(19)
(11)EP 3 643 694 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 18819739.6

(22)Date of filing:  20.06.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07C 17/269  (2006.01)
C07B 61/00  (2006.01)
C07C 21/20  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2018/023534
(87)International publication number:
WO 2018/235883 (27.12.2018 Gazette  2018/52)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 20.06.2017 JP 2017120576

(71)Applicant: Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Osaka-shi, Osaka 530-8323 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • GOTOU, Akihiro
    Osaka-shi Osaka 530-8323 (JP)
  • HOSHIYA, Naoyuki
    Osaka-shi Osaka 530-8323 (JP)
  • HIGASHI, Masahiro
    Osaka-shi Osaka 530-8323 (JP)
  • HAMADA, Tomohito
    Osaka-shi Osaka 530-8323 (JP)
  • KISHIKAWA, Yosuke
    Osaka-shi Osaka 530-8323 (JP)

(74)Representative: Hoffmann Eitle 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartmbB Arabellastraße 30
81925 München
81925 München (DE)

  


(54)METHOD FOR PRODUCING BUTADIENE COMPOUND


(57) An object of the present invention is to provide a method for easily and efficiently producing a butadiene compound. The object can be achieved by a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;
provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or
one or more moieties among a R1a-C-R2a moiety, a R1b-C-R2b moiety, a R1a-C=C-R3a moiety, and a R1b-C=C-R3b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and
each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;
the method comprising step A of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention relates to a butadiene compound.

Background Art



[0002] Butadiene compounds are industrially important compounds used for various applications, such as synthetic rubber starting materials, non-linear optical materials, liquid crystal compound materials, and dye starting materials.

[0003] Accordingly, a method for easily obtaining a butadiene compound with low cost and high yield has been studied.

[0004] Patent Literature (PTL) 1, for example, provides a method for producing hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene from tetrafluoroethylene by using an organic metal compound in the presence of a transition metal catalyst.

[0005] However, in particular, the method for synthesizing a fluorine-containing butadiene compound is limited, and an easy and efficient butadiene compound production method is further demanded.

Citation List


Patent Literature



[0006] PTL 1: JP2012-67068A

Summary of Invention


Technical Problem



[0007] In view of the above problem, an object of the present invention is to provide a method for easily and efficiently producing a butadiene compound.

Solution to Problem



[0008] As a result of extensive research, the present inventors found that the following method can solve the above problem:
A method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group,

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group, or,

one or more moieties among a R1a-C-R2a moiety, a R1b-C-R2b moiety, a R1a-C=C-R3a moiety, and a R1b-C=C-R3b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms, and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step A of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide. The present invention was thus accomplished.



[0009] The present invention includes the following.

Item 1. A method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein Ra, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

one or more moieties among a R1a-C-R2a moiety, a R1b-C-R2b moiety, a R1a-C=C-R3a moiety, and a R1b-C=C-R3b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step A of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.

Item 2. The production method according to Item 1, which is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein Ra, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

either or both of R1a-C-R2a moiety and R1b-C-R2b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Aa of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.

Item 3. The production method according to Item 1, which is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1a-C-R2a moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3a represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom;

R1b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1b-C-R2b moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3b represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Ab of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.

Item 4. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 3, wherein R1a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, a trifluoromethyl group, or an aryl group.

Item 5. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 4, wherein R2a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a trifluoromethyl group.

Item 6. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 5, wherein R3a represents a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group.

Item 7. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 6, wherein R1b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, a trifluoromethyl group, or an aryl group.

Item 8. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 7, wherein R2b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a trifluoromethyl group.

Item 9. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 8, wherein R3b represents a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group.

Item 10. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 9, wherein Xa represents a bromine atom or a chlorine atom.

Item 11. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 10, wherein Xb represents a bromine atom or a chlorine atom.

Item 12. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 11, wherein the compound represented by formula (2a) and the compound represented by formula (2b) are the same.

Item 13. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 12, wherein the metal catalyst is at least one member selected from the group consisting of nickel catalysts, palladium catalysts, platinum catalysts, ruthenium catalysts, rhodium catalysts, and cobalt catalysts.

Item 14. The production method according to Item 13, wherein the metal catalyst is a palladium catalyst or a nickel catalyst.

Item 15. The production method according to Item 14, wherein a ligand of the metal catalyst is at least one member selected from the group consisting of dialkyl monoaryl phosphines, diaryl monoalkyl phosphines, trialkylphosphines, triarylphosphines, and bidentate diphosphines.

Item 16. The production method according to any one of Items 1 to 15, wherein the reducing agent is at least one member selected from the group consisting of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, aluminum, gallium, and indium.


Advantageous Effects of Invention



[0010] The present invention provides a method for easily and efficiently producing a butadiene compound.

[0011] According to the production method of the present invention, a butadiene compound can be produced from an easily available starting material (e.g., 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene) through a one-step reaction.

[0012] In the production of a compound using metal, disposal of the metal is sometimes a typical problem. In one embodiment of the production method of the present invention, a target compound can be obtained with a small amount of metal, and thus the present invention is excellent.

[0013] The production method of the present invention is excellent because a target compound can be obtained using an easily available solvent without the need for a large amount of a special solvent.

Description of Embodiments


Terms



[0014] The symbols and the abbreviations in this specification can be interpreted as having the general meanings in the technical field to which the present invention pertains, according to the context of this specification, unless otherwise specified.

[0015] In this specification, the term "comprise" or "contain" is intended to encompass the meanings of "consist essentially of" and "consist of."

[0016] The steps, treatments, or operations in this specification can be performed at room temperature unless otherwise specified.

[0017] In this specification, room temperature refers to a temperature in the range of 10 to 35°C.

[0018] In this specification, unless otherwise specified, examples of the "alkyl group" include linear or branched C1-10 alkyl groups, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl (e.g., n-propyl and isopropyl), butyl (e.g., n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, and tert-butyl), pentyl (e.g., n-pentyl, tert-pentyl, neopentyl, isopentyl, sec-pentyl, and 3-pentyl), hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl.

[0019] In this specification, the term "Cn-m" (herein, n and m are numbers) indicates that the carbon number is n or more and m or less, as would be usually understood by a person skilled in the art.

[0020] In this specification, unless otherwise specified, the "aryl" group may be monocyclic, dicyclic, tricyclic, or tetracyclic.

