(19)
(11)EP 3 685 839 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 20158414.1

(22)Date of filing:  13.05.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 31/522(2006.01)
A61K 31/401(2006.01)
A61K 31/155(2006.01)
A61P 13/12(2006.01)
A61K 31/4184(2006.01)
A61K 45/06(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 14.05.2012 EP 12167953
05.06.2012 EP 12170888
28.09.2012 EP 12006812
29.10.2012 EP 12190447

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
13722419.2 / 2849755

(71)Applicant: Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH
55216 Ingelheim am Rhein (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • KLEIN, Thomas
    55216 INGELHEIM AM RHEIN (DE)
  • VON EYNATTEN, Maximilian
    55216 INGELHEIM AM RHEIN (DE)
  • MARK, Michael
    55216 INGELHEIM AM RHEIN (DE)

(74)Representative: Simon, Elke Anna Maria et al
Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH Binger Strasse 173
55216 Ingelheim am Rhein
55216 Ingelheim am Rhein (DE)

 
Remarks:
This application was filed on 20.02.2020 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
 


(54)LINAGLIPTIN FOR USE IN THE TREATMENT OF ALBUMINURIA AND KIDNEY RELATED DISEASES


(57) The present invention relates to methods for treating and/or preventing podocytes related disorders and/or nephrotic syndrome comprising the administration of an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, in particular linagliptin, as well as to the use of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor for treating and/or preventing albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy or the onset of chronic kidney diseases.


Description

Field of the Invention



[0001] The present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk or likelihood of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and/or diseases related or associated therewith, to pharmaceutical compositions and combinations comprising such active components, and to certain therapeutic uses thereof.

[0002] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, and/or for use in protecting, preserving, improving, repairing or regenerating podocytes and/or their function.

[0003] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of nephrotic syndrome either of primary or secondary cause (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), including minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0004] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0005] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0006] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0007] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0008] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy).

[0009] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis).

[0010] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0011] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the likelihood or risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, to the patient.

[0012] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the likelihood or risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, to the patient.

[0013] Moreover, the present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, and/or optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing and/or delaying the progress of albuminuria, in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) suffering from nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy).

[0014] Moreover, the present invention further relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing, reducing the risk and/or delaying the onset of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) suffering from nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy) and/or albuminuria.

[0015] Moreover, the present invention further relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing and/or delaying the progress of albuminuria, in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus suffering from diabetic nephropathy) with or at risk of risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

Background of the Invention



[0016] Disturbance of podocyte function as well as podocyte loss or injury are a hallmark of a variety of primary or secondary proteinuric glomerular diseases such as minimal change disease (such as e.g. minimal change nephropathy, or steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membraneous nephropathy (such as e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis). These diseases may present as a nephrotic syndrome, which is characterized by proteinuria (typically > 3 g/day, or > 3.5 g per 1.73 m2 per 24 hours), edema (which may be associated with weight gain), hypoalbuminemia (typically albumin level ≤ 2.5 g/dL), hyperlipidemia (e.g. hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or both in combined hyperlipidemia, particularly hypercholesterolemia, mainly elevated LDL, usually with concomitantly elevated VLDL) and optionally (sometimes) hypertension. Lipiduria may also occur, but is not essential for the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. Hyponatremia may also occur with a low fractional sodium excretion.

[0017] Injury to the podocyte results in proteinuria and often leads to progressive kidney disease. As podocytes have limited ability to repair and/or regenerate, the extent of podocyte injury is a major prognostic determinant in diabetic nephropathy and other common causes of end-stage renal disease. Therapies aimed at preventing or limiting podocyte injury and/or at promoting podocyte repair or regeneration therefore have major potential clinical and economic benefits. Many current therapies - including glucocorticosteroids (e.g. prednisone, prednisolone), cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, rituximab and calcineurin antagonists - have some effects on podocytes. However there are conditions of nephrotic syndrome which are or become resistant or refractory (relapsing) to conventional therapy, e.g. to steroid treatment. Further, the nonspecific natures of these conventional agents can lead to undesirable systemic adverse effects.

[0018] If protein excretion can not be controlled by adequate therapy, these diseases often progress to end-stage renal disease. This is particularly true for steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The "normal" (steroid sensitive) minimal change nephropathy usually responds well to treatment with steroids. With steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), however, there remain clinical circumstances where no effective treatment is available today.

[0019] Nephrotic syndrome has many causes and may either be the result of a disease limited to the kidney, called primary nephrotic syndrome, or a condition that affects the kidney and other parts of the body, called secondary nephrotic syndrome.

Primary nephrotic syndrome:



[0020] Primary causes of nephrotic syndrome are usually described by the histology, i.e. minimal change disease (MCD) such as minimal change nephropathy which is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membraneous nephropathy (MN) such as membraneous glomerulonephritis which is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults.

[0021] They are considered to be "diagnoses of exclusion", i.e. they are diagnosed only after secondary causes have been excluded.

Secondary nephrotic syndrome:



[0022] Secondary causes of nephrotic syndrome have the same histologic patterns as the primary causes, though may exhibit some differences suggesting a secondary cause, such as inclusion bodies. They are usually described by the underlying cause.

Secondary causes by histologic pattern:


Membranous nephropathy (MN):



[0023] 
  • Hepatitis B & Hepatitis C
  • Sjögren's syndrome
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE)
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Drugs (such as corticosteroids, gold, intravenous heroin)
  • Malignancy (cancer)
  • Bacterial infections, e.g. leprosy & syphilis
  • Protozoal infections, e.g. malaria

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS):



[0024] 
  • Hypertensive nephrosclerosis
  • HIV
  • Obesity
  • Kidney loss

Minimal change disease (MCD):



[0025] 
  • Drugs, especially NSAIDs in the elderly
  • Malignancy, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Leukemia


[0026] Accordingly, nephrotic syndrome within the meaning of this invention includes, is caused by or is associated with minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

Summary of the Invention



[0027] The present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk or likelihood of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and/or diseases related or associated therewith, to pharmaceutical compositions and combinations comprising such active components, and to certain therapeutic uses thereof.

[0028] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, and/or for use in protecting, preserving, improving, repairing or regenerating podocytes and/or their function.

[0029] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of nephrotic syndrome either of primary or secondary cause (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), including minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0030] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0031] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0032] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0033] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0034] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy).

[0035] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis).

[0036] Further, the present invention relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0037] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the likelihood or risk of nephrotic syndrome (e.g. including steroid-resistant or steroid-refractory nephrotic syndrome), minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, to the patient.

[0038] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the likelihood or risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, to the patient.

[0039] Moreover, the present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, and/or optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing, delaying the onset of and/or delaying the progress of albuminuria, in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) suffering from nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy).

[0040] Moreover, the present invention further relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing, reducing the risk and/or delaying the onset of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) suffering from nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy) and/or albuminuria.

[0041] Moreover, the present invention further relates a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing, delaying the onset of and/or delaying the progress of albuminuria, in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus suffering from diabetic nephropathy) with or at risk of risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0042] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, particularly diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria (>300 mg/day) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

[0043] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating or lowering albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy on top of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy and/or angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB) therapy in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly with diabetic nephropathy (e.g. early diabetic nephropathy).

[0044] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in a method of treating, preventing, reducing the risk of, delaying the onset or slowing the progression of albuminuria (micro- or macro-albuminuria) or diabetic nephropathy, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients on (e.g. previous or ongoing) therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), e.g. patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering the DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.

[0045] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. including an ARB or ACE inhibitor, such as e.g. with or without additional standard background therapy such as e.g. with an ACEi or ARB) for use in preventing, reducing the risk or likelihood of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0046] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD), worsening of CKD, and/or acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0047] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or the progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0048] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in a method of preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD), worsening of CKD, and/or acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients on (e.g. previous or ongoing) therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), such as e.g. patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering the DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.

[0049] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin ( optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with one or more further active agents, such as e.g. one or more antiplatelet agents, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering agents) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, such as preventing, reducing or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, and/or the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death, particularly in a human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus; such as e.g. in a patient (particularly diabetes patient, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus patient) having renal- and/or cardiovascular- history and/or medications, such as diabetic nephropathy, macrovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, periperal artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension), microvascular disease (e.g. diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy), coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, ex-smoker or current smoker, and/or on acetylsalicylic acid, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering medication, such as e.g. on (previous or ongoing) therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, an ACE inhibitor, ARB, beta-blocker, Calcium-antagonist or diuretic, or combination thereof, and/or on (previous or ongoing) therapy with a fibrate, niacin or statin, or combination thereof.

[0050] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin ( optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with one or more further active agents, such as e.g. one or more antiplatelet agents, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering agents) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, such as preventing, reducing or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, and/or the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death, particularly in a human patient having diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or for use in treating, lowering, preventing, reducing the risk of, delaying the onset or slowing the progression of albuminuria (micro- or macro-albuminuria) or diabetic nephropathy, particularly in a human patient having diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus; such as e.g. in a patient with diabetic nephropathy (with or without additional standard background therapy such as e.g. with an ACEi or ARB), e.g. including a vulnerable diabetic nephropathy patient such as who are aged ≥ 65 years typically having longer diabetes duration (> 5 years), renal impairment (such as mild (60 to <90 eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2) or moderate (30 to <60 eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment) and/or higher baseline UACR (such as advanced stages of micro- or macroalbuminuria).

Brief Description of the Drawings



[0051] Figure 1 shows the expression of podocalyxin as a marker for podocyte integrity in linagliptin-, enalapril- or vehicle-treated diabetic db/db mice and in healthy control mice.

Detailed Description of the Invention



[0052] Within the scope of the present invention it has now been found that a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin) as defined herein as well as pharmaceutical combinations, compositions, uses or methods according to this invention of that DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin) optionally in combination with one or more other active agents as defined herein have properties, which make them suitable for the purpose of this invention and/or for fulfilling one or more of the needs mentioned herein.

