(19)
(11)EP 3 644 632 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
29.04.2020 Bulletin 2020/18

(21)Application number: 18831310.0

(22)Date of filing:  13.07.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H04W 4/70  (2018.01)
H04L 12/18  (2006.01)
H04L 9/06  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2018/095704
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/011339 (17.01.2019 Gazette  2019/03)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 14.07.2017 CN 201710576791

(71)Applicant: Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
Longgang District Shenzhen, Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • LIN, Bo
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • GUO, Xiaolong
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • TAN, Shiyong
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)
  • HUANG, Zhenglei
    Shenzhen Guangdong 518129 (CN)

(74)Representative: MERH-IP Matias Erny Reichl Hoffmann Patentanwälte PartG mbB 
Paul-Heyse-Strasse 29
80336 München
80336 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
  
      


    (54)COMMUNICATION METHOD AND DEVICE


    (57) A communication method and a device are provided. The method includes: generating, by a first terminal device, first data, where the first data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and sending, by the first terminal device, the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established. Power consumption of the first terminal device can be reduced by using the method and the device in this application.




    Description


    [0001] This application claims priority to Chinese Patent Application No. 201710576791.6, filed with the Chinese Patent Office on July 14, 2017 and entitled "COMMUNICATION METHOD AND DEVICE", which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0002] This application relates to the field of wireless communication technologies, and in particular, to a communication method and a device.

    BACKGROUND



    [0003] With rapid development of the Internet, the internet of things (Internet of Things, IoT) emerges as the times require. The internet of things means that all objects are connected by using a network, to implement intelligent identification, information exchange, and management of any object, any person, any time, and any place.

    [0004] Currently, as shown in FIG. 1, an entire internet of things system includes an internet of things device, a network device, and an application server. The network device is configured to upload data of the internet of things device to a corresponding application server. For example, the entire internet of things system includes internet of things devices such as a shared bicycle, smart sports shoes, and a band. In this case, the network device may separately upload related data of the smart bicycle, the smart sports shoes, and the band to a shared bicycle server, a smart sports shoe server, and a band server.

    [0005] It can be learned from the foregoing descriptions that in the prior art, the internet of things device needs to first establish a link connection to the network device, and then transmit related data of the internet of things device to the network device. Consequently, power consumption of the internet of things device is relatively high.

    SUMMARY



    [0006] This application provides a communication method and a device, to reduce power consumption of a first terminal device.

    [0007] According to a first aspect, this application provides a communication method. The method is applied to a first terminal device and includes: generating first data, where the first data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and sending the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established.

    [0008] In this application, the first terminal device first generates the first data, and the first data includes the third data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the network device. Then, when the connection to the network device is not established, the first terminal device sends the first data to the second terminal device, and when receiving the first data, the second terminal device reports the third data in the first data to the network device. It can be learned from the foregoing descriptions that in this application, the first terminal device can transmit the to-be-reported third data to the network device without establishing the connection to the network device, thereby reducing power consumption of the first terminal device.

    [0009] In a possible design, the generating first data includes: encapsulating the third data by using a first protocol, to generate the second data, where the first protocol is a transmission management TML protocol or a non-access stratum NAS protocol; and encapsulating the second data by using a second protocol, to generate the first data, where the second protocol is at least one of an adaptor layer protocol and an access stratum protocol.

    [0010] In a possible design, the first data further includes a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a non-access stratum NAS signaling manner, a short message service SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner.

    [0011] In this application, the first terminal device may indicate the manner in which the second terminal device sends related data, and the manner includes the NAS signaling manner, the SMS short message manner, the IP data packet manner, and the like, so that the first terminal device can flexibly report the related data and can control a data reporting manner.

    [0012] In a possible design, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device.

    [0013] In this application, the first terminal device can also control a time of the second terminal device by using the second indication, to ensure timely reporting of the first data, and reduce a reporting delay of the first data.

    [0014] In a possible design, the sending the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established includes: sending the first data to the second terminal device by using a broadcast channel when the connection to the network device is not established.

    [0015] In this application, the first terminal device sends the first data in a broadcast manner, and the first terminal device does not need to establish a dedicated connection to the second terminal device, thereby reducing signaling processes, and reducing power consumption of the first terminal device and the second terminal device. In addition, in the broadcast manner, regardless of which second terminal device receives the first data, the second terminal device can help the first terminal device transmit the data to the network device, thereby increasing a success rate. In addition, because the first terminal device sends the first data by using a low-power-consumption air interface and/or a short-range air interface, energy consumption may be greatly reduced compared with cellular communication.

    [0016] In a possible design, the identifier of the first terminal device is pre-allocated by a core network device to the first terminal device.

    [0017] In a possible design, the second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data.

    [0018] In a possible design, the second data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data to the network device.

    [0019] In a possible design, the first data further includes a public land mobile network PLMN identifier of the first terminal device.

    [0020] According to a second aspect, this application provides a communication method. The method is applied to a second terminal device and includes: receiving first data sent by a first terminal device, where the first data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and processing the first data, to obtain the second data; processing the second data, to obtain fourth data, where the fourth data includes the second data and a third indication; and sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection, where the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device; or sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection, where the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data.

    [0021] In a possible design, the first data further includes a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a NAS signaling manner, an SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner; and the processing the second data, to obtain fourth data includes: when the first indication is the NAS signaling manner, processing the second data based on a NAS protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is NAS signaling; when the first indication is the SMS short message manner, processing the second data based on an SMS protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is an SMS short message; or when the first indication is the IP data packet manner, processing the second data based on an IP protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is an IP data packet.

    [0022] In a possible design, the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection includes: sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0023] In a possible design, the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection includes: sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0024] In a possible design, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection includes: sending, by using the first connection, the fourth data including the second data to the first network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.

    [0025] In a possible design, the second connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection includes: sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0026] In a possible design, the second connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection includes: sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the user plane connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0027] In a possible design, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection includes: sending, by using the second connection, the fourth data including the second data to the third network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.

    [0028] In a possible design, the first data further includes a PLMN identifier of the first terminal device; and the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection includes: when the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device included in the first data and a PLMN identifier of the second terminal device meet a preset condition, sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection.

    [0029] In a possible design, the receiving first data sent by a first terminal device includes: receiving, on a broadcast channel, the first data sent by the first terminal device.

    [0030] According to a third aspect, this application provides a communication method. The method is applied to a first network device and includes: receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, where the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the first network device; generating fifth data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication, where the fifth data includes the second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the second terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to a network device, the identifier of the second terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device that reports the second data, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device; and sending the fifth data to the second network device.

    [0031] In a possible design, the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS message; and the receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving, by using the control plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0032] In a possible design, the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and the receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving, by using the user plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0033] In a possible design, the fifth data further carries location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information includes at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.

    [0034] According to a fourth aspect, this application provides a communication method. The method is applied to a second network device and includes: receiving fifth data sent by a first network device, where the fifth data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the second network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data; processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device; and determining, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0035] In a possible design, the processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data includes: processing the fifth data by using a third protocol, to obtain the second data, where the second protocol includes at least one of a GPRS tunneling protocol-user panel GTP-U protocol, a user datagram protocol UDP, and an IP protocol.

    [0036] In a possible design, the processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device includes: processing the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the second data and the identifier of the first terminal device, where the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.

    [0037] In a possible design, the fifth data further includes location information of a second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information includes at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.

    [0038] In a possible design, the method further includes: reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0039] In a possible design, the second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data includes: determining, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is repeatedly received; reporting the third data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not repeatedly received; and discarding the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.

    [0040] In a possible design, the fifth data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data included in the fifth data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data includes: checking, based on the check value after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and reporting the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.

    [0041] According to a fifth aspect, this application provides a communication method. The method is applied to a third network device and includes: receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, where the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device; processing the fourth data, and obtaining second data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication, where the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to the third network device; processing the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, where the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data; and determining, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0042] In a possible design, the processing the fourth data, and obtaining second data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication includes: processing the fourth data by using a fourth protocol, to determine whether the fourth data includes the third indication, where the fourth protocol includes at least one of a UDP protocol, an IP protocol, and a NAS protocol; and obtaining the second data from the fourth data when determining that the fourth data includes the third indication.

    [0043] In a possible design, the processing the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device includes: processing the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, where the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.

    [0044] In a possible design, the second connection is a control plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS short message; and the receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving the fourth data by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0045] In a possible design, the second connection is a user plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and the receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving the fourth data by using the user plane connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0046] In a possible design, the method further includes: reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0047] In a possible design, the second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and the reporting the third data included in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data includes: determining, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data in the second data is repeatedly received; reporting the third data to the corresponding application server when determining that the second data in the second data is not repeatedly received; and discarding the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.

    [0048] In a possible design, the second data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the third network device; and the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data includes: after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, checking, based on the check value in the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.

    [0049] According to a sixth aspect, this application provides a communications apparatus. The apparatus may be a terminal device, or may be a chip in a terminal device. The apparatus may include a processing unit and a transceiver unit. When the apparatus is a terminal device, the processing unit may be a processor, and the transceiver unit may be a transceiver. The terminal device may further include a storage unit, and the storage unit may be a memory. The storage unit is configured to store an instruction, and the processing unit executes the instruction stored in the storage unit, so that the terminal device performs the method according to the first aspect or the second aspect. When the apparatus is a chip in a terminal device, the processing unit may be a processor, the transceiver unit may be an input/output interface, a pin, a circuit, or the like. The processing unit executes an instruction stored in a storage unit, so that the terminal device performs the method according to the first aspect or the second aspect. The storage unit may be a storage unit (for example, a register or a cache) in the chip, or may be a storage unit (for example, a read-only memory or a random access memory) outside the chip in the terminal device.

