(19)
(11)EP 3 682 863 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
22.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/30

(21)Application number: 20160821.3

(22)Date of filing:  08.07.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 8/42(2006.01)
A61Q 19/10(2006.01)
A61Q 5/02(2006.01)
A61K 8/06(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 12.07.2013 US 201361845868 P
11.03.2014 US 201461951450 P

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
14742709.0 / 3019147

(71)Applicant: Stepan Company
Northfield, Illinois 60093 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • SHAPIRO, Irene
    Buffalo Grove, IL Illinois 60089 (US)
  • ALLEN, Dave
    Chicago, IL Illinois 60610 (US)
  • BROWN, Aaron
    Northfield, IL Illinois 60093 (US)

(74)Representative: Prinz & Partner mbB 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte Rundfunkplatz 2
80335 München
80335 München (DE)

 
Remarks:
This application was filed on 04.03.2020 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
 


(54)O/W EMULSIONS COMPRISING A SATURATED C8-C14 ALKYL N,N-DIALKYLAMIDE


(57) The invention relates to an oil-in-water emulsion comprising: (a) a continuous aqueous phase; (b) a discontinuous phase comprising one or more emollients and 0.1 to 35wt.%, based on the amount of emulsion, ofasaturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide. The fatty N,N-dialkylamides are valuable for formulating oil-in-water emulsions with good stability.


Description

FIELD OF THE INVENTION



[0001] The invention relates to an oil-in-water emulsion , which are useful for a variety of personal care applications, including cosmetics, face creams, lotions, and other skin-care products.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Personal cleansers delight users with rich lather and a fresh, clean feel for hair and skin. Most personal cleansers-shampoos, body washes, facial cleansers, liquid soaps, and the like-are formulated with a combination of surfactants. A primary anionic surfactant provides cleansing and foaming properties to allow fast, complete removal of soils from skin and hair. Alkyl sulfates and alkyl ether sulfates are ubiquitous in this role because they provide rich foam and are cost effective. A relatively minor proportion of a "secondary" surfactant is usually included to build viscosity, improve solubility, stabilize the foam, enhance foaming, or improve mildness. The most common secondary surfactants are fatty alkanolamides (e.g., cocamide MEA, lauramide MEA, or cocamide DEA), and betaines (e.g., cocamidopropyl betaine). Formulations free of cocamide MEA or cocamide DEA have become desirable to formulators to reduce irritation or to avoid the need for warnings required by certain government regulations such as California's Proposition 65.

[0003] Fatty alkyl N,N-dialkylamides, especially C8-C10 alkyl N,N-dimethylamides, are well-known solvents. Stepan Company, for instance, sells HALLCOMID® M-10 and HALLCOMID® M-8-10 for use as solvents in industrial degreasing, coatings, and agricultural formulations. The N,N-dialkylamides are not generally used for personal care applications except as solubilizers for sunscreen actives (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,506,051; 6,485,713; 7,790,146; and 8,153,105 and PCT Int. Appl. WO 2007/085568) or as components of deodorant sticks (see U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. No. 2003/0215472). PCT Int. Appl. WO 2013/052545 teaches to use fatty alkyl N,N-dialkylamides to help solubilize apigenin in compositions used to treat hair thinning or greying. Fatty alkyl N,N-dialkylamides have been proposed as soap curd dispersants for laundry detergents (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,843,543) or as part of a light-duty dish detergent (see U.S. Pat. No. 3,676,372). Thus, compositions comprising C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides and intended for use as personal cleansers are apparently unknown.

[0004] Recently, monounsaturated fatty alkyl N,N-dimethylamides and monounsaturated fatty alkanolamides were tested and found to have good foaming and viscosity-building properties (see PCT Int. Appl. No. WO 2012/061094).

[0005] Good surfactants are not necessarily good solubilizers. This is a particular concern in personal cleansers because the industry uses a wide variety of fragrances, essential oils, and other components having diverse chemical structures. Many of these materials are hydrophobic and difficult to solubilize in a highly aqueous mixture.

