(19)
(11)EP 3 648 306 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
06.05.2020 Bulletin 2020/19

(21)Application number: 18203388.6

(22)Date of filing:  30.10.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
H02K 1/14  (2006.01)
H02K 1/16  (2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy A/S
7330 Brande (DK)

(72)Inventors:
  • Azar, Ziad
    Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 4ED (GB)
  • Clark, Richard
    Worrall Sheffield, S35 0AF (GB)
  • Duke, Alexander
    Sheffield, S6 5AG (GB)
  • Thomas, Arwyn
    Cheshire, South Yorkshire SK8 6HW (GB)

(74)Representative: Aspacher, Karl-Georg 
Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy GmbH & Co. KG Otto-Hahn-Ring 6
81739 München
81739 München (DE)

  


(54)ELECTRICAL MACHINE HAVING A SEGMENTED STATOR OR ROTOR


(57) It is described a stator segment (100) for the stator (11) or the rotor (12) of an electrical machine (10) including a segment body (22) circumferentially extending about a longitudinal axis (Y) of the stator segment (100) between two circumferential ends (23). The segment body (22) includes:
- a plurality of teeth (15, 16) protruding according to a radial direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis (Y) from a yoke (13) of the segment body (22) to respective tooth radial ends (35, 36), the plurality of teeth (15, 16) being circumferentially distributed between two end teeth (15) of the plurality of teeth (15, 16), the plurality of teeth (15, 16) comprising at least one intermediate tooth (16) circumferentially comprised between the end teeth (15),
- a plurality of slots (17, 18), circumferentially interposed between the teeth (15, 16) of the stator (11).
At least one of the two end teeth (15) includes a circumferential protrusion (45) at the respective tooth radial end (35), the circumferential protrusion (45) protruding from the respective side face (25) towards the respective circumferential end (23).




Description

Field of invention



[0001] The present invention relates to an electrical machine having a stator or a rotor with a segmented geometry, i.e. a stator or a rotor including a plurality of stator segments circumferentially joined together.

Art Background



[0002] In large electrical machines, segmentation of the stator and/or the rotor structure is required to ease manufacturing and transportation. This is in particular required for stators or rotors where a winding is provided. Due to manufacturing tolerances and limitations, tolerance circumferential gaps are typically designed between segments.
The presence of the segment circumferential gaps can lead to differences in the electromagnetic performance compared to a single stator and often leads to issues with undesirable torque harmonics and output power harmonics of the electrical machine, which can lead to high levels of vibration and acoustic noise as well as losses and complicated control. It is therefore important to control the shape and dimensions of the circumferential gaps in order to minimize the detrimental effect on the performance introduced by the segmentation.

[0003] For electrical machines with half teeth at the circumferential ends of the segments (typically integral slot electrical machines with distributed windings), the segment circumferential gaps can be controlled in shape and dimensions by conveniently shaping and dimensioning the half teeth. This has no detrimental effects on the area of slot used for housing the copper windings and therefore the torque and output power of the electrical machine is not affected.
For electrical machines where a half slot is present at each circumferential end of a segment (typically fractional slot machines with concentrated windings), the slot cannot be modified, for example by decreasing them in width, as this would reduce the area for the windings. A reduction in winding area would increase the resistance in this particular coil and therefore increase the loss. By having an imbalance in losses between the coils, a hot spot would be expected to form in the circumferential end coil, thus limiting the operating point of the whole machine from a thermal perspective.
In the latter case, another method of dimensioning the desired segment circumferential gap is to reduce the width of the final tooth in each segment. This ensures that the winding area remains identical or similar to all the other slots thus eliminating the risk of hotspots, however, it potentially introduces further torque harmonics and power harmonics due to the resulting uneven distribution of teeth around the airgap circumference

Summary of the invention



[0004] Scope of the present invention is to provide a new segment design, for controlling the shape and dimensions of the circumferential gaps in segmented stators or rotors having half slots at the circumferential ends of the segments, in order to minimize the detrimental effects above described.

[0005] This scope is met by the subject matter according to the independent claims. Advantageous embodiments of the present invention are described by the dependent claims.