    [0050] According to a seventh aspect, this application provides a communications apparatus. The apparatus may be a network device, or may be a chip in a network device. The apparatus may include a processing unit and a transceiver unit. When the apparatus is a network device, the processing unit may be a processor, and the transceiver unit may be a transceiver. The network device may further include a storage unit, and the storage unit may be a memory. The storage unit is configured to store an instruction, and the processing unit executes the instruction stored in the storage unit, so that the network device performs the method according to any one of the third aspect to the fifth aspect. When the apparatus is a chip in a network device, the processing unit may be a processor, the transceiver unit may be an input/output interface, a pin, a circuit, or the like. The processing unit executes an instruction stored in a storage unit, so that the network device performs the method according to any one of the third aspect to the fifth aspect. The storage unit may be a storage unit (for example, a register or a cache) in the chip, or may be a storage unit (for example, a read-only memory or a random access memory) outside the chip in the network device.

    [0051] According to an eleventh aspect, this application provides a computer-readable storage medium, configured to store a computer program. The computer program is used to execute an instruction of the method according to any one of the first aspect to the fifth aspect.

    [0052] According to a twelfth aspect, this application provides a computer program. The computer program includes a computer instruction, and when the computer instruction is executed by a computer, the computer is enabled to perform the method according to any one of the first aspect to the fifth aspect.

    [0053] It can be learned from the foregoing descriptions that in this application, the first terminal device first generates the first data, and the first data includes the third data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the network device. Then, when a connection to the network device is not established, the first terminal device sends the first data to the second terminal device, and when receiving the first data, the second terminal device reports the third data in the first data to the network device. It can be learned from the foregoing descriptions that in this application, the first terminal device can transmit the to-be-reported third data to the network device without establishing the connection to the network device, thereby reducing power consumption of the first terminal device.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



    [0054] 

    FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a communications system in the prior art according to this application;

    FIG. 2 is another schematic diagram of a communications system according to this application;

    FIG. 3 is still another schematic diagram of a communications system according to this application;

    FIG. 4a to FIG. 4h are framework diagrams of a system according to this application;

    FIG. 5 is a flowchart of a communication method according to this application;

    FIG. 6 is another flowchart of a communication method according to this application;

    FIG. 7a is a block diagram of a system according to this application;

    FIG. 7b is another block diagram of a system according to this application;

    FIG. 8 is still another block diagram of a system according to this application;

    FIG. 9 is yet another block diagram of a system according to this application;

    FIG. 10 is a schematic structural diagram of a network device according to this application;

    FIG. 11 is a schematic structural diagram of a terminal device according to this application; and

    FIG. 12 to FIG. 16 are schematic structural diagrams of a communications apparatus according to this application.


    DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



    [0055] For ease of understanding, descriptions of concepts related to this application are provided for reference by using an example, shown as follows:

    [0056] An internet of things device (Internet of Things user equipment, IOT UE) is user equipment (user equipment, UE), and may be a movable terminal device or an unmovable terminal device, and is mainly a device located in the internet of things, for example, a sensor, a shared bicycle, or a smartwatch.

    [0057] A relay device (Relay UE) is user equipment (user equipment, UE), and may be a movable terminal device or an unmovable terminal device. The device is mainly configured to receive or send service data. The user equipment may be distributed in a network. The user equipment has different names in different networks, for example, a terminal, a mobile station, a subscriber unit, a station, a cellular phone, a personal digital assistant, a wireless modem, a wireless communications device, a handheld device, a laptop computer, a cordless telephone set, a wireless local loop station, or a vehicle-mounted device. The user equipment may communicate with one or more core networks by using a radio access network (radio access network, RAN) (an access part of the wireless communications network). For example, the user equipment exchanges voice and/or data with the radio access network.

    [0058] A network device is a device located on a core network side in a wireless communications network, for example, a network device such as a mobility management entity (Mobility Management Entity, MME), a serving GPRS support node (Serving GPRS Support Node, SGSN), a short message center (short message center, SMC), an access and mobility management entity (Access and Mobility Management Function, AMF), a service gateway (Serving Gateway, SGW), a packet data gateway (Packet Data Network, PGW), or an internet of things gateway (Internet of Things Gateway, IOT GW).

    [0059] In this application, an internet of things device may transmit, to a relay device, data that needs to be reported, and then the relay device transmits the related data to a core network by using an access network. An entire transmission process is: an internet of things device-a relay device-an access network of the relay device-a core network of the relay device-an internet of things gateway. In this application, a relay device-an access network of the relay device-a core network of the relay device is an existing network framework of the relay device. In this application, the existing network architecture of the relay device may be used to place the related data of the internet of things device in information, such as non-access stratum (Non-Access Stratum, NAS) signaling, a short message service (Short Messaging Service, SMS), and an IP data packet, of the relay device, transmit the information carrying the related data to a core network device, and then transmit the information carrying the related data to an internet of things gateway. The internet of things gateway may be an SGSN, an MME, a short message center, an AMF, an SGW, a PGW, or a dedicated gateway device.

    [0060] The following describes technical solutions in this application with reference to the accompanying drawings.

    [0061] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a possible system network according to this application. As shown in FIG. 2, in this application, an internet of things device may transmit, to a relay device, related data that needs to be reported, then a relay terminal transmits the related data to a network device, and finally, the network device identifies the related data, determines an internet of things terminal that reports the related data, and processes the related data. For example, the network device may report the related data to a server corresponding to the internet of things device.

    [0062] In a specific application of this application, for example, as shown in FIG. 3, the internet of things device includes a sensor, a shared bicycle, a watch, and the like, and the relay device is a smartphone. In this case, the sensor, the shared bicycle, the watch, and the like may transmit, to the relay device, the related data that needs to be reported, and the relay device may transmit the related data to the network device. After receiving related data reported by the relay device, the network device first determines a specific internet of things device that reports the related data. If it is determined that the related data is reported by a sensor, the related data is reported to a sensor server. Similarly, if it is determined that the related data is reported by a shared bicycle, the related data is reported to a shared bicycle server.

    [0063] There are mainly two solutions in which the relay device transmits the related data of the internet of things device to the network device: A first solution is L3 UE Relay. The internet of things device first establishes a direct inter-device connection to the relay device, then obtains, by using the connection, an IP address assigned by the relay device to the internet of things device, and finally, transmits, to the relay device, the related data carrying the IP address. After the relay device receives the related data, there may be the following two operation manners: In a first operation manner, the relay device first converts an IP address in the related data, converts the IP address in the related data to an IP address of the relay device, and finally, transmits, to the network device, the related data carrying the converted IP address. In a second operation manner, the IP address assigned by the relay device to the internet of things device is an IPv6 address, and the IPv6 address includes six bytes. The first four bytes are allocated by the network device to the relay device, and the last two bytes are allocated by the relay device to the internet of things device. Therefore, the network device cannot identify to which internet of things device the two bytes are allocated. In the second operation manner, after receiving the related data that needs to be reported by the internet of things device, the relay device directly transmits the related data to the network device. In the first solution, because the IP address is assigned by the relay device to the internet of things device, when the network device receives the related data, the network device cannot determine whether the related data is specifically reported by the internet of things device or reported by the relay device, and further, cannot determine a specific internet of things device that reports the related data. Therefore, in the first solution, the network device cannot determine an internet of things device that reports the related data. A second solution is L2 UE Relay. The internet of things device first establishes a direct inter-device connection to the relay device, establishes an RRC connection and a radio bearer with a radio access network by using the relay device, establishes NAS signaling and an EPS bearer of the internet of things device with a core network, and then transmits the related data to the network device by using a bearer of the internet of things device. Before receiving the related data of the internet of things device, the relay device also establishes a dedicated connection to the network device. The dedicated connection also includes a user plane connection and a control plane connection, and the dedicated connection is specially used to transmit data of the internet of things device. In this solution, the network device may distinguish the related data reported by the relay device and related data reported by an Internet device. However, in this solution, the internet of things device needs to establish a dedicated RRC connection and a radio bearer, NAS signaling, and an EPS bearer. Consequently, data overheads of the relay device are relatively high.

    [0064] Based on the foregoing descriptions, this application provides a communication method, and a principle is: A core network device pre-allocates an identifier to each internet of things device, and then the internet of things device adds the identifier to related data when reporting the related data. A specific process is as follows: First, the internet of things device sends, to the relay device, the related data that needs to be reported, and the related data carries the identifier of the internet of things device; when receiving the related data sent by the internet of things device, the relay device reports the related data to the network device by using a connection (for example, which may be NAS signaling or an EPS bearer) between the relay device and the network device. After receiving the related data, the network device may determine, based on the identifier of the internet of things device carried in the related data, the internet of things device that reports the related data. It can be learned that in the communication method provided in this application, compared with the first solution, the network device can identify the internet of things device that reports the data, and compared with the second solution, no dedicated connection needs to be established, thereby reducing signaling overheads.