[0053] DPP-4 is analogous to CD26 a T-cell antigene which plays a role in T-cell activation and immuno-modulation. Furthermore, linagliptin, a selective DPP-4 inhibitor further qualifies for the instant purposes with certain anti-oxidative and/or anti-inflammatory features.

[0054] Further, samples from human kidneys indicate that proteinuric human diseases (such as e.g. diabetic nephropathy or nephrotic syndrome) seem to be characterized by an upregulation of glomerular DPP-4.

[0055] Linagliptin has a positive effect on podocytes (which is a kidney specific cell population which is essential for the filtration integrity of the kidney). Linagliptin compensates or delays the loss of podocalyxin (a podocytic extracellular contact protein). Typically, diabetic nephropathy as well as nephrotic syndrome is characterized by a decrease of integral podocytic proteins. Therefore, linagliptin is useful in the therapy and/or prophylaxis, such as e.g. treatment, prevention, protection, reducing the risk, delaying the onset and/or slowing the progression, of such conditions and/or related diseases, in (human) patients in need thereof (who may be with or without diabetes (e.g. type 2 diabetes), such as e.g. independently from or beyond glycemic control).

[0056] Thus, the present invention provides a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and/or diseases related or associated therewith.

[0057] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, and/or podocytopathy, and/or diseases related or associated therewith.

[0058] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing or reducing the likelihood or risk of nephrotic syndrome.

[0059] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing or reducing the likelihood or risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy).

[0060] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing or reducing the likelihood or risk of membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis).

[0061] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing or reducing the likelihood or risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0062] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in reducing mortality, morbidity, duration or frequency of hospitalization, in a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders and/or nephrotic syndrome, including minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0063] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, particularly diabetic nephropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and proteinuria (>300 mg/day) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

[0064] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating or lowering albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy on top of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy and/or angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB) therapy in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly with early diabetic nephropathy.

[0065] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in a method of treating, preventing, reducing the risk of, delaying the onset or slowing the progression of albuminuria (micro- or macro-albuminuria) or diabetic nephropathy, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering the DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.

[0066] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. including an ARB or ACE inhibitor) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0067] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD), worsening of CKD, and/or acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0068] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or the progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.

[0069] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin (optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in a method of preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, chronic kidney disease (CKD), worsening of CKD, and/or acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering the DPP-4 inhibitor in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.

[0070] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin ( optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, and/or optionally in combination with one or more further active agents, such as e.g. one or more antiplatelet agents, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering agents) for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, such as preventing, reducing or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, and/or the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death, particularly in a human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus; such as e.g. in a patient (particularly diabetes patient, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus patient) having renal- and/or cardiovascular- history and/or medications, such as diabetic nephropathy, macrovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, periperal artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension), microvascular disease (e.g. diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy), coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, ex-smoker or current smoker, and/or on acetylsalicylic acid, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering medication, such as e.g. on (ongoing) therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, an ACE inhibitor, ARB, beta-blocker, Calcium-antagonist or diuretic, or combination thereof, and/or on (ongoing) therapy with a fibrate, niacin or statin, or combination thereof.

[0071] The present invention further provides a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in for treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders and/or nephrotic syndrome, including minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0072] Examples of metabolic disorders or diseases amenable by the therapy of this invention may include, without being limited to, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, postabsorptive hyperglycemia, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperNEFA-emia, postprandial lipemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, chronic systemic inflammation, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and/or metabolic syndrome.

[0073] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in at least one of the following methods:
  • preventing, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating a metabolic disorder or disease, such as e.g. type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, postabsorptive hyperglycemia, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperNEFA-emia, postprandial lipemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, chronic systemic inflammation, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and/or metabolic syndrome;
  • improving and/or maintaining glycemic control and/or for reducing of fasting plasma glucose, of postprandial plasma glucose, of postabsorptive plasma glucose and/or of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, or preventing, reducing the risk of, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating worsening or deterioration of glycemic control, need for insulin therapy or elevated HbA1c despite treatment;
  • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or reversing progression from pre-diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), insulin resistance and/or from metabolic syndrome to type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • preventing, reducing the risk of, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating of complications of diabetes mellitus such as micro- and macrovascular diseases, such as nephropathy, micro- or macroalbuminuria, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, retinopathy, cataracts, neuropathy, learning or memory impairment, neurodegenerative or cognitive disorders, cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases, tissue ischaemia, diabetic foot or ulcus, atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, vascular restenosis, and/or stroke;
  • reducing body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat or preventing an increase in body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat or facilitating a reduction in body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat;
  • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or treating the degeneration of pancreatic beta cells and/or the decline of the functionality of pancreatic beta cells and/or for improving, preserving and/or restoring the functionality of pancreatic beta cells and/or stimulating and/or restoring or protecting the functionality of pancreatic insulin secretion;
  • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or treating non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and/or liver fibrosis (such as e.g. preventing, slowing the progression, delaying the onset of, attenuating, treating or reversing hepatic steatosis, (hepatic) inflammation and/or an abnormal accumulation of liver fat);
  • preventing, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating type 2 diabetes with failure to conventional antidiabetic mono- or combination therapy;
  • achieving a reduction in the dose of conventional antidiabetic medication required for adequate therapeutic effect;
  • reducing the risk for adverse effects associated with conventional antidiabetic medication (e.g. hypoglycemia or weight gain); and/or
  • maintaining and/or improving the insulin sensitivity and/or for treating or preventing hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance;
in a patient in need thereof (such as e.g. a patient as described herein, for example a human patient having diabetes), and/or
particularly in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0074] In an embodiment, the patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) as described herein is diabetic.

[0075] In another embodiment, the patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) as described herein is non-diabetic.

[0076] In a further embodiment, the patient described herein is a subject having diabetes (e.g. type 1 or type 2 diabetes or LADA, particularly type 2 diabetes).

[0077] In particular, the subject within this invention may be a human, e.g. human child, a human adolescent or, particularly, a human adult.

[0078] Accordingly, in a particular embodiment, a preferred DPP-4 inhibitor within the meaning of this invention is linagliptin.

[0079] Pharmaceutical compositions or combinations for use in these therapies (treatments or preventions) comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin) as defined herein optionally together with one or more other active agents are also contemplated.

[0080] Further, the present invention relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one, two or more further active agents, each as defined herein, for use in the therapies (treatments or preventions) as described herein.

[0081] Further, the present invention relates to the use of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one, two or more further active agents, each as defined herein, for preparing a pharmaceutical composition which is suitable for the treatment and/or prevention purposes of this invention.

[0082] Further, the present invention relates to a therapeutic (treatment or prevention) method as described herein, said method comprising administering an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin) and, optionally, one or more other active or therapeutic agents to the patient in need thereof, each as described herein.

[0083] Other aspects of the present invention become apparent to the skilled person from the foregoing and following remarks (including the examples and embodiments).

[0084] The aspects of the present invention, in particular the pharmaceutical compounds, compositions, combinations, methods and uses, refer to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (preferably linagliptin), optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, as defined hereinbefore and hereinafter.

[0085] Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common chronic and progressive disease arising from a complex pathophysiology involving the dual endocrine effects of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion with the consequence not meeting the required demands to maintain plasma glucose levels in the normal range. This leads to chronic hyperglycaemia and its associated micro- and macrovascular complications or chronic damages, such as e.g. diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy or neuropathy, or macrovascular (e.g. cardio- or cerebrovascular) complications. The vascular disease component plays a significant role, but is not the only factor in the spectrum of diabetes associated disorders. The high frequency of complications leads to a significant reduction of life expectancy. Diabetes is currently the most frequent cause of adult-onset loss of vision, renal failure, and amputation in the Industrialised World because of diabetes induced complications and is associated with a two to five fold increase in cardiovascular disease risk.

[0086] Furthermore, diabetes (particularly type 2 diabetes) is often coexistent and interrelated with obesity and these two conditions together impose a particularly complex therapeutic challenge. Because of the effects of obesity on insulin resistance, weight loss and its maintenance is an important therapeutic objective in overweight or obese individuals with prediabetes, metabolic syndrome or diabetes. Studies have been demonstrated that weight reduction in subjects with type 2 diabetes is associated with decreased insulin resistance, improved measures of glycemia and lipemia, and reduced blood pressure. Maintenance of weight reduction over longer term is considered to improve glycemic control and prevent diabetic complications (e.g. reduction of risk for cardiovascular diseases or events). Thus, weight loss is recommended for all overweight or obese individuals who have or are at risk for diabetes. However, obese patients with type 2 diabetes have much greater difficulty losing weight and maintain the reduced weight than the general non-diabetic population.

[0087] Overweight may be defined as the condition wherein the individual has a body mass index (BMI) greater than or 25 kg/m2 and less than 30 kg/m2. The terms "overweight" and "preobese" are used interchangeably.

[0088] Obesity may be also defined as the condition wherein the individual has a BMI equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2. According to a WHO definition the term obesity may be categorized as follows: class I obesity is the condition wherein the BMI is equal to or greater than 30 kg/m2 but lower than 35 kg/m2; class II obesity is the condition wherein the BMI is equal to or greater than 35 kg/m2 but lower than 40 kg/m2; class III obesity (extreme obesity) is the condition wherein the BMI is equal to or greater than 40 kg/m2. Obesity may include e.g. visceral or abdominal obesity.

[0089] Visceral obesity may be defined as the condition wherein a waist-to-hip ratio of greater than or equal to 1.0 in men and 0.8 in women is measured. It defines the risk for insulin resistance and the development of pre-diabetes.

[0090] Abdominal obesity may usually be defined as the condition wherein the waist circumference is > 40 inches or 102 cm in men, and is > 35 inches or 94 cm in women. With regard to a Japanese ethnicity or Japanese patients abdominal obesity may be defined as waist circumference ≥ 85 cm in men and ≥ 90 cm in women (see e.g. investigating committee for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in Japan).