[0006] Still needed are surfactants or surfactant blends that can be formulated at high actives levels. Particularly valuable are surfactants or blends that could be formulated at any actives level up to 100% actives. Surfactants or blends having the ability to solubilize cleanser components, including a wider variety of fragrances and high levels of fragrances (e.g., > 2 wt.%), are also needed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0007] In one aspect, the invention relates to an oil-in-water emulsion comprising:
  1. (a) a continuous aqueous phase;
  2. (b) a discontinuous phase comprising one or more emollients and 0.1 to 35 wt.%, based on the amount of emulsion, of a saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide.


[0008] Fatty N,N-dialkylamides are excellent solubilizers for fragrances, essential oils, and other hydrophobic cleanser components, and they readily combine with emollients to give stable emulsions useful for cosmetics, face creams, lotions, and other skin-care products. Cleansers comprising moisturizing oils have excellent flash foaming character, foam volume, and foam feel and provide a luxurious, lotion-like after-feel.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0009] Personal cleansers comprise a primary anionic surfactant, a saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide, and water. The personal cleansers may incorporate additional surfactants, additives, or other components depending on the particular type of formulation. The personal cleansers include shampoos, body washes, facial cleansers, shower gels, liquid soaps, hand soaps, baby liquid cleansers, pet shampoos, bubble baths, and the like.

[0010] Suitable anionic surfactants are well known, and a wide variety of these are considered useful for personal cleansing. Suitable anionic surfactants for use in the cleansers and surfactant blends include, for example, alkyl sulfates (e.g., ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium coco sulfate), alkyl ether sulfates (e.g., sodium laureth sulfates having 1-3 moles of EO, such as STEOL® CS-170, STEOL® CS-230, or STEOL® CS-330), alpha olefin sulfonates (e.g., BIO-TERGE® AS-40, a sodium C14-C16 olefin sulfonate), paraffin sulfonates, alkyl benzene sulfonates (e.g., BIO-SOFT® N-300, a TEA dodecylbenzene sulfonate), alpha sulfo methyl esters, alkyl sulfoacetates and alkyl ether sulfoacetates (e.g. LANTHANOL® LAL, a sodium lauryl sulfoacetate), alkyl sulfosuccinates and alkyl ether sulfosuccinates (e.g., STEPAN-MILD® LSB, a blend of sodium lauryl sulfoacetate and disodium laureth sulfocuccinate), sulfolaurates (e.g., ALPHA-STEP® PC-48, a mixture of sodium methyl 2-sulfolaurate and disodium 2-sulfolaurate), propionates, amphoacetates, sarcosinates, alkyl phosphates, alkyl ether phosphates, alkyl ether carboxylates, acyl lactylates, acyl glycinates, alkyl isethionates, alkyl taurates, and the like, and mixtures thereof. Preferably, the anionic surfactant is selected from alkyl sulfates, alkyl ether sulfates, alpha olefin sulfonates, alkyl sulfoacetates, alkyl ether sulfoacetates, alkyl sulfosuccinates, alkyl ether sulfosuccinates, and mixtures thereof. For specific examples of additional suitable primary anionic surfactants, see U.S. Pat. No. 8,053,400 and U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. No. 2010/0183539.

[0011] Suitable saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides, also referred to herein as "fatty N,N-dialkylamides," have a linear or branched, preferably linear, chain comprising 8 to 14 carbons. Suitable fatty N,N-dialkylamides are conveniently prepared by reacting the corresponding fatty carboxylic acid or acid derivative (preferably an ester) with a secondary amine. In some cases, the fatty carboxylic acid derivative may be a triglyceride, although it is more typically a lower alkyl ester, such as a methyl ester. The N,N-dialkylamides preferably derive from C2-C8 secondary amines such as dimethylamine, diethylamine, diisopropylamine, and the like. Typically, the fatty ester precursor is reacted with dimethylamine or diethylamine, usually in the presence of a base such as an alkoxide, to give the corresponding fatty N,N-dimethylamide or fatty N,N-diethylamide. Fatty N,N-dimethylamides are most preferred.

[0012] The C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide may comprise individual components (e.g., a straight C12 dialkylamide or a straight C14 dialkylamide), or it may comprise any mixture of components within the C8-C14 range (e.g., a mixture of C8 and C10 dialkylamides or a mixture of C12 and C14 dialkylamides).