[0021] In this specification, unless otherwise specified, examples of the "aryl group" include C6-18 aryl groups.

[0022] In this specification, unless otherwise specified, examples of the "aryl group" include phenyl, 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, 2-biphenyl, 3-biphenyl, 4-biphenyl, and 2-anthryl.

[0023] In this specification, the "fluoroalkyl group" is an alkyl group having at least one hydrogen atom replaced by a fluorine atom.

[0024] In this specification, the number of fluorine atoms in the "fluoroalkyl group" may be one or more (e.g., 1 to 3, 1 to 6, 1 to 12, or 1 to the maximum replaceable number).

[0025] The "fluoroalkyl group" encompasses a perfluoroalkyl group. The "perfluoroalkyl group" is an alkyl group having all hydrogen atoms replaced by fluorine atoms.

[0026] In this specification, the "fluoroalkyl group" may be a fluoroalkyl group having a carbon number of 1 to 20, 1 to 12, 1 to 6, 1 to 4, 1 to 3, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1.

[0027] In this specification, the "fluoroalkyl group" may be a linear or branched fluoroalkyl group.

[0028] In this specification, specific examples of the "fluoroalkyl group" include a fluoromethyl group, difluoromethyl group, trifluoromethyl group, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl group, pentafluoro ethyl group, tetrafluoropropyl group (e.g., HCF2CF2CH2-), hexafluoro propyl group (e.g., (CF3)2CH-), nonafluorobutyl group, octafluoropentyl group (e.g., HCF2CF2CF2CF2CH2-), tridecafluorohexyl group, etc.

Production Method



[0029] The production method of the present invention is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

one or more moieties among a R1a-C-R2a moiety, a R1b-C-R2b moiety, a R1a-C=C-R3a moiety, and a R1b-C=C-R3b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step A of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.



[0030] One preferable embodiment of the production method of the present invention is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

either or both of R1a-C-R2a moiety and R1b-C-R2b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Aa of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.



[0031] One preferable embodiment of the production method of the present invention is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1a-C-R2a moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3a represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom;

R1b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1b-C-R2b moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3b represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Ab of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.



[0032] Examples of the "non-aromatic hydrocarbon ring" in the "non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms" that may be formed by the R1a-C-R2a moiety or the R1b-C-R2b include C3-8 non-aromatic hydrocarbon rings. Specific examples include
  1. (1) C3-8 cycloalkanes, such as cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane, cycloheptane, and cyclooctane;
  2. (2) C5-8 cycloalkenes, such as cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cyclohepten, and cyclooctene;
  3. (3) C5-8 cycloalkadienes, such as cyclopentadiene, cyclohexadiene, cycloheptadiene, and cyclooctadiene; and
  4. (4) C5-8 bridged cyclic hydrocarbons, such as bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane, bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, tricyclo[2.2.1.0]heptane, etc.


[0033] Examples of the "non-aromatic hydrocarbon ring" in the "non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms" that may be formed by the R1a-C=C-R3a moiety or R1b-C=C-R3b moiety include C3-8 (preferably C5-8) non-aromatic unsaturated hydrocarbon rings. Specific examples include:
  1. (1) C5-8 cycloalkenes, such as cyclopentene, cyclohexene, cycloheptene, and cyclooctene; and
  2. (2) C5-8 cycloalkadienes, such as cyclopentadiene, cyclohexadiene, cycloheptadiene, and cyclooctadiene.


[0034] The following is described just to be sure. Of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b, groups that do not involve the above ring formation can be understood by referring to the explanation of each group in the specification.

[0035] The number of fluorine atoms that may be contained in the "non-aromatic hydrocarbon ring" may be one to the maximum replaceable number.

[0036] The following is described just to be sure. As would be usually understood by a person skilled in the art, a non-aromatic hydrocarbon ring replaced by the maximum replaceable number of fluorine atoms does not have a hydrogen atom.

[0037] R1a is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl, or aryl; and even more preferably hydrogen or fluorine.

[0038] R2a is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, or trifluoromethyl; and even more preferably hydrogen or fluorine.

[0039] R3a is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, or trifluoromethyl; and even more preferably fluorine or trifluoromethyl.

[0040] R1b is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, trifluoromethyl, or aryl; and even more preferably hydrogen or fluorine.

[0041] R2b is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, or trifluoromethyl, and even more preferably hydrogen or fluorine.

[0042] R3b is preferably hydrogen, fluorine, fluoroalkyl, alkyl, or aryl; more preferably hydrogen, fluorine, or trifluoromethyl; and even more preferably fluorine or trifluoromethyl.

[0043] However, as described above, at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b is fluorine or fluoroalkyl.

[0044] When the compound represented by formula (2a) is different from the compound represented by formula (2b), the following [1], [2], and [3] can be obtained by the reaction of step A.
  1. [1] a compound obtained by heterocoupling of the compound represented by formula (2a) and the compound represented by formula (2b),
  2. [2] a compound obtained by homocoupling of two molecules of the compound represented by formula (2a), and
  3. [3] a compound obtained by homocoupling of two molecules of the compound represented by formula (2b).


[0045] These compounds can be isolated or purified by a conventional method if desired.

[0046] In one preferable embodiment of the present invention, the compound represented by formula (2a) and the compound represented by formula (2b) are the same.

[0047] In the embodiment, the reaction of step A is homocoupling of the compound represented by formula (2a) (or compound represented by formula (2b)).

[0048]  Xa is preferably chlorine or bromine, and particularly preferably chlorine.

[0049] Xb is preferably chlorine or bromine, and particularly preferably chlorine.

Metal catalyst



[0050] The metal catalyst used in the present invention is preferably a transition metal catalyst.

[0051] For the "transition metal catalyst," examples of the transition metal include nickel, palladium, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, or cobalt. Of these, preferred is a transition metal catalyst in which the transition metal is palladium or nickel.

[0052] Specifically, the metal catalyst is preferably at least one member selected from the group consisting of palladium catalysts and nickel catalysts.

[0053] Examples of transition metal catalysts in which the transition metal is palladium include zerovalent palladium complexes; zerovalent palladium complexes generated from monovalent or divalent palladium complexes during a reaction; and complexes obtained by mixing these palladium complexes with at least one compound (ligand) selected from the group consisting of ketones, diketones, phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthrolines.

