(19)
(11)EP 3 667 737 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
17.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/25

(21)Application number: 18843602.6

(22)Date of filing:  23.07.2018
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 29/861(2006.01)
C30B 29/16(2006.01)
H01L 29/24(2006.01)
H01L 29/868(2006.01)
C30B 25/00(2006.01)
H01L 29/06(2006.01)
H01L 29/47(2006.01)
H01L 29/872(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2018/027416
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/031204 (14.02.2019 Gazette  2019/07)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 10.08.2017 JP 2017155768

(71)Applicants:
  • Tamura Corporation
    Tokyo 178-8511 (JP)
  • Novel Crystal Technology, Inc.
    Sayama-shi, Saitama 350-1328 (JP)

(72)Inventor:
  • SASAKI, Kohei
    Tokyo 178-8511 (JP)

(74)Representative: Betten & Resch 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartGmbB Maximiliansplatz 14
80333 München
80333 München (DE)

  


(54)DIODE


(57) Provided is a Ga2O3 diode which utilizes a pn heterojunction, and which is able to be easily produced at low cost. One embodiment of the present invention provides a diode 2 which is provided with: an n-type semiconductor layer 21 that is composed of an n-type Ga2O3 single crystal; and a p-type semiconductor layer 22 that is composed of a p-type semiconductor wherein the volume of amorphous portions is higher than the volume of crystalline portions. With respect to this diode 2, the n-type semiconductor layer 21 and the p-type semiconductor layer 22 form a pn junction.




Description

Technical Field



[0001] The invention relates to a diode.

Background Art



[0002] It is known that a p-type Ga2O3 is difficult to form. It is thus seen that a pn homojunction in Ga2O3-based diodes is difficult to form.

[0003] By the way, it is known that an n-type β-Ga2O3 single crystal forms a pn heterojunction with a p-type NiO single crystal (see, e.g., Non-Patent Literature 1). Non-Patent Literature 1 discloses a pn junction diode which utilize the rectification property of a pn heterojunction formed between the n-type β-Ga2O3 single crystal and the p-type NiO single crystal.

[0004] Also, a Schottky barrier diode is known which has a guard ring structure or a junction barrier Schottky structure utilizing a pn heterojunction between an n-type α-Ga2O3 crystal and an inorganic compound crystal with a p-type hexagonal crystal structure (see, e.g., Patent Literature 1).

Citation List


Patent Literature



[0005] Patent Literature 1: JP 2016/25256 A

Non-Patent Literature



[0006] Non-Patent Literature 1: Yoshihiro Kokubun et al., "All-oxide p-n heterojunction diodes comprising p-type NiO and n-type β-Ga2O3", Applied Physics Express 9, 091101 (2016)

Summary of Invention


Technical Problem



[0007] It is an object of the invention to provide a Ga2O3-based diode utilizing a pn heterojunction, which can be easily produced at low cost.

Solution to Problem



[0008] To achieve the above-mentioned object, an aspect of the invention provides a diode described in [1] to [6] below.
  1. [1] A diode, comprising an n-type semiconductor layer comprising an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal and a p-type semiconductor layer comprising a p-type semiconductor in which a volume of an amorphous portion is higher than a volume of a crystalline portion, wherein the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer form a pn junction.
  2. [2] The diode according to [1], wherein the p-type semiconductor comprises NiO.
  3. [3] The diode according to [1] or [2], comprising a pn junction diode that utilizes a rectification property of the pn junction.
  4. [4] The diode according to [1] or [2], wherein the diode comprises a Schottky barrier diode that comprises an anode electrode that forms a Schottky junction with the n-type semiconductor layer to utilize the rectification property of the Schottky junction.
  5. [5] The diode according to [4], further comprising a trench junction barrier Schottky structure or a guard ring structure.
  6. [6] The diode according to [4] or [5], wherein a portion of the anode electrode in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer comprises Fe, Cu, Mo or W.

Advantageous Effects of Invention



[0009]  According to the invention, a Ga2O3-based diode utilizing a pn heterojunction, which can be easily produced at low cost, can be provided.

Brief Description of Drawings



[0010] 

FIG. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a pn junction diode in the first embodiment.

FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a trench junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode 2 in the second embodiment.

FIG. 3A is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 3B is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 3C is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 4A is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 4B is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 4C is a vertical cross-sectional view showing the process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode in the second embodiment.

FIG. 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a Schottky barrier diode in the third embodiment.

FIG. 6A is a graph showing forward characteristics of a pn junction diode in Example 1.

FIG. 6B is a graph showing reverse characteristics of the pn junction diode in Example 1.

FIG. 7A is a graph showing dependence of resistivity of NiO film on substrate temperature in Example 2.

FIG. 7B is a graph showing dependence of resistivity of NiO film on plasma output in Example 2.

FIG. 7C is a graph showing dependence of contact resistance between NiO film and Pt electrode on substrate temperature in Example 2.

FIG. 8 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a Schottky barrier diode in Example 3.

FIG. 9 is a graph showing forward characteristics of the Schottky barrier diode in Example 3.

FIG. 10A is a graph showing forward characteristics of a trench JBS diode in Example 4.

FIG. 10B is a graph showing reverse characteristics of the trench JBS diode in Example 4.


Description of Embodiments



[0011] In semiconductor elements provided with an insulating film such as gate insulating film on a semiconductor, leakage current is smaller when the insulating film is amorphous than when crystalline. Inspired by this, the present inventor used a p-type semiconductor film, in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion, as a p-type semiconductor film forming a pn hetero junction with a Ga2O3-based semiconductor layer, and the present invention was made.

