(19)
(11)EP 3 683 563 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
22.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/30

(21)Application number: 20152267.9

(22)Date of filing:  16.01.2020
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
G01N 1/22(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 18.01.2019 CN 201910047120

(71)Applicant: Shanghai Volvo Car Research and Development Co., Ltd.
Shanghai 201821 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • LEI, Jie
    SHANGHAI, Shanghai 201815 (CN)
  • SIMONSSON, Lasse
    405 31 GÖTEBORG (SE)
  • BERG, Olle
    405 31 GÖTEBORG (SE)

(74)Representative: Kransell & Wennborg KB 
P.O. Box 2096
403 12 Göteborg
403 12 Göteborg (SE)

  


(54)DILUTION TUNNEL INTERNAL AQUEOUS CONDENSATION MONITORING SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR VEHICLE EMISSION TESTS


(57) The present invention provides a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) configured for a vehicle emission test system, wherein the dilution tunnel (70) has an inlet end and an outlet end, the condensate monitoring device comprises: a first temperature sensor (41) and a humidity sensor (45) positioned at the outlet end; and a computing device configured to receive a temperature from the first temperature sensor and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor and calculate a dew point temperature of moisture in the dilution tunnel. In addition, the present invention also provides a vehicle emission test system including the above device and a method for monitoring and controlling aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel. By using the technical solutions of the invention, the situation of the aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel can be monitored, and the modification and upgrade of dilution systems of existing emission laboratories can be adapted to meet relevant regulatory requirements for vehicle emission tests.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to the field of vehicle emission test, in particular to a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device, a vehicle emission test system including the same, and a method for monitoring and controlling aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel.

BACKGROUND



[0002] Vehicles (e.g., gasoline vehicles) emit a variety of harmful contaminants during use, such as solid aerosols, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and the like. As the number of vehicles continues to increase, the problem of atmospheric pollution is becoming more and more serious. In order to reduce the environmental impact of vehicle emissions, national regulations require vehicles to be calibrated by professional agencies before the market or during use. For example, during the vehicle development process, in order to ensure the detection of the actual emission of a vehicle, it is usually required to perform an engine emission test calibration on the engine rig, for example, which is detailed in Section 1065 of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Federal Regulation CFR 3-40. However, since a method adopted in the engine emission test does not accurately represent the environmental condition of an actual road running of the vehicle, there may be cases where the engine emission test is qualified and the vehicle emission test is unqualified. As a result, many countries have gradually increased the regulations for vehicle emissions test. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency updated the federal regulations CFR 3-40 with the addition of Section 1066, which addresses the requirements for vehicle emissions test.

[0003] During vehicle emission testing, it is usually necessary to use a dilution tunnel to dilute an original exhaust gas, and aqueous condensation should be eliminated in the dilution tunnel to improve the detection accuracy. However, in the case where the external environment and the dilution air are varied and uncontrollable, it is difficult to prevent the generation of aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel, and the aqueous condensation will dissolve the exhaust gas or carry away particles, which interferes with the accurate measurement of the contaminants. It is known that the probability of generating aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel can be generally reduced by means of insulating or heating the entire dilution tunnel. However, these solutions cannot confirm whether there is aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel during testing, and the accuracy of detection results cannot be guaranteed and the cost is high.

[0004] In addition, current vehicle emission laboratories have not yet had a good engineering design to modify the dilution tunnel, and cannot meet the requirements of the latest regulations on aqueous condensation monitoring. Therefore, in order to provide conditions for vehicle emission test that meet the relevant regulatory requirements, it is necessary to solve the problem of monitoring and controlling aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel in the vehicle emission test system.

SUMMARY



[0005] An object of the present invention is to provide a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device a and a vehicle emission test system to accurately monitor the moisture condition in the dilution tunnel during a vehicle emission test to avoid or minimize aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel.

[0006] To this end, according to an aspect of the present invention, a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device is provided, which is configured for use in a vehicle emission test system, wherein the dilution tunnel has an inlet end configured to receive diluted exhaust gas and an outlet end configured to output the diluted exhaust gas, and the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device comprises:

a first temperature sensor positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel;

a humidity sensor positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel; and

a computing device configured to receive a temperature from the first temperature sensor and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor and calculate a dew point temperature of moisture in the dilution tunnel.



[0007] Optionally, the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device includes a second temperature sensor positioned at the inlet end of the dilution tunnel to measure a temperature of the diluted exhaust gas entering the dilution tunnel.