    [0065] FIG. 4a is a diagram of a system framework according to this application. In the system framework, if an internet of things device needs to report data, encapsulation of an application (Application, APP) layer, a traffic management layer (Traffic Management Layer, TML), an adaptor (Adaptor) layer, and an access stratum may be sequentially performed on the data, and finally, encapsulated data may be referred to as first data, and is transmitted to a relay device. In this application, when performing encapsulation of the TML layer, the internet of things device adds an identifier of the internet of things device to the data. After receiving the first data, the relay device may perform decapsulation of the access stratum and the adaptor layer on the first data, to obtain TML layer data. In this application, the relay device may send, in a NAS signaling manner, the TML layer data to a first network device by using an access network. Specifically, alternatively, a TML PDU may be placed in a NAS message, and the NAS message is sent to the first network device by using the access network. In this application, the data sent by the relay device to the first network device may be referred to as fourth data. In this application, after receiving the fourth data, the first network device may obtain the TML layer data, then sequentially perform encapsulation of a GPRS tunneling protocol-control plane (GPRS Tunneling Protocol-Control Plane, GTP-C) layer and a bottom layer on the TML layer data, to obtain fifth data, and send the fifth data to a second network device. After receiving the fifth data, the second network device may sequentially perform decapsulation of the bottom layer and the GTP-C layer on the fifth data, to obtain a TML layer data packet. Finally, the TML layer data packet is decapsulated by using a TML protocol, to obtain APP layer data and the identifier of the internet of things device.

    [0066] It should be noted that as shown in FIG. 4a, for a protocol stack of the relay device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at a NAS layer. Likewise, for a protocol stack of the first network device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at a NAS layer or a GTP-C layer. For a protocol stack of the second network device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at a GTP-C layer. In this application, the bottom-layer protocol may also be referred to as a lower-layer protocol (lower layers).

    [0067] FIG. 4b is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram shown in FIG. 4b, a data processing process is similar to that in FIG. 4a. A difference lies in that a relay device sends TML layer data to a first network device by using an SMS method and by using an access network. In this application, alternatively, a TML PDU may be placed in short message content, and the short message content is sent to the first network device by using the access network.

    [0068] It should be noted that as shown in FIG. 4b, for a protocol stack of the relay device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at an SMS layer. Likewise, for a protocol stack of the first network device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at an SMS layer or a GTP-C layer.

    [0069] FIG. 4c is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, an internet of things device may generate first data. For a process of generating the first data, refer to the descriptions in FIG. 4a. In addition, the internet of things device sends the first data to a relay device. In the framework diagram, the relay device may send, in an IP data packet manner, TML layer data by using an access network. Specifically, the relay device may encapsulate the TML layer data by using an IP protocol, to generate fourth data. Correspondingly, a first network device and a second network device process the fourth data and fifth data by using a GPRS tunneling protocol-user plane (GPRS Tunneling Protocol-User Plane, GTP-U) protocol.

    [0070] It should be noted that as shown in FIG. 4c, for a protocol stack of the relay device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at an IP layer. Likewise, for a protocol stack of the first network device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at an IP layer or a GTP-U layer. For a protocol stack of the second network device, the bottom-layer protocol is a lower-layer protocol located at a GTP-U layer.

    [0071] FIG. 4d is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, a peer layer of an internet of things device to a second network device is a NAS layer. A data processing process in FIG. 4d is similar to the data processing process in FIG. 4a. Details are not described herein again.

    [0072] In this application, in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, and FIG. 4c, the first network device may be a network node such as a mobility management entity (Mobility Management Entity, ME), a serving GPRS support node (Serving GPRS Support Node, SGSN), a short message center (short message center, SMC), an access and mobility management entity (Access and Mobility Management Function, AMF), a service gateway (Serving Gateway, SGW), or a packet data gateway (Packet Data Network, PGW), and the second network device may be an internet of things gateway (Internet of Things Gateway, IOT GW).

    [0073] FIG. 4e is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, a first network device and a second device are combined into an entity of a third network device. A data processing process In FIG. 4e is similar to that in FIG. 4a. Details are not described herein again.

    [0074] FIG. 4f is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, a first network device and a second device are combined into an entity of a third network device. A data processing process in FIG. 4f is similar to that in FIG. 4b. Details are not described herein again. FIG. 4g is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, a first network device and a second device are combined into an entity of a third network device. A data processing process in FIG. 4g is similar to that in FIG. 4c. Details are not described herein again.

    [0075] FIG. 4h is another framework diagram of a system according to this application. In the framework diagram, a first network device and a second device are combined into an entity of a third network device. A data processing process in FIG. 4h is similar to that in FIG. 4d. Details are not described herein again.

    [0076] Based on the system frameworks in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, and FIG. 4d, as shown in FIG. 5, this application provides a procedure of a communication method. In the procedure, a first terminal device may correspond to the internet of things device in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d; a second terminal device may correspond to the relay device in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d; a first network device corresponds to the first network device in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d; a second network device corresponds to the second network device in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d. As shown in FIG. 5, the communication method includes the following steps.

    [0077] Step S51: The first terminal device generates first data.

    [0078] Step S52: The first terminal device sends the first data to the second terminal device when a connection to the second network device is not established.

    [0079] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, or FIG. 4c, the first terminal device may sequentially perform encapsulation of an APP layer, a TML layer, an adaptor layer, and an access stratum on data, to generate the first data. Data generated at the APP layer may be referred to as third data, and data generated at the TML layer may be referred to as second data.

    [0080] Alternatively, in this application, as shown in FIG. 4d, the first terminal device may sequentially perform encapsulation of an APP layer, a NAS layer, an adaptor layer, and an access stratum on data, to generate the first data. Data generated at the APP layer may be referred to as third data, and data generated at the NAS layer may be referred to as second data.

    [0081] In this application, in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, a process in which the first terminal device performs encapsulation of the TML layer or the NAS layer on the third data to generate the second data may be as follows: An identifier of the first terminal device is added to the third data, and the identifier of the first terminal device is pre-allocated, to the first terminal device, by a core network, for example, an HSS home subscriber server (Home Subscriber Server, HSS) or an ID allocation server. Security processing, for example, encryption and integrity protection, is performed on the third data. An SN sequence number is added to the third data, and the SN sequence number is used to distinguish second data sent by a same first terminal. A check value is added to the third data, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data to the network device. APLMN identifier of the first terminal device is added to the third data. An RAT type is added to the third data, and the RAT type is used to indicate a manner in which an access stratum at a bottom layer sends the first data. For example, the RAT type may be any one of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, ZigBee, an RF ID, D2D, and V2V or another access technology, the access stratum at the bottom layer may send the first data to the second terminal device in a corresponding manner according to the foregoing indication.

    [0082] It should be noted that, in this application, the first terminal device may perform all processing at the TML layer, or may perform only partial processing at the TML layer. For example, the first terminal device adds the identifier of the first terminal device only to the third data.

    [0083] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, after data processing is completed at the TML layer, to generate the second data, the second data may be transmitted to the adaptor layer, and after the adaptor layer receives the second data, processing of the adaptor layer may be performed on the data, which may be as follows: A first indication is added to second data, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a NAS signaling manner, an SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner. A second indication is added to the second data, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device, or the second indication may be further used to instruct the second terminal device how to send the second data when the second terminal device obtains the second data. For example, the second data may be immediately sent or sending of the second data may allow to be delayed. If the second data is immediately sent, the second terminal device needs to immediately send the second data after receiving the second data. If the second terminal device is in an RRC idle state in this case, the second terminal device needs to be immediately switched to an RRC connected state to send the second data. If sending of the second data allows to be delayed, the second terminal device may send data of the second terminal device and data of the first terminal device together when the second terminal device is to send the data and is in a connected state. A PLMN identifier is added to the second data, and the PLMN identifier may be specifically obtained from a PLMN identifier added at the TML layer, and the PLMN identifier may be specifically used as a specific condition for determining whether the second terminal device forwards the data. A specific determining process is described in detail in the second terminal device. An air interface connection identifier of the first terminal device or an identifier of the first terminal device, for example, an ID of a Bluetooth device, is added, so that the second terminal device transfers data to the first terminal device. A filter identifier is added, so that the second terminal device filters redundant data. The filter identifier may be specifically the identifier of the first terminal device and a data packet identifier, or may be specifically the identifier of the first terminal device and a random number, or may be specifically a random number. In this application, the second terminal device may determine, based on the filter identifier, whether data packets are a same data packet sent by the same first terminal device. If the data packets are the same data packet sent by the same first terminal device, the repeated data packet is discarded, and only one of data packets with a same identifier that are sent by the same terminal device is forwarded, thereby reducing power consumption. For the first terminal device at a transmit end, whether the second terminal device can receive information sent by the first terminal device cannot be learned in advance. Therefore, the data packets with the same identifier can be repeatedly sent, to improve a probability of being received.

    [0084] It should be noted that, in this application, the first terminal device may perform all processing at the adaptor layer, or may perform only partial processing at the adaptor layer. For example, the first terminal device may add the first indication only to the second data.

    [0085] It should be noted that, in this application, the identifier of the first terminal device added to the TML layer may be specifically a credential (Credential). The credential may be generated by an IoT GW or generated by an HSS.

    [0086] In this application, after data processing is completed at the adaptor layer, data may be sent to an access stratum, and the first data may be generated after processing of the access stratum is further performed on the data at the access stratum. In addition, the first data may be sent to the second terminal device at the access stratum according to an indication of the RAT type. For example, if the indication of the RAT type is Bluetooth, the first data may be sent to the second terminal device in a Bluetooth manner at the access stratum.

