(19)
(11)EP 3 663 416 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
05.04.2023 Bulletin 2023/14

(21)Application number: 19218252.5

(22)Date of filing:  03.07.2015
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C21D 8/04(2006.01)
C21D 1/19(2006.01)
C22C 38/04(2006.01)
C22C 38/12(2006.01)
C21D 9/48(2006.01)
C22C 38/02(2006.01)
C22C 38/06(2006.01)
C22C 38/14(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
C22C 38/02; C22C 38/04; C22C 38/12; C21D 2211/001; C21D 2211/002; C21D 2211/008; C22C 38/06; C22C 38/14; C21D 1/19; C21D 9/48; C21D 8/0426; C21D 8/0436; C21D 8/0447

(54)

METHOD FOR PRODUCING A HIGH STRENGTH STEEL SHEET HAVING IMPROVED STRENGTH AND FORMABILITY AND OBTAINED SHEET

VERFAHREN ZUR HERSTELLUNG EINES HOCHFESTEN STAHLBLECHS MIT VERBESSERTER FESTIGKEIT UND VERFORMBARKEIT UND HERGESTELLTES BLECH

PROCÉDÉ DE PRODUCTION D'UNE TÔLE D'ACIER À HAUTE RÉSISTANCE PRÉSENTANT UNE RÉSISTANCE ET UNE APTITUDE AU FORMAGE AMÉLIORÉES ET TÔLE AINSI OBTENUE


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Validation States:
MA

(30)Priority: 03.07.2014 WO PCT/IB2014/002296

(43)Date of publication of application:
10.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/24

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
15750810.2 / 3164518

(73)Proprietor: ArcelorMittal
1160 Luxembourg (LU)

(72)Inventors:
  • MOHANTY, Rashmi Ranjan
    EAST CHICAGO, IN 46312 (US)
  • JUN, Hyun Jo
    EAST CHICAGO, IN 46312 (US)
  • FAN, Dongwei
    EAST CHICAGO, IN 46312 (US)
  • VENKATASURYA, Pavan K. C.
    EAST CHICAGO, IN 46312 (US)

(74)Representative: Lavoix 
2, place d'Estienne d'Orves
75441 Paris Cedex 09
75441 Paris Cedex 09 (FR)


(56)References cited: : 
EP-A1- 2 325 346
WO-A1-2004/022794
JP-A- 2006 083 403
JP-A- 2012 240 095
EP-A1- 2 524 970
WO-A1-2014/020640
JP-A- 2012 021 225
  
  • Ning Zhong ET AL: "Microstructual Evolution of a Medium Carbon Advanced High Strength Steel Heat-Treated by Quenching-Partitioning Process" In: "PRICM", 16 August 2013 (2013-08-16), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, XP055166044, ISBN: 978-0-47-094309-0 pages 885-889, DOI: 10.1002/9781118792148.ch109, * page 886 - page 887; figure 3 *
  • DE MOOR E ET AL: "Quench and Partitioning response of a Mo-alloyed CMnSi steel", NEW DEVELOPMENTS ON METALLURGY AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH STRENGTH STEELS : BUENOS AIRES 2008 ; INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, MAY 26 - 28, HILTON HOTEL, BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA,, vol. 2, 26 May 2008 (2008-05-26), pages 721-730, XP009182284, ISBN: 978-0-87339-729-2
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to a method for producing a high strength steel sheet having improved strength, ductility and formability and to the sheets obtained with the method.

[0002] To manufacture various equipment such as parts of body structural members and body panels for automotive vehicles, it is usual to use sheets made of DP (dual phase) steels or TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steels.

[0003] For example, such steels which include a martensitic structure and/or some retained austenite and which contains about 0.2% of C, about 2% of Mn, about 1.7% of Si have a yield strength of about 750 MPa, a tensile strength of about 980 MPa, a total elongation of more than 8%. These sheets are produced on continuous annealing line by quenching from an annealing temperature higher than Acs transformation point, down to a quench temperature lower than Ms transformation point followed by heating to an overaging temperature above the Ms point and maintaining the sheet at the temperature for a given time. Then the sheet is cooled down to the room temperature.