[0008] Optionally, the dilution tunnel comprises a first tunnel segment and a second tunnel segment arranged in series, and a particulate sampling device is arranged between the first tunnel segment and the second tunnel segment.

[0009] Optionally, the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device further includes a third temperature sensor positioned adjacent to an inlet end of the particulate sampling device and a fourth temperature sensor positioned adjacent to an outlet end of the particulate sampling device.

[0010] Optionally, an insulating material is affixed to the exterior of the first tunnel segment and/or the second tunnel segment.

[0011] According to another aspect of the present invention, a vehicle emission test system is provided, comprising:

an environmental simulation chamber for receiving a vehicle to be tested;

a mixing device configured to receive and mix air and exhaust gas of the vehicle;

an air supply device configured to supply the heated air to the mixing device;

a dilution tunnel having an inlet end configured to receive the diluted exhaust gas and an outlet end configured to output the diluted exhaust gas;

the above dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device;

an exhaust gas sampling device being in communication with the outlet end of the dilution tunnel; and

a control device configured to control the operation of the air supply device based on a dew point temperature calculated by the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device.



[0012] Optionally, the air supply device comprises:

an air supply conduit having an inlet end and an outlet end;

a first three-way valve positioned at the inlet end of the air supply conduit and configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation chamber or the outside atmosphere; and

a second three-way valve positioned at the outlet end of the air supply conduit and configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation bin or the outside atmosphere;

wherein the air supply conduit is provided with an opening in communication with the mixing device between the inlet end and the outlet end of the air supply conduit.



[0013] Optionally, the air supply conduit is provided with a heater upstream of the opening.

[0014] Optionally, the air supply device includes a first blower configured to determine a flow rate of the supplied air according to a flow rate of the exhaust gas of the vehicle.

[0015] Optionally, the exhaust gas sampling device is in communication with a second blower that provides a negative pressure to the exhaust gas sampling device.

[0016] In addition, according to a third aspect of the present invention, a method for monitoring and controlling aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel is provided, wherein an outlet end of the dilution tunnel is provided with a first temperature sensor and a humidity sensor, and the monitoring and control method comprises:
  1. a) receiving a temperature from the first temperature sensor and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor;
  2. b) calculating a dew point temperature of moisture in the dilution tunnel;
  3. c) determining whether the calculated dew point temperature is greater than the temperature measured by the first temperature sensor, and if the calculated dew point temperature is greater than the first temperature, performing the next step d), and conversely, if the calculated dew point temperature is less than the first temperature, returning to step a);
  4. d) increasing the temperature of the supplied air and then returning to step a).


[0017] The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device and the vehicle emission test system of the present invention monitors aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel through the temperature sensor and the humidity sensor, and control the temperature in the dilution tunnel by adjusting the temperature of the supplied air, which can be adapted to the modification and upgrade of dilution systems in many emission laboratories to meet regulatory requirements for vehicle emissions test. In addition, the present invention can collect signals such as temperature and humidity into the control device for ease of operation and calculation.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS



[0018] The features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from the following description in conjunction with accompanying drawings. In the drawings,

Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of a vehicle emission test system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention, wherein a dilution tunnel and a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device and an air supply device are schematically illustrated in dashed lines; and

Fig. 2 shows a schematic flow chart of a monitoring and controlling method for aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel of the vehicle emission test system shown in Fig. 1.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0019] A vehicle emission test system and a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device thereof according to preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that these exemplary embodiments are not meant to be limiting of the invention.

[0020] It should be noted that "inlet end", "outlet end", "upstream" and "downstream" as used herein are defined along the flow path of air or exhaust gas from a source until it is discharged from a pipeline. "Aqueous condensation" as used herein means the precipitation of water-containing constituents from a gas phase to a liquid phase.

[0021] As shown in FIG. 1, the vehicle emission test system of the present invention generally includes an environmental simulation chamber 10, a mixing device 20, an air supply device 30, a dilution tunnel 70, a dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40, and an exhaust gas sampling device 50. The various parts are described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

[0022] The environmental simulation chamber 10 is used to receive the vehicle 11 to be tested and is typically in a constant temperature, constant pressure state. The environmental simulation chamber 10 can simulate different environmental conditions of different driving states of the vehicle 11 on the road. In addition, a drum test stand (not shown) may be provided in the environmental simulation chamber 10. The vehicle 11 can also simulate various driving conditions within the environmental simulation chamber 10.

