(19)
(11)EP 3 669 988 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
24.06.2020 Bulletin 2020/26

(21)Application number: 19165263.5

(22)Date of filing:  26.03.2019
(51)Int. Cl.: 
B02C 13/06  (2006.01)
B02C 18/14  (2006.01)
B02C 13/28  (2006.01)
B02C 18/18  (2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 20.12.2018 US 201862782717 P

(71)Applicant: Vermeer Manufacturing Company
Pella, IA 50219-0200 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • Verzilli, Claudio Carrafiello
    Pella, IA 50219-0200 (US)
  • Carpenter, Clark David
    Pella, IA 50219-0200 (US)

(74)Representative: Worthington, Richard Easton 
Withers & Rogers LLP 4 More London Riverside
London SE1 2AU
London SE1 2AU (GB)

  


(54)MATERIAL REDUCING APPARATUS HAVING A SYSTEM FOR ALLOWING A REDUCING ROTOR TO BE SELECTIVELY CONFIGURED IN MULTIPLE DIFFERENT REDUCING CONFIGURATIONS


(57) The present disclosure relates to a system for a material reducing machine that allows a reducing rotor to be selectively configurable in a plurality of different reducing configurations. The different reducing configurations in which the reducing rotor can be configured can include reducing configurations having reducers located at different positions, reducing configurations having different reducer densities (e.g., different overall densities and different regionalized densities), reducer configurations having different reducer counts, reducer configurations having different reducer patterns, and reducer configurations having different lay-outs.




Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present disclosure relates to material reducing machines such as grinders, shredders and chippers.

Background



[0002] Material reducing machines are used to reduce the size of material such as waste material. Example waste materials include waste wood (e.g., trees, brush, stumps, pallets, railroad ties, etc.) peat moss, paper, wet organic materials, industrial waste, garbage, construction waste, and the like. A typical material reducing machine such as a grinder, a chipper, or a shredder includes a rotor to which a plurality of reducers (e.g., teeth, cutters, blades, grinding tips, chisels, etc.) are mounted. The reducers are typically mounted about the circumference of the rotor and are carried with the rotor about an axis of rotation of the rotor as the rotor is rotated. During reducing operations, the rotor is rotated and waste material is fed adjacent to the rotor such that contact between the reducers and the waste material provides a reducing or commutating action with respect to the waste material.

[0003] Grinders and chippers typically are configured to reduce material through direct impaction of the reducers against the material. In contrast, shredders are commonly configured such that the reducers operate in cooperation with a comb structure which intermeshes with the reducers as the rotor rotates. In operation of a typical shredder, material fed into the shredder is forced through the comb structure by the reducers as the rotor rotates, thereby providing a shredding action. It will be appreciated that during reducing operations, the rotors of grinders and chippers typically operate at higher rotational speeds than the rotors of shredders.

[0004] Rotors having different types of reducing configurations can be used to process different types of materials and to yield reduced product having different material properties. To modify the reducing configuration of the rotor of a given material reducing machine, it is typically required to replace a rotor having a first reducing configuration with another rotor having a second reducing configuration. Thus, rotor substitution is typically required, which can be time consuming and expensive since multiple rotors are required to be made available. U.S. Patent No. 9,021,679 discloses a material reducing machine having a rotor that can be altered between a chipping configuration and a grinding configuration. This is accomplished by interchanging different styles of reducers (e.g., chipping reducers vs. grinding reducers). However, in both configurations, the reducing elements are arranged in the same positions, and the rotor has the same reducer density and reducer pattern. There is a need for systems, methods, and devices that enhance the ability to efficiently provide different reducer densities, different reducer patterns, different reducer counts, different reducer positioning schemes, and different reducer layouts for a given rotor.

Summary



[0005] Certain examples of the present disclosure relate to systems, methods, and devices configured to allow a reducing rotor to selectively be configured in one of a plurality of different reducing configurations. In one example, the different reducing configurations in which the reducing rotor can be configured can include reducing configurations having reducers located at different positions, reducing configurations having different reducer densities (e.g., different overall densities and different regionalized densities), reducer configurations having different reducer counts, reducer configurations having different reducer patterns, and reducer configurations having different layouts.

[0006] Another example of the present disclosure relates to a material reducing apparatus including a rotor and a plurality of different styles of hammers that are mountable to the rotor. The different styles of hammers can include single-reducer hammers and double-reducer hammers that are interchangeably mountable to the rotor. In another example, the material reducing machine can further include double-blank components that are interchangeably mountable to the rotor along with the single-reducer hammers and the double-reducer hammers. By selectively installing different styles of hammers or other components at different hammer mounting locations of the rotor, the rotor can be configured in different rotor configurations having different reducer densities, different reducer patterns, and different reducer counts. Further, different regions of the rotor can be provided with higher and/or lower densities of reducers as compared to other regions of the rotor.

[0007] Another example of the present disclosure relates to a material reducing system including a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis. The rotor includes a plurality ofhammer receivers. The material reducing system also includes interchangeable hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor. The interchangeable hammers include double-reducer hammers and single-reducer hammers. Two of the hammer receivers cooperate to mount each of the single-reducer and double-reducer hammers to the rotor. The interchangeable single-reducer and double-reducer hammers allow the rotor to be configured in different reducing configurations.

[0008] Another example of the present disclosure relates to a material reducing system including a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis. The rotor includes a plurality ofhammer receivers. The material reducing system also includes single-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor. When the single-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor, two of the hammer receivers cooperate to mount each of the single-reducer hammers to the rotor. Each of the single-reducer hammers includes a blank end and an opposite reducing end. When the single-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor: a) the blank ends are received within first ones of the hammer receivers; b) the reducer ends are received within second ones of the hammer receivers; c) the blank ends define blank locations at the first ones of the hammer receivers; and d) the reducing ends project outwardly from the rotor and define reducer locations at the second ones of the hammer receivers.