[0054] Examples of zerovalent palladium complexes include, but are not limited to, Pd2(dba)3 (dba is dibenzylideneacetone), Pd2(dba)3-CHCl3, Pd(dba)2, Pd(cod)2 (cod is cycloocta-1,5-diene), Pd(dppe)2 (dppe is 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane), Pd(PCy3)2 (Cy is cyclohexyl), Pd(Pt-Bu3)2 (t-Bu is t-butyl), Pd(PPh3)4 (Ph is phenyl), tris{tris [3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine}palladium (0), etc.

[0055] Examples of monovalent palladium complexes include palladium complexes represented by the following chemical formula:

wherein Xc represents chlorine, bromine, or iodine; R4, R5, and R6 are individually the same or different in each occurrence; and each represent C1-2C alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, or aryl.

[0056] Specifically, preferable examples include di-µ-chlorobis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)dipalladium (I), di-µ-bromobis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)dipalladium (I), di-µ-iodobis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)dipalladium (I), di-µ-chlorobis{tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine}dipalladium (I), di-µ-bromobis{tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine}dipalladium (I), di-µ-iodobis{tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine}dipalladium (I), etc.

[0057] Examples of divalent palladium complexes include palladium chloride, palladium bromide, palladium acetate, bis(acetylacetonato)palladium (II), dichloro(η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene)palladium (II), dibromo(η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene) palladium (II), bis(acetonitrile)dichloropalladium (II), bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium (II), and di-µ-chlorobis{(η-allyl)palladium} (II); and complexes obtained by binding a phosphine ligand, such as triphenylphosphine, to these complexes.

[0058] These divalent palladium complexes are, for example, reduced by a reducing species (e.g., phosphines, reducing agents, and organic metal reagents) that is co-present during a reaction, thereby generating zerovalent palladium complexes.

[0059] The above zerovalent palladium complexes or zerovalent palladium complexes generated from monovalent or divalent palladium complexes through reduction can interact with a compound (ligand), such as ketones, diketones, phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthroline optionally added during a reaction, and can be converted into zerovalent palladium complexes that are involved in the reaction. It is not always necessary to know how many ligands are bound to a zerovalent palladium complex during the reaction.

[0060] Using the above ligands, these palladium complexes are often formed into a homogeneous solution with a reaction substrate to be used in the reaction. In addition, these palladium complexes can also be used as a heterogeneous catalyst dispersed or supported in a polymer such as polystyrene and polyethylene. Such heterogeneous catalysts have an advantage in a process such as a catalyst recovering process. Specific examples of catalyst structures include those in which a metal atom is immobilized by a polymeric phosphine that is a crosslinked polystyrene chain having a phosphine introduced thereto, as shown in the following chemical formula.



[0061] The "metal catalyst" used in the present invention may be a supported catalyst in which a transition metal is supported by a carrier. Such a supported catalyst has a cost advantage because the catalyst can be recycled.

[0062] Examples of carriers include carbon, alumina, silica gel alumina, silica gel, barium carbonate, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, titanium oxide, zirconium oxide, calcium fluoride, and zeolite.

[0063] In addition, polymeric phosphines disclosed in the following documents can also be used.
  1. 1) Kanbara et al., Macromolecules, 2000, Volume 33, Page 657
  2. 2) Yamamoto et al., J. Polym. Sci., 2002, Volume 40, Page 2637
  3. 3) JPH06-032763A
  4. 4) JP2005-281454A
  5. 5) JP2009-527352A


[0064] Herein, ketone is not limited, and dibenzylideneacetone is one example.

[0065] Examples of diketones include, but are not limited to, β-diketones, such as acetylacetone, 1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione, 1,3-diphenylpropanedione, and hexafluoroacetylacetone.

[0066] Since phosphines having a halogen-phosphorus bond per se may be subjected to a coupling reaction, phosphines are preferably dialkyl monoaryl phosphines, diaryl monoalkyl phosphines, trialkylphosphines, triarylphosphines, or bidentate diphosphines.

[0067] Specific examples of dialkyl monoaryl phosphines include diisopropylphenyl phosphine, diisopropyl(o-tolyl) phosphine, diisopropyl(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, diisopropyl pentafluorophenyl phosphine, di-n-butylphenyl phosphine, di-n-butyl(o-tolyl)phosphine, di-n-butyl(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, di-n-butyl pentafluorophenyl phosphine, di-tert-butylphenyl phosphine, di-tert-butyl(o-tolyl)phosphine, di-tert-butyl(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, di-tert-butyl pentafluorophenyl phosphine, dicyclohexyl phenylphosphine, dicyclohexyl(o-tolyl)phosphine, dicyclohexyl(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, dicyclohexyl pentafluorophenyl phosphine, di(1-adamanthyl)phenylphosphine, di(1-adamanthyl)(o-tolyl)phosphine, di(1-adamanthyl)(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, di(1-adamanthyl)pentafluorophenyl phosphine, 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-diisopropoxy biphenyl, 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxy biphenyl, 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropyl biphenyl, 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2'-(N,N-dimethylamino)biphenyl, 2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)-3,6-dimethoxy-2',4',6'-triisopropyl-1,1'-biphenyl, 2'-dicyclohexylphosphino-2,4,6-trimethoxybiphenyl, 2-dicyclohexyl phosphino-2'-methylbiphenyl, 2-di-tert-butylphosphino-2'-methylbiphenyl, 2-di-tert-butylphosphino-2'-(N,N-dimethylamino)biphenyl, 2-di-tert-butylphosphino-3,4,5,6-tetramethyl-2',4',6'-triisopropyl-1,1'-biphenyl, 2-(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2',4',6'-triisopropyl-3,6-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl, 2-di-tert-butylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropyl biphenyl, (2-biphenyl)dicyclohexylphosphine, (2-biphenyl)di-tert-butylphosphine, etc.