[0012] Specific examples of semiconductor elements utilizing a pn heterojunction between a Ga2O3-based semiconductor layer and a p-type semiconductor film in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion will be described below.

(First embodiment)


(Configuration of the pn junction diode)



[0013] FIG. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a pn junction diode 1 in the first embodiment. The pn junction diode 1 is provided with an n-type semiconductor substrate 10, an n-type semiconductor layer 11 formed on the n-type semiconductor substrate 10, a p-type semiconductor layer 12 formed on a surface of the n-type semiconductor layer 11 opposite to the n-type semiconductor substrate 10, an anode electrode 13 formed on a surface of the p-type semiconductor layer 12 opposite to the n-type semiconductor layer 11, and a cathode electrode 14 formed on a surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 opposite to the n-type semiconductor layer 11.

[0014] The n-type semiconductor layer 11 and the p-type semiconductor layer 12 form a pn junction, and the pn junction diode 1 utilizes the rectification property of the pn junction.

[0015]  In the pn junction diode 1, a potential barrier at an interface between the p-type semiconductor layer 12 and the n-type semiconductor layer 11 as viewed from the n-type semiconductor layer 11 is lowered by applying forward voltage between the anode electrode 13 and the cathode electrode 14 (positive potential on the anode electrode 13 side), allowing a current to flow from the anode electrode 13 to the cathode electrode 14. On the other hand, when reverse voltage is applied between the anode electrode 13 and the cathode electrode 14 (negative potential on the anode electrode 13 side), the current does not flow due to the potential barrier between pn.

[0016] The n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is a substrate formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal. The n-type semiconductor substrate 10 contains a donor impurity such as Si or Sn. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is, e.g., not less than 1.0x1018 cm-3 and not more than 1.0x1020 cm-3. The thickness of the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is, e. g., not less than 10 µm and not more than 600 µm.

[0017] The Ga2O3-based single crystal here means a Ga2O3 single crystal or is a Ga2O3 single crystal doped with an element such as Al or In, and may be, e.g., a (GaxAlyIn(1-x-y))2O3 (0<x≤1, 0≤y<1, 0<x+y≤1) single crystal which is a Ga2O3 single crystal doped with Al and In. The band gap is widened by adding Al and is narrowed by adding In. The Ga2O3 single crystal mentioned above has, e.g., a β-crystal structure.

[0018] The n-type semiconductor layer 11 is formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal. The n-type semiconductor layer 11 contains a donor impurity such as Si or Sn. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 11 is, e.g., not less than 10x1013 cm-3 and not more than 1x1018 cm-3. The thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 11 is, e.g., not less than 1 µm and not more than 100 µm.

[0019] The p-type semiconductor layer 12 is formed of a p-type semiconductor in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion. As the p-type semiconductor, it is possible to use, e.g., NiO, SnO or Cu2O. NiO, SnO and Cu2O exhibit p-type conductivity without being doped with any dopant, but may contain an acceptor impurity such as Li.

[0020] Among NiO, SnO and Cu2O, NiO is the most preferable material for the p-type semiconductor layer 12 since NiO is thermodynamically stable and allows p-type layers to be stably obtained. It is difficult to form SnO due to the existence of Sn2O which is thermodynamically more stable than SnO. In this regard, the conductivity of Sn2O is unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type. The conductivity of Cu2O is also unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type.

[0021] A p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion can be formed at a lower temperature than an entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film, and thus can be manufactured easier at lower cost. In addition, by using the p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion as the p-type semiconductor layer 12, occurrence of leakage current can be suppressed as compared to when using the entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film.

[0022] The anode electrode 13 is formed of a conductive material such as Ni forming an ohmic junction with the p-type semiconductor layer 12. The thickness of the anode electrode 13 is, e.g., not less than 0.03 µm and not more than 5 µm.

[0023] The cathode electrode 14 is configured so that a portion in contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is formed of a conductive material such as Ti forming an ohmic junction with Ga2O3-based single crystal. That is, the cathode electrode 14 when having a single layer structure is entirely formed of Ti, etc., and the cathode electrode 14 when having a multilayer structure is configured so that a layer in contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is formed of Ti, etc. Examples of the multilayer structure of the cathode electrode 14 include Ti/Au and Ti/Al. The thickness of the cathode electrode 14 is, e.g., not less than 0.03 µm and not more than 5 µm.

(Method for manufacturing the pn Junction diode)



[0024] An example of a method for manufacturing the pn junction diode 1 will be described below.

[0025] Firstly, a Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a donor is epitaxially grown on the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 by the HVPE (Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy) method, etc., thereby forming the n-type semiconductor layer 11.

[0026] The n-type semiconductor substrate 10 is a substrate obtained by, e.g., slicing a bulk crystal of a Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a donor and grown using a melt-growth technique such as the FZ (Floating Zone) method or the EFG (Edge Defined Film Fed Growth) method and then polishing the surface of the sliced crystal.

[0027] Next, a p-type semiconductor in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion is deposited on the n-type semiconductor layer 11 by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering, etc., thereby forming the p-type semiconductor layer 12.

[0028] The preferable conditions when forming the p-type semiconductor layer 12 by radio-frequency sputtering are substrate temperature (deposition temperature) of not less than 25°C and not more than 700°C, plasma output of not less than 50W and not more than 300W, pressure of not less than 0.1 Pa and not more than 1 Pa, O2 as gas species, gas flow rate of not less than 0.1 sccm and not more than 100 sccm, and deposition time of not less than 0.1 hour and not more than 10 hours. When forming the p-type semiconductor layer 12 made of NiO, the sputtering target is preferably formed of, e.g., NiO or Ni.