[0013] N,N-Dimethyllauramide, a saturated C12 alkyl dimethylamide, is commercially available from Stepan Company as HALLCOMID® M-12. N,N-Dimethylcocamide, a saturated C12-C14 alkyl N,N-dimethylamide mixture derived from coco methyl esters, is also available from Stepan as HALLCOMID® M-12-14. Also available from Stepan are HALLCOMID® M-8-10, a mixture of N,N-dimethylcaprylamide and N,N-dimethylcapramide, and HALLCOMID® M-10, which is N,N-dimethylcapramide.

[0014] The saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides are water-white liquids that can be formulated easily without heating at any actives level up to 100%. This is a substantial handling advantage, as high-actives formulations may be unobtainable with other secondary surfactants. The N,N-dialkylamides are also excellent solubilizers for fragrances, essential oils, and other hydrophobic cleanser components. Use of the C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides as secondary surfactants may also avoid the need to use an alkanolamide surfactant. This may be desirable or important for meeting increasingly strict government standards, such as California's Proposition 65.

[0015] The primary anionic surfactant and the saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide can be used in any desired weight ratio, and the amounts used will depend on the nature of the anionic surfactant, the nature of the fatty N,N-dialkylamide, the particular personal cleanser application, and other factors. Usually, a major proportion of the primary anionic surfactant is used. In one preferred aspect, the weight ratio of the primary anionic surfactant to the fatty N,N-dialkylamide is within the range of 50:1 to 2:1, more preferably from 10:1 to 3:1.

[0016] The personal cleansers also comprise water, which makes up the balance of the formulation except for additional surfactants or other additives that might be included in addition to the primary anionic surfactant and the saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide. The amount of water present will vary depending upon whether the personal cleanser is in a concentrated or dilute formula. Typically, the amount of water in the personal cleanser will range from 10 to 90 wt.%, more typically 25 to 75 wt.%, and preferably 45 to 65 wt.%.

[0017] Additional surfactants may be included in the inventive personal cleansers. Suitable additional surfactants include cationic, amphoteric, zwitterionic, and nonionic surfactants. Suitable cationic surfactants include, for example, alkyldimethylammonium halides, quaternized cellulose, esterquats, amidoquats, stearylamidopropyl dimethylamine quats, and the like. For additional examples, see U.S. Pat. No. 4,228,044, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference. Suitable amphoteric surfactants include amine oxides, betaines, sultaines, sulfobetaines, and the like. Examples include lauramine oxide, myristylamine oxide, cocamine oxide (available as the AMMONYX® amine oxides from Stepan), cocamidopropyl betaine, laurylamidopropyl betaine, and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine (available as the AMPHOSOL® products from Stepan). Suitable nonionic surfactants include alkanolamides and ethoxylated alkanolamides (e.g., cocamide MEA, cocamide DEA, lauramide DEA, lauramide MEA, such as NINOL® COMF, NINOL® 30-LL, NINOL® C-4, and NINOL® C-5, products of Stepan), fatty alcohols, fatty alcohol ethoxylates, alkylpolyglycosides, alkylphenol ethoxylates, and the like. For additional examples of suitable additional surfactants, see U.S. Pat. No. 8,053,400 and U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. No. 2010/0183539, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0018] In some aspects, a moisturizing oil is included in the personal cleanser. Moisturizing oils are commonly included in body washes, facial cleansers, shower gels, liquid soaps, hand soaps, bubble baths, and other similar personal cleansers. Suitable moisturizing oils are well known in the art. They include, for example, natural oils (e.g., soybean oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil, sunflower oil), petrolatum, and the like.