[0004] Due to the wish to reduce the weight of the automotive in order to improve their fuel efficiency in view of the global environmental conservation it is desirable to have sheets having improved yield and tensile strength. But such sheets must also have a good ductility and a good formability and more specifically a good stretch flangeability.

[0005] EP 2 325 346 A1 discloses a method for producing a steel sheet having a good balance between strength and ductility and a good balanced between strength and stretch-flangeability, especially a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more.

[0006] The article "Microstructural evolution of a medium carbon advanced high strength steel heat-treated by quenching-partitioning process", Ning Zhong el al., PRCIM 2013 investigates the "quenching-partitioning-tempering" process on a steel sheet having a composition comprising 0.235% of C, 1.8% of Mn, 1.46% of Si and 0.16% of Mo.

[0007] WO 2004/022794 A1 discloses a method for producing a high strength steel sheet through a quenching and partitioning process.

[0008] JP 2012-240095 A, discloses a method for producing a TRIP steel sheet whose structure comprises 50% to 90% of bainitic ferrite, martensite, 5% to 20% of residual austenite and 0% to 40% ferrite, whose tensile strength is of at least 980 MPa.

[0009] JP 2006-083403 A also discloses a method for producing a steel sheet including at least 40% of ferrite, chose tensile strength is of at least 590 MPa, up to 1015 MPa.

[0010] In this respect, it is desirable to have sheets having a yield strength YS of at least 850 MPa, a tensile strength TS of about 1180 MPa, a total elongation of at least 13% or preferably at least 14 % and a hole expansion ratio HER according to the ISO standard 16630:2009 of more than 30% or even 50%. Regarding the hole expansion ratio it must be emphasized that, due to differences in the methods of measure, the values of hole expansion ration HER according to the ISO standard are very different and not comparable to the values of the hole expansion ratio λ according to the JFS T 1001 (Japan Iron and Steel Federation standard).

[0011] Therefore, the purpose of the present invention is to provide such sheet and a method to produce it.

[0012] For this purpose, the invention relates to a method according to claim 1.

[0013] Preferably, the chemical composition of the steel is such that Al ≤ 0.05 %.

[0014] Preferably, the quenching temperature QT is comprised between 310 and 340°C.

[0015] Preferably, the method further comprises, after the sheet is quenched to the quenching temperature QT and before heating the sheet up to the partitioning temperature PT, a step of holding the sheet at the quenching temperature for a holding time comprised between 2 s and 8 s, preferably between 3 s and 7 s.

[0016] The invention relates also to a steel sheet according to claim 5 Preferably, the chemical composition of the steel is such that Al ≤ 0.05 %.

[0017] Preferably, the average grain size of the retained austenite is of 5 µm or less.

[0018] The average size of the grains or blocks of martensite and bainite is preferably of 10 µm or less.

[0019] The invention will now be described in details but without introducing limitations and illustrated by figures 1 and 2 which represents SEM micrograph of two examples of the invention.

[0020] According to the invention, the sheet is obtained by hot rolling and optionally cold rolling of a semi product made of a steel which chemical composition contains, in weight %:
  • 0.13% to 0.22%, and preferably more than 0.16%, preferably less than 0.20% of carbon for ensuring a satisfactory strength and improving the stability of the retained austenite which is necessary to obtain a sufficient elongation. If carbon content is too high, the hot rolled sheet is too hard to cold roll and the weldability is insufficient.
  • 1.2% to 1.8% preferably more than 1.3% and less than 1.6% of silicon in order to stabilize the austenite, to provide a solid solution strengthening and to delay the formation of carbides during overaging..
  • 1.8% to 2.2% and preferably more than 1.9% and preferably less than 2.1% of manganese to have a sufficient hardenability in order to obtain a structure containing at least 65% of martensite, tensile strength of more than 1150 MPa and to avoid having segregation issues which are detrimental for the ductility.
  • 0.10% to 0.20% of molybdenum to increase the hardenability and to stabilize the retained austenite in order to delay the decomposition of austenite such that there is no decomposition of the austenite during overaging according to the present invention,
  • up to 0.5% of aluminum which is usually added to liquid steel for the purpose of deoxidation. If the content of Al is above 0.5%, the austenitizing temperature will be too high to reach and the steel will become industrially difficult to process. Preferably, the Al content is limited to 0.05 %.
  • Nb content is limited to 0.05% because above such value large precipitates will form and formability will decrease, making the 13 % of total elongation more difficult to reach.
  • Ti content is limited to 0.05% because above such value large precipitates will form and formability will decrease, making the 13 % of total elongation more difficult to reach.