[0068] Specific examples of diarylmonoalkylphosphines include diphenylmethylphosphine, diphenylisopropylphosphine, n-butyl diphenylphosphine, tert-butyl diphenylphosphine, cyclohexyl diphenylphosphine, (1-adamanthyl)diphenylphosphine, di(o-tolyl)methylphosphine, di(o-tolyl)isopropylphosphine, n-butyldi(o-tolyl)phosphine, tert-butyldi(o-tolyl)phosphine, cyclohexyldi(o-tolyl)phosphine, (1-adamanthyl)di(o-tolyl)phosphine, bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)methylphosphine, bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)isopropylphosphine, bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-n-butylphosphine, bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-tert-butylphosphine, bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)cyclohexylphosphine, (1-adamanthyl)bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)phosphine, bis(pentafluorophenyl)methylphosphine, bis(pentafluorophenyl)isopropylphosphine, bis(pentafluorophenyl)-n-butylphosphine, bis(pentafluorophenyl)-tert-butylphosphine, bis(pentafluorophenyl)cyclohexylphosphine, (1-adamanthyl)bis(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine, etc.

[0069] Specific examples of trialkylphosphines include tri(C3-2C alkyl)phosphines, such as tricyclohexylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine, trihexylphosphine, tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine, tricyclopentylphosphine, di-tert-butyl methylphosphine, cyclohexyldi-tert-butylphosphine, di-tert-butyl neopentylphosphine, di-tert-butyl isopropylphosphine, di-tert-butyl (2-butenyl)phosphine, di-tert-butyl(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phosphine, 1-adamanthyl-di-tert-butylphosphine, tert-butyldi(1-adamanthyl)phosphine, di(1-adamanthyl)isopropylphosphine, cyclohexyldi(1-adamanthyl)phosphine, n-butyldi(1-adamanthyl)phosphine, tribicyclo[2,2,2]octylphosphine, trinorbornyl phosphine, etc.

[0070] Specific examples of triarylphosphines include tri(monocyclic aryl)phosphines, such as triphenylphosphine, trimesitylphosphine, tri(o-tolyl)phosphine, tris{(4-trifluoromethyl)phenyl}phosphine, tris(pentafluorophenyl)phosphine, tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine, etc.

[0071] Specific examples of bidentate diphosphines include 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane, 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane, 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane, 1,3-bis(diisopropylphosphino)propane, 1,4-bis(diisopropylphosphino)butane, 1,3-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)propane, 1,4-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)butane, bis(diphenylphosphinophenyl)ether, bis(dicyclohexylphosphinophenyl)ether, 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene, 1,1'-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene, 1,1'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)ferrocene, 1,1'-bis(di-tert-butyl phosphino)ferrocene, 1,2-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino methyl)benzene, 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphino)phenoxazine, 4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)-9,9'-dimethylxanthene, 4,5-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-9,9'-dimethylxanthene, 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl, etc.

[0072] Phosphines used in the present invention may be tetrafluoro borates (e.g., trialkylphosphonium tetrafluoroborates, such as trihexylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate and tri-tert-butyl phosphonium tetrafluoroborate). Such a salt can be reacted with a base to give a free body of phosphine (e.g., trialkylphosphine, such as tricyclohexyl phosphine and tri-tert-butylphosphine) .

[0073] Examples of the base include amines, inorganic bases, organic metal bases.

[0074] Examples of amines include triethylamine, tri(n-propyl)amine, tri(n-butyl)amine, diisopropylethylamine, cyclohexyldimethylamine, pyridine, lutidine, γ-collidine, N,N-dimethylaniline, N-methylpiperidine, N-methylpyrrolidine, N-methylmorpholine, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]-7-undecene, 1,5-diazabicyclo[4,3,0]-5-nonene, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane.

[0075] Examples of inorganic bases include lithium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, lithium carbonate, sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, potassium hydrogen carbonate, lithium phosphate, sodium phosphate, and potassium phosphate.

[0076] Examples of organic metal bases include organic alkali metal compounds, such as butyllithium, tert-butyllithium, phenyllithium, sodium triphenylmethyl, and sodium ethyl; organic alkali earth metal compounds, such as methylmagnesium bromide, dimethylmagnesium, phenylmagnesium chloride, phenylcalcium bromide, and bis(dicyclopentadiene)calcium; and alkoxides, such as sodium methoxide and tert-butyl methoxide.

[0077] Preferable examples of bases include triethylamine, potassium carbonate, and potassium phosphate. More preferable examples of bases include potassium carbonate and potassium phosphate. Particularly preferable examples of bases include potassium phosphate.

[0078] The bases can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0079] Phosphines used in the present invention may be in the oxide form.

[0080] Examples of the oxide form include di(cyclo)alkylphosphine oxides (e.g., di-tert-butylphosphine oxide and di(1-adamanthyl)phosphine oxide).

[0081] As stated above, aryl phosphines for a heterogeneous catalyst in which phosphine units are incorporated into a polymer chain can also be preferably used. A specific example is a triarylphosphine formed by binding one of the phenyl groups of triphenylphosphine to a polymer chain as shown in the chemical formula below:



[0082]  Diamines are not limited, and examples include tetramethylethylenediamine and 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine.

[0083] Bipyridines are not limited, and examples include 2,2'-bipyridyl, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl, 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl, 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl, 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridyl, 2,2'-biquinoline, α,α',α"-tripyridyl, etc.

[0084] Phenanthrolines are not limited, and examples include 1,10-phenanthroline, 2-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 3-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 5-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, etc.

[0085] Among these ligands, ligands of phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthrolines are preferred; and triarylphosphines and trialkylphosphine are more preferred. Preferable examples of triarylphosphines include triphenylphosphine and tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine; and preferable examples of trialkylphosphines include tricyclohexylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, and tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine.

[0086] Similarly, as described above, a triarylphosphine formed by binding one of the phenyl groups of triphenylphosphine to a polymer chain is also preferred.

[0087] Examples of transition metal catalysts in which the transition metal is nickel include zerovalent nickel complexes; zerovalent nickel complexes generated from divalent nickel complexes during a reaction; and complexes obtained by mixing these nickel complexes with at least one compound (ligand) selected from the group consisting of ketones, diketones, phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthrolines.

[0088] Examples of zerovalent nickel complexes include, but are not limited to, Ni(cod)2, Ni(cdd)2 (cdd is cyclodeca-1,5-diene), Ni(cdt)2 (cdt is cyclodeca-1,5,9-trien), Ni(vch)2 (vch is 4-vinylcyclohexene), Ni (CO)4, (PCy3)2Ni-N≡N-Ni(PCy3)2, and Ni (PPh3)4.