[0019] The personal cleansers may include one or more other additives. Suitable additives include humectants, viscosity modifiers, pH adjusters, foam stabilizers, preservatives, dyes, thickeners, skin-feel enhancers, conditioners, anti-bacterial agents, detergents, builders, proteins, vitamins, emollients, and the like. For examples of these conventional components, see U.S. Pat. No. 8,053,400, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0020] In some aspects, the personal cleansers comprise 1 to 75 wt.% of a primary anionic surfactant, 0.1 to 20 wt.% of a saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide, 0.1 to 50 wt.% of a moisturizing oil, and water. Preferred cleansers of this type comprise 3 to 70 wt.% of the primary anionic surfactant, 1 to 15 wt.% of a betaine surfactant (such as cocamidopropyl betaine), 1 to 10 wt.% of a saturated C12-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide, 3 to 40 wt.% of the moisturizing oil, and water. Personal cleansers that include a moisturizing oil may be body washes, facial cleansers, shower gels, liquid soaps, hand soaps, bubble baths, or similar products. Suitable anionic surfactants for these cleansers have already been described. Preferably, the fatty N,N-dialkylamide is a C12-C14 alkyl N,N-dimethylamide. Preferred moisturizing oils are natural oils (soybean oil, olive oil, grapeseed oil, sunflower oil, or the like) and petrolatum.

[0021] The saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides make it possible to formulate moisturizing cleansers with excellent flash foaming character, foam volume, and foam feel. The cleansers also provide a luxurious, lotion-like after-feel. The saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamides allow room-temperature preparation of stable emulsions containing 5-20 wt.% oil. When tested at elevated temperature, a formulation with 10 wt.% soybean oil and HALLCOMID® M-12-14 is stable for at least 4 weeks at 45°C (see Tables 5-6).

[0022] Generally, the invention relates to oil-in-water emulsions. Such emulsions are useful for a variety of personal care applications, including cosmetics, face creams, lotions, and other skin-care products. The emulsions comprise: (a) a continuous aqueous phase; and (b) a discontinuous phase comprising one or more emollients and 0.1 to 35 wt.%, based on the amount of emulsion, of a saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide. Preferably, the emulsion comprises 30 to 98 wt.% of water, more preferably 50 to 95 wt.% of water.

[0023] Suitable emollients for use in the oil-in-water emulsions are well known in the art, and include natural oils or other triglycerides, fatty esters, fatty alcohols, fatty carbonates, fatty acids, mineral oils, wax esters, glycols, and the like, and mixtures thereof. Specific examples of suitable emollients include isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, cetyl palmitate, polyoxypropylene stearyl ethers, octyl stearate, isooctyl stearate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate, fatty alcohol benzoates, lanolin, lanolin alcohol, sterol fatty esters, dimethicone, allantoin, and the like, and mixtures thereof.

[0024] The oil-in-water emulsions can include other components, including thickeners, emulsifiers (e.g., glyceryl monostearate, cetyl alcohol, or the like), humectants (e.g., glycerin, propylene glycol, urea), botanical extracts (e.g., aloe), and the like.

[0025] The amount of emollient in the emulsion depends on the nature of emollient(s), the intended application for the emulsion, and other factors. Generally, however, it is preferred to prepare emulsions comprising 2 to 30 wt.%, more preferably 5 to 25 wt.%, most preferably 10 to 15 wt.% of the emollient. The emulsion preferably comprises 0.5 to 20 wt.%, more preferably 1 to 10 wt.%, of the saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide. The preparation of an inventive oil-in-water emulsion comprising HALLCOMID® M-12-14 is illustrated in examples below.

[0026] In some aspects, the discontinuous phase of the emulsion further comprises a solubilized active ingredient. Suitable active ingredients are selected vitamins, minerals, carrier oils, essential oils, pigments, exfoliants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, anti-aging agents, wrinkle-reduction agents, fragrances, and the like, and mixtures thereof.

[0027] Suitable fragrances are well known and come in a wide variety of scents, including, among others: floral, citrus, fruity, green, oceanic, oriental, spicy, and woody. Each category includes a bewilderingly diverse array of chemical structures and compositions, and they are often mixtures of multiple components.

[0028] Most fragrances, however, have low or very low water solubility, so finding ways to formulate them into highly aqueous personal cleansers poses a considerable challenge. This is especially true of formulations for which a large proportion (e.g., 2-5 wt.%) of fragrance is desirable. High fragrance levels are achievable by including ethoxylated surfactants such as polyoxyethylene sorbitan laurate or the like in the formulation. However, many formulators want to avoid ethoxylated surfactants and seek other ways to incorporate high fragrance levels into personal cleansers.