[0021] The remainder is iron and residual elements resulting from the steelmaking. In this respect, Ni, Cr, Cu, V, B, S, P and N at least are considered as residual elements which are unavoidable impurities. Therefore, their contents are less than 0.05% for Ni, 0.10% for Cr, 0.03% for Cu, 0.007% for V, 0.0010% for B, 0.005% for S, 0.02% for P and 0.010% for N.

[0022] The sheet is prepared by hot rolling and optionally cold rolling according to the methods known by those who are skilled in the art.

[0023] After rolling the sheets are pickled or cleaned then heat treated.

[0024] The heat treatment which is made preferably on a continuous annealing line comprises the steps of:
  • annealing the sheet at an annealing temperature TA higher than the Acs transformation point of the steel, and preferably higher than Acs + 15°C i.e. higher than 865°C for the steel according to the invention, in order to be sure that the structure is completely austenitic, but less than 1000°C in order not to coarsen too much the austenitic grains. The sheet is maintained at the annealing temperature i.e. maintained between TA - 5°C and TA + 10°C, for a time sufficient to homogenize the chemical composition. The maintaining time is preferably of more than 30 seconds but does not need to be of more than 300 seconds
  • quenching the sheet by cooling down to a quenching temperature QT lower than the Ms transformation point at a cooling rate enough to avoid ferrite and bainite formation. The quenching temperature should be between 275°C and 375°C and preferably between 290°C and 360°C in order to have, just after quenching, a structure consisting of austenite and at least 50% of martensite, the austenite content being such that the final structure i.e. after treatment and cooling to the room temperature, can contain between 3 and 15% of residual austenite and between 85 % and 97% of the sum of martensite and bainite without ferrite. According to the invention the quenching temperature is comprised between 310°C and 375°C, for example between 310°C and 340°C. A cooling rate higher than 30°C/s is required to avoid the ferrite formation during cooling from the annealing temperature TA.
  • reheating the sheet up to a partitioning temperature PT between 370°C and 470°C and preferably between 390°C and 460°C. Above 470°C, the mechanical properties of the steel targeted, in particular a tensile strength of at least 1180 MPa and a total elongation of at least 13%, are not obtained. The reheating rate can be high when the reheating is made by induction heater, but that reheating rate in the range of 5-20°C/s had no apparent effect on the final properties of the sheet. The heating rate is thus preferably comprised between 5°C/s and 20°C/s. For example, the reheating rate is of at least 10°C/s. Preferably, between the quenching step and the step of reheating the sheet to the partitioning temperature PT, the sheet is held at the quenching temperature for a holding time comprised between 2 s and 8 s, preferably between 3 s and 7 s.
  • maintaining the sheet at the partitioning temperature PT for a time between 50 s and 150 s. Maintaining the sheet at the partitioning temperature means that during partitioning the temperature of the sheet remains between PT - 10°C and PT + 10°C.
  • cooling the sheet down to the room temperature.


[0025] With such treatment, sheets having a yield strength YS of at least 850 MPa, a tensile strength of at least 1180 MPa, a total elongation of at least 13% and a hole expansion ratio HER according to the ISO standard 16630:2009 of at least 30%, or even 50%, can be obtained.

[0026] This treatment allows obtaining a final structure i.e. after partitioning and cooling to the room temperature, containing between 3 and 15% of residual austenite and between 85 and 97% of the sum of martensite and bainite without ferrite.

[0027] Moreover, the average austenitic grain size is preferably of 5 µm or less, and the average size of the blocks of bainite or martensite is preferably of 10 µm or less.