[0089] Examples of divalent nickel complexes include nickel chloride, nickel bromide, nickel acetate, bis(acetylacetonato)nickel(II), and complexes obtained by binding a ligand of phosphine, such as triphenylphosphine, to these complexes. These divalent nickel complexes are, for example, reduced by a reducing species (e.g., phosphines, zinc, and organic metal reagents) that is co-present during a reaction, thereby generating zerovalent nickel complexes.

[0090] The above zerovalent nickel complexes or zerovalent nickel complexes generated from divalent nickel complexes through reduction can interact with a ligand that is optionally added during a reaction, and can be converted into zerovalent nickel complexes that are involved in the reaction. It is not always necessary to know how many ligands are bound to a zerovalent nickel complex during the reaction.

[0091] Using the above ligands, these nickel complexes are often formed into a homogeneous solution with a reaction substrate and used in the reaction. In addition, these nickel complexes can also be used as a heterogeneous catalyst dispersed or supported in a polymer such as polystyrene and polyethylene. Such heterogeneous catalysts have an advantage in a process such as a catalyst recovering process. Specific examples of catalyst structures include those in which a metal atom is immobilized by a polymeric phosphine that is a crosslinked polystyrene chain having a phosphine introduced thereto, as shown in the following chemical formula.



[0092] In addition, polymeric phosphines disclosed in the following documents can also be used.
  1. 1) Kanbara et al., Macromolecules, 2000, Volume 33, Page 657
  2. 2) Yamamoto et al., J. Polym. Sci., 2002, Volume 40, Page 2637
  3. 3) JPH06-032763A
  4. 4) JP2005-281454A
  5. 5) JP2009-527352A.


[0093] Examples of ketones, diketones, phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthrolines are the same as those listed in the section on palladium complexes above.

[0094] As stated above, aryl phosphines for a heterogeneous catalyst in which phosphine units are incorporated into a polymer chain can also be preferably used. A specific example is a triarylphosphine formed by binding one of the phenyl groups of triphenylphosphine to a polymer chain as shown in the chemical formula below:



[0095] Among these ligands, ligands of phosphines, diamines, bipyridines, and phenanthrolines are preferred; and triarylphosphines and trialkylphosphine are more preferred. Preferable examples of triarylphosphines include triphenylphosphine, and preferable examples of trialkylphosphines include tricyclohexylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine, triisopropylphosphine, tri(1-adamanthyl)phosphine, etc.

[0096] Similarly, as described above, a triarylphosphine formed by binding one of the phenyl groups of triphenylphosphine to a polymer chain is also preferred.

[0097] Additionally, examples of platinum-containing catalysts include Pt(PPh3)4, Pt(cod)2, Pt(dba)2, platinum chloride, platinum bromide, bis(acetylacetonato)platinum (II), dichloro(η4-1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum (II), or complexes obtained by binding a phosphine ligand, such as triphenylphosphine, to these catalysts; examples of ruthenium-containing catalysts include (Cl)2Ru(PPh3)3, Ru(cot)(cod) (cot is cycloocta-1,3,5-trien), ruthenium chloride (III), dichloro(η4-1,5-cycloacetyloctadiene)ruthenium (II), tris(acetylacetonato)ruthenium (III), or complexes obtained by binding a phosphine ligand, such as triphenylphosphine, to these catalysts; examples of rhodium-containing catalysts include (Cl)Rh(PPh3)3, rhodium chloride (III), chloro (η4-1, 5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium (I) dimer, tris(acetylacetonato)rhodium (III), or complexes obtained by binding a phosphine ligand, such as triphenylphosphine, to these catalysts; examples of cobalt-containing catalysts include (Cl) Co (PPh3)3, (C5H5)2Co(PPh3)2(C5H5 is a cyclopentadienyl group), (C5H5)2Co(cod)2, tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III), cobalt(II) chloride, or complexes obtained by binding a phosphine ligand, such as triphenylphosphine, to these catalysts.

[0098] Of the catalysts, from the viewpoints of reactivity, yield, and selectivity, nickel- or palladium-containing catalysts, and particularly palladium-containing catalysts are preferred. Further, palladium complexes, particularly zerovalent palladium phosphine complexes (especially, a triaryl phosphine complex, diaryl monoalkyl phosphine complex, dialkyl monoaryl phosphine complex, trialkylphosphine complex, or a polymer phosphine complex represented by the following chemical formula) are preferred.



[0099] The molar ratio of the ligand/catalyst in the metal catalyst is, for example, in the range of 0.5 to 10, 1 to 10, 1 to 8, 1 to 6, 1 to 4, or 1 to 2.

[0100] The metal catalysts can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0101] The upper limit of the amount of the metal catalyst is preferably 0.1 mol, more preferably 0.05 mol, and even more preferably 0.025 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0102] The lower limit of the amount of the metal catalyst is preferably 0.01 mol, more preferably 0.005 mol, and even more preferably 0.001 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0103] The amount of the metal catalyst is preferably in the range of 0.001 to 0.1 mol, more preferably in the range of 0.005 to 0.05 mol, and even more preferably in the range of 0.01 to 0.025 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

Reducing agent



[0104] The reducing agent used in the present invention may be an organic reducing agent or an inorganic reducing agent. Preferable examples of the inorganic reducing agent include elementary metal and carbon monoxide.

[0105] Preferable examples of metal as the inorganic reducing agent include transition metal elements in the 4th period (e.g., scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper); metal elements in group 12 (e.g., zinc, cadmium, and mercury); and metal elements in group 13 (e.g., aluminum, gallium, and indium) .

[0106] Preferable examples of metal as the inorganic reducing agent include those having a standard electrode potential (oxidation reduction potential) in an aqueous solution within a range of -1.70 to -0.25, and those having a standard electrode potential (oxidation reduction potential) in an aqueous solution within a range of -1.20 to -0.3 are more preferred.

[0107] More preferable examples of metal as the inorganic reducing agent include manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum, and indium.

[0108] Even more preferable examples of metal as the inorganic reducing agent include zinc, manganese, and indium.

[0109] The metal can be, for example, in a solid form, such as powder.