    [0087] In this application, the first terminal device may transmit the first data to the second terminal device in a broadcast manner. In this case,

    [0088] the first terminal device does not need to establish a dedicated connection to the second terminal device, thereby reducing signaling processes, and reducing power consumption of the first terminal device and the second terminal device. In addition, in the broadcast manner, regardless of which second terminal device receives the first data, the second terminal device can help the first terminal device transmit the data to the network device, thereby increasing a success rate. In addition, because the first terminal device sends the first data by using a low-power-consumption air interface and/or a short-range air interface, energy consumption may be greatly reduced compared with cellular communication.

    [0089] Step S53: The second terminal device generates fourth data.

    [0090] Step S54: The second terminal device sends the fourth data to the first network device by using a first connection, where the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the first network device.

    [0091] In this application, the second terminal device sends the fourth data by using the connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, without establishing a dedicated connection for the first data, thereby reducing signaling overheads of the second terminal device.

    [0092] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, after receiving the first data, the second terminal device may first perform decapsulation of the access stratum and the adaptor layer on the first data, to obtain the second data. In addition, the second terminal device obtains a first indication of the first terminal device at the adaptor layer. If the first indication instructs the second terminal device to send the second data in a NAS signaling manner, as shown in FIG. 4a or FIG. 4d, the second terminal device may encapsulate the second data based on a NAS protocol, to generate the fourth data. The fourth data is NAS signaling. The fourth data is sent to a first core network device by using a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first core network device. If the first indication instructs the second terminal device to send the second data in an SMS short message manner, as shown in FIG. 4b, the second terminal device may encapsulate the second data by using an SMS protocol, to generate the fourth data. The fourth data is an SMS short message, and the fourth data is sent to the first core network device by using the control plane connection between the first terminal device and the first core network device. As shown in FIG. 4c, if the first indication instructs the second terminal device to send the second data in an IP data packet manner, the second terminal device may process the second data by using an IP protocol, to generate the fourth data. The fourth data is an IP data packet, and the fourth data is sent to the first core network device by using a user plane connection between the first terminal device and the first core network device.

    [0093] In this application, when performing encapsulation of the NAS protocol, the SMS protocol, or the IP protocol on the second data, the second terminal device may specifically add a third indication to the second data. The third indication may be used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data, or instruct the first network device to forward the fourth data to the second network device.

    [0094] In this application, specifically, the second indication may specifically use an explicit manner. For example, the indication information is carried in the message. Alternatively, the second indication may use an implicit manner, for example, a manner agreed on by using a message name or the like.

    [0095] In this application, for adding the third indication by using the NAS protocol, the following three manners may be specifically provided, specifically: In a first manner, a dedicated field is added to the NAS protocol, to accommodate the third indication. Both a receiving party and a transmitting party can learn of, through a name of the field, a type of data transmitted in the field, for example, an IoT UE Container. A transmit end places a data packet of IoT UE into the field, and a receive end parses the data packet of the IoT UE after receiving the data packet. In a second manner, two dedicated fields are added to the NAS protocol. One field is used to indicate a data type, for example, IoT UE data, and the other field is used to accommodate the IoT UE data. The transmit end places the data packet of the IoT UE into the field, and the receive end parses the data packet of the IoT UE after receiving the data packet. In a third manner, an IoT UE ID and the IoT UE data may form an adaptor layer. A correspondence between the IoT UE ID and a Relay UE ID may be recorded at the adaptor layer.

    [0096] It should be noted that, for the first manner and the second manner, an IoT UE ID field may be further added, so that the receive end records the correspondence between the IoT UE ID and the Relay UE ID after receiving the IoT UE ID field.

    [0097] In this application, further, the second terminal device may further obtain the second indication when performing decapsulation of the adaptor layer on the first data, and send, by using the first connection, the fourth data including the second data to the first network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.

    [0098] In this application, further, when performing decapsulation of the adaptor layer on the first data, the second terminal device may further obtain the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device, and when the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device and a PLMN identifier of the second terminal device meet the preset condition, then, send the fourth data to the second network device by using the first connection. In this application, the preset condition may be that the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device is the same as the PLMN identifier of the second terminal device, the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device and the PLMN identifier of the second terminal device have an association relationship during roaming, or the like.

    [0099] In this application, the second terminal device may access the first network device by using a radio access network and in a manner such as the cellular-based narrowband internet of things (Narrow Band Internet of Things, NB-IoT), enhanced machine type communication (eMTC), a global system for mobile communications (Global System for Mobile Communication, UMTS), LTE (Long Term Evolution, long term evolution), and new radio (New Radio, NR), and then send the fourth data.

    [0100] Step S55: When determining that the fourth data includes the third indication, the first network device generates fifth data.

    [0101] In this application, the data sent by the second terminal device to the first network device may be data of the second terminal device, or may be data of the first terminal device. Therefore, in this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, when performing decapsulation of the NAS protocol, the SMS protocol, or the IP protocol on the fourth data, the first network device may determine whether the fourth data includes the third indication, and if the fourth data includes the third indication, determine that the data is reported by the first terminal device, and perform related processing on the data, to generate the fifth data, for example, in FIG. 4a, perform decapsulation of the NAS layer and encapsulation of a GTP-C protocol and a bottom-layer protocol on the fourth data, to generate the fifth data. Then, the fifth data is sent to the second network device. However, in this application, if determining that the fourth data does not include the third indication, the first network device may determine that the data is reported by the second terminal device. In this case, the data does not need to be reported to the second network device.

    [0102] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, when performing encapsulation of the GTP-C protocol or the GTP-U protocol on the data, the first network device may add, to the data, the identifier of the second terminal device, for example, a cell global identifier, longitude and latitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device. In actual application, the first terminal device is usually relatively close to the second terminal device. Therefore, when obtaining location information of the second terminal device, the second network device may approximately consider that location information of the first terminal device is obtained, to facilitate control and management on the first terminal device by the second network device. For example, the second network device may report the location information of the first terminal device to a corresponding application server.

    [0103] Step S56: The first network device sends the fifth data to the second network device.

    [0104] In this application, when forwarding the second data (the second data may be specifically TML data or NAS data) to the second network device, the first network device may further obtain an identifier of a relay device, and send the identifier of the relay device together with the second data to the second network device. Therefore, the second network device may learn of a specific relay device that helps the internet of things device transmit data, to facilitate subsequent processing on the relay device, for example, charging for the relay device, and fee return and encouragement.

    [0105] Step S57: The second network device processes the fifth data, to obtain the second data.

    [0106] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, or FIG. 4d, because the second network device has a peer layer to the first terminal device, and the peer layer may be a NAS layer or a TML layer, the second network device can identify and obtain the second data.

    [0107] In this application, as shown in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, or FIG. 4c, the fifth data may be specifically decapsulated by using the bottom-layer protocol and the GTP-C protocol, to obtain the second data. Alternatively, as shown in FIG. 4d, the fifth data is decapsulated by using the bottom-layer protocol and the GTP-U protocol, to obtain the second data.

    [0108] Step S58: The second network device processes the second data, to obtain third data and the identifier of the first terminal device.

    [0109] In this application, the second data may be decapsulated by using the NAS protocol or the TML protocol, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device.

    [0110] Step S59: The second network device determines, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0111] In this application, after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the second network device may report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device, for example, when the first terminal device is a shared bicycle, report the third data to a shared bicycle server.

    [0112] In this application, the first terminal device adds an SN sequence number, a check value, a security encryption value, and the like to the second data. Therefore, in this application, after obtaining the second data, the second network device may specifically process the second data based on the SN sequence number, the check value, and the security encryption value. For example, the second network device determines, based on the SN sequence number, whether the second data is repeatedly received, and if yes, discards the second data, or otherwise, reports the third data corresponding to the second data to the corresponding application server. For another example, the second network device determines, based on the check value, whether the second data is modified in a transmission network, and if the second data is modified, discards the second data, or otherwise, reports the third data corresponding to the second data to the corresponding application server. For another example, the second network device determines, based on the security encryption value, whether the second data is complete, if the second data is incomplete, discards the second data, and if the second data is complete, then reports the third data in the second data to the corresponding application server. Compared with the prior art, a bearer does not need to be set up in advance and security does not need to be activated in advance, but data is directly sent. Authentication and security are performed only when data is received, thereby reducing signaling and reducing a delay and power consumption.

    [0113] Based on the system frameworks in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, and FIG. 4h, as shown in FIG. 6, this application further provides a procedure of a communication method. In the procedure, a first terminal device may correspond to the internet of things device in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, and FIG. 4h; a second terminal device may correspond to the relay device in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, and FIG. 4h; a third network device corresponds to the third network device in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, and FIG. 4h. As shown in FIG. 6, the communication method includes the following steps.

    [0114] Step S61: The first terminal device generates first data.

    [0115] Step S62: The first terminal device sends the first data to the second terminal device.

    [0116] Step S63: The second terminal device generates fourth data.

    [0117] Step S64: The second terminal device sends the fourth data to the third network device.

    [0118] Implementation processes of steps S61 to S64 are similar to those of steps S51 to S54 in FIG. 5. Refer to related descriptions in FIG. 5. Details are not described herein again.

    [0119] Step S65: The third network device processes the fourth data, and when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication, obtains second data, where the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data.

    [0120] In this application, the third network device may first process the fourth data by using a fourth protocol, to determine whether the fourth data includes the third indication, and if the fourth data includes the third indication, obtain the second data from the fourth data, or otherwise, end processing.