[0091] The treatment of type 2 diabetes typically begins with diet and exercise, followed by oral antidiabetic monotherapy, and although conventional monotherapy may initially control blood glucose in some patients, it is however associated with a high secondary failure rate. The limitations of single-agent therapy for maintaining glycemic control may be overcome, at least in some patients, and for a limited period of time by combining multiple drugs to achieve reductions in blood glucose that cannot be sustained during long-term therapy with single agents. Available data support the conclusion that in most patients with type 2 diabetes current monotherapy will fail and treatment with multiple drugs will be required. But, because type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease, even patients with good initial responses to conventional combination therapy will eventually require an increase of the dosage or further treatment with insulin because the blood glucose level is very difficult to maintain stable for a long period of time. Although existing combination therapy has the potential to enhance glycemic control, it is not without limitations (especially with regard to long term efficacy). Further, traditional therapies may show an increased risk for side effects, such as hypoglycemia or weight gain, which may compromise their efficacy and acceptability.

[0092] Thus, for many patients, these existing drug therapies result in progressive deterioration in metabolic control despite treatment and do not sufficiently control metabolic status especially over long-term and thus fail to achieve and to maintain glycemic control in advanced, progressed or late stage type 2 diabetes, including diabetes with inadequate glycemic control despite conventional oral and/or non-oral antidiabetic medication.

[0093] Therefore, although intensive treatment of hyperglycemia can reduce the incidence of chronic damages, many patients with diabetes remain inadequately treated, partly because of limitations in long term efficacy, tolerability and dosing inconvenience of conventional antihyperglycemic therapies.

[0094] In addition, obesity, overweight or weight gain (e.g. as side or adverse effect of some conventional antidiabetic medications) further complicates the treatment of diabetes and its microvascular or macrovascular complications.

[0095] This high incidence of therapeutic failure is a major contributor to the high rate of long-term hyperglycemia-associated complications or chronic damages (including micro- and makrovascular complications such as e.g. diabetic nephrophathy, retinopathy or neuropathy, or cerebro- or cardiovascular complications such as e.g. myocardial infarction, stroke or vascular mortality or morbidity) in patients with diabetes.

[0096] Oral antidiabetic drugs conventionally used in therapy (such as e.g. first- or second-line, and/or mono- or (initial or add-on) combination therapy) include, without being restricted thereto, metformin, sulphonylureas, thiazolidinediones, glinides and α-glucosidase inhibitors.

[0097] Non-oral (typically injected) antidiabetic drugs conventionally used in therapy (such as e.g. first- or second-line, and/or mono- or (initial or add-on) combination therapy) include, without being restricted thereto, GLP-1 or GLP-1 analogues, and insulin or insulin analogues.

[0098] However, the use of these conventional antidiabetic or antihyperglycemic agents can be associated with various adverse effects. For example, metformin can be associated with lactic acidosis or gastrointestinal side effects; sulfonylureas, glinides and insulin or insulin analogues can be associated with hypoglycemia and weight gain; thiazolidinediones can be associated with edema, bone fracture, weight gain and heart failure/cardiac effects; and alpha-glucosidase blockers and GLP-1 or GLP-1 analogues can be associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects (e.g. dyspepsia, flatulence or diarrhea, or nausea or vomiting).

[0099] Therefore, it remains a need in the art to provide efficacious, safe and tolerable antidiabetic therapies.

[0100] Further, within the therapy of type 2 diabetes, it is a need for treating the condition effectively, avoiding the complications inherent to the condition, and delaying disease progression, e.g. in order to achieve a long-lasting therapeutic benefit.

[0101] Furthermore, it remains a need that antidiabetic treatments not only prevent the long-term complications often found in advanced stages of diabetes disease, but also are a therapeutic option in those diabetes patients who have developed or are at risk of developing complications, such as renal impairment.

[0102] Moreover, it remains a need to provide prevention or reduction of risk for adverse effects associated with conventional antidiabetic therapies.

[0103] The enzyme DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV) also known as CD26 is a serine protease known to lead to the cleavage of a dipeptide from the N-terminal end of a number of proteins having at their N-terminal end a prolin or alanin residue. Due to this property DPP-4 inhibitors interfere with the plasma level of bioactive peptides including the peptide GLP-1 and are considered to be promising drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

[0104] For example, DPP-4 inhibitors and their uses are disclosed in WO 2002/068420, WO 2004/018467, WO 2004/018468, WO 2004/018469, WO 2004/041820, WO 2004/046148, WO 2005/051950, WO 2005/082906, WO 2005/063750, WO 2005/085246, WO 2006/027204, WO 2006/029769, WO2007/014886; WO 2004/050658, WO 2004/111051, WO 2005/058901, WO 2005/097798; WO 2006/068163, WO 2007/071738, WO 2008/017670; WO 2007/128721, WO 2007/128724, WO 2007/128761, or WO 2009/121945.

[0105] In the monitoring of the treatment of diabetes mellitus the HbA1c value, the product of a non-enzymatic glycation of the haemoglobin B chain, is of exceptional importance. As its formation depends essentially on the blood sugar level and the life time of the erythrocytes the HbA1c in the sense of a "blood sugar memory" reflects the average blood sugar level of the preceding 4-12 weeks. Diabetic patients whose HbA1c level has been well controlled over a long time by more intensive diabetes treatment (i.e. < 6.5 % of the total haemoglobin in the sample) are significantly better protected from diabetic microangiopathy. The available treatments for diabetes can give the diabetic an average improvement in their HbA1c level of the order of 1.0 - 1.5 %. This reduction in the HbA1C level is not sufficient in all diabetics to bring them into the desired target range of < 7.0 %, preferably < 6.5 % and more preferably < 6 % HbA1c.

[0106] Within the meaning of this invention, inadequate or insufficient glycemic control means in particular a condition wherein patients show HbA1c values above 6.5%, in particular above 7.0%, even more preferably above 7.5%, especially above 8%. An embodiment of patients with inadequate or insufficient glycemic control include, without being limited to, patients having a HbA1c value from 7.5 to 10% (or, in another embodiment, from 7.5 to 11%). A special sub-embodiment of inadequately controlled patients refers to patients with poor glycemic control including, without being limited, patients having a HbA1c value ≥ 9%.

[0107] Within glycemic control, in addition to improvement of the HbA1c level, other recommended therapeutic goals for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are improvement of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels to normal or as near normal as possible. Recommended desired target ranges of preprandial (fasting) plasma glucose are 70-130 mg/dL (or 90-130 mg/dL) or <110 mg/dL, and of two-hour postprandial plasma glucose are <180 mg/dL or <140 mg/dL.

[0108] In one embodiment, diabetes patients within the meaning of this invention may include patients who have not previously been treated with an antidiabetic drug (drug-naive patients). Thus, in an embodiment, the therapies described herein may be used in naïve patients. In another embodiment, diabetes patients within the meaning of this invention may include patients with advanced or late stage type 2 diabetes mellitus (including patients with failure to conventional antidiabetic therapy), such as e.g. patients with inadequate glycemic control on one, two or more conventional oral and/or non-oral antidiabetic drugs as defined herein, such as e.g. patients with insufficient glycemic control despite (mono-)therapy with metformin, a thiazolidinedione (particularly pioglitazone), a sulphonylurea, a glinide, GLP-1 or GLP-1 analogue, insulin or insulin analogue, or an α-glucosidase inhibitor, or despite dual combination therapy with metformin/sulphonylurea, metformin/thiazolidinedione (particularly pioglitazone), sulphonylurea/ α-glucosidase inhibitor, pioglitazone/sulphonylurea, metformin/insulin, pioglitazone/insulin or sulphonylurea/insulin. Thus, in an embodiment, the therapies described herein may be used in patients experienced with therapy, e.g. with conventional oral and/or non-oral antidiabetic mono- or dual or triple combination medication as mentioned herein.

[0109] A further embodiment of diabetic patients within the meaning of this invention refers to patients ineligible for metformin therapy including
  • patients for whom metformin therapy is contraindicated, e.g. patients having one or more contraindications against metformin therapy according to label, such as for example patients with at least one contraindication selected from:

    renal disease, renal impairment or renal dysfunction (e.g., as specified by product information of locally approved metformin),

    dehydration,

    unstable or acute congestive heart failure,

    acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, and

    hereditary galactose intolerance;

    and
  • patients who suffer from one or more intolerable side effects attributed to metformin, particularly gastrointestinal side effects associated with metformin, such as for example patients suffering from at least one gastrointestinal side effect selected from:

    nausea,

    vomiting,

    diarrhoea,

    intestinal gas, and

    severe abdominal discomfort.



[0110] A further embodiment of the diabetes patients which may be amenable to the therapies of this invention may include, without being limited, those diabetes patients for whom normal metformin therapy is not appropriate, such as e.g. those diabetes patients who need reduced dose metformin therapy due to reduced tolerability, intolerability or contraindication against metformin or due to (mildly) impaired/reduced renal function (including elderly patients, such as e.g. ≥ 60-65 years).

[0111] A further embodiment of patients (e.g. which may be diabetic or non-diabetic) within the meaning of this invention refers to patients having renal disease, renal dysfunction, or insufficiency or impairment of renal function (including mild, moderate and severe renal impairment), e.g. as suggested by elevated serum creatinine levels (e.g. serum creatinine levels above the upper limit of normal for their age, e.g. ≥ 130 - 150 µmol/l, or ≥ 1.5 mg/dl (≥ 136 µmol/l) in men and ≥ 1.4 mg/dl (≥ 124 µmol/l) in women) or abnormal creatinine clearance (e.g. glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≤ 30 - 60 ml/min).

[0112] In this context, for more detailed example, mild renal impairment may be e.g. suggested by a creatinine clearance of 50-80 ml/min (approximately corresponding to serum creatine levels of ≤1.7 mg/dL in men and ≤1.5 mg/dL in women); moderate renal impairment may be e.g. suggested by a creatinine clearance of 30-50 ml/min (approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of >1.7 to ≤53.0 mg/dL in men and >1.5 to ≤2.5 mg/dL in women); and severe renal impairment may be e.g. suggested by a creatinine clearance of < 30 ml/min (approximately corresponding to serum creatinine levels of >3.0 mg/dL in men and >2.5 mg/dL in women). Patients with end-stage renal disease require dialysis (e.g. hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis).