[0029] The use of high fragrance levels and the market push to include more natural materials in personal cleansers also makes it challenging for formulators to build viscosity, and to do so without including an excessive amount of salt.

[0030] Thus, in one aspect, the personal cleansers have 0.1 to 5 wt.% of the fragrance, and they can have relatively high levels of fragrance such as 1 to 5 wt.%, 2 to 5 wt.%, or 3 to 4 wt.%.

[0031] In a preferred aspect, the personal cleanser is clear and homogeneous, and preferably comprises 1 to 5 wt.% of the fragrance.

[0032] In another preferred aspect, the personal cleanser further comprises a solubilized active ingredient. Suitable solubilized active ingredients are selected vitamins, minerals, carrier oils, essential oils, pigments, exfoliants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, anti-aging agents, wrinkle-reduction agents, and the like, and mixtures thereof.

[0033] The fragrance-containing personal cleanser described above can be a shampoo, body wash, facial cleanser, shower gel, liquid soap, hand soap, baby liquid cleanser, pet shampoo, bubble bath, or the like.

[0034] The following examples merely illustrate the invention. Those skilled in the art will recognize many variations that are within the scope of the claims.

Formulation components:


Primary anionic surfactants (all products of Stepan Company):



[0035] 

STEOL® CS-130 is sodium laureth (1 EO) sulfate (SLES)

STEOL® CS-230 is sodium laureth (2 EO) sulfate (SLES)

STEPAN-MILD® LSB is disodium laureth sulfosuccinate and sodium lauryl sulfoacetate

STEPAN-MILD® PCL is sodium methyl 2-sulfolaurate, disodium 2-sulfolaurate, and sodium lauryl sulfoacetate

STEPAN-MILD® GCC is glyceryl caprate/caprylate

BIO-TERGE® AS-40 is sodium C14-C16 olefin sulfonate

ALPHA-STEP® PC-48 is sodium methyl 2-sulfolaurate and disodium 2-sulfolaurate


Secondary surfactants (all products of Stepan Company):



[0036] 

AMPHOSOL® HCG is cocamidopropyl betaine

HALLCOMID® M-8-10 is N,N-dimethyl caprylamide/N,N-dimethyl capramide mixture

HALLCOMID® M-10 is N,N-dimethyl capramide

HALLCOMID® M-12 is N,N-dimethyl lauramide

HALLCOMID® M-12-14 is N,N-dimethyl cocamide

C12-30 is a monounsaturated C12 amide based on monoethanolamine (see WO 2012/061094)

C12-25 is a monounsaturated C12 amide based on dimethylamine (see WO 2012/061094)


Preparation of N,N-Dimethyl lauramide



[0037] The N,N-dimethylamide is prepared by reacting methyl laurate with a slight excess of dimethylamine in the presence of an alkoxide catalyst according to generally known methods (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 3,417,114). The reaction product is isolated, washed with water, and distilled to give N,N-dimethyl lauramide.

Preparation of N,N-Dimethyl cocamide



[0038] The procedure used to make N,N-dimethyl lauramide is generally followed, except that coco methyl ester (a mixture of saturated C12 and C14 methyl esters) is reacted with dimethylamine. The reaction product is isolated, washed with water, and distilled to give N,N-dimethyl cocamide.

Evaluation of Emulsification Properties of Personal Cleansers Formulated with Saturated C12-C14 Dialkylamides



[0039] Moisturizing personal cleanser formulations comprising a primary anionic surfactant, an amphoteric surfactant (AMPHOSOL® HCG), HALLCOMID® M-12-14, and soybean oil or petrolatum are prepared to evaluate the emulsifying properties of HALLCOMID® M-12-14 when combined with various anionic surfactants or their mixtures. The anionic surfactants tested include STEOL® CS-130, STEOL® CS-230, BIO-TERGE® AS-40, ALPHA-STEP® PC-48, STEPAN-MILD® LSB, STEPAN-MILD® PCL, and STEPAN-MILD® GCC (all Stepan products). Exemplary formulation details appear in Table 5.