    [0121] In this application, the fourth protocol may be the NAS protocol in FIG. 4e or FIG. 4h, the SMS protocol in FIG. 4f, or the IP protocol in FIG. 4g.

    [0122] Step S66: The third network device processes the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device.

    [0123] In this application, the second data may be specifically processed by using a first protocol, to obtain the third data in the second data and the identifier of the first terminal device. The first protocol may be specifically the TML protocol in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, or FIG. 4g, or may be the NAS protocol in FIG. 4h.

    [0124] Step S67: The third network device determines, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0125] In this application, the third network device may report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0126] In this application, the first terminal device adds an SN sequence number, a check value, a security encryption value, and the like to the second data. Therefore, in this application, after obtaining the second data, the third network device may specifically process the second data based on the SN sequence number, the check value, and the security encryption value. For example, the third network device determines, based on the SN sequence number, whether the second data is repeatedly received, and if yes, discards the second data, or otherwise, reports the third data corresponding to the second data to the corresponding application server. For another example, the third network device determines, based on the check value, whether the second data is modified in a transmission network, and if the second data is modified, discards the second data, or otherwise, reports the third data corresponding to the second data to the corresponding application server. For another example, the third network device determines, based on the security encryption value, whether the second data is complete, if the second data is incomplete, discards the second data, and if the second data is complete, then reports the third data in the second data to the corresponding application server.

    [0127] It can be learned from the foregoing descriptions that the relay device transmits the fourth data to a network device by using an access network. In this application, how the relay device transmits the fourth data to a first core network device by using the access network is described in detail.

    [0128] Based on the system framework shown in FIG. 4a, as shown in FIG. 7a, this application provides a specific protocol framework. Fourth data in the protocol framework is specifically NAS signaling. In FIG. 7a, UE shown may correspond to the relay device in FIG. 4a; an MME corresponds to the first network device in FIG. 4a; the access network device is an eNodeB.

    [0129] Specifically, referring to FIG. 7a, protocols on a UE side may be specifically NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols. Peer protocols between an eNodeB side and UE are RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols, and peer protocols between the eNodeB side and an MME are S1-AP, SCTP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols. In this application, an interface between the UE and the eNodeB may be specifically an LTE-Uu interface, and an interface between the eNodeB and the MME may be specifically an SI-MME interface.

    [0130] In this application, as shown in FIG. 7b, a specific protocol framework is provided. The protocol framework may be specifically applied to communication between the first network device and the second network device. As shown in FIG. 7b, the first network device may be specifically an MME, the second network device may be specifically an IOT GW, and peer protocols between the MME and the S-GW are L1, L2, IP, UDP, and GTP-C. An interface between the MME and the S-GW is an S11 interface.

    [0131] In this application, in FIG. 4a, bottom-layer protocols of the NAS layer in the relay device may be specifically RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols, bottom-layer protocols of the NAS layer in the first network device may be specifically S1-AP, SCTP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols, and bottom-layer protocols of the GTP-C layer in the first network device may be specifically UDP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols.

    [0132] Based on the system framework shown in FIG. 4b, as shown in FIG. 8, this application provides a specific protocol framework. Fourth data in the protocol framework is specifically an SMS short message. In FIG. 8, UE may correspond to the relay device in FIG. 4b; an SMC corresponds to the first network device in FIG. 4b; an eNodeB may correspond to the access network device.

    [0133] In this application, peer protocols between the UE and the eNodeB and peer protocols between the MME and the eNodeB are similar to the corresponding peer protocols in FIG. 7a. Details are not described herein again.

    [0134] In this application, in FIG. 4b, bottom-layer protocols of the SMS of the relay device may be specifically NAS, RRC, PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols.

    [0135] Based on the system framework shown in FIG. 4c, as shown in FIG. 9, this application provides a specific protocol framework. Fourth data in the protocol framework is specifically an IP data packet. In FIG. 9, UE may correspond to the relay device in FIG. 4c, a PDN GW corresponds to the first network device in FIG. 4c, and the access network device is an eNodeB.

    [0136] In this application, peer protocols between the UE and the eNodeB are PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols, and peer protocols between the eNodeB and a serving GW are GTP-U, UDP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols. Peer protocols between the serving GW and the PDN GW are GTP-U, UDP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols.

    [0137] In this application, in FIG. 4c, bottom-layer protocols of the IP layer of the relay device may be PDCP, RLC, MAC, and L1 protocols. Bottom-layer protocols of the IP layer of the first network device may be GTP-U, UDP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols, and bottom-layer protocols of the GTP-U layer of the first network device may be UDP, IP, L2, and L1 protocols. An interface between the UE and the eNodeB is LTE-Uu, an interface between the eNodeB and the serving GW is S1-U, and an interface between the serving GW and the PDN GW is S5/S8.

    [0138] It should be noted that "a plurality of' mentioned in this application means two or more. Terms such as "first" and "second" described in this application are used for differentiation only, and are not used to indicate or imply relative importance or a sequence.

    [0139] In the embodiments of this application, some scenarios are described by using a 4G network scenario in a wireless communications network as an example. It should be noted that the solutions in the embodiments of this application may be alternatively applied to another wireless communications network, and a corresponding name may be replaced with a name of a corresponding function in the another wireless communications network.

    [0140] Based on the system frameworks in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, FIG. 4d, FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, and FIG. 4h, this application provides an application scenario. Details are as follows:
    The core network device (for example, an HSS) allocates an identifier segment to each vendor of the internet of things device. For example, if internet of things device vendors include a vendor 1, a vendor 2, and a vendor 1, the core network device may allocate an identifier segment 000-110 to the vendor 1, allocate an identifier segment 111-1110 to the vendor 2, and allocate an identifier segment 1111-11110 to the vendor 3. Therefore, in this application, when producing an internet of things device, each vendor may allocate an identifier to each internet of things device from an address segment pre-obtained from the core network device. For example, an identifier segment pre-obtained by the vendor 1 from the core network device is 000-110. Therefore, the vendor 1 may allocate an identifier 000 to a produced internet of things device A, allocate an identifier 001 to an internet of things device B produced by the vendor 1, and so on. Each internet of things device carries, at delivery, an identifier pre-allocated to the internet of things device.

    [0141] In this application, when performing communication by using the method shown in the procedure in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6, the internet of things device may add the identifier to to-be-sent data, and send the data in a broadcast manner. A nearby relay device that receives the data may send the data to a network device by using a user plane connection or a control plane connection between the relay device and the network device. After receiving the data, the network device may determine, based on the identifier of the data, an internet of things vendor that reports the data, and therefore, send the data to a corresponding application server. For example, data of the vendor 1 may be sent to an application server of the vendor 1. The data of the vendor 1 may be sent to an application server of the vendor 2.

    [0142] In this application, the internet of things device sends data by using the relay device, and the internet of things device does not need to establish a user plane connection and a control plane connection to the network device, thereby reducing power consumption of the internet of things device. However, when receiving the data, the relay device sends the data by using a connection between the relay device and the network device, and does not need to establish a dedicated connection for the internet of things device. In this way, power consumption of the relay device is also reduced. In addition, the internet of things device directly sends service data in a broadcast manner without establishing a dedicated connection to the relay device, thereby reducing signaling overheads of the internet of things device and the relay device.

    [0143] In actual application, because a time for which a nearby relay device passes may be relatively short, in this application, service data is directly sent on a broadcast channel without establishing a dedicated connection, so that the internet of things device can transmit the data to a network by using the relay device passing nearby. In addition, with development of the internet of things, a large quantity of internet of things devices need to be connected to a network. Therefore, a large quantity of base stations need to be deployed for support. However, in the manner of this application, the internet of things device may transmit data by using a relay device, so that a quantity of to-be-deployed base stations can be reduced, and overheads can be reduced.

    [0144] FIG. 10 is a possible schematic structural diagram of a network device in the foregoing embodiments of this application. The network device may be the first network device or the second network device in FIG. 4a, FIG. 4b, FIG. 4c, FIG. 4d, and FIG. 5, or may be the third network device in FIG. 4e, FIG. 4f, FIG. 4g, FIG. 4h, and FIG. 6.

    [0145] In this application, the network device includes a transceiver 101 and a controller/processor 102. The transceiver 101 may be configured to support information reception and transmission between the network device and the terminal device in the foregoing embodiments, and support radio communication between a base station and another network device.

    [0146] The controller/processor 102 is configured to perform various functions for communicating with the terminal device and the network device. In an uplink, an uplink signal from the terminal device is received by using an antenna, is demodulated by the transceiver 101, and is further processed by the controller/processor 102 to restore service data and signaling information that are sent by the terminal device. In a downlink, service data and a signaling message are processed by the controller/processor 102 and are demodulated by the transceiver 101 to generate a downlink signal, and the downlink signal is transmitted to UE by using the antenna. The controller/processor 102 is further configured to: perform the communication method described in the foregoing embodiments, to process the fourth data and obtain second data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication; process the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of a first terminal device; and determine, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data. The controller/processor 102 is further configured to perform a processing process that relates to the network device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6 and/or another process used for technologies described in this application. The network device may further include a memory 103, and the memory 103 may be configured to store program code and data of the network device. The network device may further include a communications unit 104, configured to support the base station in communicating with another network entity, for example, configured to support the network device in communicating with the second terminal device shown in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6.

    [0147] It may be understood that FIG. 10 shows only a simplified design of the network device. During actual application, the network device may include any quantity of transmitters, receivers, processors, controllers, memories, communications units, and the like, and all base stations that can implement this application fall within the protection scope of this application.