[0006] According to the invention, it is provided a segment for the stator or the rotor of an electrical machine including a segment body circumferentially extending about a longitudinal axis of the stator segment between two circumferential ends. The segment body includes:
  • a plurality of teeth protruding according to a radial direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis from a yoke of the segment body to respective tooth radial ends, each tooth circumferentially extending between two respective side faces, the plurality of teeth being circumferentially distributed between two end teeth of the plurality of teeth, the plurality of teeth comprising at least one intermediate tooth circumferentially comprised between the end teeth,
  • a plurality of slots, circumferentially interposed between the teeth of the stator, the plurality of slots being circumferentially distributed between two end slots, each end slot being circumferentially comprised between a respective end tooth and a respective circumferential end, the plurality of slots comprising a plurality of intermediate slots circumferentially comprised between the two end slots,
wherein at least one of the two end teeth includes a circumferential protrusion at the respective tooth radial end, the circumferential protrusion protruding from the respective side face towards the respective circumferential end.
The above described segment may be advantageously integrated in a segmented stator or rotor of an electrical machine, either generator or motor. For example, the above described segment may be advantageously integrated in the stator of an electrical generator for a wind turbine.
According to the present invention, the presence of the circumferential protrusion leads to a reduction in certain cogging and loaded torque harmonics, as well as in the voltage and power harmonics.
Of particular importance is the reduction in cogging torque harmonics when the present invention is used in an electrical generator connected to a converter, as the cogging torque harmonics cannot actively be reduced by the converter when the converter is inactive during open circuit.
The circumferential protrusion may have a rectangular or triangular shape in a cross section transversal to the longitudinal axis. The circumferential protrusion may have other shapes in a cross section transversal to the longitudinal axis, different from the rectangular or triangular shape.

[0007] According to embodiments of the invention, the second circumferential width at the respective tooth radial end of the end teeth is the same of the circumferential width at the respective tooth radial end of the intermediate teeth.
The width of the radial end of the end teeth is so congruous with all of the other intermediate teeth in the segment. As the top of the coil is no wider than the other teeth in the segment, no special coil design is required for these end teeth, thus maintaining ease of manufacture, and improving the mechanical support for coils at the end of the segment.

[0008] The aspects defined above and further aspects of the present invention are apparent from the examples of embodiment to be described hereinafter and are explained with reference to the examples of embodiment. The invention will be described in more detail hereinafter with reference to examples of embodiment but to which the invention is not limited.

Brief Description of the Drawing



[0009] 
Figure 1
shows a schematic section of a wind turbine including an electrical generator with a stator geometry according to the present invention.
Figure 2
shows a partial cross section of an electrical generator in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 3
shows a partial cross section of a first embodiment of the electrical generator of figure 2.
Figure 4
shows a partial cross section of a second embodiment of the electrical generator of figure 2.

Detailed Description



[0010] The illustrations in the drawings are schematic. It is noted that in different figures, similar or identical elements are provided with the same reference signs.

[0011] Figure 1 shows a wind turbine 1 according to the invention. The wind turbine 1 comprises a tower 2, which is mounted on a non-depicted foundation. A nacelle 3 is arranged on top of the tower 2.
The wind turbine 1 further comprises a wind rotor 5 having two, three or more blades 4 (in the perspective of Figure 1 only two blades 4 are visible). The wind rotor 5 is rotatable around a rotational axis Y. When not differently specified, the terms axial, radial and circumferential in the following are made with reference to the rotational axis Y.
The blades 4 extend radially with respect to the rotational axis Y.
The wind turbine 1 comprises a concentrated winding electrical generator 10.
The wind rotor 5 is rotationally coupled with the electrical generator 10 by means of a rotatable main shaft 9.
According to other possible embodiments of the present invention (not represented in the attached figures), the wind rotor 5 is rotationally coupled directly with the electrical generator 10 (direct-drive generator configuration).
A schematically depicted bearing assembly 8 is provided in order to hold in place the rotor 5. The rotatable main shaft 9 extends along the rotational axis Y. The permanent magnet electrical generator 10 includes a stator 11 and a rotor 12. The rotor 12 is radially external to the stator 11 and is rotatable with respect to the stator 11 about the rotational axis Y. According to other embodiments of the present invention (not shown) the rotor is radially internal to the stator 11.
According to other possible embodiments of the present invention (not represented in the attached figures), the present invention can be applied to any electrical generator or motor which has concentrated winding topology, for example geared drive-trains or electrical machine of the synchronous or asynchronous types.
According to other possible embodiments of the present invention (not represented in the attached figures), the present invention can be applied to any electrical generator or motor which has a double-layer coil distributed winding.