[0110] Preferable examples of the organic reducing agent include primary or secondary alcohols, such as isopropyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol; nitrogen-containing compounds, such as N-H moiety-containing amines, hydrogens, and nitrogen-containing unsaturated heterocyclic compounds; quinones, such as hydroquinone; boron compounds, such as phenylboronic acid and bis(pinacolato)diboron; tin compounds, such as bis(tributyltin); and tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene.

[0111] The reducing agents selected from inorganic reducing agents and organic reducing agents can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0112] Metal as the inorganic reducing agent can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0113] The organic reducing agents can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0114] The upper limit of the amount of the reducing agent is preferably 10 mol, more preferably 7.5 mol, and even more preferably 5 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0115] The lower limit of the amount of the reducing agent is preferably 0.5 mol, more preferably 1 mol, and even more preferably 1.5 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0116] The amount of the reducing agent is preferably in the range of 0.5 to 10 mol, more preferably in the range of 1 to 7.5 mol, and even more preferably in the range of 1.5 to 5 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0117] In the reaction of step A of the present invention, a metal salt can be suitably used if needed.

[0118] Examples of the metal salts include halides (e.g., chlorides and bromides), acetic acid salts, tetrafluoroboric acid salts, trifluoro methanesulfonic acid salts, and hexa fluorophosphoric acid salts of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of zinc, gold, silver, copper, lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, manganese, chromium, aluminum, indium, tin, bismuth, scandium, yttrium, zirconium, and titanium.

[0119] Of these, preferable examples include halides (e.g., chlorides and bromides) of zinc, or hexa fluorophosphoric acid salts (e.g., lithium salts, sodium salts, potassium salts) of alkali metal.

[0120] The metal salts can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0121] The upper limit of the amount of the metal salt is preferably 1 mol, more preferably 0.5 mol, and even more preferably 0.25 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0122] The lower limit of the amount of the metal salt is preferably 0.01 mol, more preferably 0.02 mol, and even more preferably 0.05 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0123] The amount of the metal salt is preferably in the range of 0.01 to 1 mol, more preferably in the range of 0.02 to 0.5 mol, and even more preferably in the range of 0.05 to 0.25 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0124] The upper limit of the reaction temperature in step A is preferably 200°C, more preferably 125°C, and even more preferably 75°C.

[0125] The lower limit of the reaction temperature in step A is preferably -30°C, more preferably -15°C, and even more preferably 0°C.

[0126] The reaction temperature in step A is preferably in the range of -30 to 200°C, more preferably in the range of -15 to 125°C, and even more preferably in the range of 0 to 75°C.

[0127] An excessively low reaction temperature may cause insufficient reaction of step A.

[0128] An excessively high reaction temperature is disadvantageous in view of costs and may cause decomposition of the starting material and product, and undesirable reaction.

[0129] The upper limit of the reaction time in step A is preferably 48 hours, more preferably 24 hours, and even more preferably 12 hours.

[0130] The lower limit of the reaction time in step A is preferably 0.5 hours, and more preferably 1 hour.

[0131] The reaction time of step A is preferably in the range of 0.5 to 48 hours, more preferably in the range of 1 to 24 hours, and even more preferably in the range of 1 to 12 hours.

[0132] An excessively short reaction time may cause insufficient reaction of step A.

[0133] An excessively long reaction time is disadvantageous in view of costs and may cause undesirable reaction.

[0134] The reaction may be performed in the presence or absence of inert gas (e.g., nitrogen gas).

[0135] Step A can be carried out under reduced pressure, atmospheric pressure, or pressurized conditions.

[0136] Preferable examples of gases used for pressurizing include inert gases, such as nitrogen and argon; gases having reducing properties, such as carbon monoxide; and compounds that are represented by formula (1), (2a), and (2b) below and that are in a gaseous form at room temperature.

[0137] The reaction pressure is generally within the range of -0.1 to 5 MPaG, and preferably within the range of 0 to 1 MPaG.

[0138] The reaction can be performed in the presence or absence of solvent.

[0139] Examples of the solvent include aprotic solvents.

[0140] Examples of the aprotic solvent include aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, and xylene; ethers, such as cyclopentyl methyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, bis(2-methoxy ethyl)ether, and 1,2-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)ethane; lactams, such as N-methylpyrrolidone; nitriles, such as acetonitrile and propionitrile; ketones, such as acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, and isobutyl methyl ketone; dialkyl sulfoxides, such as dimethyl sulfoxide; tetraalkylurea, such as 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, dimethylpropyleneurea, and tetramethylurea; and amides, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and hexaalkyl phosphoric triamide (e.g., hexa methylphosphoric acid amide).

[0141] The solvents can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0142] Based on the technical common knowledge, the amount of the solvent can be determined to be an amount that is sufficient for the solvent to exhibit its function. Specifically, the amount of the solvent is preferably in the range of 0.2 to 100 parts by mass, more preferably in the range of 5 to 50 parts by mass, and even more preferably in the range of 10 to 20 parts by mass per part by mass of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0143] An excessive amount of the solvent may be disadvantageous in view of costs.

[0144] If necessary, an additive can be used in the reaction of step A of the present invention.

[0145] Examples of the additive include "hetero atom- or olefin moiety-containing compounds that are chemically neutral."

[0146] Examples of the "hetero atom- or olefin moiety-containing compounds that are chemically neutral" include ethers, such as tetrahydrofuran, bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether, and 1,2-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)ethane; nitriles, such as acetonitrile and propionitrile; ketones, such as acetone, acetophenone, and benzophenone; (bis)sulfoxides, such as dimethyl sulfoxide, diphenyl sulfoxide, and 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane; tetraalkylurea, such as 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, dimethylpropyleneurea, and tetramethylurea; amides, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, and hexa alkyl phosphoric triamide (e.g., hexa methylphosphoric acid amide); phosphine oxides, such as triaryl phosphine oxide (e.g., triphenyl phosphine oxide) and tri(cyclo)alkylphosphine oxide (e.g., tri-tert-butylphosphine oxide); and dienes, such as cyclopentadiene, norbornadiene, and 1,5-cyclo-octadiene.

[0147] The additives can be used singly or in a combination of two or more.

[0148] The upper limit of the amount of the additive is preferably 2 mol, more preferably 1 mol, and even more preferably 0.5 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0149] The lower limit of the amount of the additive is preferaly 0.005 mol, more preferably 0.01 mol, and even more preferably 0.05 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0150] The amount of the additive is preferably in the range of 0.005 to 2 mol, more preferably in the range of 0.01 to 1 mol, and even more preferably 0.05 to 0.5 mol, per mol of the total amount of the compound of formula (2a) and the compound of formula (2b).