[0029] Although crystallinity of the p-type semiconductor layer 12 is considered to be affected by some parameters such as substrate temperature or orientation of base crystal, it is easy to form the p-type semiconductor layer 12 in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion when the substrate temperature is not more than 700°C.

[0030] Next, the anode electrode 13 and the cathode electrode 14 are respectively formed on the front surface of the p-type semiconductor layer 12 and the back surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 by vacuum deposition, etc.

[0031] As shown in FIG. 1, a portion of the n-type semiconductor layer 11 on the upper side, the p-type semiconductor layer 12 and the anode electrode 13 may be patterned into a mesa shape by photoetching, etc. By patterning into a mesa shape, it is possible to suppress particularly leakage current laterally flowing in the p-type semiconductor layer 12.

(Second embodiment)


(Configuration of junction barrier Schottky diode)



[0032] FIG. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a trench junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode 2 in the second embodiment. The trench JBS diode 2 is a vertical Schottky barrier diode having a trench junction barrier Schottky (JBS) structure.

[0033] The trench JBS diode 2 is provided with an n-type semiconductor substrate 20, an n-type semiconductor layer 21 formed on the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 and having trenches 25 opening on a surface 26 opposite to the n-type semiconductor substrate 20, p-type semiconductor layers 22 buried in the trenches 25 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21, an anode electrode 23 formed on the surface 26 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 so as to be in contact with the p-type semiconductor layers 22, and a cathode electrode 24 formed on a surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 opposite to the n-type semiconductor layer 21.

[0034] The n-type semiconductor layer 21 and the anode electrode 23 form a Schottky junction, and the trench JBS diode 2 utilizes the rectification property of the Schottky junction.

[0035] In the trench JBS diode 2, a potential barrier at an interface between the anode electrode 23 and the n-type semiconductor layer 21 as viewed from the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is lowered by applying forward voltage between the anode electrode 23 and the cathode electrode 24 (positive potential on the anode electrode 23 side), allowing a current to flow from the anode electrode 23 to the cathode electrode 24.

[0036]  On the other hand, when reverse voltage is applied between the anode electrode 23 and the cathode electrode 24 (negative potential on the anode electrode 23 side), the current does not flow due to the Schottky barrier. At this time, since depletion layers spread from the p-type semiconductor layers 22 and close channels, leakage current is efficiently suppressed.

[0037] In general, the upper limit of reverse leakage current in Schottky barrier diode is 1 µA. In the second embodiment, reverse voltage when a leakage current of 1 µA flows is defined as withstand voltage.

[0038] According to data of dependence of reverse leakage current on electric field strength at Schottky interface in Schottky barrier diode having a SiC semiconductor layer described in, e.g., "Technology of Semiconductor SiC and its Application" by Hiroyuki Matsunami, Noboru Otani, Tsunenobu Kimoto und Takashi Nakamura, Second Edition, Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, Ltd., September 30, 2011, p.355, electric field strength immediately under Schottky electrode is about 0.8 MV/cm when a current density of reverse leakage current is 0.0001 A/cm2. 0.0001 A/cm2 here is a current density immediately under the Schottky electrode when a current of 1 µA flows through the Schottky electrode having a size of 1 mm × 1 mm.

[0039] Thus, even when breakdown field strength of the semiconductor material itself is several MV/cm, a leakage current of more than 1 µA flows when the electric field strength immediately under the Schottky electrode exceeds 0.8 MV/cm.

[0040] In order to obtain withstand voltage of 1200V in, e.g., a conventional Schottky barrier diode not having a special structure to reduce electric field strength immediately under Schottky electrode, a donor concentration in a semiconductor layer needs to be reduced to the order of 1015 cm-3 and also the semiconductor layer needs to be very thick so that the electric field strength immediately under the Schottky electrode is kept not more than 0.8 MV/cm. This causes a significant increase in conduction loss, and it is thus difficult to make a Schottky barrier diode having a high withstand voltage and low loss.

[0041] The trench JBS diode 2 in the second embodiment has a trench JBS structure and thus can have a high withstand voltage without an increase in resistance of the semiconductor layer. In other words, the trench JBS diode 2 is a Schottky barrier diode having a high withstand voltage and low loss.

[0042] The n-type semiconductor substrate 20 is formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a Group IV element, such as Si or Sn, as a donor. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 is, e.g., not less than 1.0x1018 cm-3 and not more than 1.0x1020 cm-3. The thickness of the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 is, e.g., not less than 10 µm and not more than 600 µm.

[0043] The n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a Group IV element, such as Si or Sn, as a donor. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is lower than the donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0044] A high-donor-concentration layer containing a high concentration of donor may be additionally formed between the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 and the n-type semiconductor layer 21. In other words, the n-type semiconductor layer 21 may be stacked on the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 via the high-donor-concentration layer. At the early growth stage of the n-type semiconductor layer 21, the amount of dopant incorporated thereinto is unstable and an acceptor impurity is diffused from the n-type semiconductor substrate 20. Thus, in some cases, resistance increases in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 close to the interface with the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 when the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is grown directly on the n-type semiconductor substrate 20. The high-donor-concentration layer is used to avoid such problems. The concentration in the high-donor-concentration layer is set to be, e.g., higher than the concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 21, more preferably, higher than the concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0045]  As the donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 21 increases, electrical field strength in each part of the trench JBS diode 2 increases. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is preferably not more than about 2.0x1017 cm-3 to lower the maximum electric field strength in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 immediately under the anode electrode 23 and the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 21. On the other hand, as the donor concentration decreases, resistance of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 increases and the forward loss increases. Therefore, to obtain withstand voltage of, e.g., not more than 1200V, the donor concentration is preferably not less than 3.0x1016 cm-3. To obtain higher withstand voltage, the donor concentration may be reduced to, e.g., about 1.0x1016 cm-3.