[0009] Another example of the present disclosure relates to a material reducing machine having a reducing rotor having a plurality of component mounting locations positioned at a periphery of the rotor. A plurality of different components are interchangeably and removably mountable at each of the component mounting locations of the rotor. The components can include reducer components and blank components. By selectively using either reducer components or blank components at the various component mounting locations, different reducer densities, reducer patterns, and reducer counts can be provided on the rotor. It will be appreciated that by increasing the number of blank components used as compared to reducer components, the reducer density of the rotor will decrease. In contrast, by reducing the number of blank components used as compared to reducer components, the reducer density of the rotor will increase. Additionally, the reducer densities can be varied at different regions along the length of the rotor.

[0010] Another example of the present disclosure relates to a material reducing system including a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis. The rotor includes a plurality of component mounting locations. The material reducing system also includes a plurality of components that are removably mountable at the component mounting locations and are configured for defining blank locations at an exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations, and/or are configured for defining reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations. The components include: a) single-reducer hammers each including a reducing end and an opposite blank end, wherein when each of the single-reducer hammers is mounted to the rotor at one of the component mounting locations, the reducing end defines one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor and the blank end defines one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor; or b) separate reducing components and blank components that are interchangeably mountable at the component mounting locations, the reducing components each defining one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations, and the blank components each defining one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations.

[0011] A variety of advantages of the disclosure will be set forth in part in the description that follows, and in part will be apparent from the description, or may be learned by practicing the various aspects and examples of the present disclosure. It is to be understood that both the forgoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the broad inventive concepts upon which the examples and aspects are based.

Brief Description of the Drawings



[0012] 

FIG. 1 depicts a material reducing machine that is an example of one type of material reducing machine in which a rotor system in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure can be utilized;

FIG. 2 is another view of the material reducing machine of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view of the material reducing machine of FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a reducing rotor system in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure;

FIG. 5 is another perspective view of the reducing rotor system of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a front view of the reducing rotor system of FIG. 4;

FIG. 7 is an end view of the reducing rotor system of FIG. 4;

FIG. 8 is a rear view of the reducing rotor system of FIG. 4;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view showing three different types or styles of components that are interchangeably and removably mountable to the reducing rotor system of FIGS. 4-8;

FIG. 10 is another view of the components of FIG. 9;

FIG. 11 is still another view of the components of FIG. 9;

FIG. 12 is a perspective, cross-sectional view taken through section line 12-12 of FIG. 8 showing a hammer mounting structure having hammer receivers positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the rotor;

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional view taken along section line 13-13 of FIG. 8 showing a single-reducer hammer secured within opposite hammer receivers of the rotor;

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view showing a double-reducer hammer mounted within opposite hammer receivers of the rotor of FIG. 8;

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view showing a double-blank component secured within opposite hammer receivers of the rotor of FIG. 8;

FIG. 16 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration in which all of the hammer receivers of the rotor are occupied by the ends of double-reducer hammers;

FIG. 17 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration in which the rotor is fully populated with only single-reducer hammers such that half of the hammer receivers are securing reducers and the remaining half of the hammer receivers receive blank ends of the hammers;

FIG. 18 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration in which the rotor is fully populated with only single-reducer hammers and with the hammers being alternatingly flipped at adjacent axial sections of the rotor;

FIG. 19 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration in which the rotor fully populated with only single-reducer hammers with the single-rotor hammers being flipped at every third axial position along the length of the rotor;

FIG. 20 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration with single-reducer hammers and double-reducer hammers being alternated at each adjacent axial region or section of the rotor;

FIG. 21 is a longitudinally cut and laid flat view of the rotor of FIG. 8 arranged in a configuration with double-reducer hammers installed at the two outermost axial positions at opposite ends of the rotor, and with single-reducer hammers installed at central sections of the rotor positioned between the end sections of the rotor; and

FIG. 22 schematically shows another rotor system in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure.


Detailed Description



[0013] The present disclosure relates to material reducing systems in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure that readily allow a reducing rotor to be arranged in different reducing configurations. The material reducing system allows an operator to select between a plurality of different reducing configurations when initially populating the rotor (e.g., at least three reducing configurations, or at least four reducing configurations, or at least five reducing configurations). Additionally, the material reducing system allows an operator to modify a reducing configuration of the rotor as needed after initial population (e.g., reducing configuration modifications can be made without requiring the rotor to be removed from the reducing machine and without requiring substitution of different rotors).

[0014] In certain examples, to enhance configurability and/or re-configurability, mounting locations (e.g., hammer receivers) of the rotor can be selectively populated (e.g., filled) with a reducer or can be selectively populated with a blank. In certain examples, different types of reducers and/or blanks can be interchanged on the rotor while the rotor remains mounted in the reducing machine.

[0015] In certain examples, the rotor can be used in combination with single-reducer hammers that each include a blank and at an opposite reducing end. In certain examples, the rotor can be used in combination with double-reducer hammers which each include two oppositely positioned reducing ends. In still other examples, the rotor can be used in combination with double-ended blank components.

[0016] FIGS. 1-3 depict an example material reducing machine 20 that is one example of a type of material reducing machine in which material reducing systems in accordance with the principles of the present disclosure can be incorporated. The material reducing machine 20 is depicted as a shredder, but it will be appreciated that aspects of the present disclosure are also applicable to other types of material reducing machines such as grinders and chippers. In one optional example, the material reducing machine 20 can be a relatively slow-speed shredder at which the rotor is operated at speeds less than or equal to 40 rotations per minute during shredding operations. It will be appreciated that slower operating rotor speeds decrease the importance of maintaining rotor balance and therefore allow for more flexibility in selecting different reducing rotor configurations.