[0028] As an example a sheet of 1.2 mm in thickness having the following composition: C = 0.18%, Si = 1.55% Mn = 2.02%, Nb = 0.02%, Mo = 0.15%, Al = 0.05%, N = 0.06%, the remainder being Fe and impurities, was manufactured by hot and cold rolling. The theoretical Ms transformation point of this steel is 386°C and the Acs point is 849°C.

[0029] Samples of the sheet were heat treated by annealing, quenching and partitioning, and the mechanical properties were measured. The sheets were held at the quenching temperature for about 3 s.

[0030] The conditions of treatment and the obtained properties are reported at table I.
Table I
SampleTA °CQT °CPT °CPt sYS MPaTS MPaTE %HER %RA %RA grain size µmM+B %M + B grain size µm
1 900 350 450 99 978 1202 14 32 10.4 < 5 89.6 ≤ 10
2 900 300 450 99 1185 1246 13.8 57 6.8 < 5 93.2 ≤ 10
3 900 450 450 99 620 1129 15.5 20 8.9 < 5   ≤ 10
4 900 400 450 99 857 1185 12.2 29 8.7 ≤ 5   ≤ 10
5 900 340 470 50 1025 1185 13.8 32 10.6      
6 900 275 500 100 998 1149 12.7 47 4.6      


[0031] In this table, TA is the annealing temperature, QT the quenching temperature, PT the partitioning temperature, Pt the partitioning time, YS the yield strength, TS the tensile strength, TE the total elongation, HER the hole expansion ratio according to the ISO standard, RA the proportion of retained austenite in the final structure, RA grain size is the average austenite grain size, M+B is the proportion of bainite and martensite in the final structure and M+B grain size is the average size of the grains or blocks of martensite and bainite..

[0032] Example 1, whose structure is shown at figure 1 and which contains 10.4% of retained austenite and 89.6 % of martensite and bainite, and example 2, whose structure is shown at figure 2 and which contains 6.8 % of retained austenite and 93.2 % of martensite and bainite, show that, with a quenching temperature of 300°C or 350°C, a partitioning at a temperature of 450°C with a partitioning time of 99 s the sheet has a yield strength higher than 850 MPa, a tensile strength higher than 1100 MPa, a total elongation of about 14% higher than 13 % and a hole expansion ratio measured according to ISO standard 16630: 2009 higher than 30 %. When the quenching temperature is 300°C (+/-10 °C), the total elongation can be higher than 13% and the hole expansion ratio is very good: 57%, as shown in Example 2, which is a reference example.

[0033] Examples 3 and 4 which are related to the prior art with a quenching temperature higher than Ms, i.e. the structure not being martensitic, show that it is not possible to reach simultaneously the targeted yield strength, total elongation and hole expansion ratio.

[0034] Example 5 further shows that with a quenching temperature of 340°C, a partitioning at 470°C with a partitioning time of 50 s, the sheet has a yield strength higher than 850 MPa, a tensile strength higher than 1100 MPa, a total elongation of about 14% higher than 13 % and a hole expansion ratio measured according to ISO standard 16630: 2009 higher than 30%.

[0035] Example 6 shows that when the partitioning temperature is too high, i.e. above 470°C, a tensile strength of at least 1180 MPa and a total elongation of at least 13% are not obtained.


Claims

1. - A method for producing a high strength steel sheet having an improved strength and an improved formability, the sheet having a yield strength YS of at least 850 MPa, a tensile strength TS of at least 1180 MPa, a total elongation of at least 13 % and a hole expansion ratio HER, measured according to the ISO standard 16630:2009, of at least 30%, by heat treating a steel sheet wherein the chemical composition of the steel contains in weight %:

        0.13% ≤ C ≤ 0.22%

        1.2% ≤ Si ≤ 1.8%

        1.8% ≤ Mn ≤ 2.2%

        0.10% ≤ Mo ≤ 0.20%

        Nb ≤ 0.05 %

        Ti ≤ 0.05 %

        Al ≤ 0.5%

the remainder being Fe and unavoidable impurities, including less than 0.05% Ni, less than 0.10% Cr, less than 0.03% Cu, less than 0.007% V, less than 0.0010% B, less than 0.005% S, less than 0.02% P and less than 0.010% N,
and wherein the heat treatment comprises the following steps:

- annealing the sheet at an annealing temperature TA higher than 865°C but less than 1000°C for a time of more than 30 s,

- quenching the sheet by cooling it down to a quenching temperature QT between 310°C and 375°C, at a cooling speed of at least 30°C/s in order to have, just after quenching, a structure consisting of austenite and at least 50% of martensite, the austenite content being such that the final structure i.e. after treatment and cooling to the room temperature, contains between 3 % and 15% of residual austenite and between 85 % and 97% of the sum of martensite and bainite without ferrite, the structure containing at least 65% of martensite,

- heating the sheet up to a partitioning temperature PT between 370°C and 470°C and maintaining the sheet at this temperature for a partitioning time Pt between 50 s and 150 s, the temperature of the sheet remaining between PT-10°C and PT+10°C during partitioning, and,

- cooling the sheet down to the room temperature.


 
2. - The method according to claim 1 wherein the chemical composition of the steel is such that Al ≤ 0.05 %.
 
3. - The method according to any one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the quenching temperature QT is comprised between 310°C and 340°C.
 
4. - The method according to any one of claims 1 to 3, further comprising, after the sheet is quenched to the quenching temperature QT and before heating the sheet up to the partitioning temperature PT, a step of holding the sheet at the quenching temperature QT for a holding time comprised between 2 s and 8 s, preferably between 3 s and 7 s.
 
5. - A steel sheet wherein the chemical composition of the steel contains in weight %:

        0.13% ≤ C ≤ 0.22%

        1.2% ≤ Si ≤ 1.8%

        1.8% ≤ Mn ≤ 2.2%

        0.10 % ≤ Mo ≤ 0.20%

        Nb ≤ 0.05 %

        Ti < 0.05 %

        Al ≤ 0.5%

the remainder being Fe and unavoidable impurities, including less than 0.05% Ni, less than 0.10% Cr, less than 0.03% Cu, less than 0.007% V, less than 0.0010% B, less than 0.005% S, less than 0.02% P and less than 0.010% N,
wherein the sheet has a yield strength of at least 850 MPa, a tensile strength of at least 1180 MPa, a total elongation of at least 13 % and a hole expansion ratio HER, measured according to the ISO standard 16630:2009, of at least 30%,and wherein the structure of the steel comprises between 3 % and 15% of residual austenite and between 85 % and 97% of the sum of martensite and bainite, without ferrite, the structure containing at least 65% of martensite.
 
6. - The steel sheet according to claim 5, wherein the chemical composition of the steel is such that Al ≤ 0.05 %.
 
7. - The steel sheet according to any one of claims 5 or 6, wherein the total elongation is at least 14 %.
 
8. - The steel sheet according to any one of claims 5 to 7, wherein the hole expansion ratio is at least 50 %.
 


Ansprüche

1. Verfahren zum Herstellen eines hochfesten Stahlblechs mit einer verbesserten Festigkeit und einer verbesserten Formbarkeit, wobei das Blech eine Streckgrenze YS von mindestens 850 MPa, eine Zugfestigkeit TS von mindestens 1180 MPa, eine Gesamtstreckdehnung von mindestens 13 % und ein Lochaufweitungsverhältnis HER, gemessen nach dem ISO Standard 16630:2009 von mindestens 30 % durch Wärmebehandlung eines Stahlblechs aufweist, wobei die chemische Zusammensetzung des Stahls in Gewichtsprozenten enthält:

        0.13% < C < 0.22%

        1.2% < Si < 1.8%

        1.8% < Mn < 2.2%

        0.10% < Mo < 0.20%

        Nb < 0.05 %

        Ti < 0.05 %

        Al < 0.5%

wobei der Rest Fe und unvermeidbare Verunreinigungen ist, einschließlich weniger als 0,05 % Ni, weniger als 0,10 % Cr, weniger als 0,03 % Cu, weniger als 0,007 % V, weniger als 0,0010 % B, weniger als 0,005 % S, weniger als 0,02 % P und weniger als 0,010 % N,
und wobei die Wärmebehandlung die folgenden Schritte umfasst:

- Tempern des Blechs bei einer Tempertemperatur TA höher als 850 °C aber weniger als 1000 °C für eine Zeit von weniger als 30 s,

- Abschrecken des Blech durch Herunterkühlen auf eine Abschrecktemperatur QT zwischen 310 °C und 375 °C bei einer Kühlgeschwindigkeit von mindestens 30 °C/s, um gleich nach dem Abschrecken eine Struktur zu haben, die aus Austenit und mindestens 50 % Martensit besteht, wobei der Austenitgehalt derart ist, dass die Endstruktur, d.h. nach Behandlung und Kühlung auf Raumtemperatur, zwischen 3 % und 15 % Restaustenit und zwischen 85 % und 97 % der Summe von Martensit und Bainit ohne Ferrite aufweist, wobei die Struktur mindestens 65% Martensit umfasst,

- Aufheizen des Blech bis zu einer Partitionierungstemperatur PT zwischen 370 °C und 470 °C und Halten des Blechs bei dieser Temperatur für eine Partitionierungszeit Pt zwischen 50 s und 150 s, wobei die Temperatur des Blech zwischen PT - 10 °C und PT + 10 °C verbleibt und

- Abkühlen des Blechs bis auf Raumtemperatur.


 
2. Verfahren nach Anspruch 1, bei dem die chemische Zusammensetzung des Stahls derart ist, dass Al ≤ 0,05 % ist.
 
3. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 oder 2, bei dem die Abschrecktemperatur QT zwischen 310 °C und 340 °C liegt.
 
4. Verfahren nach einem der Ansprüche 1 bis 3, außerdem umfassend, nachdem das Blech auf die Abschrecktemperatur QT abgeschreckt ist und nach dem Aufheizen des Blechs bis zu der Partitionierungstemperatur PT, einen Schritt des Haltens des Blechs auf der Abschrecktemperatur QT für eine Haltezeit zwischen 2 s und 8 s, vorzugsweise zwischen 3 s und 7 s.
 
5. Stahlblech, wobei die chemische Zusammensetzung des Stahls in Gewichtsprozenten enthält:

        0.13% < C < 0.22%

        1.2% < Si < 1.8%

        1.8% < Mn < 2.2%

        0.10% < Mo < 0.20%

        Nb < 0.05 %

        Ti < 0.05 %

        Al < 0.5%

wobei der Rest Fe und unvermeidbare Verunreinigungen ist, einschließlich weniger als 0,05 % Ni, weniger als 0,10 % Cr, weniger als 0,03 % Cu, weniger als 0,007 % V, weniger als 0,0010 % B, weniger als 0,005 % S, weniger als 0,02 % P und weniger als 0,010 % N,
wobei das Blech eine Streckgrenze von mindestens 850 MPa, eine Zugfestigkeit von mindestens 1180 MPa, eine Gesamtstreckdehnung von mindestens 13 % und ein Lochaufweitungsverhältnis HER, gemessen nach dem ISO Standard 16630:2009 von mindestens 30 % aufweist und die Struktur zwischen 3 % und 15 % Restaustenit und zwischen 85 % und 97 % der Summe von Martensit und Bainit ohne Ferrite umfasst, und die Struktur mindestens 65% Martensit umfasst.
 
6. Stahlblech nach Anspruch 5, bei dem die chemische Zusammensetzung des Stahls derart ist, dass Al ≤ 0,05 % ist.
 
7. Stahlblech nach einem der Ansprüche 5 oder 6, bei dem die Gesamtstreckdehnung mindestens 14 % beträgt.
 
8. Stahlblech nach einem der Ansprüche 5 bis 7, bei dem das Lochaufweitungsverhältnis mindestens 50 % beträgt.
 


Revendications

1. Procédé de production d'une tôle d'acier haute résistance ayant une meilleure résistance et une meilleure usinabilité, la tôle ayant une limite d'élasticité YS d'au moins 850 MPa, une résistance à la traction TS d'au moins 1180 MPa, un allongement total d'au moins 13 % et un taux d'expansion de trous HER, mesuré conformément à la norme ISO 16630:2009, d'au moins 30 %, par traitement à la chaleur d'une tôle d'acier, dans lequel la composition chimique de l'acier contient, en % en poids :