    [0148] FIG. 11 is a simplified schematic diagram of a possible design structure of a terminal device in an embodiment of this application. The terminal device may be one of the terminal devices in FIG. 1 to FIG. 6. The terminal device includes a transceiver 111 and a controller/processor 112, and may further include a memory 113 and a modem processor 114.

    [0149] The transceiver 111 adjusts (for example, analog-converts, filters, amplifies, and up-converts) the output sample and generates an uplink signal. The uplink signal is transmitted to the network device in the foregoing embodiments by using an antenna. In a downlink, an antenna receives a downlink signal transmitted by the network device in the foregoing embodiments. The transceiver 111 adjusts (for example, filters, amplifies, down-converts, and digitizes) a signal received from the antenna, and provides an input sample. In the modem processor 114, an encoder 1141 receives service data and a signaling message that are to be sent in an uplink, and processes (for example, formats, encodes, and interleaves) the service data and the signaling message. A modulator 1142 performs further processing (for example, symbol mapping and modulation) on encoded service data and an encoded signaling message, and provides an output sample. A decoder 1143 processes (for example, de-interleaves and decodes) the symbol estimation and provides decoded data and a decoded signaling message that are to be sent to the terminal device. A demodulator 1144 processes (for example, demodulates) the input sample, and provides symbol estimation. The encoder 1141, the modulator 1142, the decoder 1143, and the demodulator 1144 may be implemented by the combined modem processor 114. These units perform processing based on a wireless technology (for example, an access technology in LTE or another evolved system) used in a radio access network.

    [0150] The controller/processor 112 controls and manages an action of the terminal device and is configured to perform processing performed by the terminal device in the foregoing embodiments. For example, the terminal device may be the first terminal device and the second terminal device, and the first terminal device may generate the first data, and send the first data to the second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established. The second terminal device may process the first data to obtain second data, and process the second data, to obtain fourth data, and send the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection. In an example, the controller/processor 112 may be configured to support the terminal device in performing the content related to the terminal device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6. The memory 113 is configured to store program code and data used for the terminal device.

    [0151] This application further provides a communications apparatus. The communications apparatus may be the first terminal device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6. As shown in FIG. 12, the communications apparatus 120 includes:

    a processing unit 121, configured to generate first data, where the first data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    a transceiver unit 122, configured to send the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established.



    [0152] In this application, the generating, by the first terminal device, first data includes: encapsulating, by the first terminal device, the third data by using a first protocol, to generate the second data, where the first protocol is a transmission management TML protocol or a non-access stratum NAS protocol; and encapsulating, by the first terminal device, the second data by using a second protocol, to generate the first data, where the second protocol is at least one of an adaptor layer (Adaptor Layer) protocol and an access stratum protocol.

    [0153] In this application, the first data further includes a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a non-access stratum NAS signaling manner, a short message service SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner.

    [0154] In this application, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device.

    [0155] In this application, the sending, by the first terminal device, the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established includes: sending, by the first terminal device, the first data to the second terminal device by using a broadcast channel when the connection to the network device is not established.

    [0156] In this application, the identifier of the first terminal device is pre-allocated by a core network device to the first terminal device. The second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data. The second data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data to the network device. The first data further includes a public land mobile network PLMN identifier of the first terminal device.

    [0157] For descriptions and specific beneficial effects of performing the communication method by the communications apparatus, refer to descriptions of the first terminal device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6 and related literary records in the foregoing embodiments. Details are not described herein again.

    [0158] This application further provides another communications apparatus. As shown in FIG. 13, the communications apparatus 130 may correspond to the second terminal device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6, and includes:

    a transceiver unit 131, configured to: receive first data sent by a first terminal device, where the first data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    a processing unit 132, configured to: process the first data, to obtain the second data; process the second data, to obtain fourth data, where the fourth data includes the second data and a third indication; and send the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection, where the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device; or send the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection, where the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data.



    [0159] In this application, the first data further includes a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a NAS signaling manner, an SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner; and
    when processing the second data, to obtain the fourth data, the processing unit 132 is specifically configured to: when the first indication is the NAS signaling manner, process the second data based on a NAS protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is NAS signaling; when the first indication is the SMS short message manner, process the second data based on an SMS protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is an SMS short message; or when the first indication is the IP data packet manner, process the second data based on an IP protocol, to generate the fourth data, where the fourth data is an IP data packet.

    [0160] In this application, the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS short message; and
    when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send the fourth data to the first network device by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0161] In this application, the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0162] In this application, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send, by using the first connection, the fourth data including the second data to the first network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.

    [0163] In this application, the second connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send the fourth data to the third network device by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0164] In this application, the second connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send the fourth data to the third network device by using the user plane connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0165] In this application, the first data further includes a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: send, by using the second connection, the fourth data including the second data to the third network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.

    [0166] In this application, the first data further includes a PLMN identifier of the first terminal device; and when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver unit 131 is specifically configured to: when the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device included in the first data and a PLMN identifier of the second terminal device meet a preset condition, send the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection.

    [0167] In this application, the receiving, by the transceiver unit 131, first data sent by a first terminal device specifically includes: receiving, on a broadcast channel, the first data sent by the first terminal device.

    [0168] For descriptions and specific beneficial effects of performing the communication method by the communications apparatus, refer to descriptions of the second terminal device in FIG. 5 or FIG. 6 and related literary records in the foregoing embodiments. Details are not described herein again.

    [0169] This application further provides a communications apparatus. As shown in FIG. 14, the communications apparatus 140 may correspond to the first network device in FIG. 5, and includes:

    a transceiver unit 141, configured to: receive, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, where the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and a first network device; and send fifth data to a second network device; and

    a processing unit 142, configured to generate the fifth data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication, where the fifth data includes the second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of the second terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to a network device, the identifier of the second terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device that reports the second data, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to the second network device.



    [0170] In this application, the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS message; and
    the receiving, by the transceiver unit 141 by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving, by using the control plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0171] In this application, the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and the receiving, by the transceiver unit 141 by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device includes: receiving, by using the user plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0172] In this application, the fifth data further carries location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information includes at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.

    [0173] For descriptions and specific beneficial effects of performing the communication method by the communications apparatus, refer to descriptions about the first network device in FIG. 5 and related literary records. Details are not described herein again.

    [0174] This application further provides another communications apparatus. As shown in FIG. 15, the communications apparatus 150 may correspond to the second network device in FIG. 5, and includes:

    a transceiver unit 151, configured to receive fifth data sent by a first network device, where the fifth data includes second data, the second data includes third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the second network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    a processing unit 152, configured to: process the fifth data, to obtain the second data; process the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device; and determine, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.



    [0175] In this application, when processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data, the processing unit 152 is specifically configured to: process the fifth data by using a third protocol, to obtain the second data, where the second protocol includes at least one of a GPRS tunneling protocol-user panel GTP-U protocol, a user datagram protocol UDP, and an IP protocol.

    [0176] In this application, the processing, by the processing unit 152, the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device includes: processing the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the second data and the identifier of the first terminal device, where the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.

    [0177] In this application, the fifth data further includes location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information includes at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.

    [0178] In this application, the transceiver unit 151 is further configured to: report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0179] In this application, the second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and when reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver unit 151 is specifically configured to: determine, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is repeatedly received; report the third data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not repeatedly received; and discard the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.

    [0180] In this application, the fifth data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data included in the fifth data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device;
    when reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver unit 151 is specifically configured to: check, based on the check value after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and report the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.

    [0181] For descriptions and specific beneficial effects of performing the communication method by the communications apparatus, refer to descriptions of the second network device in FIG. 5 and related literary records. Details are not described herein again.

    [0182] This application further provides another communications apparatus. As shown in FIG. 16, the communications apparatus 160 may correspond to the third network device in FIG. 6, and includes:

    a transceiver unit 161, configured to receive, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, where the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device; and

    a processing unit 162, configured to process the fourth data, and obtain second data when determining that the fourth data includes a third indication, where the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to the third network device; process the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, where the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data includes the second data; and determine, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.



    [0183] In this application, when processing the fourth data, and obtaining second data when determining that the fourth data includes the third indication, the processing unit 162 is specifically configured to: process the fourth data by using a fourth protocol, to determine whether the fourth data includes the third indication, where the fourth protocol includes at least one of a UDP protocol, an IP protocol, and a NAS protocol; and obtain the second data from the fourth data when determining that the fourth data includes the third indication.

    [0184] In this application, when processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, the processing unit 162 is specifically configured to: process the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, where the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.

    [0185] In this application, the second connection is a control plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS short message; and when receiving, by using the second connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, the transceiver unit 161 is specifically configured to: receive the fourth data by using the control plane connection, where the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.

    [0186] In this application, the second connection is a user plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and when receiving, by using the second connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, the transceiver unit 161 is specifically configured to: receive the fourth data by using the user plane connection, where the fourth data is the IP data packet.

    [0187] In this application, the transceiver unit 161 is further configured to: report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.

    [0188] In this application, the second data further includes an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and
    when reporting the third data included in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver unit 161 is specifically configured to: determine, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data in the second data is repeatedly received; report the third data to the corresponding application server when determining that the second data in the second data is not repeatedly received; and discard the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.

    [0189] In this application, the second data further includes a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the third network device; and
    when reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver unit 161 is specifically configured to: check, based on the check value in the second data after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and report the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.