[0017] The material reducing machine 20 of FIGS. 1-3 include a main framework defining a reducing box 22 in which a reducing rotor 24 is positioned. The reducing rotor 24 is mounted to rotate within the reducing box 22 about a central axis 26 (e.g., the rotor 24 can be rotationally mounted to the reducing box 22 via bearings). A plurality of reducers 28 are mounted at an exterior of the rotor 24. When the rotor 24 is rotated about the central axis 26, the reducers 28 are carried by the rotor 24 along circular reducing paths that surround the central axis 26. The reducing machine includes a hopper 30 above the reducing rotor 24 for allowing material desired to be reduced to be fed into the reducing box 22, and optionally includes a screen that mounts below the reducing rotor 24 for controlling the size of the reduced product which is output from the reducing box 22. The material reducing machine 20 further includes a shredding comb 32 mounted within the reducing box 22. The shredding comb 32 includes a plurality of comb teeth, and the shredding comb 32 is positioned relative to the rotor 24 such that the reducers 28 intermesh with the comb teeth as the rotor is rotated about the central axis 26. In other words, as the rotor 24 rotates, the reducers 28 pass between corresponding ones of the comb teeth of the shredding comb 32. The material reducing machine 20 also includes a powertrain for driving rotation of the rotor 24 about the central axis 26. The powertrain can include a prime mover (e.g., an engine) that provides the power required to drive rotation of the rotor 24. The powertrain can also include a transmission for transferring the power from the prime mover to the rotor. The power can be transferred in the form of torque. The material reducing machine 20 can also include one or more conveyors 34 for transferring reduced product discharged from the reducing box 22 away from the reducing box 22.

[0018] In operation of the material reducing machine 20, material desired to be reduced is fed into the reducing box 22 through the hopper 30. Within the reducing box 22, the rotor 24 is rotated about the axis 26 by the powertrain. The material fed into the reducing box 22 is impacted by the reducers 28 of the rotating rotor 24 and is forced by the reducers 28 through the shredding comb 32, thereby causing the material to be reduced in size via shredding. The shredded material forced through the comb 32 can be deposited on the conveyor and transferred by the conveyor 34 to a collection location such as a truck bed or a pile on the ground. If a sizing screen is present below the rotor 24, material that has been reduced to a size small enough to pass through the screen is deposited on the conveyor 34 while the remainder of the material is recirculated by the rotor 24 back into the reducing box 22 for further processing.

[0019] FIGS. 4-15 disclose a material reducing system 50 that can be integrated into a material reducing machine such as the material reducing machine 20. The material reducing system 50 includes a rotor 52. The rotor 52 is mountable in a material reducing machine (e.g., in the reducing box 22 of the reducing machine 20), and when mounted in the reducing machine, is adapted for rotation about a central axis of rotation 54. In use, the rotor 52 can be rotationally driven by a source of torque (e.g., a powertrain) so as to rotate about the central axis of rotation 54.

[0020] The rotor 52 includes a plurality of component mounting locations 53. In the depicted example, the component mounting locations can include hammer receivers 56. In certain examples, hammer receivers 56 can include pockets, receptacles, or like structures for receiving components such as reducing hammers, blanks, or other components. In the depicted example, each component mounting location 53 includes a pair of hammer receivers 56a, 56b (i.e., sets of hammer receivers) positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the rotor 52. The pairs of hammer receivers 56a, 56b are connected by guide sleeves 58 that each extend through the rotor 52 between the hammer receivers 56a, 56b.

[0021] The component mounting locations 53 are depicted as being arranged in a plurality of consecutive axial positions along the axial length of the rotor 52. In the depicted example, the rotor 52 optionally includes a cylindrical outer skin 60 through which the hammer receivers 56 are defined. The outer skin 60 defines an exterior of the rotor 52. The outer skin 60 also defines a cylindrical outer boundary of the rotor 52. In certain examples, the hammer receivers 56 of axially adjacent component mounting locations 53 along the axial length of the rotor 52 are circumferentially offset from one another in an orientation that extends about the axis of rotation 54. In one example, the hammer receivers 56a of axially adjacent component mounting locations 53 are circumferentially offset from one another by a repeating offset angle (e.g., 60 degrees about the circumference) and the hammer receivers 56b of axially adjacent component mounting locations 53 are circumferentially offset from one another by a repeating offset angle (e.g., 60 degrees about the circumference).

[0022] The hammer receivers 56a, 56b preferably are adapted for securing a component to the rotor 52. For example, each of the hammer receivers 56a, 56b can function as a securement or engagement location for coupling a corresponding portion of a component mounted therein to the rotor. Example securement structures can include fasteners, clamps, and the like. As depicted, each of the hammer receivers 56a, 56b includes a clamping arrangement 61 including one or more clamping wedges 62 actuated by a fastener 64 to clamp a component received therein in place relative to the rotor 52. Thus, a given component secured at one of the component mounting locations 53 is secured to the rotor 52 at two separate securement locations (e.g., clamping locations) positioned on opposite sides of the rotor 52. The separate securement locations correspond to the hammer receivers 56a, 56b. US Patent No. 9,675,976, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety, provides further details about example component mounting locations, hammer receivers, and clamping arrangements that may be used with the rotor 52.

[0023] The depicted example system of FIGS. 4-15 can include different components that are mountable to the rotor 52. Examples of different reducing components include different types of hammers such as single-reducer hammers and double-reducer hammers. An example blank component is a double-blank component which forms two blank locations on the rotor when mounted at a given component mounting location. As shown at FIGS. 4-8, only one type of reducing component (e.g., single-reducer hammers) is mounted to the rotor 52. However, it will be appreciated that the depicted reducing components are removably mounted at the component mounting locations 53, and that other types of components (e.g., double-reducer hammers, double-blank components) are preferably interchangeable with respect to the depicted reducing components to alter the reducing configuration of the rotor 52. The components can be loaded into and removed from the component mounting locations 53 while the rotor remains mounted in the reducing machine. Thus, it is not required to remove the rotor from the reducing machine to populate the rotor with components or to interchange components to switch between different reducing configurations. In certain examples, the components are slid into the component mounting locations 53, and then secured (e.g., clamped or fastened) in place relative to the rotor. In certain examples, the rotor can be rotated or indexed within the reducing machine to selectively bring the component mounting locations 53 into alignment with a location where the component mounting locations can be readily accessed (e.g., a side of the reducing machine having a swing-down wall that opens the side of the reducing machine to provide enhanced access to the rotor).