        0,13 % ≤ C ≤ 0,22 %

        1,2 % ≤ Si ≤ 1,8 %

        1,8 % ≤ Mn ≤ 2,2 %

        0,10 % ≤ Mo ≤ 0,20 %

        Nb ≤ 0,05 %

        Ti ≤ 0,05 %

        Al ≤ 0,5 %

le reste étant du Fe et des impuretés inévitables, y compris moins de 0,05 % de Ni, moins de 0,10 % de Cr, moins de 0,03 % de Cu, moins de 0,007 % de V, moins de 0,0010 % de B, moins de 0,005 % de S, moins de 0,02 % de P et moins de 0,010 % de N,
et dans lequel le traitement à la chaleur comprend les étapes suivantes :

- recuit de la tôle à une température de recuit TA supérieure à 865°C mais inférieure à 1000°C pendant plus de 30 secondes,

- trempe de la tôle par refroidissement de celle-ci jusqu'à une température de trempe QT comprise entre 310°C et 375°C, à une température de refroidissement d'au moins 30°C/s afin que soit obtenue, juste après la trempe, une structure consistant en austénite et au moins 50 % de martensite, la teneur en austénite étant telle que la structure finale, c'est-à-dire après traitement et retour à la température ambiante, contienne entre 3 % et 15 % d'austénite résiduelle et entre 85 % et 97 % de la somme de martensite et de bainite sans ferrite, la structure comprenant au moins 65% de martensite,

- chauffage de la tôle jusqu'à une température de séparation PT comprise entre 370°C et 470°C et maintien de la tôle à cette température pendant un temps de séparation Pt compris entre 50 s et 150 s, la température de la tôle restant entre PT-10°C et PT+10°C durant la séparation, et

- retour de la tôle à la température ambiante.


 
2. Procédé selon la revendication 1, dans lequel la composition chimique de l'acier est telle que Al ≤ 0,05 %.
 
3. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 ou 2, dans lequel la température de trempe QT est comprise entre 310°C et 340°C.
 
4. Procédé selon l'une quelconque des revendications 1 à 3, comprenant en outre, après que la tôle a été trempée à la température de trempe QT et avant le chauffage de la tôle jusqu'à la température de séparation PT, une étape de maintien de la tôle à la température de trempe QT pendant un temps de maintien compris entre 2 s et 8 s, de préférence entre 3 s et 7 s.
 
5. Tôle d'acier, dans laquelle la composition chimique de l'acier contient, en % en poids :

        0,13 % ≤ C ≤ 0,22 %

        1,2 % ≤ Si ≤ 1,8 %

        1,8 % ≤ Mn ≤ 2,2 %

        0,10 % ≤ Mo ≤ 0,20 %

        Nb ≤ 0,05 %

        Ti ≤ 0,05 %

        Al ≤ 0,5 %

le reste étant du Fe et des impuretés inévitables, y compris moins de 0,05 % de Ni, moins de 0,10 % de Cr, moins de 0,03 % de Cu, moins de 0,007 % de V, moins de 0,0010 % de B, moins de 0,005 % de S, moins de 0,02 % de P et moins de 0,010 % de N,
laquelle tôle a une limite d'élasticité d'au moins 850 MPa, une résistance à la traction d'au moins 1180 MPa, un allongement total d'au moins 13 % et un taux d'expansion de trous HER, mesuré conformément à la norme ISO 16630:2009, d'au moins 30 %, et dans laquelle la structure de l'acier comprend entre 3 % et 15 % d'austénite résiduelle et entre 85 % et 97 % de la somme de martensite et de bainite sans ferrite, la structure comprenant au moins 65% de martensite.
 
6. Tôle d'acier selon la revendication 5, dans laquelle la composition chimique de l'acier est telle que Al ≤ 0,05 %.
 
7. Tôle d'acier selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 et 6, dans laquelle l'allongement total est d'au moins 14 %.
 
8. Tôle d'acier selon l'une quelconque des revendications 5 à 7, dans laquelle le taux d'expansion de trous est d'au moins 50 %.
 




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Cited references

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