[0023] The mixing device 20 is configured to receive the exhaust gas of the vehicle 11 and air, mix the exhaust gas with air so the mixture is diluted, and deliver the diluted exhaust gas to the dilution tunnel 70. The related art that the exhaust gas is diluted by means of mixing with air is known to those of skill in the art, and will not be described in detail herein.

[0024] The air received by the mixing device 20 is from the air supply device 30 (shown in dashed lines in Fig. 1) that is accordingly configured to supply the heated clean air to the mixing device 20. The air supply device 30 includes an air supply conduit 39 having an inlet end and an outlet end. A first three-way valve 31 and a second three-way valve 38 are respectively positioned at the inlet end and the outlet end of the air supply conduit 39, wherein the first three-way valve 31 is configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation chamber 10 or the outside atmosphere, and the second three-way valve 38 is also configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation chamber 10 or the outside atmosphere. The purpose of the first three-way valve 31 and the second three-way valve 38 is to select different air sources depending on the environmental conditions simulated in the environment simulation chamber 10. For example, when the environmental simulation chamber 10 simulates a low temperature environment, the first three-way valve 31 can be switched to communicate with the outside atmosphere, then the air entering the air supply conduit 39 of the air supply device 30 is at a higher temperature, and at the outlet end of the air supply conduit 39, the temperature of the excess air that is not mixed with the exhaust gas is still high, so that the second three-way valve can be switched to communicate with the outside atmosphere to avoid discharging the excess air with a higher temperature into the environmental simulation chamber 10. Conversely, when the environmental simulation chamber 10 simulates a high temperature environment, the first three-way valve 31 and the second three-way valve 38 can be switched to be in communication with the environmental simulation chamber 10. Thus, by providing the first three-way valve 31 and the second three-way valve 38, the time for heating air can be shortened and the cost and testing time can be reduced. An opening communicating with the mixing device 20 is provided between the inlet end and the outlet end of the air supply conduit 39 to allow air to enter the mixing device 20 to mix with the exhaust gas. In addition, in order to avoid an excessive temperature change after the exhaust gas is mixed with air and to control the temperature in the downstream dilution tunnel 70, a heater 36 may be provided upstream of the opening of the air supply conduit 39 to heat air.

[0025] Additionally, to increase the cleanliness of air, one or more air filters 32 may be provided in the air supply conduit 39. Muffler 33, 37, a flow meter 34, and a first blower 35 may also be positioned in the air supply conduit 39. The first blower 35 is configured to adjust a flow rate of the supplied air according to a flow rate of the exhaust gas emitted by the vehicle to provide a constant dilution ratio within the mixing device 20 to achieve a proportional dilution.

[0026] The dilution tunnel 70 has an inlet end that is configured to communicate with the mixing device 20 to receive the diluted exhaust gas, and an outlet end that is configured to deliver the diluted exhaust gas to the exhaust gas sampling device 50. Various detection devices can be installed in the dilution tunnel 46 during the vehicle emission test.

[0027] The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40 includes a first temperature sensor 41 positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel 70 to measure the temperature T1 of the diluted exhaust gas entering the exhaust gas sampling device 50. Additionally, the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40 further includes a humidity sensor 45 that is also positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel 70 to measure the humidity within the dilution tunnel 70, such as a relative humidity RH or an absolute humidity. The temperature T1 measured by the first temperature sensor 41 and the humidity measured by the humidity sensor 45 may be transmitted to a computing device (not shown) which may calculate a dew point temperature Td of the moisture within the dilution tunnel 70 based on the temperature T1 and the humidity. The computing device can be a separate device or a module integrated into a control device of the vehicle emissions test system. The monitoring process for the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40 will be described in further detail later.

[0028] The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40 may further include a second temperature sensor 42 positioned at the inlet end of the dilution tunnel 70 to measure a temperature T2 of the diluted exhaust gas entering the dilution tunnel 70 immediately after the mixing device 20. By comparing the temperatures T1 and T2, it is possible to monitor the temperature change of the diluted exhaust gas in the dilution tunnel 70.

[0029] The dilution tunnel 70 may include a first tunnel segment 71 for receiving the diluted exhaust gas and a second tunnel segment 72 for discharging the diluted exhaust gas arranged in series, and a particulate sampling device 60 may be positioned between the first tunnel segment 71 and the second tunnel segment 72. The particulate sampling device 60 can sample particulate matter in the diluted exhaust gas. In addition, the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40 may further include a third temperature sensor 43 and a fourth temperature sensor 44, wherein the third temperature sensor 43 is positioned adjacent to an inlet end of the particulate sampling device 60, and the fourth temperature sensor is positioned adjacent to an outlet end of the particulate sampling device 60. The temperature change across the particulate matter sampling device 60 can be monitored at any time by providing the third temperature sensor 43 and the fourth temperature sensor 44.