[0024] A single-reducer hammer is a hammer having only one end that is a reducing end and an opposite end that is a blank end. The reducing end can either itself form a reducer or reducers, or can provide an attachment location for attaching one or more reducers. When a single-reducer hammer is mounted at one of the component mounting locations 53, the blank end forms a blank location at one region of the component mounting location (e.g., at one side of the rotor 52 such as at one of the hammer receivers 56a, 56b of the given receiver pair) and the reducing end forms a reducer location at another region of the component mounting location (e.g., at an opposite side of the rotor such as at the other hammer receiver 56a, 56b of the given receiver pair). The blank location is preferably recessed or flush relative to the exterior of the rotor 52, while the reducer location preferably projects outwardly (e.g., in a radial direction relative to the central axis 54) beyond the exterior of the rotor 52.

[0025] An example single-reducer hammer 70 is depicted in isolation from the rotor 52 at FIGS. 9-11. FIGS. 4-8 show the rotor 52 fully populated with the single-reducer hammers 70, and FIGS. 12 and 13 are cross-sectional views detailing how the single-reducer hammers 70 are secured to the rotor 52 at the component mounting locations 53. Referring to FIGS. 9-11, the single-reducer hammer 70 includes an elongate hammer body 67 (e.g., a bar) having a blank end 71 positioned opposite from a reducing end 72. As shown at FIGS. 12 and 13, the blank end 71 includes fastener openings 73 for receiving fasteners 74 used to secure a blank cap or blank cover 75 (see FIGS. 12 and 13) to the blank end 71 when the single-reducer hammer 70 is mounted to the rotor 52. The blank cover 71 assists in defining the blank location at the exterior of the rotor and provides a protective wear surface at the blank end of the hammer. If the cover 71 is pre-installed on the hammer prior to installation of the hammer, the cover can function as a positive stop when the hammer is slid into one the of the component mounting locations. As shown at FIGS. 12 and 13, the reducing end 72 includes a reducer mounting surface 76 and defines one or more fastener openings 77 for use in removably attaching a reducer 78 (e.g., a cutter) to the reducer mounting surface 76 by at least one fastener 79. When mounted at the component mounting location 53, the elongate hammer body 72 extends through the hammer receivers 56a, 56b and is clamped to the rotor 52 by the clamping arrangements 61 at the hammer receivers 56a, 56b. As so mounted, the reducing end 72 of the single-reducer hammer 70 defines a reducing location at the hammer receiver 56a, and the blank end 71 defines a blank location at the hammer receiver 56b.

[0026] As depicted at FIG. 13, the reducing end 72 and the blank end 71 are both anchored to the rotor (e.g., via the clamps) at separate anchoring locations. The blank end 71 can be referred to as a secondary anchoring end and the reducing end 72 can be referred to as a primary anchoring end. The anchoring locations are spaced apart from one another and correspond with opposite ends of the hammer body 67. In one example, the anchoring locations are positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the rotor, and one of the anchoring locations does not include a corresponding reducer. As shown at FIG. 13, during shredding, a shredding force F is applied to the single-reducer hammer 70 at the reducer 78, a primary reaction force R1 is applied to the hammer 70 adjacent the reducing end of the hammer 70 at the primary anchoring location (i.e., the hammer receiver 56a), and an opposite secondary reaction force R2 is applied to the hammer 70 adjacent the blank end of the hammer at the secondary anchoring location (i.e., the hammer receiver 56b). The length of the hammer body 67 provides a lever arm that increases the effect of the secondary reaction force R2 in stabilizing/anchoring the hammer 70, thereby reducing the magnitude of the force R2 required to provide stabilization. In certain alternative examples, the hammer receiver 56b can include structure that defines a blind end for receiving the non-reducing end of the component, but does not provides means for allowing a component to pass completely through the rotor at the blind end. The non-reducing end of the hammer can be secured to the structure defining the blind end by fasteners, clamps, or other structures. This type of example would provide the reinforcing benefits associated with having separated component anchoring locations for supporting a single reducer location, but would not have the ability to receive both single-reducer and double-reducer hammers.

[0027] A double-reducer hammer is a hammer having two opposite ends that are reducing ends. Each reducing end can either itself form a reducer or reducers, or can provide an attachment location for attaching one or more reducers. When a double-reducer hammer is mounted at one of the component mounting locations 53, the reducing ends form reducer locations at separate regions of the component mounting location (e.g., at opposite sides of the rotor 52). The reducer locations preferably project outwardly (e.g., in a radial direction relative to the central axis 54) beyond the exterior of the rotor 52.

[0028] An example double-reducer hammer 80 is depicted in isolation from the rotor 52 at FIGS. 9-11. FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view one of the double-reducer hammers 80 secured to the rotor 52 at one of the component mounting locations 53. Referring to FIGS. 9-11, the double-reducer hammer 80 includes an elongate hammer body 82 (e.g., a bar) having opposite reducing ends 72 at which cutters 78 are removably attached via fasteners 79. The hammer body 82 is longer than the hammer body 72. When mounted at the component mounting location 53, the elongate hammer body 82 extends through the hammer receivers 56a, 56b and is clamped to the rotor 52 by the clamping arrangements 61 at the hammer receivers 56a, 56b. The reducing ends 72 project outwardly from the exterior of the rotor 52 at the hammer receivers 56a, 56b.

[0029] A double-blank component is a component having opposite ends that are blank ends adapted to form blank locations at the exterior of the rotor when the double-blank is secured thereto. An example double-blank component 90 is depicted in isolation from the rotor 52 at FIGS. 9-11. FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view one of the double-blank components 90 secured to the rotor 52 at one of the component mounting locations 53. Referring to FIGS. 9-11, the double-blank component 90 includes an elongate component body 92 (e.g., a bar) having opposite blank ends 71. The component body 92 is shorter than the hammer body 72. When mounted at the component mounting location 53, the elongate component body 92 extends through the hammer receivers 56a, 56b and is clamped to the rotor 52 by the clamping arrangements 61 at the hammer receivers 56a, 56b. The blank ends 71 form blank locations at the hammer receivers 56a, 56b.