[0113] For other more detailed example, patients with renal disease, renal dysfunction or renal impairment include patients with chronic renal insufficiency or impairment, which can be stratified according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR, ml/min/1.73m2) into 5 disease stages: stage 1 characterized by normal GFR ≥ 90 plus either persistent albuminuria or known structural or hereditary renal disease; stage 2 characterized by mild reduction of GFR (GFR 60-89) describing mild renal impairment; stage 3 characterized by moderate reduction of GFR (GFR 30-59) describing moderate renal impairment; stage 4 characterized by severe reduction of GFR (GFR 15-29) describing severe renal impairment; and terminal stage 5 characterized by requiring dialysis or GFR < 15 describing established kidney failure (end-stage renal disease, ESRD).

[0114] A further embodiment of patients (e.g. which may be diabetic or non-diabetic) within the meaning of this invention refers to diabetes patients with or at risk of developing renal complications, such as diabetic nephropathy (including chronic and progressive renal insufficiency, albuminuria, proteinuria, fluid retention in the body (edema) and/or hypertension).

[0115] In certain embodiments, the patients which may be amenable to the therapies of this invention may have or are at-risk of one or more of the following diseases, disorders or conditions: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, postabsorptive hyperglycemia, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia (including e.g. atherogenic dyslipidemia), hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperNEFA-emia, postprandial lipemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, chronic systemic inflammation, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, nephropathy, micro- or macroalbuminuria, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, retinopathy, cataracts, neuropathy, learning or memory impairment, neurodegenerative or cognitive disorders, cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases, tissue ischaemia, diabetic foot or ulcus, atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, cardiomyopathy (including e.g. uremic cardiomyopathy), heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, heart rhythm disorders, vascular restenosis, stroke, (renal, cardiac, cerebral or hepatic) ischemia/reperfusion injuries, (renal, cardiac, cerebral or hepatic) fibrosis, (renal, cardiac, cerebral or hepatic) vascular remodelling; a diabetic disease, e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus being (with or without obesity) being particularly to be noted (e.g. as an underlying disease).

[0116] In a further embodiment, the patients with or at-risk of SIRS /sepsis which may be amenable to the therapies of this invention have a diabetic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus, and, optionally, may have or are at-risk of one or more other diseases, disorders or conditions, such as e.g. selected from those mentioned immediately above.

[0117] Accordingly, the present invention thus relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0118] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with metformin, for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0119] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with pioglitazone, for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0120] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with telmisartan, for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0121] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (such as e.g. exenatide, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, taspoglutide, semaglutide, albiglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, or native GLP-1) for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0122] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with an insulin or insulin analogue (e.g. basal insulin, such as e.g. insulin glargin, insulin detemir or insulin degludec, or NPH insulin) for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0123] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with a diuretic, an ARB and/or an ACE inhibitor for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein. The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with a corticosteroid for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0124] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with one or more other active agents, e.g. selected from other antidiabetic substances, active substances that lower the blood sugar level, active substances that lower the lipid level in the blood, active substances that raise the HDL level in the blood, active substances that lower blood pressure, and active substances that are indicated in the treatment of atherosclerosis or obesity, for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0125] The present invention further relates to a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), in combination with one or more other antidiabetics selected from the group consisting of metformin, a sulphonylurea, nateglinide, repaglinide, a thiazolidinedione, a PPAR-gamma-agonist, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, insulin or an insulin analogue, and GLP-1 or a GLP-1 analogue, optionally in combination with one or more further active agents (e.g. selected from a diuretic, ACE inhibitor and/or ARB, such as e.g. telmisartan), for use in the therapies (treatments and/or preventions) described herein.

[0126] The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), for use in the therapies described herein.

[0127] The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), and metformin, for use in the therapies described herein.

[0128] The present invention further relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein, preferably linagliptin (BI 1356), and pioglitazone, for use in the therapies described herein.

[0129] The present invention further relates to a combination comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (particularly linagliptin) and one or more other active agents selected from those mentioned herein, e.g. selected from other antidiabetic substances, active substances that lower the blood sugar level, active substances that lower the lipid level in the blood, active substances that raise the HDL level in the blood, active substances that lower blood pressure, active substances that are indicated in the treatment of atherosclerosis or obesity, e.g. each as described herein; particularly for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in the therapies described herein.

[0130] The present invention further relates to a combination comprising a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (particularly linagliptin) and one or more other antidiabetics selected from the group consisting of metformin, a sulphonylurea, nateglinide, repaglinide, a thiazolidinedione, a PPAR-gamma-agonist, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, insulin or an insulin analogue, and GLP-1 or a GLP-1 analogue, particularly for simultaneous, separate or sequential use in the therapies described herein, optionally in combination with a diuretic, ACE inhibitor and/or ARB, such as e.g. telmisartan.

[0131] The present invention further relates to therapies or therapeutic or preventive methods or uses as described herein, such as e.g. to a method for treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications) comprising administering (e.g. simultaneously, separately or sequentially) an effective amount of a certain DPP-4 inhibitor (particularly linagliptin) as defined herein and, optionally, one or more other active agents, such as e.g. one or more other antidiabetics selected from the group consisting of metformin, a sulphonylurea, nateglinide, repaglinide, a thiazolidinedione, a PPAR-gamma-agonist, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, insulin or an insulin analogue, and GLP-1 or a GLP-1 analogue,
optionally in combination with one or more further active agents (e.g. a diuretic, ACE inhibitor and/or ARB, such as e.g. telmisartan), to the patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, such as e.g. a patient as described herein, including a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0132] The present invention further relates to therapies or therapeutic or preventive methods or uses as described herein, such as e.g. a method for treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin (BI 1356) and metformin, and optionally one or more further active agents, to the patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, such as e.g. a patient as described herein, including a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0133] The present invention further relates to therapies or therapeutic or preventive methods or uses as described herein, such as e.g. a method for treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin (BI 1356) and pioglitazone, and optionally one or more further active agents, to the patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, such as e.g. a patient as described herein, including a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0134] The present invention further relates to therapies or therapeutic or preventive methods or uses as described herein, such as e.g. a method for treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin (BI 1356) and telmisartan, and optionally one or more further active agents, to the patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, such as e.g. a patient as described herein, including a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0135] The present invention further relates to therapies or therapeutic or preventive methods or uses as described herein, such as e.g. a method for treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, such as e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin (BI 1356) and an insulin or insulin analogue (such as e.g. a basal insulin), and optionally one or more further active agents, to the patient (particularly human patient) in need thereof, such as e.g. a patient as described herein, including a patient with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).

[0136] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly a human patient, who may suffer from diabetes, e.g. type 1 or type 2 diabetes or LADA, particularly type 2 diabetes, or who may be non-diabetic) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents (including active substances which are indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, such as e.g. selected from corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone or prednisolone), diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs such as e.g. telmisartan, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and/or anticoagulants), to the patient.

[0137] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly a human patient, who may suffer from diabetes, e.g. type 1 or type 2 diabetes or LADA, particularly type 2 diabetes, or who may be non-diabetic) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, e.g. selected from other antidiabetic substances, active substances that lower the blood sugar level, active substances that lower the lipid level in the blood, active substances that raise the HDL level in the blood, active substances that lower blood pressure, active substances that are indicated in the treatment of atherosclerosis or obesity, and/or active substances which are indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, to the patient.

[0138] Further, the present invention relates to a method of treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient (particularly a human patient, who may suffer from diabetes, e.g. type 1 or type 2 diabetes or LADA, particularly type 2 diabetes, or who may be non-diabetic) in need thereof, comprising administering an effective amount of linagliptin and one or more other antidiabetics selected from the group consisting of metformin, a sulphonylurea, nateglinide, repaglinide, a thiazolidinedione, a PPAR-gamma-agonist, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, insulin or an insulin analogue, and GLP-1 or a GLP-1 analogue, optionally in combination with one or more further active agents (e.g. an active substance which is indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, such as a corticosteroid (e.g. prednisone or prednisolone), a diuretic, ACE inhibitor, ARB such as e.g. telmisartan, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and/or an anticoagulant), to the patient.

[0139] A DPP-4 inhibitor within the meaning of the present invention includes, without being limited to, any of those DPP-4 inhibitors mentioned hereinabove and hereinbelow, preferably orally and/or subcutaneously active DPP-4 inhibitors.

[0140] In a first embodiment (embodiment A), a DPP-4 inhibitor in the context of the present invention is any DPP-4 inhibitor of

formula (I)

or formula (II)

or formula (III)

or formula (IV)

wherein R1 denotes ([1,5]naphthyridin-2-yl)methyl, (quinazolin-2-yl)methyl, (quinoxalin-6-yl)methyl, (4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl, 2-cyano-benzyl, (3-cyano-quinolin-2-yl)methyl, (3-cyano-pyridin-2-yl)methyl, (4-methyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl, or (4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl and R2 denotes 3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl, (2-amino-2-methyl-propyl)-methylamino or (2-(S)-amino-propyl)-methylamino,
or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt.

[0141] Regarding the first embodiment (embodiment A), preferred DPP-4 inhibitors are any or all of the following compounds and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts:
  • 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2004/018468, example 2(142)):

  • 1-[([1,5]naphthyridin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2004/018468, example 2(252)):

  • 1-[(Quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2004/018468, example 2(80)):

  • 2-((R)-3-Amino-piperidin-1-yl)-3-(but-2-yinyl)-5-(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-ylmethyl)-3,5-dihydro-imidazo[4,5-d]pyridazin-4-one (compare WO 2004/050658, example 136):

  • 1-[(4-Methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyin-1-yl)-8-[(2-amino-2-methylpropyl)-methylamino]-xanthine (compare WO 2006/029769, example 2(1)):

  • 1-[(3-Cyano-quinolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(30)):

  • 1-(2-Cyano-benzyl)-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(39)):

  • 1-[(4-Methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-[(S)-(2-amino-propyl)-methylamino]-xanthine (compare WO 2006/029769, example 2(4)):

  • 1-[(3-Cyano-pyridin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(52)):

  • 1-[(4-Methyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(81)):

  • 1-[(4,6-Dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(82)):

  • 1-[(Quinoxalin-6-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-((R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (compare WO 2005/085246, example 1(83)):



[0142] These DPP-4 inhibitors are distinguished from structurally comparable DPP-4 inhibitors, as they combine exceptional potency and a long-lasting effect with favourable pharmacological properties, receptor selectivity and a favourable side-effect profile or bring about unexpected therapeutic advantages or improvements when combined with other pharmaceutical active substances. Their preparation is disclosed in the publications mentioned.