[0151] The compound of formula (1) obtained in step A was isolated or purified by a known method, such as extraction, dissolution, concentration, precipitation, dehydration, adsorption, distillation, rectification, or chromatography, or combinations thereof.

[0152] According to the production method of the present invention, the starting material conversion is preferably 10% or more, more preferably 30% or more, and even more preferably 50% or more.

[0153] According to the production method of the present invention, the selectivity of the compound represented by formula (1) is preferably 80% or more, and more preferably 90% or more.

[0154] According to the production method of the present invention, the yield of the compound represented by formula (1) is preferably 50% or more, and more preferably 70% or more.

Examples



[0155] The present invention is described in detail below with reference to Examples; however, the present invention is not limited to these.

[0156] In the Examples, the yield indicates GC yield unless otherwise specified.

Example 1



[0157] 288 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 262 mg of triphenylphosphine, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0158] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 5.8% and 89.3%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.4% and 93.0%.

Example 2



[0159] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 0.80 g of 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 50°C for 24 hours.

[0160] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene were respectively 74.7% and 22.8%. The yield and selectivity of monofluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 99.3%.

Example 3



[0161] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours.

[0162] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 86.1% and 13.0%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.6% and 98.7%.

Example 4



[0163] 144 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 159 mg of di(1-adamanthyl)phosphine oxide, 0.98 g of zinc powder, 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, and 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene were introduced into a 50-mL reaction vessel, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0164] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 12.4% and 58.7%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were 0.5% and 96.0%.

Example 5



[0165] 1.06 g of tris{tris [3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine}palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethylacetamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.61 g of bromotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 90°C for 24 hours.

[0166] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining bromotrifluoroethylene were respectively 24.0% and 68.1%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.6% and 94.4%.

Example 6



[0167] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 0.136 g of zinc chloride, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, and 10 mL of toluene were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0168] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 65.8% and 30.5%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 95.3%.

Example 7



[0169] 288 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 268 mg of 2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)-3,6-dimethoxy- 2',4',6'-triisopropyl-1,1'-biphenyl, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0170] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 9.3% and 76.5%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 95.8%.

Example 8



[0171] 144 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 101 mg of tri-tert-butylphosphine, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 40°C for 6 hours.

[0172] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 39.6% and 52.4%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.8% and 96.0%.

Example 9



[0173] 529 mg of tris{tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine}palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 15 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 120°C for 2 hours.

[0174] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 26.8% and 36.6%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.6% and 95.7%.

Example 10



[0175] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.96 g of zinc powder, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 25°C for 8 hours.

[0176] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 69.8% and 19.7%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 99.3%.

Example 11



[0177] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 5°C for 24 hours.

[0178] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 52.1% and 36.5%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.1% and 99.5%.

Example 12



[0179] 71.4 mg of dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0180] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 10.5% and 73.6%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.9% and 91.9%.

Example 13



[0181] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.65 g of zinc powder, 1.43 g of magnesium chloride, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 8 hours.

[0182] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 11.1% and 25.6%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 36.1% and 23.0%.

Example 14



[0183] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 0.682 g of zinc chloride, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, and 10 mL of tetrahydrofuran were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 22 hours.

[0184] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 61.2% and 37.4%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 98.7%.

Example 15



[0185] 288 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 238 mg of 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',4',6'-triisopropylbiphenyl, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0186] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 9.8% and 83.1%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.1% and 99.0%.

Example 16



[0187] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylacetamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 40°C for 6 hours.

[0188] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 10.6% and 57.0%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 96.5%.

Example 17



[0189] 327 mg of dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0190] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 19.1% and 58.5%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.7% and 95.5%.

Example 18



[0191] 61.3 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 234 mg of dimethyl sulfoxide, 48.3 mg of diethylene glycol dimethyl ether, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0192] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 46.5% and 51.8%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 99.1%.

Example 19



[0193] 288 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 101 mg of tri-tert-butylphosphine, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours.

[0194] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 56.4% and 40.1%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.6% and 98.0%.

Example 20



[0195] 327 mg of dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 0.80 g of 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 50°C for 24 hours.

[0196] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene were respectively 66.9% and 21.0%. The yield and selectivity of monofluoroethylene were respectively 0.8% and 98.6%.

Example 21



[0197] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours.

[0198] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 49.6% and 27.8%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 99.0%.

Example 22



[0199] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 1.13 g of zinc bromide, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0200] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 68.1% and 27.9%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 99.0%.

Example 23



[0201] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.65 g of zinc powder, 1.36 g of zinc chloride, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 8 hours.

[0202] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 81.6% and 5.0%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.8% and 98.1%.

Example 24



[0203] 194 mg of di-µ-bromobis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)dipalladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 16 hours.

[0204] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 51.9% and 19.6%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 99.4%.

Example 25



[0205] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. After 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, nitrogen was introduced until the pressure was 0.22 MPaG. The mixture was then stirred at room temperature for 6 hours.

[0206] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 49.8% and 32.1%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.1% and 99.1%.

Example 26



[0207] 61.3 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 234 mg of dimethyl sulfoxide, 38.8 mg of 1,5-cyclooctadiene, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 21 hours.

[0208] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 47.4% and 50.0%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 99.3%.

Example 27



[0209] 334 mg of bis(tricyclohexyl phosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0210] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 11.3% and 79.4%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 98.2%.

Example 28



[0211] 144 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 81 mg of di-tert-butylphosphine oxide, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 80°C for 13 hours.

[0212] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 10.7% and 49.6%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 91.2%.

Example 29



[0213] 288 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 237 mg of 1,1'-bis(di-tert-butyl phosphino)ferrocene, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0214] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 8.3% and 80.1%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 97.3%.

Example 30



[0215] 1.06 g of tris{tris[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]phosphine}palladium and 10 mL of toluene were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. After 1.25 g of 1-bromo-1-fluoroethylene was introduced thereto, carbon monoxide was introduced until the pressure was 0.5 MPaG. The mixture was then stirred at 90°C for 24 hours.