[0046] As the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 increases, the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 21 decreases. By adjusting the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 to not less than about 3 µm, it is possible to effectively reduce the maximum electric field strength in the-type semiconductor layer 21. In view of reduction in these maximum electric field strengths and downsizing of the trench JBS diode 2, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is preferably about not less than 3 µm and not more than 9 µm.

[0047] Electrical field strength in each part of the trench JBS diode 2 changes depending on a depth Dt of the trenches 25. The depth Dt of the trenches 25 is preferably about not less than 1.5 µm and not more than 6 µm to lower the maximum electric field strength in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 immediately under the anode electrode 23 and the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 21.

[0048] When a width Wt of the trenches 25 is narrower, the conduction loss can be more reduced but it is more difficult to manufacture, causing a decrease in production yield. Therefore, the width Wt is preferably not less than 0.3 µm and not more than 5 µm.

[0049] As a width Wm of a mesa-shaped portion between adjacent trenches 25 on the n-type semiconductor layer 21 decreases, the maximum electric field strength in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 immediately under the anode electrode 23 decreases. The width Wm of the mesa-shaped portion is preferably not more than 5 µm to lower the maximum electric field strength in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 immediately under the anode electrode 23. At the same time, the width Wm of the mesa-shaped portion is preferably not less than 0.25 µm since it is more difficult to make the trenches 25 when the width of the mesa-shaped portion is smaller.

[0050] The p-type semiconductor layer 22 is formed of a p-type semiconductor in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion. As the p-type semiconductor, it is possible to use, e.g., NiO, SnO or Cu2O. NiO, SnO and Cu2O exhibit p-type conductivity without being doped with any dopant, but may contain an acceptor impurity such as Li.

[0051] Among NiO, SnO and Cu2O, NiO is the most preferable material for the p-type semiconductor layer 22 since NiO is thermodynamically stable and allows p-type layers to be stably obtained. It is difficult to form SnO due to the existence of Sn2O which is thermodynamically more stable than SnO. In this regard, the conductivity of Sn2O is unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type. The conductivity of Cu2O is also unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type.

[0052] A p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion can be manufactured easier at lower cost than an entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film. Particularly, it is difficult to bury the crystalline p-type semiconductor film since surfaces of the Ga2O3-based single crystal with various orientations are exposed on the inner surfaces of the trenches 25, but it is relatively easy to bury the p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion. In addition, by using the p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion as the p-type semiconductor layer 22, leakage current can be suppressed as compared to when using the entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film.

[0053] The anode electrode 23 is configured so that a portion in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21. In detail, the anode electrode 23 when having a single layer structure is entirely formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21, and the anode electrode 23 when having a multilayer structure is configured so that at least a layer in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21.

[0054] To reduce the turn-on voltage of the trench JBS diode 2, a portion of the anode electrode 23 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is preferably formed of Fe (iron), Cu (copper), Mo (molybdenum) or W (tungsten).

[0055] When the portion of the anode electrode 23 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of Mo or W, the turn-on voltage of the trench JBS diode 2 is not less than 0.4V and not more than 0.6V. When the portion of the anode electrode 23 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of Fe, the turn-on voltage of the trench JBS diode 2 is not less than 0.4V and not more than 0.7V When the portion of the anode electrode 23 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is formed of Cu, the turn-on voltage of the trench JBS diode 2 is not less than 0.6V and not more than 0.9V.

[0056] In the trench JBS diode 2, a potential barrier is formed in the mesa-shaped portion. Thus, the turn-on voltage depends on the width Wm of the mesa-shaped portion and increases as the width Wm decreases.

[0057] The electric field strength in the trench JBS diode 2 is affected by the width Wm of the mesa-shaped portion between two adjacent trenches 25 and the depth Dt of the trenches 25, etc., as described above but is hardly affected by the planar pattern of the trenches 25 (the planar pattern of the p-type semiconductor layers 22). Therefore, the planar pattern of the trenches 25 on the n-type semiconductor layer 21 (the planar pattern of the p-type semiconductor layers 22) is not specifically limited.

[0058] The cathode electrode 24 is in in ohmic contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 20. The cathode electrode 24 is formed of a metal such as Ti. The cathode electrode 24 may have a multilayer structure formed by stacking different metal films, e.g., Ti/Au or Ti/Al. For reliable ohmic contact between the cathode electrode 24 and the n-type semiconductor substrate 20, the cathode electrode 24 is preferably configured such that a layer in contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 is formed of Ti.

(Method for manufacturing the trench JBS diode)



[0059] An example of a method for manufacturing the trench JBS diode 2 will be described below.

[0060] FIGS. 3A to 3C and 4A to 4C are vertical cross-sectional views showing a process of manufacturing the trench JBS diode 2 in the second embodiment.