[0143] In a second embodiment (embodiment B), a DPP-4 inhibitor in the context of the present invention is a DPP-4 inhibitor selected from the group consisting of
sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, alogliptin, gemigliptin,

(2S)-1-{[2-(5-Methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-ethylamino]-acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile,

(2S)-1-{[1,1,-Dimethyl-3-(4-pyridin-3-yl-imidazol-1-yl)-propylamino]-acetyl}-pyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile,

(S)-1-((2S,3S,11bS)-2-Amino-9,10-dimethoxy-1,3,4,6,7,11b-hexahydro-2H-pyrido[2,1-a]isoquinolin-3-yl)-4-fluoromethyl-pyrrolidin-2-one,

(3,3-Difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-((2S,4S)-4-(4-(pyrimidin-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl)pyrrolidin-2-yl)methanone,

(1((3S,4S)-4-amino-1-(4-(3,3-difluoropyrrolidin-1-yl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-5,5-difluoropiperidin-2-one,

(2S,4S)-1-{2-[(3S,1R)-3-(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-ylmethyl)cyclopentylamino]-acetyl}-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile,

(R)-2-[6-(3-Amino-piperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-ylmethyl]-4-fluoro-benzonitrile,

5-{(S)-2-[2-((S)-2-Cyano-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethylamino]-propyl}-5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene-2,8-dicarboxylic acid bis-dimethylamide,

3-{(2S,4S)-4-[4-(3-Methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]pyrrolidin-2-ylcarbonyl}thiazolidine,

[(2R)-1-{[(3R)-pyrrolidin-3-ylamino]acetyl}pyrrolidin-2-yl]boronic acid,

(2S,4S)-1-[2-[(4-ethoxycarbonylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-1-yl)amino]acetyl]-4-fluoropyrrolidine-2-carbonitrile,

2-({6-[(3R)-3-amino-3-methylpiperidin-1-yl]-1,3-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5H-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin-5-yl}methyl)-4-fluorobenzonitrile,

6-[(3R)-3-amino-piperidin-1-yl]-5-(2-chloro-5-fluoro-benzyl)-1,3-dimethyl-1,5-dihydro-pyrrolo[3,2-d]pyrimidine-2,4-dione, and

(S)-2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]primidine-6-carboxylic acid {2-[(2-cyanopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2-oxoethylamino]-2-methylpropyl}amide,

or its pharmaceutically acceptable salt.

[0144] A more preferred DPP-4 inhibitor among the abovementioned DPP-4 inhibitors of embodiment A of this invention is 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine, particularly the free base thereof (which is also known as linagliptin or BI 1356).

[0145] Preferably the DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention is selected from the group consisting of linagliptin, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, alogliptin, saxagliptin, teneligliptin, anagliptin, gemigliptin and dutogliptin, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of one of the herein mentioned DPP-4 inhibitors, or a prodrug thereof.

[0146] A particularly preferred DPP-4 inhibitor to be emphasized within the present invention is linagliptin. The term "linagliptin" as employed herein refers to linagliptin or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, including hydrates and solvates thereof, and crystalline forms thereof, preferably linagliptin refers to 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine. Crystalline forms are described in WO 2007/128721. Methods for the manufacture of linagliptin are described in the patent applications WO 2004/018468 and WO 2006/048427 for example. Linagliptin is distinguished from structurally comparable DPP-4 inhibitors, as it combines exceptional potency and a long-lasting effect with favourable pharmacological properties, receptor selectivity and a favourable side-effect profile or bring about unexpected therapeutic advantages or improvements in mono- or dual or triple combination therapy.

[0147] For avoidance of any doubt, the disclosure of each of the foregoing and following documents cited above in connection with the specified DPP-4 inhibitors is specifically incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0148] An embodiment of this invention refers to a DPP-4 inhibitor suitable for use in the treatment and/or prevention of metabolic diseases (particularly type 2 diabetes mellitus) in patients, wherein said patients further suffering from renal disease, renal dysfunction or renal impairment, particularly characterized in that said DPP-4 inhibitor is administered to said patients in the same dose levels as to patients with normal renal function, thus e.g. said DPP-4 inhibitor does not require downward dosing adjustment for impaired renal function.

[0149] For example, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention (especially one which may be suited for patients with impaired renal function) may be such an oral DPP-4 inhibitor, which and whose active metabolites have preferably a relatively wide (e.g. about > 100 fold) therapeutic window and/or, especially, that are primarily eliminated via hepatic metabolism or biliary excretion (preferably without adding additional burden to the kidney).

[0150] In more detailed example, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention (especially one which may be suited for patients with impaired renal function) may be such an orally administered DPP-4 inhibitor, which has a relatively wide (e.g. > 100 fold) therapeutic window (preferably a safety profile comparable to placebo) and/or which fulfils one or more of the following pharmacokinetic properties (preferably at its therapeutic oral dose levels):
  • The DPP-4 inhibitor is substantially or mainly excreted via the liver (e.g. > 80 % or even > 90 % of the administered oral dose), and/or for which renal excretion represents no substantial or only a minor elimination pathway (e.g. < 10 %, preferably < 7 %, of the administered oral dose measured, for example, by following elimination of a radiolabelled carbon (14C) substance oral dose);
  • The DPP-4 inhibitor is excreted mainly unchanged as parent drug (e.g. with a mean of > 70%, or > 80%, or, preferably, 90% of excreted radioactivity in urine and faeces after oral dosing of radiolabelled carbon (14C) substance), and/or which is eliminated to a non-substantial or only to a minor extent via metabolism (e.g. < 30%, or < 20%, or, preferably, 10%);
  • The (main) metabolite(s) of the DPP-4 inhibitor is/are pharmacologically inactive. Such as e.g. the main metabolite does not bind to the target enzyme DPP-4 and, optionally, it is rapidly eliminated compared to the parent compound (e.g. with a terminal half-life of the metabolite of ≤ 20 h, or, preferably, ≤ about 16 h, such as e.g. 15.9 h).


[0151] In one embodiment, the (main) metabolite in plasma (which may be pharmacologically inactive) of a DPP-4 inhibitor having a 3-amino-piperidin-1-yl substituent is such a derivative where the amino group of the 3-amino-piperidin-1-yl moiety is replaced by a hydroxyl group to form the 3-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl moiety (e.g. the 3-(S)-hydroxy-piperidin-1-yl moiety, which is formed by inversion of the configuration of the chiral center).

[0152] Further properties of a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be one or more of the following: Rapid attainment of steady state (e.g. reaching steady state plasma levels (> 90% of the steady state plasma concentration) between second and fifth day of treatment with therapeutic oral dose levels), little accumulation (e.g. with a mean accumulation ratio RA,AUC ≤ 1.4 with therapeutic oral dose levels), and/or preserving a long-lasting effect on DPP-4 inhibition, preferably when used once-daily (e.g. with almost complete (> 90%) DPP-4 inhibition at therapeutic oral dose levels, > 80% inhibition over a 24h interval after once-daily intake of therapeutic oral drug dose), significant decrease in 2h postprandial blood glucose excursions by ≥ 80 % (already on first day of therapy) at therapeutic dose levels, and cumulative amount of unchanged parent compound excreted in urine on first day being below 1% of the administered dose and increasing to not more than about 3-6% in steady state.

[0153] Thus, for example, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that said DPP-4 inhibitor has a primarily non-renal route of excretion, i.e. said DPP-4 inhibitor is excreted to a non-substantial or only to a minor extent (e.g. < 10 %, preferably < 7 %, e.g. about 5 %, of administered oral dose, preferably of oral therapeutic dose) via the kidney (measured, for example, by following elimination of a radiolabelled carbon (14C) substance oral dose).

[0154] Further, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that said DPP-4 inhibitor is excreted substantially or mainly via the liver, bile or faeces (measured, for example, by following elimination of a radiolabelled carbon (14C) substance oral dose).

[0155] Further, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that
said DPP-4 inhibitor is excreted mainly unchanged as parent drug (e.g. with a mean of > 70%, or > 80%, or, preferably, 90 % of excreted radioactivity in urine and faeces after oral dosing of radiolabelled carbon (14C) substance),
said DPP-4 inhibitor is eliminated to a non-substantial or only to a minor extent via metabolism, and/or
the main metabolite of said DPP-4 inhibitor is pharmacologically inactive or has a relatively wide therapeutic window.

[0156] Further, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that
said DPP-4 inhibitor does not significantly impair glomerular and/or tubular function of a type 2 diabetes patient with chronic renal insufficiency (e.g. mild, moderate or severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease), and/or
said DPP-4 inhibitor trough levels in the blood plasma of type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate renal impairment are comparable to the levels in patients with normal renal function, and/or
said DPP-4 inhibitor does not require to be dose-adjusted in a type 2 diabetes patient with impaired renal function (e.g. mild, moderate or severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease, preferably regardless of the stage of renal impairment).

[0157] Further, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that said DPP-4 inhibitor provides its minimally effective dose at that dose that results in >50% inhibition of DPP-4 activity at trough (24 h after last dose) in >80% of patients, and/or said DPP-4 inhibitor provides its fully therapeutic dose at that dose that results in >80% inhibition of DPP-4 activity at trough (24 h after last dose) in >80% of patients.

