiment 1: An integrated circuit structure includes a first vertical arrangement of nanowires and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires above a substrate, the nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires having a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires. A first gate stack is over the first vertical arrangement of nanowires. A second gate stack is over the second vertical arrangement of nanowires. First epitaxial source or drain structures are at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires. Second epitaxial source or drain structures are at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires. An intervening dielectric structure is between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures.

Example embodiment 2: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.

Example embodiment 3: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1 or 2, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.

Example embodiment 4: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1, 2 or 3, wherein the first gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the first epitaxial source or drain structures are first embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the first gate stack, and wherein the second gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the second epitaxial source or drain structures are second embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the second gate stack.

Example embodiment 5: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.

Example embodiment 6: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5, wherein the first vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a first fin, and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a second fin.

Example embodiment 7: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6, wherein the first and second gate stacks each include a high-k gate dielectric layer and a metal gate electrode.

Example embodiment 8: A method of fabricating an integrated circuit structure includes forming a first vertical arrangement of nanowires and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires above a substrate, the nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires having a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires. First epitaxial source or drain structures are formed at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires, and second epitaxial source or drain structures are formed at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires. Ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures have a merged region there between. The merged region is removed to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures. An intervening dielectric structure is formed between the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures.

Example embodiment 9: The method of example embodiment 8, wherein removing the merged region to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures involves anisotropically etching the merged region.

Example embodiment 10: The method of example embodiment 8 or 9, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.

Example embodiment 11: The method of example embodiment 8, 9 or 10, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.

Example embodiment 12: The method of example embodiment 8, 9, 10 or 11, wherein the first gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the first epitaxial source or drain structures are first embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the first gate stack, and wherein the second gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the second epitaxial source or drain structures are second embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the second gate stack.

Example embodiment 13: The method of example embodiment 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.

Example embodiment 14: The method of example embodiment 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 or 13, wherein the first vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a first fin, and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a second fin.

Example embodiment 15: The method of example embodiment 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14, wherein the first and second gate stacks each include a high-k gate dielectric layer and a metal gate electrode.

Example embodiment 16: An integrated circuit structure includes a first fin having a longest dimension along a first direction. A first nanowire is over the first fin. A second fin having a longest dimension is along the first direction. A second nanowire is over the second fin. The second nanowire is wider than the nanowire. A first gate structure is over the first nanowire and the first fin, the first gate structure having a longest dimension along a second direction, the second direction orthogonal to the first direction. A second gate structure is over the second nanowire and over the second fin, the second gate structure having a longest dimension along the second direction, the second gate structure continuous with the first gate structure along the second direction. First epitaxial source or drain structures are at ends of the first nanowire. Second epitaxial source or drain structures are at ends of the second nanowire. An intervening dielectric structure is between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures.

Example embodiment 17: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 16, further including first dielectric sidewall spacers along the first gate structure, the first epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the first dielectric sidewalls spacers, and further including second dielectric sidewall spacers along the second gate structure, the second epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the second dielectric sidewalls spacers.

Example embodiment 18: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 16 or 17, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.

Example embodiment 19: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 16, 17 or 18, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.

Example embodiment 20: The integrated circuit structure of example embodiment 16, 17, 18 or 19, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.




Claims

1. An integrated circuit structure, comprising:

a first vertical arrangement of nanowires and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires above a substrate, the nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires having a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires;

a first gate stack over the first vertical arrangement of nanowires;

a second gate stack over the second vertical arrangement of nanowires;

first epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires;

second epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires; and

an intervening dielectric structure between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures.


 
2. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.
 
3. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.
 
4. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein the first gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the first epitaxial source or drain structures are first embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the first gate stack, and wherein the second gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the second epitaxial source or drain structures are second embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the second gate stack.
 
5. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.
 
6. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein the first vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a first fin, and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a second fin.
 
7. The integrated circuit structure of claim 1, wherein the first and second gate stacks each comprise a high-k gate dielectric layer and a metal gate electrode.
 
8. A method of fabricating an integrated circuit structure, the method comprising:

forming a first vertical arrangement of nanowires and a second vertical arrangement of nanowires above a substrate, the nanowires of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires having a horizontal width greater than a horizontal width of the nanowires of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires;

forming first epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the first vertical arrangement of nanowires, and forming second epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the second vertical arrangement of nanowires, ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures having a merged region there between;

removing the merged region to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures; and

forming an intervening dielectric structure between the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures.


 
9. The method of claim 8, wherein removing the merged region to disjoin the ones of the second epitaxial source or drain structures and the corresponding ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures comprises anisotropically etching the merged region.
 
10. The method of claim 8, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.
 
11. The method of claim 8, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.
 
12. The method of claim 8, wherein the first gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the first epitaxial source or drain structures are first embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the first gate stack, and wherein the second gate stack has dielectric sidewall spacers, and the second epitaxial source or drain structures are second embedded epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the dielectric sidewalls spacers of the second gate stack.
 
13. The method of claim 8, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.
 
14. The method of claim 8, wherein the first vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a first fin, and the second vertical arrangement of nanowires is over a second fin.
 
15. The method of claim 8, wherein the first and second gate stacks each comprise a high-k gate dielectric layer and a metal gate electrode.
 
16. An integrated circuit structure, comprising:

a first fin having a longest dimension along a first direction;

a first nanowire over the first fin;

a second fin having a longest dimension along the first direction;

a second nanowire over the second fin, wherein the second nanowire is wider than the nanowire;

a first gate structure over the first nanowire and the first fin, the first gate structure having a longest dimension along a second direction, the second direction orthogonal to the first direction;

a second gate structure over the second nanowire and over the second fin, the second gate structure having a longest dimension along the second direction, the second gate structure continuous with the first gate structure along the second direction;

first epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the first nanowire;

second epitaxial source or drain structures at ends of the second nanowire; and

an intervening dielectric structure between neighboring ones of the first epitaxial source or drain structures and of the second epitaxial source or drain structures.


 
17. The integrated circuit structure of claim 16, further comprising:

first dielectric sidewall spacers along the first gate structure, the first epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the first dielectric sidewalls spacers; and

second dielectric sidewall spacers along the second gate structure, the second epitaxial source or drain structures extending beneath the second dielectric sidewalls spacers.


 
18. The integrated circuit structure of claim 16, wherein the uppermost surface of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is a first vertex, and the uppermost surface of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is a second vertex.
 
19. The integrated circuit structure of claim 16, wherein a bottom portion of the first epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered, and a bottom portion of the second epitaxial source or drain structures is tapered.
 
20. The integrated circuit structure of claim 16, wherein the first and second epitaxial source or drain structures are non-discrete first and second epitaxial source or drain structures.
 




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