[0061] Firstly, as shown in FIG. 3A, a Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a donor such as Si is epitaxially grown on the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 by the HVPE method, etc., thereby forming the n-type semiconductor layer 21.

[0062] The n-type semiconductor substrate 20 is a substrate obtained by, e.g., slicing a bulk crystal of a Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a donor and grown using a melt-growth technique such as the FZ method or the EFG method and then polishing the surface of the sliced crystal.

[0063] Next, as shown in FIG. 3B, the trenches 25 are formed on the surface 26 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 on the opposite side to the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 by photolithography and dry etching, etc.

[0064] In case that dry etching is used to form the trenches 25, the preferable conditions are, e.g., use of BCl3 (30 sccm) as an etching gas, pressure of 1.0 Pa, antenna power of 160W, bias power of 17W, and duration of 90 minutes.

[0065] In addition, treatment with phosphoric acid is preferably performed after forming the trenches 25 to remove roughness or plasma damage on the inner surfaces of the trenches 25. Typically, immersion in phosphoric acid heated to 130 to 140°C for 1 to 30 minutes is preferable.

[0066] Next, as shown in FIG. 3C, the cathode electrode 24 having a Ti/Au stacked structure, etc., is formed on the bottom surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 by electron beam evaporation, etc. After that, heat treatment is performed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C for 1 minute. This heat treatment reduces contact resistance between the cathode electrode 24 and the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0067] Next, as shown in FIG. 4A, a p-type semiconductor film with a thickness enough to fill the trenches 25 is deposited on the entire surface 26 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 by radio-frequency sputtering, etc.

[0068] The preferable conditions when forming the p-type semiconductor layer 22 by radio-frequency sputtering are substrate temperature (deposition temperature) of not less than 25°C and not more than 700°C, plasma output of not less than 50W and not more than 300W, pressure of not less than 0.1 Pa and not more than 1 Pa, O2 as gas species, gas flow rate of not less than 0.1 sccm and not more than 100 sccm, and deposition time of not less than 0.1 hour and not more than 10 hours. When forming the p-type semiconductor layer 22 made of NiO, the sputtering target is preferably formed of, e.g., NiO or Ni.

[0069] Although crystallinity of the p-type semiconductor layer 22 is considered to be affected by some parameters such as substrate temperature or orientation of base crystal, it is easy to form the p-type semiconductor layer 22 in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion when the substrate temperature is not more than 700°C.

[0070] Next, as shown in FIG. 4B, the surface 26 is exposed by removing part of the deposited p-type semiconductor film outside the trenches 25 (portions above the level of the surface 26) by a planarization process such as CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing). The p-type semiconductor layers 22 are thereby buried in the trenches 25.

[0071] After that, the surface 26 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 is pre-treated with a treatment solution containing hydrogen peroxide, such as hydrogen peroxide solution, before forming the anode electrode 23. In case that a treatment solution not containing hydrogen peroxide, such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid or buffered hydrofluoric acid, is used, treatment with the treatment solution containing hydrogen peroxide is performed after treatment with the those solutions. If treatment with the treatment solution containing hydrogen peroxide is not performed at the end of the pre-treatment, it could cause the turn-on voltage of the trench JBS diode 2 to be fixed to about 0.8V to 1.0V, regardless of the material of the anode electrode 23.

[0072] Besides the hydrogen peroxide solution, e.g., a solution obtained by adding appropriate amounts of hydrogen peroxide and water to an inorganic acid such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid or sulfuric acid can be used as the treatment solution containing hydrogen peroxide. When using, e.g., a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture which is obtained by adding a hydrogen peroxide and water to a sulfuric acid, it is possible to use a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture containing sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide and water with a volume ratio of 4:1:1 to 4:1:1000.

[0073] Next, as shown in FIG. 4C, the anode electrode 23 having a Mo/Au stacked structure, etc., is formed on the surface 26 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21 by electron beam evaporation, etc. The anode electrode 23 may be patterned into a predetermined pattern such as a circle by lift-off, etc.

(Third embodiment)


(Configuration of Schottky barrier diode)



[0074] FIG. 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a Schottky barrier diode 3 in the third embodiment. The Schottky barrier diode 3 is a vertical Schottky barrier diode having a guard ring structure.

[0075] The Schottky barrier diode 3 is provided with an n-type semiconductor substrate 30, an n-type semiconductor layer 31 formed on the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 and having trenches 35 opening on a surface 36 opposite to the n-type semiconductor substrate 30, a p-type semiconductor layer 32 as a guard ring buried in the trenches 35 of the n-type semiconductor layer 31, an anode electrode 33 formed on the surface 36 of the n-type semiconductor layer 21, and a cathode electrode 34 formed on a surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 opposite to the n-type semiconductor layer 31.

[0076] The p-type semiconductor layer 32 as a guard ring is formed in a region partially overlapping the anode electrode 33, can reduce concentration of the electric field at an edge portion of the anode electrode 33, and can improve withstand voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3.

[0077] The Schottky barrier diode 3 has also a dielectric film 37 formed of a dielectric material such as SiO2 on the surface 36 of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 so as to be located around the anode electrode 33, and is configured such that the edge of the anode electrode 33 rides over the dielectric film 37. This field-plate structure also can reduce concentration of the electric field at the edge portion of the anode electrode 33 and can improve withstand voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3.

[0078] The n-type semiconductor layer 31 and the anode electrode 33 form a Schottky junction, and the Schottky barrier diode 3 utilizes the rectification property of the Schottky junction.