[0012] Figure 2 shows a partial schematic view of a cross section, orthogonal to the rotational axis Y, of the electrical generator 10 with radially internal stator 11 and the radial external rotor 12. The electrical generator 10 includes a circumferential air gap 19, radially interposed between the stator 11 and the rotor 12. The rotor 12 includes a plurality of circumferentially distributed permanent magnets 31. The circumferential air gap 19 is radially interposed between the permanent magnets 31 and the stator 11.
The stator 11 includes a plurality of circumferential segments 100 (two segment 100 are shown in figure 2), which are circumferentially joined together in such a way that a circumferential gap 110 is interposed between two circumferentially adjacent stator segments 100. The stator 11 has a toothed structure, as descried in the following, for housing a coil winding 30 arranged in each of the stator segments 100.
According to other possible embodiments of the present invention (not represented in the attached figures), the present invention and the description which follows is applied to a rotor of an electrical machine.
Each segment 100 includes a segment body 22 circumferentially extending about the longitudinal axis Y between two circumferential ends 23. The segment body 22 includes a yoke 13, a plurality of teeth 15, 16 and a plurality of slots 17, 18. Each tooth 15, 16 protrudes from the yoke 13 according to a radial direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis Y. The plurality of teeth 15, 16 is circumferentially distributed between two end teeth 15 of the plurality of teeth 15, 16. Each end tooth 15 circumferentially extends between two respective side faces 25. The plurality of teeth 15, 16 comprises at least one intermediate tooth 16 (two intermediate teeth 16 for each segment 100 are shown in figure 2) circumferentially comprised between the end teeth 15. Each intermediate tooth 16 circumferentially extends between two respective side faces 26.
The plurality of slots 17, 18 are circumferentially interposed between the teeth 15, 16 and circumferentially distributed between two end slots 17. Each end slot 17 is circumferentially comprised between a respective end tooth 15 and a respective circumferential end 23 of the segment body 22. The plurality of slots 17, 18 comprise a plurality of intermediate slots 18 (two complete intermediate slot 18 for each segment 100 are shown in figure 2) circumferentially comprised between the two end slots 17.
The coil winding 30 is a double-layer winding including two side coils 41 respectively housed in the end slots 17 and two coils 42 in each of the intermediate slots 18. Each of the side coils 41 and of the coils 42 extends radially from the yoke towards the radial external end of the respective slot 17, 18, i.e. towards the circumferential air gap 19. According to possible embodiments of the present invention, the coil winding 30 may by a coil concentrated winding or a double-layer coil distributed winding.
The end teeth 15 includes a circumferential protrusion 45 at the respective tooth radial end 35, the circumferential protrusion 45 protruding from the respective side face 25 towards the respective circumferential end 23.
According to the embodiment shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the end teeth 15 have a first circumferential width D1 at the yoke 13 and a second circumferential width D2 at the respective tooth radial end 35. The second circumferential width D2 is greater than the first circumferential width D1.
The difference in the circumferential width D1, D2 of the end teeth 15 is caused by the respective circumferential protrusion 45 at the respective tooth radial end 35.
According to other embodiments (not shown in the attached figures) the second circumferential width D2 is lower than the first circumferential width D1. Alternatively, the first and the second circumferential width D1, D2 may be equal.
The second circumferential width D2 at the respective tooth radial end 35 of the end teeth 15 is the same of the circumferential width D2 at the respective tooth radial end 36 of the intermediate teeth 16.
According to other embodiments (not shown in the attached figures) the circumferential width D1, D2 of the end teeth 15 is different from the circumferential width of the intermediate teeth 16.
According to the embodiment shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the circumferential protrusion 45 is radially positioned in such a way in each that in each end slot 17 the respective side coil 41 is radially interposed between the circumferential protrusion 45 and the yoke 13 of the respective segment 100.
The dimensions of the circumferential protrusion 45 in the radial and in the circumferential direction can be adjusted to obtain the most favorable results in terms of harmonic reduction in the torque, power and voltages of the electrical machine 10.