    [0190] For descriptions and specific beneficial effects of performing the paging method by the communications apparatus, refer to descriptions of the third network device in FIG. 6 and related literary records in the foregoing embodiments. Details are not described herein again.

    [0191] This application further provides a computer-readable storage medium, configured to store a computer program. The computer program is used to execute an instruction of any communication method shown in the foregoing embodiments.

    [0192] All or some of the foregoing embodiments may be implemented by means of software, hardware, firmware, or any combination thereof. When software is used to implement the embodiments, the embodiments may be implemented completely or partially in a form of a computer program product. The computer program product includes one or more computer instructions. When the computer program instructions are loaded and executed on the computer, the procedure or functions according to the embodiments of the present invention are all or partially generated. The computer may be a general-purpose computer, a dedicated computer, a computer network, or other programmable apparatuses. The computer instructions may be stored in a computer-readable storage medium or may be transmitted from one computer-readable storage medium to another computer-readable storage medium. For example, the computer instructions may be transmitted from one website, computer, server, or data center to another website, computer, server, or data center in a wired (for example, a coaxial cable, an optical fiber, or a digital subscriber line) or wireless (for example, infrared, radio, or microwave) manner. The computer-readable storage medium may be any usable medium accessible to the computer, or a data storage device, such as a server or a data center, integrating one or more usable media. The usable medium may be a magnetic medium (for example, a floppy disk, a hard disk, or a magnetic tape), an optical medium (for example, a DVD), a semiconductor medium (for example, a solid-state drive), or the like.

    [0193] A person skilled in the art should understand that the embodiments of this application may be provided as a method, a system, or a computer program product. Therefore, this application may use a form of a hardware-only embodiment, a software-only embodiment, or an embodiment with a combination of software and hardware. Moreover, this application may use a form of a computer program product that is implemented on one or more computer-usable storage media (including but not limited to a disk memory, a CD-ROM, an optical memory, and the like) that include computer usable program code.

    [0194] This application is described with reference to the flowcharts and/or the block diagrams of the method, the device (system), and the computer program product in this application. It should be understood that computer program instructions may be used to implement each process and/or each block in the flowcharts and/or the block diagrams and a combination of a process and/or a block in the flowcharts and/or the block diagrams. These computer program instructions may be provided for a general-purpose computer, a dedicated computer, an embedded processor, or a processor of another programmable data processing device to generate a machine, so that the instructions executed by a computer or a processor of another programmable data processing device generate an apparatus for implementing a specific function in one or more processes in the flowcharts and/or in one or more blocks in the block diagrams.

    [0195] These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer-readable memory that can instruct the computer or another programmable data processing device to work in a specific manner, so that the instructions stored in the computer-readable memory generate an artifact that includes an instruction apparatus. The instruction apparatus implements a specific function in one or more processes in the flowcharts and/or in one or more blocks in the block diagrams.

    [0196] These computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or another programmable data processing device, so that a series of operations and steps are performed on the computer or another programmable device, to generate computer-implemented processing. Therefore, the instructions executed on the computer or the another programmable device provide steps for implementing a specific function in one or more processes in the flowcharts and/or in one or more blocks in the block diagrams.

    [0197] Obviously, a person skilled in the art can make various modifications and variations to this application without departing from the spirit and scope of this application. In this way, this application is intended to cover these modifications and variations of this application provided that they fall within the scope of the claims of this application and equivalent technologies thereof.


    Claims

    1. A communication method, comprising:

    generating first data, wherein the first data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    sending the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established.


     
    2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the generating, by a first terminal device, first data comprises:

    encapsulating the third data by using a first protocol, to generate the second data, wherein the first protocol is a transmission management TML protocol or a non-access stratum NAS protocol; and

    encapsulating the second data by using a second protocol, to generate the first data, wherein the second protocol is at least one of an adaptor layer protocol and an access stratum protocol.


     
    3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the first data further comprises a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a non-access stratum NAS signaling manner, a short message service SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner.
     
    4. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device.
     
    5. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the sending the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established comprises:
    sending the first data to the second terminal device by using a broadcast channel when the connection to the network device is not established.
     
    6. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the identifier of the first terminal device is pre-allocated by a core network device to the first terminal device.
     
    7. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data.
     
    8. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the second data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data to the network device.
     
    9. The method according to any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the first data further comprises a public land mobile network PLMN identifier of the first terminal device.
     
    10. A communication method, comprising:

    receiving first data sent by a first terminal device, wherein the first data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device;

    processing the first data, to obtain the second data;

    processing the second data, to obtain fourth data, wherein the fourth data comprises the second data and a third indication; and

    sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection, wherein the first connection is a connection between a second terminal device and the first network device, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device; or

    sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection, wherein the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data comprises the second data.


     
    11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the first data further comprises a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a NAS signaling manner, an SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner; and
    the processing the second data, to obtain fourth data comprises:

    when the first indication is the NAS signaling manner, processing the second data based on a NAS protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is NAS signaling;

    when the first indication is the SMS short message manner, processing the second data based on an SMS protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is an SMS short message; or

    when the first indication is the IP data packet manner, processing the second data based on an IP protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is an IP data packet.


     
    12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and
    the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection comprises:
    sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    13. The method according to claim 11, wherein the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and
    the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection comprises:
    sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    14. The method according to any one of claims 10 to 13, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and
    the sending the fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection comprises:
    sending, by using the first connection, the fourth data comprising the second data to the first network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.
     
    15. The method according to claim 11, wherein the second connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and
    the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection comprises:
    sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    16. The method according to claim 11, wherein the second connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and
    the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection comprises:
    sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the user plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    17. The method according to claim 10, 15, or 16, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and
    the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection comprises:
    sending, by using the second connection, the fourth data comprising the second data to the third network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.
     
    18. The method according to any one of claims 10 to 17, wherein the first data further comprises a PLMN identifier of the first terminal device; and
    the sending the fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection comprises:
    when the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device comprised in the first data and a PLMN identifier of the second terminal device meet a preset condition, sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection.
     
    19. The method according to any one of claims 10 to 18, wherein the receiving first data sent by a first terminal device comprises:
    receiving, on a broadcast channel, the first data sent by the first terminal device.
     
    20. A communication method, comprising:

    receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, wherein the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and a first network device;

    generating fifth data when determining that the fourth data comprises a third indication, wherein the fifth data comprises the second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of the second terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to a network device, the identifier of the second terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device that reports the second data, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device; and

    sending the fifth data to the second network device.


     
    21. The method according to claim 20, wherein the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS message; and
    the receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device comprises:
    receiving, by using the control plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    22. The method according to claim 20, wherein the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and
    the receiving, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device comprises:
    receiving, by using the user plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    23. The method according to any one of claims 20 to 22, wherein the fifth data further carries location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information comprises at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.
     
    24. A communication method, comprising:

    receiving fifth data sent by a first network device, wherein the fifth data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a second network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device;

    processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data;

    processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device; and

    determining, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.


     
    25. The method according to claim 24, wherein the processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data comprises:
    processing the fifth data by using a third protocol, to obtain the second data, wherein the second protocol comprises at least one of a GPRS tunneling protocol-user panel GTP-U protocol, a user datagram protocol UDP, and an IP protocol.
     
    26. The method according to claim 24 or 25, wherein the processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device comprises:
    processing the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the second data and the identifier of the first terminal device, wherein the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.
     
    27. The method according to any one of claims 24 to 26, wherein the fifth data further comprises location information of a second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information comprises at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.
     
    28. The method according to any one of claims 24 to 27, wherein the method further comprises:
    reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.
     
    29. The method according to claim 24, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and
    the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data comprises:

    determining, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is repeatedly received;

    reporting the third data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not repeatedly received; and

    discarding the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.


     
    30. The method according to claim 28 or 29, wherein the fifth data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data comprised in the fifth data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and
    the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data comprises:

    checking, based on the check value after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and

    reporting the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.


     
    31. A communication method, comprising:

    receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, wherein the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and a third network device;

    processing the fourth data, and obtaining second data when determining that the fourth data comprises a third indication, wherein the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to the third network device;

    processing the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, wherein the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data comprises the second data; and

    determining, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.


     
    32. The method according to claim 31, wherein the processing the fourth data, and obtaining second data when determining that the fourth data comprises a third indication comprises:

    processing the fourth data by using a fourth protocol, to determine whether the fourth data comprises the third indication, wherein the fourth protocol comprises at least one of a UDP protocol, an IP protocol, and a NAS protocol; and

    obtaining the second data from the fourth data when determining that the fourth data comprises the third indication.


     
    33. The method according to claim 31 or 32, wherein the processing the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of the first terminal device comprises:
    processing the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, wherein the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.
     
    34. The method according to any one of claims 31 to 33, wherein the second connection is a control plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS short message; and
    the receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device comprises:
    receiving the fourth data by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    35. The method according to any one of claims 31 to 33, wherein the second connection is a user plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and
    the receiving, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device comprises:
    receiving the fourth data by using the user plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    36. The method according to any one of claims 31 to 35, wherein the method further comprises:
    reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.
     
    37. The method according to claim 36, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and
    the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data comprises:

    determining, based on the SN sequence number and an identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data in the second data is repeatedly received;

    reporting the third data to the corresponding application server when determining that the second data in the second data is not repeatedly received; and

    discarding the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received.