[0030] In order to ensure the temperature in the dilution tunnel 70, an insulating material may be provided outside the dilution tunnel 70, for example, an insulating material is affixed to the exterior of the first tunnel segment 71 and/or the second tunnel segment 72. Specifically, if the air temperature is increased to a high temperature, the insulating material may be affixed to the first tunnel segment 71 or the second tunnel segment 72, or there does not require the insulating material at all. Otherwise, it is preferred that both the first and second tunnel segments are insulated from the ambient. In addition, in order to further improve a filtering effect, an exhaust gas filter 47 may also be provided in the second tunnel segment 72.

[0031] The exhaust gas sampling device 50 receives the diluted exhaust gas from the dilution tunnel 70 and samples the diluted exhaust gas, for example, by means of a volumetric pump or a critical venturi for constant volume sampling. Downstream of the exhaust gas sampling device 50, a negative pressure blower 52 connected through a conduit 51 may also be provided to provide a negative pressure required for constant volume sampling.

[0032] In addition, the vehicle emission test system further includes a control device (not shown) configured to control the operation of (e.g., a heater 36 of) the air supply device 30 based on the dew point temperature Td calculated by the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device 40.

[0033] All of the configurations of the vehicle emission test system and the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device disclosed and claimed herein can be made without undue experimentation according to the present disclosure. While the preferred configurations have been described, it will be apparent to those of skill in the art that variations may be applied to the system and in the steps or in the sequence of steps described herein without departing from the concept, spirt and scope of the invention. All such substitutions and modifications apparent to those skilled in the art are deemed to be within the spirit, scope and concept of the invention as defined by the claims.

[0034] A monitoring and controlling method for aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel of the present invention will be described below with reference to Fig. 2, wherein an outlet end of the dilution tunnel is provided with a first temperature sensor and a humidity sensor. The method generally includes the following steps.

[0035] At step S1, the vehicle emissions test system is activated.

[0036] At step S2, a temperature T1 from the first temperature sensor 41 and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor 45 are received.

[0037] At step S3, a dew point temperature Td of moisture in the dilution tunnel 70 is calculated. In the case where the temperature T1 and the humidity are known, the dew point temperature Td can be calculated by the following method. The calculation method of the dew point temperature is further explained by taking the relative humidity RH as an example.

[0038] First, the relative humidity RH can be expressed by the following formula:

where Pw represents a vapor pressure and Pws represents a saturated vapor pressure. It should be understood that the relative humidity RH is temperature dependent.

[0039] In addition, the saturated vapor pressure Pws can be expressed by the following formula:

where T represents a current temperature, A, m and Tn are constants, for example, A = 6.089613, m = 7.33052, Tn = 230.3921.

[0040] The dew point temperature Td can be expressed by the following formula:



[0041] It should be understood that the conversion between the relative humidity and the absolute humidity is known and will not be further described herein. In addition, for the dew point temperature calculated by the humidity and the temperature, other known calculation methods can also be employed.

[0042] At step S4, it is determined whether or not the calculated dew point temperature Td is greater than the temperature T1 measured by the first temperature sensor 41. If the calculated dew point temperature Td is greater than the first temperature T1, that is, the determination result is "Y", performing next step S5. Conversely, if the calculated dew point temperature Td is less than the first temperature T1, that is, the determination result is "N", returning to step S2.

[0043] At step S5, a temperature of the supplied air is raised, for example, the power of the heater 36 of the air supply device 30 is increased for a certain period of time, and then returning to step S2.

[0044] At step S6, the operation of the vehicle emission test system is stopped.

[0045] Further, during the step S5, it is confirmed by tests that the air for dilution is heated to 40 ± 5 Celsius degrees to obtain a better effect. However, depending on the amount of discharge, the size of the dilution tunnel, and the like, the temperature of air may vary accordingly.

[0046] It should be understood that other steps for vehicle emission test may be included in the above method, such as a constant volume sampling step, a particulate sampling step, and the like.

[0047] The vehicle emission test system and the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device of the present invention have the following advantages: having increased versatility, flexibility and speed to adapt to modification and upgrading of many dilution systems in existing emission laboratories to meet new regulatory requirements; ease of monitoring, controlling, and adjusting the temperature of the heater to control the temperature in the dilution tunnel, and monitoring the aqueous condensation in the dilution tunnel by the temperature sensor and the humidity sensor; easy to use and the relevant temperature and humidity signals can be integrated into the control device of the system so as to operate and calculate the dew point temperature of moisture in the dilution tunnel easily.