[0013] With reference to the embodiment of Figure 3, the circumferential protrusion 45 has a triangular shape in a cross section (the cross section shown in figure 4) transversal to the longitudinal axis Y, i.e. the circumferential protrusion 45 connects with a chamfer the respective tooth radial ends 35 and the respective side face 25 of the respective end tooth 15.

[0014] With reference to the embodiment of Figure 4, the circumferential protrusion 45 has a rectangular shape in a cross section (the cross section shown in figure 3) transversal to the longitudinal axis Y, i.e. the circumferential protrusion 45 connects with a step the respective tooth radial ends 35 and the respective side face 25 of the respective end tooth 15. According to other embodiments of the present invention (not shown) the circumferential protrusion 45 has a different shape from those of figures 3 and 4, i.e. not rectangular and not triangular.


Claims

1. Segment (100) for the stator (11) or the rotor (12) of an electrical machine (10) including a segment body (22) circumferentially extending about a longitudinal axis (Y) of the stator segment (100) between two circumferential ends (23), the segment body (22) including:

- a plurality of teeth (15, 16) protruding according to a radial direction orthogonal to the longitudinal axis (Y) from a yoke (13) of the segment body (22) to respective tooth radial ends (35, 36), each tooth (15, 16) circumferentially extending between two respective side faces (25, 26), the plurality of teeth (15, 16) being circumferentially distributed between two end teeth (15) of the plurality of teeth (15, 16), the plurality of teeth (15, 16) comprising at least one intermediate tooth (16) circumferentially comprised between the end teeth (15),

- a plurality of slots (17, 18), circumferentially interposed between the teeth (15, 16) of the stator (11), the plurality of slots (17, 18) being circumferentially distributed between two end slots (17), each end slot (17) being circumferentially comprised between a respective end tooth (15) and a respective circumferential end (23), the plurality of slots (17, 18) comprising a plurality of intermediate slots (18) circumferentially comprised between the two end slots (17), wherein at least one of the two end teeth (15) includes a circumferential protrusion (45) at the respective tooth radial end (35), the circumferential protrusion (45) protruding from the respective side face (25) towards the respective circumferential end (23).


 
2. Segment (100) as claimed in claim 1, wherein the second circumferential width (D2) at the respective tooth radial end (35) of the end teeth (15) is the same of the circumferential width (D2) at the respective tooth radial end (36) of the intermediate teeth (16).
 
3. Segment (100) as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the circumferential protrusion (45) has a rectangular shape in a cross section transversal to the longitudinal axis (Y).
 
4. Segment (100) as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein the circumferential protrusion (45) has a triangular shape in a cross section transversal to the longitudinal axis (Y).
 
5. Segment (100) as claimed in any of the claims 2 to 4, wherein the segment (100) comprises a coil winding (30) arranged in the segment body (11), the coil winding (30) including at least two side coils (41) respectively housed in the end slots (17), at least one of two side coils (41) being radially interposed between the circumferential protrusion (45) and the yoke (13) of the segment (100).
 
6. Segment (100) as claimed in claim 5, wherein the coil winding (30) is a double-layer winding including two coils (42) in each of the intermediate slots (18).
 
7. Segment (100) as claimed in claim 5 or 6, wherein the coil winding (30) is a coil concentrated winding or a double-layer coil distributed winding.
 
8. Stator (11) or rotor (12) for an electrical machine (10) including a plurality of segments (100) as claimed in any of the above claims, wherein the plurality of segments (100) are circumferentially joined together in such a way that a circumferential gap (110) is interposed between two circumferentially adjacent stator segments (100).
 
9. Electrical machine (10) including a stator (11) or rotor (12) as claimed in claim 8.
 
10. Wind turbine (1) including an electrical generator (10) including a stator (11) or rotor (12) as claimed in claim 8.
 




Drawing