[0030] As indicated above, the components can be loaded into the rotor and removed from the rotor while the rotor remains mounted within the reducing box 22 of the reducing machine. This allows components to be interchanged without removing the rotor from the reducing machine. To access the component mounting locations, a side wall of the reducing box 22 can be pivoted down to expose one side of the rotor. A working platform can be provided by the reducing machine adjacent the open side. The rotor can be rotated to index the mounting locations into alignment with the open side. For example, to load a component into a component mounting location, the rotor can be rotated such that the hammer receiver 56a faces the open side of the reducing machine. A component can then be loaded into the component mounting location through the hammer receiver 56a and anchored to the rotor at the hammer receiver 56a (e.g., the hammer receiver 56a can be used to clamp one end of the component). The rotor can then be rotated 180 degrees such that the hammer receiver 56b faces the open side of the reducing machine to thereby provide access for anchoring the component at the hammer receiver 56b (e.g., the hammer receiver 56b is used to clamp an opposite end of the component). A reducer or blank plate can also be attached to the component at this time. To remove a component, the process is accomplished in reverse. The rotor is rotated such that the hammer receiver 56b faces the open side of the reducing machine to allow one end of the component to be released from the hammer receiver 56b (e.g., one end of the component is unclamped with respect to the hammer receiver 56b). A blank plate or a reducer can also be removed from the component at that time. The rotor is then rotated 180 degrees such that the hammer receiver 56a faces the open side of the reducing machine. The opposite end of the component is then released from the hammer receiver 56a (e.g., unclamped) thereby allowing the component to be slid out from the component mounting location of the rotor.

[0031] As described above, each component mounting location is depicted as including first and second hammer receivers 56a, 56b positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the rotor (e.g., the first and second hammer receivers are spaced about 180 degrees apart around the circumference of the rotor). Thus, when a component (e.g., a single-reducer hammer or a double-reducer hammer or a double-blank component) is mounted to the rotor at one of the mounting locations 53, the component extends through the rotor 52 and across the central rotor axis 54 generally through the entire rotor 52, and is secured to the rotor at two separate locations on opposite sides of the rotor 52. In other examples, the first and second hammer receivers forming a given pair of hammer receivers can be positioned less than 180 degrees apart about the circumference of the rotor so that the hammers mount in more of a chord-like configuration and optionally do not intersect the central axis of the rotor.

[0032] In the depicted example of FIG. 4, the hammers mount to the rotor in an orientation perpendicular relative to the central axis of rotation of the rotor. In other examples, the hammers can be skewed (e.g., oriented at non-perpendicular angles relative to the central axis of rotation of the rotor).

[0033] As depicted at FIG. 14, the same style of reducer is shown mounted at both ends of the double-reducer hammer. In other examples, different styles of reducer can be mounted at opposite ends of a given double-reducer hammer.

[0034] As depicted at FIG. 4, all of the single-reducer hammers are depicted having the same style of reducer. In other examples, single-reducer hammers having different styles of reducers can be used to populate a given rotor.

[0035] In the depicted system of FIGS. 4-15, each component mounting location corresponds to first and second separate locations at which a reducer location or a blank location can be defined. Whether the first and second locations are both occupied by reducers, both occupied by blanks, or one occupied by a blank and one by a reducer is dependent on the type of component mounted at the component mounting location. By populating the component mounting locations with different types of components, the rotor 52 can be configured in different reducing configurations. A number of different reducing configurations in which the rotor can be configured are shown at FIGS. 16-21. In FIGS. 16-21, the rotor 52 is shown optionally having twenty-one component mounting locations 53 consecutively positioned axially along the length of the rotor 52. Of course, the number of component mounting locations can be varied from embodiment to embodiment. In FIGS. 16-21, the rotor 52 has been cut longitudinally and laid flat to provide a plan view in which the length L and the circumference C of the rotor 52 are fully visible. In FIGS. 16-21, a box filled with an X represents a reducer location and an open box represents a blank location.

[0036] FIG. 16 represents a first configuration of the rotor 52 in which all of the component mounting locations 53 are populated with double-reducer hammers 80 and reducer locations are defined at all of the receivers 56a, 56b of the rotor 52. The first configuration has a first reducer density which represents the highest reducer density in which the rotor 52 can be configured. The reducer density can be reduced by interchanging one or more of the double-reducer hammers 80 with single-reducer hammers 70 or double-blank components 90. The components can be interchanged to arrange the blank locations and/or the reducer locations in patterns or to provide a random distribution of blank locations and/or reducer locations.

[0037] FIG. 17 represents a second configuration of the rotor 52 in which all of the component mounting locations 53 are populated with single-reducer hammers 70. The hammers are arranged such that reducer locations are provided at all the first receivers 56a and blank locations are provided at all the second receivers 56b. The second configuration has a second reducer density that is half as dense as the first reducer density. In the second configuration, the single-reducer hammers 70 are oriented such that the reducer locations of adjacent component mounting locations are circumferentially offset by a uniform first circumferential offset angle that is relatively small (e.g., 60 degrees) such that the reducer locations cooperate to define a first helix pattern having a first helix angle Al that is relatively low. Once again, selected ones of the single-reducer hammers 70 can be replaced with double-reducer hammers 80 or double-blank hammers 90 to modify the overall reducer density of the rotor 52 and to customize the reducer pattern, reducer distribution, and/or the reducer density at localized regions of the rotor 52.

[0038] FIG. 18 represents a third configuration of the rotor 52 in which all of the component mounting locations 53 are populated with single-reducer hammers 70. The hammers are arranged such that reducer locations are alternately provided at the first receivers 56a and the second receivers 56b of the axially adjacent component mounting locations. The third configuration has the same reducer density as the second configuration. In the third configuration, the single-reducer hammers 70 are oriented such that the reducer locations of adjacent component mounting locations are circumferentially offset by a uniform second circumferential offset angle that is relatively large (e.g., 120 degrees) such that the reducer locations cooperate to define a second helix pattern having a second helix angle A2 that is relatively high. Once again, selected ones of the single-reducer hammers 70 can be replaced with double-reducer hammers 80 or double-blank hammers 90 to modify the overall reducer density of the rotor 52 and to customize the reducer pattern, reducer distribution, and/or the reducer density at localized regions of the rotor 52.