     
    38. The method according to claim 36 or 37, wherein the second data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the third network device; and
    the reporting the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data comprises:

    after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, checking, based on the check value in the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and

    reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.


     
    39. A communications apparatus, comprising:

    a processor, configured to generate first data, wherein the first data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    a transceiver, configured to send the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established.


     
    40. The apparatus according to claim 39, wherein when generating the first data, the processor is specifically configured to:

    encapsulate the third data by using a first protocol, to generate the second data, wherein the first protocol is a transmission management TML protocol or a non-access stratum NAS protocol; and

    encapsulate the second data by using a second protocol, to generate the first data, wherein the second protocol is at least one of an adaptor layer protocol and an access stratum protocol.


     
    41. The apparatus according to claim 39 or 40, wherein the first data further comprises a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a non-access stratum NAS signaling manner, a short message service SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner.
     
    42. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 41, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device.
     
    43. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 42, wherein the sending, by a transceiver, the first data to a second terminal device when a connection to the network device is not established comprises:
    sending, by the transceiver, the first data to the second terminal device by using a broadcast channel when the connection to the network device is not established.
     
    44. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 42, wherein the identifier of the first terminal device is pre-allocated by a core network device to the first terminal device.
     
    45. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 44, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data.
     
    46. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 45, wherein the second data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data to the network device.
     
    47. The apparatus according to any one of claims 39 to 46, wherein the first data further comprises a public land mobile network PLMN identifier of the first terminal device.
     
    48. A second terminal device, comprising:

    a transceiver, configured to: receive first data sent by a first terminal device, and send fourth data to a first network device by using a first connection, or send fourth data to a third network device by using a second connection, wherein the first data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of the first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to a network device, the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device, the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to a second network device, or the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data comprises the second data; and

    a processor, configured to: process the first data, to obtain the second data, and process the second data, to obtain the fourth data, wherein the fourth data comprises the second data and the third indication.


     
    49. The device according to claim 48, wherein the first data further comprises a first indication, the first indication is used to indicate a manner in which the second terminal device sends the second data, and the manner is at least one of a NAS signaling manner, an SMS short message manner, and an IP data packet manner; and
    when processing the second data, to obtain the fourth data, the processor is specifically configured to:

    when the first indication is the NAS signaling manner, process the second data based on a NAS protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is NAS signaling;

    when the first indication is the SMS short message manner, process the second data based on an SMS protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is an SMS short message; or

    when the first indication is the IP data packet manner, process the second data based on an IP protocol, to generate the fourth data, wherein the fourth data is an IP data packet.


     
    50. The device according to claim 49, wherein the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and
    when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send the fourth data to the first network device by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    51. The device according to claim 49, wherein the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and
    when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    52. The device according to any one of claims 48 to 51, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and
    when sending the fourth data to the first network device by using the first connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send, by using the first connection, the fourth data comprising the second data to the first network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.
     
    53. The device according to claim 49, wherein the second connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of the NAS signaling and the SMS short message; and
    when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send the fourth data to the third network device by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    54. The device according to claim 49, wherein the second connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the third network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit the IP data packet; and
    when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send the fourth data to the third network device by using the user plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    55. The device according to claim 48, 53, or 54, wherein the first data further comprises a second indication, and the second indication is used to indicate a maximum allowable delay time for sending the second data by the second terminal device; and
    when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    send, by using the second connection, the fourth data comprising the second data to the third network device within the maximum allowable delay time indicated by the second indication.
     
    56. The device according to any one of claims 48 to 55, wherein the first data further comprises a PLMN identifier of the first terminal device; and
    when sending the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    when the PLMN identifier of the first terminal device comprised in the first data and a PLMN identifier of the second terminal device meet a preset condition, send the fourth data to the third network device by using the second connection.
     
    57. The device according to any one of claims 48 to 56, wherein when receiving the first data sent by the first terminal device, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    receive, on a broadcast channel, the first data sent by the first terminal device.
     
    58. A first network device, comprising:

    a transceiver, configured to: receive, by using a first connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device and send fifth data to a second network device, wherein the first connection is a connection between the second terminal device and a first network device; and

    a processor, configured to generate fifth data when determining that the fourth data comprises a third indication, wherein the fifth data comprises the second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of the second terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by a first terminal device to a network device, the identifier of the second terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device that reports the second data, and the third indication is used to instruct the first network device to send the second data to the second network device.


     
    59. The device according to claim 58, wherein the first connection is a control plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS message; and
    when receiving, by using the first connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    receive, by using the control plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    60. The device according to claim 58, wherein the first connection is a user plane connection between the second terminal device and the first network device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and
    when receiving, by using the first connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    receive, by using the user plane connection, the fourth data sent by the second terminal device, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    61. The device according to any one of claims 58 to 60, wherein the fifth data further carries location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information comprises at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.
     
    62. A second network device, comprising:

    a transceiver, configured to receive fifth data sent by a first network device, wherein the fifth data comprises second data, the second data comprises third data and an identifier of a first terminal device, the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the second network device, and the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device; and

    a processor, configured to: process the fifth data, to obtain the second data; process the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device; and determine, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data.


     
    63. The device according to claim 62, wherein when processing the fifth data, to obtain the second data, the processor is specifically configured to:
    process the fifth data by using a third protocol, to obtain the second data, wherein the second protocol comprises at least one of a GPRS tunneling protocol-user panel GTP-U protocol, a user datagram protocol UDP, and an IP protocol.
     
    64. The device according to claim 62 or 63, wherein when processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, the processor is specifically configured to:
    process the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the second data and the identifier of the first terminal device, wherein the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.
     
    65. The device according to any one of claims 62 to 64, wherein the fifth data further comprises location information of the second terminal device and/or an identifier of the second terminal device, and the location information comprises at least one of a cell global identity, latitude and longitude information, a route update area, and a tracking area of the second terminal device.
     
    66. The device according to any one of claims 62 to 65, wherein the transceiver is further configured to:
    report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.
     
    67. The device according to claim 66, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data; and
    the processor is further configured to: determine, based on the SN sequence number and the identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is repeatedly received; and
    discard the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received; and
    the reporting, by the transceiver, the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data comprises:
    reporting, by the transceiver, the third data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not repeatedly received.
     
    68. The device according to claim 66 or 67, wherein the fifth data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data comprised in the fifth data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device;
    the processor is further configured to check, based on the check value after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and
    the transceiver reports the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data and is specifically configured to:
    report the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.
     
    69. A third network device, comprising:

    a transceiver, configured to receive, by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device, wherein the second connection is a connection between the second terminal device and the third network device; and

    a processor, configured to: process the fourth data, and obtain second data when determining that the fourth data comprises a third indication; process the second data, to obtain third data and an identifier of a first terminal device; and determine, based on the identifier of the first terminal device, the first terminal device that reports the second data, wherein the second data is data that needs to be reported by the first terminal device to the third network device; the identifier of the first terminal device is used to determine the first terminal device, and the third indication is used to indicate that the fourth data comprises the second data.


     
    70. The device according to claim 69, wherein when processing the fourth data, and obtaining the second data when determining that the fourth data comprises the third indication, the processor is specifically configured to:

    process the fourth data by using a fourth protocol, to determine whether the fourth data comprises the third indication, wherein the fourth protocol comprises at least one of a UDP protocol, an IP protocol, and a NAS protocol; and

    obtain the second data from the fourth data when the processor determines that the fourth data comprises the third indication.


     
    71. The device according to claim 69 or 70, wherein when processing the second data, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, the processor is specifically configured to:
    process the second data by using a first protocol, to obtain the third data and the identifier of the first terminal device, wherein the first protocol is a TML protocol or a NAS protocol.
     
    72. The device according to any one of claims 69 to 71, wherein the second connection is a control plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the control plane connection is used to transmit at least one of NAS signaling and an SMS short message; and
    the receiving, by the transceiver by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device is specifically:
    receiving, by the transceiver, the fourth data by using the control plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the NAS signaling or the SMS short message.
     
    73. The device according to any one of claims 69 to 71, wherein the second connection is a user plane connection between the third network device and the second terminal device, and the user plane connection is used to transmit an IP data packet; and
    the receiving, by the transceiver by using a second connection, fourth data sent by a second terminal device is specifically:
    receiving, by the transceiver, the fourth data by using the user plane connection, wherein the fourth data is the IP data packet.
     
    74. The device according to any one of claims 69 to 73, wherein the transceiver is further configured to:
    report the third data in the second data to an application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data.
     
    75. The device according to claim 74, wherein the second data further comprises an SN sequence number, and the SN sequence number is used to identify the second data;
    the processor is further configured to: determine, based on the SN sequence number and the identifier of the second terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data in the second data is repeatedly received; and discard the second data when determining that the second data is repeatedly received; and
    when reporting the third data comprised in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    report the third data to the corresponding application server when determining that the second data in the second data is not repeatedly received.
     
    76. The device according to claim 74 or 75, wherein the second data further comprises a check value, and the check value is used to check whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the third network device;
    the processor is further configured to check, based on the check value in the second data after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, whether the second data is modified in a process of transmitting the second data from the first terminal device to the second network device; and
    when reporting the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device after determining the first terminal device that reports the second data, the transceiver is specifically configured to:
    report the third data in the second data to the application server corresponding to the first terminal device when determining that the second data is not modified.
     
    77. A computer-readable storage medium, configured to store a computer program, wherein the computer program is used to execute an instruction of the method according to any one of claims 1 to 38.
     




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    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description