[0079] In the Schottky barrier diode 3, a potential barrier at an interface between the anode electrode 33 and the n-type semiconductor layer 31 as viewed from the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is lowered by applying forward voltage between the anode electrode 33 and the cathode electrode 34 (positive potential on the anode electrode 33 side), allowing a current to flow from the anode electrode 33 to the cathode electrode 34.

[0080] On the other hand, when reverse voltage is applied between the anode electrode 33 and the cathode electrode 34 (negative potential on the anode electrode 23 side), the current does not flow due to the Schottky barrier. At this time, due to the guard ring structure and the field-plate structure, concentration of the electric field at the edge portion of the anode electrode 33 is reduced and leakage current is thus suppressed.

[0081] The n-type semiconductor substrate 30 is formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a Group IV element, such as Si or Sn, as a donor. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 is, e.g., not less than 1.0x1018 cm-3 and not more than 1.0x1020 cm-3. The thickness of the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 is, e.g., not less than 10 µm and not more than 600 µm.

[0082] The n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal containing a Group IV element, such as Si or Sn, as a donor. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is lower than the donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0083] A high-donor-concentration layer containing a high concentration of donor may be additionally formed between the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 and the n-type semiconductor layer 31. In other words, the n-type semiconductor layer 21 may be stacked on the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 via the high-donor-concentration layer. The concentration in the high-donor-concentration layer is set to be, e.g., higher than the concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 21, more preferably, higher than the concentration in the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0084] As the donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 31 increases, electrical field strength in each part of the Schottky barrier diode 3 increases. The donor concentration in the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is preferably not more than about 2.0x1017 cm-3 to lower the maximum electric field strength in a region of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 immediately under the anode electrode 33 and the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 31. On the other hand, as the donor concentration decreases, resistance of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 increases and the forward loss increases. Therefore, to obtain withstand voltage of, e.g., not more than 1200V, the donor concentration is preferably not less than 6.0x1015 cm-3. To obtain higher withstand voltage, the donor concentration may be reduced to, e.g., about 1.0x1015 cm-3.

[0085] As the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 increases, the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 31 decreases. By adjusting the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 to not less than about 3 µm, it is possible to effectively reduce the maximum electric field strength in the n-type semiconductor layer 31. In view of reduction in these electric field strengths and downsizing of the Schottky barrier diode 3, the thickness of the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is preferably about not less than 3 µm and not more than 15 µm.

[0086] The p-type semiconductor layer 32 is formed of a p-type semiconductor in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion. NiO, SnO and Cu2O exhibit p-type conductivity without being doped with any dopant, but may contain an acceptor impurity such as Li.

[0087] Among NiO, SnO and Cu2O, NiO is the most preferable material for the p-type semiconductor layer 32 since NiO is thermodynamically stable and allows p-type layers to be stably obtained. It is difficult to form SnO due to the existence of Sn2O which is thermodynamically more stable than SnO. In this regard, the conductivity of Sn2O is unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type. The conductivity of Cu2O is also unstable and it is difficult to control to be p-type.

[0088] A p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion can be formed at a lower temperature than an entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film, and thus can be manufactured easier at lower cost. Particularly, it is difficult to bury the crystalline p-type semiconductor film since surfaces of the Ga2O3-based single crystal with various orientations are exposed on the inner surfaces of the trenches 35, but it is relatively easy to bury the p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion. In addition, by using the p-type semiconductor film containing an amorphous portion as the p-type semiconductor layer 32, occurrence of leakage current can be suppressed as compared to when using the entirely crystalline p-type semiconductor film.

[0089] The anode electrode 33 is configured so that a portion in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31. In detail, the anode electrode 33 when having a single layer structure is entirely formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31, and the anode electrode 33 when having a multilayer structure is configured so that at least a layer in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of a material to be in Schottky contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31.

[0090] To reduce the turn-on voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3, a portion of the anode electrode 33 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is preferably formed of Fe (iron), Cu (copper), Mo (molybdenum) or W (tungsten).

[0091] When the portion of the anode electrode 33 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of Mo or W, the turn-on voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3 is not less than 0.4V and not more than 0.6V. When the portion of the anode electrode 33 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of Fe, the turn-on voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3 is not less than 0.4V and not more than 0.7V. When the portion of the anode electrode 33 in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer 31 is formed of Cu, the turn-on voltage of the Schottky barrier diode 3 is not less than 0.6V and not more than 0.9V.

[0092] The cathode electrode 34 is in ohmic contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 30. The cathode electrode 34 is formed of a metal such as Ti. The cathode electrode 34 may have a multilayer structure formed by stacking different metal films, e.g., Ti/Au or Ti/Al. For reliable ohmic contact between the cathode electrode 34 and the n-type semiconductor substrate 30, the cathode electrode 34 is preferably configured such that a layer in contact with the n-type semiconductor substrate 30 is formed of Ti.

(Effects of the embodiments)



[0093] In the first to third embodiments, it is possible to provide the pn junction diode 1, the trench JBS diode 2 and the Schottky barrier diode 3 with a guard ring structure which are Ga2O3-based diodes utilizing a pn heterojunction and can be easily produced at low cost.

Example 1



[0094] In Example 1, the pn junction diode 1 in the first embodiment was made and its forward and reverse characteristics were measured.

[0095] In Example 1, an n-type Ga2O3 substrate formed by the EFG method, containing Sn as a donor at a donor concentration of about 1018 cm-3 and having a thickness of about 600 µm and principal plane orientation of (001) was used as the n-type semiconductor substrate 10.