[0039] FIG. 19 represents a fourth configuration of the rotor 52 in which all of the component mounting locations 53 are populated with single-reducer hammers 70. The hammers are arranged such that reducer locations are arranged in a pattern in which reducer locations are located at the first receivers 56a for two consecutive component mounting locations, and the reducer locations are located at the second receivers 56b every third component mounting location. The fourth configuration has the same reducer density as the second and third configurations. In the fourth configuration, the single-reducer hammers 70 are oriented such that the reducer locations of adjacent component mounting locations are circumferentially offset by a circumferential offset angle that varies in size for each consecutive component mounting location (e.g., the offsets alternate between the first circumferential offset angle and the second circumferential offset angle). Once again, selected ones of the single-reducer hammers 70 can be replaced with double-reducer hammers 80 or double-blank hammers 90 to modify the overall reducer density of the rotor 52 and to customize the reducer pattern, reducer distribution, and/or the reducer density at localized regions of the rotor 52.

[0040] FIG. 20 represents a fifth configuration of the rotor 52 in which the component mounting locations 53 are alternatingly populated with single-reducer hammers 70 and double-reducer hammers 80. The fifth configuration has a reducer density that is lower than the reducer density of the first configuration and higher than the reducer density of the second, third, and fourth configurations. Once again, selected ones of the hammers can be replaced with single-reducer hammers 70, double-reducer hammers 80, or double-blank hammers 90 to modify the overall reducer density of the rotor 52 and to customize the reducer pattern, reducer distribution, and/or the reducer density at localized regions of the rotor 52.

[0041] FIG. 21 represents a sixth configuration of the rotor 52 in which a certain number of component mounting locations 53 at each end of the rotor 52 (e.g., two as depicted) are populated with double-reducer hammers 80, and the remainder of the component mounting locations 53 are populated with single-reducer hammers 70. Once again, selected ones of the hammers can be replaced with single-reducer hammers 70, double-reducer hammers 80, or double-blank hammers 90 to modify the overall reducer density of the rotor 52 and to customize the reducer pattern, reducer distribution, and/or the reducer density at localized regions of the rotor 52. In other examples, the central region of the rotor 52 may be populated with double-reducer hammers 80 and the end regions of the rotor 52 may be populated with single-reducer hammers 70. The localized regions having only single-reducer hammers 70 can be arranged in any of the patterns described above (e.g., see the patterns of FIGS. 17-19).

[0042] In other embodiments within the scope of the present disclosure, component mounting locations can each correspond to only one location at which a reducer location or a blank location can be defined. In such examples, the component mounting locations can be configured to receive components that do not extend a majority of the way through the rotor. In this type of configuration, when a first component type is mounted at a component mounting location of the rotor, the first component type defines only one reducer location at the exterior of the rotor and does not define any blank locations at the exterior of the rotor. The first component type can be referred to as a reducer component. In this type of configuration, when a second component type is mounted at a component mounting location of the rotor, the second component type defines only one blank location at the exterior of the rotor and does not define any reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor. The first component type can be referred to as a blank component. The components can be relatively short in length as comparted to the diameter of rotor since the components are not adapted to extend a majority of the way across the diameter of rotor. FIG. 22 depicts an example rotor 152 of this type having component mounting locations 154 for removably and interchangeably mounting reducer components 156 and blank components 158. In one example, the component mounting locations 154 can be adapted to secure the components 156, 158 by clamping as disclosed by US Patent No. 9,675,976.

Example Aspects of the Present Disclosure



[0043] Aspect 1. Aspect 1 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of hammer receivers;

interchangeable hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor, the interchangeable hammers including double-reducer hammers and single-reducer hammers, wherein two of the hammer receivers cooperate to mount each of the single-reducer and double-reducer hammers to the rotor;

wherein the interchangeable single-reducer and double-reducer hammers allow the rotor to be configured in different reducing configurations.



[0044] Aspect 2. Aspect 2 includes the features of Aspect 1, wherein the double-reducer hammers include two opposite hammer ends that project from an exterior of the rotor when the double-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor, and wherein the single-reducer hammers each include only a single hammer end that projects from the exterior of the rotor when the single-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor.

[0045] Aspect 3. Aspect 3 includes the features of Aspect 2, wherein the hammer ends that project from the exterior of the rotor define attachment locations for securing removable reducer attachments to the hammer ends.

[0046] Aspect 4. Aspect 4 includes the features of Aspect 3, wherein the removable reducer attachments include cutters that are fastened to the attachment mounting locations.

[0047] Aspect 5. Aspect 5 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-4, wherein the double-reducer hammers each include first and second opposite reducing ends, and wherein the single-reducer hammers each include one reducing end and an opposite blank end.

[0048] Aspect 6. Aspect 6 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-5, further including double-blank components each having first and second opposite blank ends, wherein when one of the double-blank components is mounted to the rotor, the double-blank component is received within two of the hammer receivers, and the blank ends are flush with or recessed relative to an exterior of the rotor.

[0049] Aspect 7. Aspect 7 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-6, wherein the hammer receivers are arranged in pairs of hammer receivers, wherein each pair of hammer receivers includes a first hammer receiver and a second hammer receiver, and wherein each of the single-reducer and double-reducer hammers mounted to the rotor is received in the first and second hammer receivers of a selected one of the pairs of hammer receivers.

[0050] Aspect 8. Aspect 8 includes the features of Aspect 7, wherein the first and second hammer receivers of each pair of hammer receivers are positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the central axis.

[0051] Aspect 9. Aspect 9 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-8, wherein the hammers are perpendicularly oriented relative to the central axis when mounted to the rotor.

[0052] Aspect 10. Aspect 10 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-9, wherein the hammers are each received or engaged by two of the hammer receivers when mounted to the rotor.

[0053] Aspect 11. Aspect 11 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-10, wherein the hammers are each clamped by two of the hammer receivers when mounted to the rotor.

[0054] Aspect 12 Aspect 12 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-11, wherein the rotor is configurable in a high density configuration by installing only double-reducer hammers on the rotor, and wherein the rotor is configurable in a low density configuration by installing only single-reducer hammers on the rotor, and wherein the low density configuration optionally includes a steep helix angle variation and a shallow helix angle variation.

[0055] Aspect 13. Aspect 13 includes the features of any of Aspects 1-12, wherein the rotor is configurable in an intermediate density configuration where a combination of the double-reducer hammers and the single-reducer hammers is installed on the rotor.