[0158] Further, a DPP-4 inhibitor according to this invention may be characterized in that being suitable for use in type 2 diabetes patients who are with diagnosed renal impairment or complication and/or who are at risk of developing renal complications, e.g. patients with or at risk of diabetic nephropathy (including chronic and progressive renal insufficiency, albuminuria, proteinuria, fluid retention in the body (edema) and/or hypertension).

[0159] GLP-1 receptor agonists include, without being limited, exogenous GLP-1 (natural or synthetic), GLP-1 mimetics or analogues (including longer acting analogues which are resistant to or have reduced susceptibility to enzymatic degradation by DPP-4 and NEP 24.11) and other substances (whether peptidic or non-peptidic, e.g. small molecules) which promote signalling through the GLP-1 receptor.

[0160] Examples of GLP-1 analogues may include (group G2): exenatide (synthetic exendin-4, e.g. formulated as Byetta); exenatide LAR (long acting release formulation of exenatide, e.g. formulated as Bydureon); liraglutide (e.g. formulated as Victoza); taspoglutide; semaglutide; albiglutide (e.g. formulated as Syncria); lixisenatide; dulaglutide; and the di-PEGylated GLP-1 compound comprising the amino acid sequence of the pegylated compound of Formula I (SEQ ID NO:1) according to WO 2006/124529 (the disclosure of which is incorporated herein), wherein Xaa8 is Val, Xaa22 is Glu, Xaa33 is Ile, and Xaa46 is Cys-NH2, and wherein one PEG molecule is covalently attached to Cys45 and one PEG molecule is covelently attached to Cys46-NH2, wherein each of the PEG molecules used for PEGylation reaction is a 20,000 dalton linear methoxy PEG maleimide (preferably the GLP-1 derivative consists of the amino acid sequence of Val8-Glu22-Ile33-Cys-NH246-GLP-1 (cf. SEQ ID NO:21 of WO 2009/020802, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein).

[0161] Preferred examples of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 analogues) of this invention are exenatide, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, taspoglutide, semaglutide, albiglutide, lixisenatide and dulaglutide.

[0162] GLP-1 analogues have typically significant sequence identity to GLP-1 (e.g. greater than 50%, 75%, 90% or 95%) and may be derivatised, e.g. by conjunction to other proteins (e.g. albumin or IgG-Fc fusion protein) or through chemical modification.

[0163] In an embodiment, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is preferably administered by injection (preferably subcutaneously).

[0164] Unless otherwise noted, according to this invention it is to be understood that the definitions of the active agents (including the DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists) mentioned hereinabove and herein below may also contemplate their pharmaceutically acceptable salts, and prodrugs, hydrates, solvates and polymorphic forms thereof. Particularly the terms of the therapeutic agents given herein refer to the respective active drugs. With respect to salts, hydrates and polymorphic forms thereof, particular reference is made to those which are referred to herein.

[0165] An effective amount of a compound as used herein means an amount sufficient to cure, alleviate or partially arrest the clinical manifestations of a given state or condition, such as a disease or disorder, and its complications. An amount adequate to accomplish this is defined as "effective amount". Effective amounts for each purpose will depend on the severity of the condition, disease or injury as well as the weight and general state of the subject and mode of administration, or the like. It will be understood that determining an appropriate dosage may be achieved using routine experimentation, e.g. by constructing a matrix of values and testing different points in the matrix, which is all within the ordinary skills of a trained physician or veterinary.

[0166] In the present context, treatment or treating mean the management and care of a patient or subject for the purpose of combating a condition, a disease or a disorder. The term is intended to include the full spectrum of treatments for a given condition from which the patient or subject is suffering, such as administration of the active compound to alleviate the symptoms or complications, to delay the progression of the disease, disorder or condition, to alleviate or relief the symptoms and complications, to improve patient's status or outcome, and/or to cure or eliminate the disease, disorder or condition as well as to prevent the condition, wherein prevention is to be understood as the management and care of a patient for the purpose of combating the disease, condition, or disorder and includes the administration of the active compounds to prevent or delay the onset of the symptoms or complications.

[0167] Within this invention it is to be understood that the combinations, compositions or combined uses according to this invention may envisage the simultaneous, sequential or separate administration of the active components or ingredients.

[0168] In this context, "combination" or "combined" within the meaning of this invention may include, without being limited, fixed and non-fixed (e.g. free) forms (including kits) and uses, such as e.g. the simultaneous, sequential or separate use of the components or ingredients.

[0169] The combined administration of this invention may take place by administering the active components or ingredients together, such as e.g. by administering them simultaneously in one single or in two separate formulations or dosage forms. Alternatively, the administration may take place by administering the active components or ingredients sequentially, such as e.g. successively in two separate formulations or dosage forms.

[0170] For the combination therapy of this invention the active components or ingredients may be administered separately (which implies that they are formulated separately) or formulated altogether (which implies that they are formulated in the same preparation or in the same dosage form). Hence, the administration of one element of the combination of the present invention may be prior to, concurrent to, or subsequent to the administration of the other element of the combination.

[0171] Unless otherwise noted, combination therapy may refer to first line, second line or third line therapy, or initial or add-on combination therapy or replacement therapy.

[0172] With respect to embodiment A, the methods of synthesis for the DPP-4 inhibitors according to embodiment A of this invention are known to the skilled person. Advantageously, the DPP-4 inhibitors according to embodiment A of this invention can be prepared using synthetic methods as described in the literature. Thus, for example, purine derivatives of formula (I) can be obtained as described in WO 2002/068420, WO 2004/018468, WO 2005/085246, WO 2006/029769 or WO 2006/048427, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein. Purine derivatives of formula (II) can be obtained as described, for example, in WO 2004/050658 or WO 2005/110999, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein.

[0173] Purine derivatives of formula (III) and (IV) can be obtained as described, for example, in WO 2006/068163, WO 2007/071738 or WO 2008/017670, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein. The preparation of those DPP-4 inhibitors, which are specifically mentioned hereinabove, is disclosed in the publications mentioned in connection therewith. Polymorphous crystal modifications and formulations of particular DPP-4 inhibitors are disclosed in WO 2007/128721 and WO 2007/128724, respectively, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein in their entireties. Formulations of particular DPP-4 inhibitors with metformin or other combination partners are described in WO 2009/121945, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety.

[0174] Typical dosage strengths of the dual fixed combination (tablet) of linagliptin / metformin IR (immediate release) are 2.5/500 mg, 2.5/850 mg and 2.5/1000 mg, which may be administered 1-3 times a day, particularly twice a day.

[0175] Typical dosage strengths of the dual fixed combination (tablet) of linagliptin / metformin XR (extended release) are 5/500 mg, 5/1000 mg and 5/1500 mg (each one tablet) or 2.5/500 mg, 2.5/750 mg and 2.5/1000 mg (each two tablets), which may be administered 1-2 times a day, particularly once a day, preferably to be taken in the evening with meal.

[0176] The present invention further provides a DPP-4 inhibitor as defined herein for use in (add-on or initial) combination therapy with metformin (e.g. in a total daily amount from 500 to 2000 mg metformin hydrochloride, such as e.g. 500 mg, 850 mg or 1000 mg once or twice daily).

[0177] With respect to embodiment B, the methods of synthesis for the DPP-4 inhibitors of embodiment B are described in the scientific literature and/ or in published patent documents, particularly in those cited herein.

[0178] The elements of the combination of this invention may be administered by various ways, for example by oral, buccal, sublingual, enterical, parenteral (e.g., transdermal, intramuscular or subcutaneous), inhalative (e.g., liquid or powder inhalation, aerosol), pulmonary, intranasal (e.g. spray), intraperitoneal, vaginal, rectal, or topical routes of administration and may be formulated, alone or together, in suitable dosage unit formulations containing conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles appropriate for each route of administration.

[0179] In an embodiment, the DPP-4 inhibitor according to the invention is preferably administered orally.

[0180] Suitable doses and dosage forms of the DPP-4 inhibitors may be determined by a person skilled in the art and may include those described herein or in the relevant references.

[0181] For pharmaceutical application in warm-blooded vertebrates, particularly humans, the compounds of this invention are usually used in dosages from 0.001 to 100 mg/kg body weight, preferably at 0.01-15 mg/kg or 0.1-15 mg/kg, in each case 1 to 4 times a day. For this purpose, the compounds, optionally combined with other active substances, may be incorporated together with one or more inert conventional carriers and/or diluents, e.g. with corn starch, lactose, glucose, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citric acid, tartaric acid, water, water/ethanol, water/glycerol, water/sorbitol, water/polyethylene glycol, propylene glycol, cetylstearyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose or fatty substances such as hard fat or suitable mixtures thereof into conventional galenic preparations such as plain or coated tablets, capsules, powders, suspensions or suppositories.

[0182] The pharmaceutical compositions according to this invention comprising the DPP-4 inhibitors as defined herein are thus prepared by the skilled person using pharmaceutically acceptable formulation excipients as described in the art and appropriate for the desired route of administration. Examples of such excipients include, without being restricted to diluents, binders, carriers, fillers, lubricants, flow promoters, crystallisation retardants, disintegrants, solubilizers, colorants, pH regulators, surfactants and emulsifiers.

[0183] Oral formulations or dosage forms of the DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be prepared according to known techniques.

[0184] A pharmaceutical composition or dosage form (e.g. oral tablet) of a DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment A of the invention may typically contain as excipients (in addition to an active ingredient), for example: one or more diluents, a binder, a disintegrant, and a lubricant, preferably each as disclosed herein-below. In an embodiment, the disintegrant may be optional.

[0185] Examples of suitable diluents for compounds according to embodiment A include cellulose powder, calcium hydrogen phosphate, erythritol, low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose, mannitol, pregelatinized starch or xylitol.

[0186] Examples of suitable lubricants for compounds according to embodiment A include talc, polyethyleneglycol, calcium behenate, calcium stearate, hydrogenated castor oil or magnesium stearate.

[0187] Examples of suitable binders for compounds according to embodiment A include copovidone (copolymerisates of vinylpyrrolidon with other vinylderivates), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), polyvinylpyrrolidon (povidone), pregelatinized starch, or low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC).