[0096] Meanwhile, an n-type Ga2O3 film grown by the HVPE method, containing Si as a donor at a donor concentration of about 6x1016 cm-3 and having a thickness of about 3.2 µm was used as the n-type semiconductor layer 11.

[0097] Then, an undoped p-type NiO film (with no intentionally doped donor) formed by radio-frequency sputtering and having a thickness of about 100 nm was used as the p-type semiconductor layer 12. The radio-frequency sputtering conditions were substrate temperature of 300°C, plasma output of 50W, pressure of 0.35 Pa, O2 as gas species, gas flow rate of 10 sccm, 99.5% purity NiO as a target, and deposition time of 1 hour.

[0098] In addition, a circular Ni electrode having a diameter of 200 µm was formed as the anode electrode 13 by electron beam evaporation.

[0099] Then, an electrode having a Ti/Au stacked structure was formed as the cathode electrode 14 on the entire back surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 10 by electron beam evaporation. After forming the anode electrode 13 and the cathode electrode 14, dry etching was performed using the anode electrode 13 as a mask, and a portion of the n-type semiconductor layer 11 on the upper side and the p-type semiconductor layer 12 were patterned into a mesa shape as shown in FIG. 1.

[0100]  FIGS. 6A and 6B are graphs respectively showing forward characteristics and reverse characteristics of the pn junction diode 1 in Example 1.

[0101] Based on FIGS. 6A and 6B, the pn junction diode 1 in Example 1 operates properly as a pn junction diode. This shows that a pn junction is formed between the n-type semiconductor layer 11 as an n-type Ga2O3 film and the p-type semiconductor layer 12 as a p-type NiO film.

Example 2



[0102] In Example 2, dependence of characteristics of NiO film on film formation conditions was examined.

[0103] In Example 2, NiO films were formed by radio-frequency sputtering. The radio-frequency sputtering conditions were substrate temperature of 25 to 400°C, plasma output of 50 to 300W, pressure of 0.35 Pa, O2 as gas species, gas flow rate of 10 sccm, NiO as a target, and deposition time of 1 hour.

[0104] FIG. 7A is a graph showing dependence of resistivity of the NiO film on substrate temperature in Example 2. The NiO films pertaining to FIG. 7A were formed with a fixed plasma output of 300W.

[0105] FIG. 7A shows that the lower the substrate temperature, the lower the resistivity of the NiO film. Based on this result, the substrate temperature when forming the NiO film by radio-frequency sputtering is preferably not less than 25°C and not more than 400°C to reduce the resistivity. However, this is the result when using an undoped NiO target, and it is possible to obtain a low-resistivity film at a temperature of more than 400°C by doping of an acceptor.

[0106] FIG. 7B is a graph showing dependence of resistivity of the NiO film on plasma output in Example 2. The NiO films pertaining to FIG. 7B were formed with a fixed substrate temperature of 200°C.

[0107] FIG. 7B shows that the lower the plasma output, the lower the resistivity of the NiO film. Based on this result, the plasma output when forming the NiO film by radio-frequency sputtering is preferably not less than 50W and not more than 300W to reduce the resistivity.

[0108] FIG. 7C is a graph showing dependence of contact resistance between the NiO film and a Pt electrode on substrate temperature in Example 2. The NiO films pertaining to FIG. 7C were formed with a fixed plasma output of 300W.

[0109] FIG. 7C shows that the higher the substrate temperature, the lower the contact resistance. Based on this result, the substrate temperature when forming the NiO film by radio-frequency sputtering is preferably not less than 100°C to reduce the contact resistance with the electrode.

Example 3



[0110] In Example 3, characteristics of the anode electrode of Schottky barrier diode when using various electrode materials were examined.

[0111] FIG. 8 is a vertical cross-sectional view showing a Schottky barrier diode 4 in Example 3. The Schottky barrier diode 4 is provided with a semiconductor substrate 40, an anode electrode 41 which is connected to one surface of the semiconductor substrate 40 and forms a Schottky junction with the semiconductor substrate 40, and a cathode electrode 42 which is connected to the other surface of the semiconductor substrate 40 and forms an ohmic junction with the semiconductor substrate 40.

[0112] An undoped Ga2O3 substrate having a donor concentration of about 1017 cm-3 and a thickness of about 650 µm was used as the semiconductor substrate 40.

[0113] Then, a circular electrode having a diameter of 200 µm was formed as the anode electrode 41 by electron beam evaporation. Before depositing the anode electrode 41, the surface of the semiconductor substrate 40 was treated with a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Al, Ti, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pt and Pd were used as the material of the anode electrode 41.

[0114] Then, an electrode having a Ti/Au stacked structure formed by stacking a 50 nm-thick Ti film and a 200 nm-thick Au film was formed as the cathode electrode 42 on a portion of the back surface of the semiconductor substrate 40 by electron beam evaporation.

[0115] FIG. 9 is a graph showing forward characteristics of the Schottky barrier diodes 4 in Example 3.

[0116] FIG. 9 shows that the turn-on voltages of the Schottky barrier diodes, when the anode electrode material is Al, Ti, Mo, W, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pt and Pd, are respectively about 0V, 0.05V, 0.35V, 0.4V, 0.55V, 0.65V, 0.85V, 0.95V and 0.95V.

[0117] Of those materials, Fe, Cu, Mo and W when used as an electrode material provide turn-on voltages between those obtained when using Ti and Ni which are well-known conventional anode materials. Thus, Fe, Cu, Mo and W are usable as new Schottky electrode materials.