[0040] All of the formulations tested demonstrate excellent performance in terms of their flash foaming character, foam volume, foam feel. Additionally, all of the formulations provide a luxurious, "lotion-like" after-feel. Formulations A-F have a milky appearance and flow properties. Addition of STEPAN-MILD® GCC in formulations G-J enhances the viscosity.
Table 5. Moisturizing Oil-Containing Personal Cleanser Formulations
Formulation (wt.%)ABCDEFGHIJ
STEPAN-MILD® PCL 55 55 55           55 55
STEOL® CS-130       43 43 43        
STEOL® CS-230             48 48    
STEPAN-MILD® GCC             2 2 2 2
AMPHOSOL® HCG 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6
HALLCOMID® M-12-14 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Soybean oil 5 10   5 10   10   20  
Petrolatum     5     5   10   20
Deionized water q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s.
 

Emulsification Property and Emulsion Stability



[0041] Saturated and unsaturated fatty amides are compared for their ability to emulsify high levels of oils (fatty acids and triglyceride-based vegetable oils such as soybean oil or sunflower seed oil) at room temperature and provide stable emulsions.

Tested formulations:



[0042] Formulations with 10% oil (wt.%): STEPAN-MILD® PCL (55); AMPHOSOL® HCG (9.6); STEPAN-MILD® GCC (2.0); saturated or unsaturated fatty amide (3.0); soybean oil (10.0); deionized water (20.4).

[0043] Formulations with 20% oil (wt.%): STEPAN-MILD® PCL (55); AMPHOSOL® HCG (9.6); STEPAN-MILD® GCC (2.0); saturated or unsaturated fatty amide (3.0); soybean oil (20.0); deionized water (10.4).

[0044] Control formulation: STEPAN-MILD® PCL (55); AMPHOSOL® HCG (9.6); NINOL® M10 (cocamide MIPA) (3.0); soybean oil (10.0); deionized water (22.4).

[0045] The control formulation requires elevated temperature for its preparation because NINOL® M10 is a solid at room temperature. The formulation is stable at room temperature for four weeks, but it separates after one week at 45°C.

[0046] Table 6 provides emulsion stability results from the test formulations. As shown in the table, HALLCOMID® M-12 and HALLCOMID® M-12-14, the saturated dimethyl amides, generally provide a higher level of emulsion stability at 10 wt.% oil when compared with the unsaturated C12 alkyl dimethyl amide (C12-25) and unsaturated C12 alkyl MEA amide (C12-30). Additionally, HALLCOMID® M-12 and HALLCOMID® M-12-14 demonstrate good emulsion stability even at 20 wt.% oil.

[0047] When tested at elevated temperature, the formulation with 10 wt.% soybean oil and HALLCOMID® M-12-14 is stable for at least 4 weeks at 45°C.
Table 6. Evaluation of Emulsion Stability
 Stability, room temperature45°C
 1 wk2 wks3 wks4 wks1 wk4 wks
HALLCOMID® M-12 + 10% petrolatum yes yes yes yes -- --
HALLCOMID® M-12 + 10% soybean oil yes yes yes yes -- --
HALLCOMID® M-12-14 + 10% soybean oil yes yes yes yes yes yes
HALLCOMID® M-12-14 + 20% petrolatum yes yes yes yes -- --
HALLCOMID® M-12-14 + 20% soybean oil yes yes yes yes -- --
 
Cocamide MIPA + 10% soybean oil (control) yes yes yes yes no no
 
C12-25 + 10% petrolatum yes yes yes yes -- --
C12-25 + 10% soybean oil yes no no no -- --
C12-30 + 10% petrolatum yes no no no -- --
C12-30 + 10% soybean oil yes yes yes yes -- --

Oil-in-Water Emulsions



[0048] Comparative Formulation K (wt.%): HallStar® IPM (10); HallStar® cetyl alcohol (3.0); HallStar® GMS pure (2.0), deionized water (q.s. to 100); preservative, color, dye (q.s.); citric acid (q.s.); sodium hydroxide (q.s.).

[0049] Formulation L (wt.%): Same as Comparative Formulation K, with 3 wt.% of HALLCOMID® M-12-14 added.