[0188] Examples of suitable disintegrants for compounds according to embodiment A include corn starch or crospovidone.

[0189] Suitable methods of preparing (oral) preparations or dosage forms of the DPP-4 inhibitors according to embodiment A of the invention are
  • direct tabletting of the active substance in powder mixtures with suitable tabletting excipients;
  • granulation with suitable excipients and subsequent mixing with suitable excipients and subsequent tabletting as well as film coating; or
  • packing of powder mixtures or granules into capsules.


[0190] Suitable granulation methods are
  • wet granulation in the intensive mixer followed by fluidised bed drying;
  • one-pot granulation;
  • fluidised bed granulation; or
  • dry granulation (e.g. by roller compaction) with suitable excipients and subsequent tabletting or packing into capsules.


[0191] An exemplary composition (e.g. tablet core) of a DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment A of the invention comprises the first diluent mannitol, pregelatinized starch as a second diluent with additional binder properties, the binder copovidone, the disintegrant corn starch, and magnesium stearate as lubricant; wherein copovidone and/or corn starch may be optional.

[0192] A tablet of a DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment A of the invention may be film coated, preferably the film coat comprises hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), talc, titanium dioxide and iron oxide (e.g. red and/or yellow).

[0193] In a further embodiment, the DPP-4 inhibitor according to the invention may be administered by injection (preferably subcutaneously). In another embodiment, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is preferably administered by injection (preferably subcutaneously) as well.

[0194] Injectable formulations of the GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or the DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention (particularly for subcutaneous use) may be prepared according to known formulation techniques, e.g. using suitable liquid carriers, which usually comprise sterile water, and, optionally, further additives such as e.g. preservatives, pH adjusting agents, buffering agents, isotoning agents, solubility aids and/or tensides or the like, to obtain injectable solutions or suspensions. In addition, injectable formulations may comprise further additives, for example salts, solubility modifying agents or precipitating agents which retard release of the drug(s). In further addition, injectable GLP-1 formulations may comprise GLP-1 stabilizing agents (e.g. a surfactant).

[0195] For example, an injectable formulation (particularly for subcutaneous use) containing the GLP-1 receptor agonist (e.g. exenatide), optionally together with the DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention, may further comprise the following additives: a tonicity-adjusting agent (such as e.g. mannitol), an antimicrobial preservative (such as e.g. metacresol), a buffer or pH adjusting agent (such as e.g. glacial acetic acid and sodium acetate trihydrate in water for injection as a buffering solution at pH 4.5), and optionally a solubilizing and/or stabilizing agent (such as e.g. a surfactant or detergent).

[0196] In a further embodiment, the DPP-4 inhibitor according to the invention may be administered by a transdermal delivery system. In another embodiment, the GLP-1 receptor agonist is preferably administered by a transdermal delivery system as well.

[0197] Transdermal formulations (e.g. for transdermal patches or gels) of the GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or the DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be prepared according to known formulation techniques, e.g. using suitable carriers and, optionally, further additives. To facilitate transdermal passage, different methodologies and systems may be used, such as e.g. techniques involving formation of microchannels or micropores in the skin, such as e.g. iontophoresis (based on low-level electrical current), sonophoresis (based on low-frequency ultrasound) or microneedling, or the use of drug-carrier agents (e.g. elastic or lipid vesicles such as transfersomes) or permeation enhancers.

[0198] For further details on dosage forms, formulations and administration of DPP-4 inhibitors of this invention and/or GLP-1 receptor agonist of this invention, reference is made to scientific literature and/or published patent documents, particularly to those cited herein.

[0199] The pharmaceutical compositions (or formulations) may be packaged in a variety of ways. Generally, an article for distribution includes one or more containers that contain the one or more pharmaceutical compositions in an appropriate form. Tablets are typically packed in an appropriate primary package for easy handling, distribution and storage and for assurance of proper stability of the composition at prolonged contact with the environment during storage. Primary containers for tablets may be bottles or blister packs.

[0200] A suitable bottle, e.g. for a pharmaceutical composition or combination (tablet) comprising a DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment A of the invention, may be made from glass or polymer (preferably polypropylene (PP) or high density polyethylene (HD-PE)) and sealed with a screw cap. The screw cap may be provided with a child resistant safety closure (e.g. press-and-twist closure) for preventing or hampering access to the contents by children. If required (e.g. in regions with high humidity), by the additional use of a desiccant (such as e.g. bentonite clay, molecular sieves, or, preferably, silica gel) the shelf life of the packaged composition can be prolonged.

[0201] A suitable blister pack, e.g. for a pharmaceutical composition or combination (tablet) comprising a DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment A of the invention, comprises or is formed of a top foil (which is breachable by the tablets) and a bottom part (which contains pockets for the tablets). The top foil may contain a metallic foil, particularly aluminium or aluminium alloy foil (e.g. having a thickness of 20µm to 45µm, preferably 20µm to 25µm) that is coated with a heat-sealing polymer layer on its inner side (sealing side). The bottom part may contain a multi-layer polymer foil (such as e.g. poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) coated with poly(vinylidene choride) (PVDC); or a PVC foil laminated with poly(chlorotriflouroethylene) (PCTFE)) or a multi-layer polymer-metal-polymer foil (such as e.g. a cold-formable laminated PVC/aluminium/polyamide composition). Examples of blister packs may include alu/alu, alu/PVC/polyvinylacetate copolymer-acrylate or alu/PVC/PCTFE/PVC blisters.

[0202] To ensure a long storage period especially under hot and wet climate conditions an additional overwrap or pouch made of a multi-layer polymer-metal-polymer foil (e.g. a laminated polyethylene/aluminium/polyester composition) may be used for the blister packs. Supplementary desiccant (such as e.g. bentonite clay, molecular sieves, or, preferably, silica gel) in this pouch package may prolong the shelf life even more under such harsh conditions.

[0203] Solutions for injection may be available in typical suitable presentation forms such as vials, cartridges or prefilled (disposable) pens, which may be further packaged.

[0204] The article may further comprise a label or package insert, which refer to instructions customarily included in commercial packages of therapeutic products, that may contain information about the indications, usage, dosage, administration, contraindications and/or warnings concerning the use of such therapeutic products. In one embodiment, the label or package inserts indicates that the composition can be used for any of the purposes described herein.

[0205] With respect to the first embodiment (embodiment A), the dosage typically required of the DPP-4 inhibitors mentioned herein in embodiment A when administered intravenously is 0.1 mg to 10 mg, preferably 0.25 mg to 5 mg, and when administered orally is 0.5 mg to 100 mg, preferably 2.5 mg to 50 mg or 0.5 mg to 10 mg, more preferably 2.5 mg to 10 mg or 1 mg to 5 mg, in each case 1 to 4 times a day. Thus, e.g. the dosage of 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine when administered orally is 0.5 mg to 10 mg per patient per day, preferably 2.5 mg to 10 mg or 1 mg to 5 mg per patient per day.

[0206] For example, doses of linagliptin when administered subcutaneously or i.v. for human patients are in the range of 0.3-10 mg, preferably from 1 to 5 mg, particularly 2.5 mg, per patient per day.

[0207] In a further embodiment, for example, doses of linagliptin when administered subcutaneously for human patients (such as e.g. in obese human patients or for treating obesity) are in the range of 0.1-30 mg, preferably from 1 to 10 mg, particularly 5 mg, per patient per day.

[0208] A dosage form prepared with a pharmaceutical composition comprising a DPP-4 inhibitor mentioned herein in embodiment A contain the active ingredient in a dosage range of 0.1-100 mg. Thus, e.g. particular oral dosage strengths of 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine are 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg.

[0209] With respect to the second embodiment (embodiment B), the doses of DPP-4 inhibitors mentioned herein in embodiment B to be administered to mammals, for example human beings, of, for example, approximately 70 kg body weight, may be generally from about 0.5 mg to about 350 mg, for example from about 10 mg to about 250 mg, preferably 20-200 mg, more preferably 20-100 mg, of the active moiety per person per day, or from about 0.5 mg to about 20 mg, preferably 2.5-10 mg, per person per day, divided preferably into 1 to 4 single doses which may, for example, be of the same size. Single oral dosage strengths comprise, for example, 10, 25, 40, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 mg of the DPP-4 inhibitor active moiety.

[0210] An oral dosage strength of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin is usually between 25 and 200 mg of the active moiety. A recommended dose of sitagliptin is 100 mg calculated for the active moiety (free base anhydrate) once daily. Unit dosage strengths of sitagliptin free base anhydrate (active moiety) are 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 mg. Particular unit dosage strengths of sitagliptin (e.g. per tablet) are 25, 50 and 100 mg. An equivalent amount of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate to the sitagliptin free base anhydrate is used in the pharmaceutical compositions, namely, 32.13, 64.25, 96.38, 128.5, 192.75, and 257 mg, respectively. Adjusted dosages of 25 and 50 mg sitagliptin are used for patients with renal failure. Typical dosage strengths of the dual combination of sitagliptin / metformin are 50/500 mg and 50/1000 mg.

[0211] An oral dosage range of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin is usually between 10 and 150 mg daily, in particular between 25 and 150 mg, 25 and 100 mg or 25 and 50 mg or 50 and 100 mg daily. Particular examples of daily oral dosage are 25, 30, 35, 45, 50, 55, 60, 80, 100 or 150 mg. In a more particular aspect, the daily administration of vildagliptin may be between 25 and 150 mg or between 50 and 100 mg. In another more particular aspect, the daily administration of vildagliptin may be 50 or 100 mg. The application of the active ingredient may occur up to three times a day, preferably one or two times a day. Particular dosage strengths are 50 mg or 100 mg vildagliptin. Typical dosage strengths of the dual combination of vildagliptin / metformin are 50/850 mg and 50/1000 mg.