[0118] Although Ag is a material providing a lower turn-on voltage than Fe, Cu, Mo and W, several experiments confirmed that its repeatability and reproducibility of turn-on voltage is very low and Ag is not suitable as an electrode material for Schottky barrier diode.

Example 4



[0119] In Example 4, the trench JBS diode 2 in the second embodiment was made and its characteristics were evaluated.

[0120] In Example 4, an n-type Ga2O3 substrate formed by the EFG method, containing Sn as a donor at a donor concentration of about 2.5x1018 cm-3 and having a thickness of about 350 µm and principal plane orientation of (001) was used as the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0121] Meanwhile, an n-type Ga2O3 film grown by the HVPE method, containing Si as a donor at a donor concentration of about 6x1016 cm-3 and having a thickness of about 6.5 µm was used as the n-type semiconductor layer 21.

[0122] The n-type semiconductor layer 21 was configured such that the trenches 25 had the depth Dt of about 2 µm and the width Wt of about 4.8 µm, and the mesa-shaped portion had the width Wm of about 1.2 µm.

[0123] An electrode having a Ti/Au stacked structure was formed as the cathode electrode 24 on the entire back surface of the n-type semiconductor substrate 20 by electron beam evaporation. After forming the cathode electrode 24, heat treatment was performed in a nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C for 1 minute to reduce contact resistance between the cathode electrode 24 and the n-type semiconductor substrate 20.

[0124] Then, an undoped p-type NiO film formed by radio-frequency sputtering was used as the p-type semiconductor layers 22. The radio-frequency sputtering conditions were substrate temperature of 200°C, plasma output of 300W, pressure of 0.35 Pa, O2 as gas species, gas flow rate of 10 sccm, NiO as a target, and deposition time of 4 hours, and a NiO film having a thickness of about 3 µm was formed. A portion of the NiO film outside the trenches 25 was removed by CMP.

[0125] In addition, a 300 µm-diameter circular electrode having a Mo/Au stacked structure, etc., was formed as the anode electrode 23 by electron beam evaporation and lift-off.

[0126] FIGS. 10A and 10B are graphs respectively showing forward characteristics and reverse characteristics of the trench JBS diode 2 in Example 4.

[0127] In FIGS. 10A and 10B, "JBS" indicates the characteristics of the trench JBS diode 2, and "SBD" indicates the characteristics of a normal Schottky barrier diode as Comparative Example which does not have the JBS structure. In addition, "TFE" in FIG. 10B is a calculation result based on thermionic-field emission theory (calculated using a potential barrier height of 0.8 eV and a donor concentration of 6x1016 cm-3 in a semiconductor which forms a Schottky junction with a Schottky electrode).

[0128] Based on FIGS. 10A and 10B, the trench JBS diode 2 in Example 4 operates properly as a Schottky barrier diode. This shows that a pn junction is formed between the n-type semiconductor layer 21 as an n-type Ga2O3 film and the p-type semiconductor layer 22 as a p-type NiO film.

[0129] In addition, based on FIG. 10B, while the normal Schottky barrier diode not having the JBS structure has a very large leakage current which is close to the thermionic-field emission theory, the leakage current of the trench JBS diode 2 is several orders of magnitude smaller than the normal Schottky barrier diode. This is because electric field strength at Schottky junction was reduced by providing the JBS structure and leakage current due to thermionic-field emission (TFE) was suppressed.

[0130] If a crystalline NiO film is used in place of the p-type semiconductor layer 22 formed of NiO in which the volume of amorphous portion is higher than the volume of crystalline portion, leakage characteristics to be obtained may be worse than the leakage characteristics according to the thermionic-field emission theory.

[0131] Although the embodiments and Examples of the invention have been described, the invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments and Examples, and the various kinds of modifications can be implemented without departing from the gist of the invention.

[0132] In addition, the invention according to claims is not to be limited to the embodiments and Examples described above. Further, it should be noted that all combinations of the features described in the embodiments and Examples are not necessary to solve the problem of the invention.

Industrial Applicability



[0133] Provided is a Ga2O3-based diode utilizing a pn heterojunction, which can be easily produced at low cost.

Reference Signs List



[0134] 

1 pn JUNCTION DIODE

2 TRENCH JBS DIODE

3 SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE

10, 20, 30 n-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE

11, 21, 31 n-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR LAYER

12, 22, 32 p-TYPE SEMICONDUCTOR LAYER

13, 23, 33 ANODE ELECTRODE

14, 24, 34 CATHODE ELECTRODE

25, 35 TRENCHES




Claims

1. A diode, comprising:

an n-type semiconductor layer comprising an n-type Ga2O3-based single crystal; and

a p-type semiconductor layer comprising a p-type semiconductor in which a volume of an amorphous portion is higher than a volume of a crystalline portion,

wherein the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer form a pn junction.


 
2. The diode according to claim 1, wherein the p-type semiconductor comprises NiO.
 
3. The diode according to claim 1 or 2, comprising a pn junction diode that utilizes a rectification property of the pn junction.
 
4. The diode according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the diode comprises a Schottky barrier diode that comprises an anode electrode that forms a Schottky junction with the n-type semiconductor layer to utilize the rectification property of the Schottky junction.
 
5. The diode according to claim 4, further comprising a trench junction barrier Schottky structure or a guard ring structure.
 
6. The diode according to claim 4 or 5, wherein a portion of the anode electrode in contact with the n-type semiconductor layer comprises Fe, Cu, Mo or W.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description