[0048] The invention has been described in detail above with reference to the specific embodiments. It is apparent that the above description and embodiments shown in the drawings are intended to be illustrative and not restrictive. It is apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.


Claims

1. A dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) configured for use in a vehicle emission test system, wherein the dilution tunnel (70) has an inlet end configured to receive diluted exhaust gas and an outlet end configured to output the diluted exhaust gas,
the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) comprising:

a first temperature sensor (41) positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel (70);

a humidity sensor (45) positioned at the outlet end of the dilution tunnel (70); and

a computing device configured to receive a temperature (T1) from the first temperature sensor (41) and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor (45) and calculate a dew point temperature (Td) of moisture in the dilution tunnel (70).


 
2. The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) according to claim 1, further comprises a second temperature sensor (42) positioned at the inlet end of the dilution tunnel (70) to measure a temperature of the diluted exhaust gas entering the dilution tunnel (70).
 
3. The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) according to claim 2, wherein the dilution tunnel (70) comprises a first tunnel segment (71) and a second tunnel segment (72) arranged in series, and a particulate sampling device (60) is positioned between the first tunnel segment (71) and the second tunnel segment (72).
 
4. The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) according to claim 3, further comprises a third temperature sensor (43) and a fourth temperature sensor (44), wherein the third temperature sensor (43) is positioned adjacent to an inlet end of the particulate sampling device (60), and the fourth temperature sensor (44) is positioned adjacent to an outlet end of the particulate sampling device (60).
 
5. The dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) according to claim 3, wherein an insulating material is affixed to the exterior of the first tunnel segment (71) and/or the second tunnel segment (72).
 
6. A vehicle emission test system includes:

an environmental simulation chamber (10) for receiving a vehicle (11) to be tested;

a mixing device (20) configured to receive and mix air and exhaust gas of the vehicle (11);

an air supply device (30) configured to supply the heated air to the mixing device (20);

a dilution tunnel (70) having an inlet end configured to receive the diluted exhaust gas and an outlet end configured to output the diluted exhaust gas;

the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40) according to any one of claims 1 to 5;

an exhaust gas sampling device (50) being in communication with the outlet end of the dilution tunnel (70); and

a control device configured to control the operation of the air supply device (30) based on a dew point temperature (Td) calculated by the dilution tunnel internal aqueous condensation monitoring device (40).


 
7. The vehicle emission test system according to claim 6, wherein the air supply device (30) comprises:

an air supply conduit (39) having an inlet end and an outlet end;

a first three-way valve (31) positioned at the inlet end of the air supply conduit (39), and configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation chamber (10) or the outside atmosphere; and

a second three-way valve (38) positioned at the outlet end of the air supply conduit (39) and configured to selectively communicate with the environmental simulation chamber (10) or the outside atmosphere;

wherein the air supply conduit (39) is provided with an opening in communication with the mixing device (20) between the inlet end and the outlet end of the air supply conduit.


 
8. The vehicle emission test system according to claim 7, wherein the air supply conduit (39) is provided with a heater (36) upstream of the opening of the air supply conduit (39).
 
9. The vehicle emission test system according to claim 8, wherein the air supply device (30) comprises a first blower (35) configured to determine a flow rate of the supplied air depending on a flow rate of the exhaust gas of the vehicle (11).
 
10. The vehicle emission test system according to claim 6, wherein the exhaust gas sampling device (50) is in communication with a second blower (52), and the second blower (52) provides a negative pressure for the exhaust gas sampling device (50).
 
11. A method for monitoring and controlling aqueous condensation in a dilution tunnel, wherein an outlet end of the dilution tunnel (70) is provided with a first temperature sensor (41) and a humidity sensor (45), and the monitoring and controlling method comprises:

a) receiving a temperature (T1) from the first temperature sensor (41) and a humidity reading from the humidity sensor (45);

b) calculating a dew point temperature (Td) of moisture in the dilution tunnel (70);

c) determining whether the calculated dew point temperature (Td) is greater than the temperature (T1) measured by the first temperature sensor (41), and if the calculated dew point temperature (Td) is greater than the temperature (T1), performing next step d), conversely, if the calculated dew point temperature (Td) is less than the temperature (T1), returning to step a);

d) increasing a temperature of the supplied air and then returning to step a).


 




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