[0056] Aspect 14. Aspect 14 includes the features of Aspect 13, wherein the intermediate density configuration includes a variation in which the double-reducer hammers and the single-reducer hammers are alternatingly installed in axially adjacent ones of the hammer receivers.

[0057] Aspect 15. Aspect 15 includes the features of Aspect 13, wherein the intermediate density configuration includes a variation in which the double-reducer hammers are installed in axially outermost ones of the hammer receivers and the single-reducer hammers are installed in the hammer receivers positioned axially inside the axially outermost one of the hammer receivers.

[0058] Aspect 16. Aspect 16 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of hammer receivers, the hammer receivers including pairs of hammer receivers, each pair of hammer receivers including a first hammer receiver and a second hammer receiver;

double-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor, the double-reducer hammers having first lengths, the double-reducer hammers each including first and second opposite reducing end portions, wherein when one of the double-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor: a) the double-reducer hammer is received within the first and second hammer receivers of a selected one of the pair of hammer receivers; and b) the first and second reducing end portions of the double-reducer hammer project outwardly from the rotor respectively at the first and second hammer receivers; and

single-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor and are interchangeable with the double-reducer hammers, the single-reducer hammers having second lengths that are shorter than the first lengths of the double-reducer hammers, wherein when one of the single-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor: a) the single-reducer hammer is received within the first and second hammer receivers of a selected one of the pair of hammer receivers; b) a reducing end portion of the single-reducer hammer projects outwardly from the rotor at the first hammer receiver of the selected pair of hammer receivers; and c) a blank end portion of the single-reducer hammer is received at the second hammer receiver of the selected pair of hammer receivers.



[0059] Aspect 17. Aspect 17 includes the features of Aspect 16, wherein the first and second reducing end portions of the double-reducer hammers and the reducing end portions of the single-reducer hammers provide attachment locations configured to allow reducer attachments to be secured thereto.

[0060] Aspect 18. Aspect 18 includes the features of Aspect 17, wherein the material reducer attachments include cutter attachments.

[0061] Aspect 19. Aspect 19 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of hammer receivers, the hammer receivers including pairs of hammer receivers, each pair of hammer receivers including a first hammer receiver and a second hammer receiver;

double-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor, the double-reducer hammers having first lengths, wherein when one of the double-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor, the double-reducer hammer engages the first and second hammer receivers of a selected one of the pair of hammer receivers; and

single-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor and are interchangeable with the double-reducer hammers, the single-reducer hammers having second lengths that are shorter than the first lengths of the double-reducer hammers, wherein when one of the single-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor, the single-reducer hammer engages the first and second hammer receivers of a selected one of the pair of hammer receivers.



[0062] Aspect 20. Aspect 20 includes the features of Aspect 19, wherein each single-reducer hammer includes a blank end and an opposite reducing end.

[0063] Aspect 21. Aspect 21 includes the features of Aspects 19 or 20, wherein the double-reducer hammer includes two opposite reducing ends.

[0064] Aspect 22. Aspect 22 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of hammer receivers;

double-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor, the double-reducer hammers having first lengths, wherein when one of the double-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor, the double-reducer hammer is received within two of the hammer receivers; and

single-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor and are interchangeable with the double-reducer hammers, the single-reducer hammers having second lengths that are shorter than the first lengths of the double-reducer hammers, wherein when one of the single-reducer hammers is removably mounted to the rotor, the single-reducer hammer is received within two of the hammer receivers.



[0065] Aspect 23. Aspect 23 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor; and

single-reducer hammers and double-reducer hammers that are interchangeably mountable to the rotor.



[0066] Aspect 24. Aspect 24 includes the features of Aspect 23, and further includes double-blank components that are mountable to the rotor and interchangeable with the single-reducer hammers and/or the double-reducer hammers.

[0067] Aspect 25. Aspect 25 relates to a material reducing apparatus comprising:

a rotor; and

single-reducer hammers that are mountable to the rotor, the single-reducer hammers each including a reducing end positioned opposite from a blank end, wherein each single-reducer hammer defines one reducer location and one blank location when mounted to the rotor.



[0068] Aspect 26. Aspect 26 includes the features of Aspect 25 and further includes double-blank components that are mountable to the rotor and interchangeable with the single-reducer hammers.

[0069] Aspect 27. Aspect 27 relates to a material reducing system comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of component mounting locations;

a plurality of components that are removably mountable at the component mounting locations and are configured for defining blank locations at an exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations and/or are configured for defining reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting location, the components including single-reducer hammers each including a reducing end and an opposite blank end, wherein when each of the single-reducer hammer is mounted to the rotor at one of the component mounting locations the reducing end defines one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor and the blank end defines one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor.



[0070] Aspect 28. Aspect 28 relates to a material reducing system comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of component mounting locations;

a plurality of components that are removably mountable at the component mounting locations and are configured for defining blank locations at an exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations, and/or are configured for defining reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations, the components including separate reducing components and blank components that are interchangeably mountable at the component mounting locations, the reducing components each defining one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations, and the blank components each defining one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations.



[0071] Aspect 29. Aspect 29 relates to a material reducing system comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis;

a component having an elongate main body having a first end that anchors to the rotor at a first anchoring location defined by the rotor and a second end that anchors to the rotor at a separate second anchoring location defined by the rotor, wherein the first end includes or supports a reducer and the second end does not include or support a reducer.



[0072] Aspect 30. Aspect 30 includes the features of Aspect 29, wherein the first and second anchoring locations are positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the rotor.

[0073] Aspect 31. Aspect 31 includes the features of Aspect 29 or Aspect 30, wherein when a shredding load is applied to the reducer, the first anchoring location is configured to generate a first reaction force applied in a first direction to the elongate main body adjacent to the first end of the elongate main body and the second anchoring location is configured to generate a second reaction force applied in a second direction to the elongate main body adjacent the second end, wherein the second direction is opposite from the first direction.