[0050] Procedure: A vessel is charged with deionized water, which is mixed and heated to 170-175°F (77 to 79°C). In a separate container, the HallStar® IPM (isopropyl myristate), HALLCOMID® M-12-14, cetyl alcohol, and HallStar® GMS (glyceryl monostearate) are combined and heated to 170-175°F. The agitation rate of the water phase is increased, and the oil phase is slowly added. After 5 min. of additional mixing, the pH is adjusted to 5.5 to 6.5, and the mixture is emulsified for 20-25 min. The mixture is cooled to 80°F (27°C), and preservative, color, and/or dye are added if desired. The pH is adjusted with citric acid or sodium hydroxide as needed.

[0051] Results: Comparative Formulation K separates within 1 day. Formulation L (with the HALLCOMID® M-12-14) is stable for 3 weeks. Thus, HALLCOMID® M-12-14 works well as an emulsifier for the preparation of oil-in-water emulsions.

Fragrance Solubilization



[0052] Examples M, N, P, and Q below illustrate the ability of fatty N,N-dialkylamides to function as fragrance solubilizers for personal care applications. Each of the formulations contains a relatively high percentage (3.0 wt.%) of fragrance. Many fragrances have very low water solubility and can be used only at low levels (e.g., 1 wt.% or less) without causing phase separation. We surprisingly found (see Table 7) that a high concentration of fragrance can be tolerated when fatty N,N-dialkylamides are included in aqueous personal care formulations with a primary anionic surfactant. As shown in the table, clear products can be obtained with HALLCOMID® M-10 or HALLCOMID® M-12 with the Fragrance #2. Although Fragrance #1 proved more challenging, it gives a clear product with HALLCOMID® M-8-10.
Table 7. Fragrance Solubilization using Fatty N,N-Dialkylamides
 
Formulation (wt.%)MNPQ
STEOL® CS-230 48 48 48 48
AMPHOSOL® HCG 9.6 9.6 9.6 9.6
HALLCOMID® M-8-10 3.0 -- -- --
HALLCOMID® M-12 -- 3.0 3.0 --
HALLCOMID® M-10 -- -- -- 3.0
Fragrance #1 3.0 3.0 -- --
Fragrance #2 -- -- 3.0 3.0
Deionized water q.s. q.s. q.s. q.s.
pH 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
Viscosity -- -- high low
Appearance clear opaque clear clear
 


[0053] The preceding examples are meant only as illustrations. The following claims define the invention.


Claims

1. An oil-in-water emulsion comprising:

(a) a continuous aqueous phase;

(b) a discontinuous phase comprising one or more emollients and 0.1 to 35 wt.%, based on the amount of emulsion, of a saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide.


 
2. The emulsion of claim 1 wherein the emollient is selected from the group consisting of natural oils, triglycerides, fatty esters, fatty alcohols, fatty carbonates, fatty acids, mineral oils, wax esters, glycols, or mixtures thereof.
 
3. The emulsion of claim 2 wherein the emollient is selected from the group consisting of isopropyl myristate, isopropyl palmitate, cetyl palmitate, polyoxypropylene stearyl ethers, octyl stearate, isooctyl stearate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate, fatty alcohol benzoates, lanolin, lanolin alcohol, sterol fatty esters, dimethicone, allantoin, and mixtures thereof.
 
4. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims wherein the emulsion comprises 2 to 30 wt.%, more preferably 5 to 25 wt.%, most preferably 10 to 15 wt.% of the emollient.
 
5. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims wherein the emulsion comprises 0.5 to 20 wt.%, preferably 1 to 10 wt.%, of the saturated C8-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide.
 
6. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims wherein the discontinuous phase comprises a saturated C12-C14 alkyl N,N-dialkylamide.
 
7. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims wherein the discontinuous phase further comprises a solubilized active ingredient selected from the group consisting of vitamins, minerals, carrier oils, essential oils, pigments, exfoliants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, anti-aging agents, wrinkle-reduction agents, fragrances, and mixtures thereof.
 
8. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims, comprising 30 to 98 wt.% of water, more preferably 50 to 95 wt.% of water.
 
9. The emulsion of any one of the preceding claims wherein the emulsion comprises other additives, including thickeners, emulsifiers, humectants, or botanical extracts.
 





Search report









Search report




Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description