[0216] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 1-bromo-1-fluoroethylene were respectively 35.7% and 10.7%. The yield and selectivity of monofluoroethylene were respectively 0.4% and 98.1%.

Example 31



[0217] 289 mg of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethylsulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 0.80 g of 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 36 hours.

[0218] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene were respectively 10.1% and 77.6%. The yield and selectivity of monofluoroethylene were respectively 0.4% and 96.2%.

Example 32



[0219] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 20°C for 18 hours.

[0220] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 29.0% and 52.8%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.4% and 97.3%.

Example 33



[0221] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 60°C for 1.5 hours.

[0222] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 53.1% and 25.2%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 99.0%.

Example 34



[0223] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N-methylpyrrolidone were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 hours.

[0224] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 18.4% and 68.7%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.8% and 92.3%.

Example 35



[0225] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 15 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 60°C for 1.5 hours.

[0226] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 58.0% and 30.9%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 99.1%.

Example 36



[0227] 327 mg of dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)nickel, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 0.80 g of 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0228] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 1-chloro-1-fluoroethylene were respectively 21.8% and 72.7%. The yield and selectivity of monofluoroethylene were respectively 0.3% and 98.6%.

Example 37



[0229] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 0.92 g of potassium hexafluorophosphorate, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylen was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0230] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 61.9% and 26.9%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.2% and 89.0%.

Example 38



[0231] 144 mg of bis(dibenzylideneacetone)palladium, 145 mg of tri-tert-butylphosphine tetrafluoroborate, 212 mg of potassium phosphate, 0.98 g of zinc powder, and 5 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 40°C for 6 hours.

[0232] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 31.2% and 53.4%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 96.6%.

Example 39



[0233] 256 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.65 g of manganese powder, and 20 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 8 hours.

[0234] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 27.7% and 37.2%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.5% and 96.7%.

Example 40



[0235] 61.3 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 234 mg of dimethyl sulfoxide, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.16 g of chlorotrifluoroethylene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 24 hours.

[0236] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target hexafluorobutadiene and the remaining chlorotrifluoroethylene were respectively 53.0% and 41.0%. The yield and selectivity of trifluoroethylene were respectively 0.4% and 98.4%.

Example 41



[0237] 128 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 1.95 g of zinc powder, 10 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 10 mL of toluene, and 1 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 1.31 g of 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 80°C for 18 hours.

[0238] After the completion of the reaction, gas inside the reaction vessel was collected in a cooled pressure-resistant container. The collected gas was analyzed using gas chromatography. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1,3-butadiene and the remaining 2-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene were respectively 25.3% and 62.7%. The selectivity was 100%.

Example 42



[0239] 25.6 mg of bis(tri-tert-butylphosphine)palladium, 0.39 g of zinc powder, 2 mL of N,N-dimethylformamide, 2 mL of toluene, and 0.2 mL of dimethyl sulfoxide were added to a 50-mL reaction vessel. 400 mg of β-bromo-β-fluorostyrene was introduced thereto, and the mixture was stirred at 80°C for 18 hours.

[0240] After the completion of the reaction, the cooled reaction liquid was quantified by 19F NMR. As a result, the yields of the target 2,3-difluoro-1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene and the remaining β-bromo-β-fluorostyrene were respectively 44.0% and 14.7%. The yield and selectivity of β-fluorostyrene were respectively 23.5% and 65.2%.


Claims

1. A method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

one or more moieties among a R1a-C-R2a moiety, a R1b-C-R2b moiety, a R1a-C=C-R3a moiety, and a R1b-C=C-R3b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step A of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.


 
2. The production method according to claim 1, which is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b are the same or different, and each represent a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group;

provided that at least one of R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R3a, and R3b represents a fluorine atom or a fluoroalkyl group; or

either or both of R1a-C-R2a moiety and R1b-C-R2b moiety are the same or different, and each may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Aa of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.


 
3. The production method according to claim 1, which is a method for producing a compound represented by formula (1):

wherein R1a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1a-C-R2a moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3a represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom;

R1b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, an alkyl group, a fluoroalkyl group, or an aryl group, and R2b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a fluoroalkyl group; or a R1b-C-R2b moiety may form a non-aromatic carbon ring that may be substituted with one or more fluorine atoms;

R3b represents a fluoroalkyl group or a fluorine atom; and

each single bond expressed by a wavy line shows that the configuration with respect to a double bond to which the single bond is bonded is E configuration, Z configuration, or a mixture thereof at any ratio;

the method comprising step Ab of subjecting a compound represented by formula (2a):

wherein Xa represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, and a compound represented by formula (2b):

wherein Xb represents a chlorine atom, a bromine atom, or an iodine atom, and the other symbols are as defined above, to a coupling reaction in the presence of (1) a metal catalyst and (2) one or more reducing agents selected from the group consisting of (a) transition metal elements in the 4th period, (b) metal elements in group 12, (c) metal elements in group 13, (d) organic reducing agents, and (e) carbon monoxide.


 
4. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein R1a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, a trifluoromethyl group, or an aryl group.
 
5. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein R2a represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a trifluoromethyl group.
 
6. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein R3a represents a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group.
 
7. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein R1b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, a trifluoromethyl group, or an aryl group.
 
8. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein R2b represents a hydrogen atom, a fluorine atom, or a trifluoromethyl group.
 
9. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein R3b represents a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group.
 
10. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein Xa represents a bromine atom or a chlorine atom.
 
11. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 10, wherein Xb represents a bromine atom or a chlorine atom.
 
12.  The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the compound represented by formula (2a) and the compound represented by formula (2b) are the same.
 
13. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 12, wherein the metal catalyst is at least one member selected from the group consisting of nickel catalysts, palladium catalysts, platinum catalysts, ruthenium catalysts, rhodium catalysts, and cobalt catalysts.
 
14. The production method according to claim 13, wherein the metal catalyst is a palladium catalyst or a nickel catalyst.
 
15. The production method according to claim 14, wherein a ligand of the metal catalyst is at least one member selected from the group consisting of dialkyl monoaryl phosphines, diaryl monoalkyl phosphines, trialkylphosphines, triarylphosphines, and bidentate diphosphines.
 
16. The production method according to any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the reducing agent is at least one member selected from the group consisting of titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, aluminum, gallium, and indium.
 








REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description