Example Methods of the Present Disclosure



[0074] Method 1. Method 1 relates to a method for configuring a rotor of a material reducing apparatus, the method comprising:
customizing a reducing configuration of the rotor by installing a combination of double-reducer hammers and single-reducer hammers on the rotor.

[0075] Method 2. Method 2 relates to a method for configuring a rotor of a material reducing apparatus, the rotor including a plurality of hammer mounting locations, the method comprising:
selecting between a single-reducer hammer and a double-reducer hammer for at least one of the hammer mounting locations, and installing the selected one of the single-reducer hammer and the double-reducer hammer at the hammer mounting location.

[0076] Method 3. Method 3 relates to a method for configuring a rotor of a material reducing apparatus, the rotor including a plurality of hammer mounting locations, the method comprising:
selecting between a reducer component and a blank component for at least one of the hammer mounting locations, and installing the selected one of the reducer component and the blank component at the hammer mounting location.

Definitions



[0077] A blank location is a location on a rotor that does not include a reducer and does not include structure projecting from the rotor for attaching a reducer.

[0078] A reducer location is a location on a rotor where at least one reducer is provided at an exterior of the rotor.

[0079] A reducing portion or a reducing end or a reducing component is a structure that when installed at a component mounting location of a rotor either: a) itself forms at least one reducer; or b) defines an attachment location for allowing at least one reducer to be attached thereto.

[0080] A blank end or a blank insert or a blank component or a blank is a structure that when installed at a component mounting location of a rotor forms a blank location at the component mounting location of the rotor.

[0081] A reducer is a structure for reducing material such as a cutter, a chisel, a grinding tip, a blade, a tooth, or like structures.

[0082] A reducer attachment is a reducer that can be removably attached to an attachment location.

[0083] Removably attached means attached in a way intended to facilitate removability of a part such as with fasteners or clamps as compared to a more permanent attachment technique such as welding.


Claims

1. A material reducing system comprising:

a rotor that, in use, is rotated about a central axis, the rotor including a plurality of component mounting locations;

a plurality of components that are removably mountable at the component mounting locations and are configured for defining blank locations at an exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations, and/or are configured for defining reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at the component mounting locations, the components including:

a) single-reducer hammers each including a reducing end and an opposite blank end, wherein when each of the single-reducer hammer is mounted to the rotor at one of the component mounting locations, the reducing end defines one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor and the blank end defines one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor; or

b) separate reducing components and blank components that are interchangeably mountable at the component mounting locations, the reducing components each defining one of the reducer locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations, and the blank components each defining one of the blank locations at the exterior of the rotor when mounted at one of the component mounting locations.


 
2. The material reducing system of claim 1, wherein the component mounting locations include a plurality of hammer receivers, wherein the plurality of hammer receivers are arranged in pairs of first and second hammer receivers and each of the component mounting locations includes one of the pairs of first and second hammer receivers, wherein the components include the single-reducer hammers, wherein the first and second hammer receivers of each component mounting location cooperate to mount each of the single-reducer hammers to the rotor, and wherein when the single-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor: a) the blank ends are received within the first hammer receivers of the component mounting locations; b) the reducing ends are received within second hammer receivers of the component mounting locations; c) the blank ends define the blank locations at the first hammer receivers; and d) the reducing ends project outwardly from the rotor and define the reducer locations at the second hammer receivers.
 
3. The material reducing system of claim 2, wherein when the single-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor, the blank ends are flush or recessed relative to an exterior of the rotor.
 
4. The material reducing system of any of claims 1-3, wherein the reducing ends of the single-reducer hammers define attachment locations for securing removable reducer attachments at the reducer locations.
 
5. The material reducing system of claim 4, wherein the removable reducer attachments are cutters.
 
6. The material reducing system of any of claims 2-5, further including double-reducer hammers that are removably mountable to the rotor at the component mounting locations and that are interchangeable with the single-reducer hammers, wherein the first and second hammer receivers of each component mounting location cooperate to mount each of the double-reducer hammers to the rotor, the double-reducer hammers including two opposite first and second reducer ends that project from an exterior of the rotor and define reducer locations respectively at the first and second hammer receivers when the double-reducer hammers are mounted to the rotor.
 
7. The material reducing system of any of claims 2-6, further including double-blank components that are removably mountable to the rotor at the component mounting locations, the double-blank components each having first and second opposite blank ends, wherein the first and second hammer receivers of each component mounting location cooperate to mount each of the double-blank components to the rotor, the first and second opposite blank ends of the double-blank components defining blank locations respectively at the first and second hammer receivers when the double-blank components are mounted to the rotor.
 
8. The material reducing system of any of claims 2-7, wherein the first and second hammer receivers of each pair of hammer receivers are positioned on diametrically opposite sides of the central axis.
 
9. The material reducing system of any of claims 2-8, wherein the single-reducer hammers are perpendicularly oriented relative to the central axis when mounted to the rotor.
 
10. The material reducing system any of claims 1-9, wherein the rotor is installed in a shredder.
 
11. The material reducing system of any of claims 2-10, wherein the hammers are each clamped by two of the hammer receivers when mounted to the rotor.
 
12. The material reducing system of claim 6, wherein the rotor is configurable in a high density configuration by installing only double-reducer hammers on the rotor, and wherein the rotor is configurable in a low density configuration by installing only single-reducer hammers on the rotor, and wherein the low density configuration optionally includes a steep helix angle variation and a shallow helix angle variation made possible by selectively flipping the single-reducer hammers.
 
13. The material reducing system of claims 6 or 12, wherein the rotor is configurable in an intermediate density configuration where a combination of the double-reducer hammers and the single-reducer hammers is installed on the rotor.
 
14. The material reducing system of claim 13, wherein the intermediate density configuration includes a variation in which the double-reducer hammers and the single-reducer hammers are alternatingly installed in axially adjacent ones of the hammer receivers, and also includes a variation in which the double-reducer hammers are installed in axially outermost ones of the hammer receivers and the single-reducer hammers are installed in the hammer receivers positioned axially inside the axially outermost one of the hammer receivers.
 
15. The material reducing system of any of claims 1-14, wherein the rotor mounts within a reducing machine, and wherein the components can be installed and/or interchanged while the rotor remains mounted within the reducing machine.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description