[0212] Alogliptin may be administered to a patient at an oral daily dose of between 5 mg/day and 250 mg/day, optionally between 10 mg and 200 mg, optionally between 10 mg and 150 mg, and optionally between 10 mg and 100 mg of alogliptin (in each instance based on the molecular weight of the free base form of alogliptin). Thus, specific oral dosage amounts that may be used include, but are not limited to 10 mg, 12.5 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg of alogliptin per day. Alogliptin may be administered in its free base form or as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt.

[0213] Saxagliptin may be administered to a patient at an oral daily dose of between 2.5 mg/day and 100 mg/day, optionally between 2.5 mg and 50 mg. Specific oral dosage amounts that may be used include, but are not limited to 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg , 40 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg of saxagliptin per day. Typical dosage strengths of the dual combination of saxagliptin / metformin are 2.5/500 mg and 2.5/1000 mg.

[0214] A special embodiment of the DPP-4 inhibitors of this invention refers to those orally administered DPP-4 inhibitors which are therapeutically efficacious at low dose levels, e.g. at oral dose levels < 100 mg or < 70 mg per patient per day, preferably < 50 mg, more preferably < 30 mg or < 20 mg, even more preferably from 1 mg to 10 mg, particularly from 1 mg to 5 mg (more particularly 5 mg), per patient per day (if required, divided into 1 to 4 single doses, particularly 1 or 2 single doses, which may be of the same size, preferentially, administered orally once- or twice daily (more preferentially once-daily), advantageously, administered at any time of day, with or without food. Thus, for example, the daily oral amount 5 mg BI 1356 can be given in an once daily dosing regimen (i.e. 5 mg BI 1356 once daily) or in a twice daily dosing regimen (i.e. 2.5 mg BI 1356 twice daily), at any time of day, with or without food.

[0215] The dosage of the active ingredients in the combinations and compositions in accordance with the present invention may be varied, although the amount of the active ingredients shall be such that a suitable dosage form is obtained. Hence, the selected dosage and the selected dosage form shall depend on the desired therapeutic effect, the route of administration and the duration of the treatment. Dosage ranges for the combination may be from the maximal tolerated dose for the single agent to lower doses.

[0216] A particularly preferred DPP-4 inhibitor to be emphasized within the meaning of this invention is 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine (also known as BI 1356 or linagliptin). BI 1356 exhibits high potency, 24h duration of action, and a wide therapeutic window. In patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multiple oral doses of 1, 2.5, 5 or 10 mg of BI 1356 once daily for 12 days, BI 1356 shows favourable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile (see e.g. Table 3 below) with rapid attainment of steady state (e.g. reaching steady state plasma levels (> 90% of the pre-dose plasma concentration on Day 13) between second and fifth day of treatment in all dose groups), little accumulation (e.g. with a mean accumulation ratio RA,AUC ≤ 1.4 with doses above 1 mg) and preserving a long-lasting effect on DPP-4 inhibition (e.g. with almost complete (> 90%) DPP-4 inhibition at the 5 mg and 10 mg dose levels, i.e. 92.3 and 97.3% inhibition at steady state, respectively, and > 80% inhibition over a 24h interval after drug intake), as well as significant decrease in 2h postprandial blood glucose excursions by ≥ 80 % (already on Day 1) in doses ≥ 2.5 mg, and with the cumulative amount of unchanged parent compound excreted in urine on Day 1 being below 1% of the administered dose and increasing to not more than about 3-6% on Day 12 (renal clearance CLR,ss is from about 14 to about 70 mL/min for the administered oral doses, e.g. for the 5 mg dose renal clearance is about 70 ml/min). In people with type 2 diabetes BI 1356 shows a placebo-like safety and tolerability. With low doses of about ≥ 5 mg, BI 1356 acts as a true once-daily oral drug with a full 24 h duration of DPP-4 inhibition. At therapeutic oral dose levels, BI 1356 is mainly excreted via the liver and only to a minor extent (about < 7% of the administered oral dose) via the kidney. BI 1356 is primarily excreted unchanged via the bile. The fraction of BI 1356 eliminated via the kidneys increases only very slightly over time and with increasing dose, so that there will likely be no need to modify the dose of BI 1356 based on the patients' renal function. The non-renal elimination of BI 1356 in combination with its low accumulation potential and broad safety margin may be of significant benefit in a patient population that has a high prevalence of renal insufficiency and diabetic nephropathy.
Table 3: Geometric mean (gMean) and geometric coefficient of variation (gCV) of pharmacokinetic parameters of BI 1356 at steady state (Day 12)
Parameter1 mg gMean (gCV)2.5 mg gMean (gCV)5 mg gMean (gCV)10 mg gMean (gCV)
AUC0-24 [nmol· h/L] 40.2 (39.7) 85.3 (22.7) 118 (16.0) 161 (15.7)
AUCτ,ss [nmol· h/L] 81.7 (28.3) 117 (16.3) 158 (10.1) 190 (17.4)
Cmax [nmol/L] 3.13 (43.2) 5.25 (24.5) 8.32 (42.4) 9.69 (29.8)
Cmax,ss [nmol/L] 4.53 (29.0) 6.58 (23.0) 11.1 (21.7) 13.6 (29.6)
tmax* [h] 1.50 [1.00 - 3.00] 2.00 [1.00 - 3.00] 1.75 [0.92 - 6.02] 2.00 [1.50 - 6.00]
tmax,ss* [h] 1.48 [1.00 - 3.00] 1.42 [1.00 - 3.00] 1.53 [1.00 - 3.00] 1.34 [0.50 - 3.00]
T½,ss [h] 121 (21.3) 113 (10.2) 131 (17.4) 130 (11.7)
Accumulation t½, [h] 23.9 (44.0) 12.5 (18.2) 11.4 (37.4) 8.59 (81.2)
RA,Cmax 1.44 (25.6) 1.25 (10.6) 1.33(30.0) 1.40 (47.7)
RA,AUC 2.03 (30.7) 1.37 (8.2) 1.33(15.0) 1.18 (23.4)
fe0-24 [%] NC 0.139 (51.2) 0.453 (125) 0.919 (115)
feτ,ss [%] 3.34 (38.3) 3.06 (45.1) 6.27 (42.2) 3.22 (34.2)
CLR,ss [mL/min] 14.0 (24.2) 23.1 (39.3) 70 (35.0) 59.5 (22.5)
* median and range [min-max]
NC not calculated as most values below lower limit of quantification


[0217] As different metabolic functional disorders often occur simultaneously, it is quite often indicated to combine a number of different active principles with one another. Thus, depending on the functional disorders diagnosed, improved treatment outcomes may be obtained if a DPP-4 inhibitor is combined with one or more active substances customary for the respective disorders, such as e.g. one or more active substances selected from among the other antidiabetic substances, especially active substances that lower the blood sugar level or the lipid level in the blood, raise the HDL level in the blood, lower blood pressure or are indicated in the treatment of atherosclerosis or obesity.

[0218] The DPP-4 inhibitors mentioned above - besides their use in mono-therapy - may also be used in conjunction with other active substances, by means of which improved treatment results can be obtained. Such a combined treatment may be given as a free combination of the substances or in the form of a fixed combination, for example in a tablet or capsule. Pharmaceutical formulations of the combination partner needed for this may either be obtained commercially as pharmaceutical compositions or may be formulated by the skilled man using conventional methods. The active substances which may be obtained commercially as pharmaceutical compositions are described in numerous places in the prior art, for example in the list of drugs that appears annually, the "Rote Liste ®" of the federal association of the pharmaceutical industry, or in the annually updated compilation of manufacturers' information on prescription drugs known as the "Physicians' Desk Reference".

[0219] Examples of antidiabetic combination partners are metformin; sulphonylureas such as glibenclamide, tolbutamide, glimepiride, glipizide, gliquidon, glibornuride and gliclazide; nateglinide; repaglinide; mitiglinide; thiazolidinediones such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone; PPAR gamma modulators such as metaglidases; PPAR-gamma agonists such as e.g. rivoglitazone, mitoglitazone, INT-131 and balaglitazone; PPAR-gamma antagonists; PPAR-gamma/alpha modulators such as tesaglitazar, muraglitazar, aleglitazar, indeglitazar and KRP297; PPAR-gamma/alpha/delta modulators such as e.g. lobeglitazone; AMPK-activators such as AICAR; acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1 and ACC2) inhibitors; diacylglycerol-acetyltransferase (DGAT) inhibitors; pancreatic beta cell GCRP agonists such as GPR119 agonists (SMT3-receptor-agonists), such as the GPR119 agonists 5-ethyl-2-{4-[4-(4-tetrazol-1-yl-phenoxymethyl)-thiazol-2-yl]-piperidin-1-yl}-pyrimidine or 5-[1-(3-isopropyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-4-ylmethoxy]-2-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-pyridine; 11β-HSD-inhibitors; FGF19 agonists or analogues; alpha-glucosidase blockers such as acarbose, voglibose and miglitol; alpha2-antagonists; insulin and insulin analogues such as human insulin, insulin lispro, insulin glusilin, r-DNA-insulinaspart, NPH insulin, insulin detemir, insulin degludec, insulin tregopil, insulin zinc suspension and insulin glargin; Gastric inhibitory Peptide (GIP); amylin and amylin analogues (e.g. pramlintide or davalintide); GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogues such as Exendin-4, e.g. exenatide, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, taspoglutide, lixisenatide (AVE-0010), LY-2428757 (a PEGylated version of GLP-1), dulaglutide (LY-2189265), semaglutide or albiglutide; SGLT2-inhibitors such as e.g. dapagliflozin, sergliflozin (KGT-1251), atigliflozin, canagliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin or tofogliflozin; inhibitors of protein tyrosine-phosphatase (e.g. trodusquemine); inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphatase; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase modulators; glycogen phosphorylase modulators; glucagon receptor antagonists; phosphoenolpyruvatecarboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitors; pyruvate dehydrogenasekinase (PDK) inhibitors; inhibitors of tyrosine-kinases (50 mg to 600 mg) such as PDGF-receptor-kinase (cf. EP-A-564409, WO 98/35958, US 5093330, WO 2004/005281, and WO 2006/041976) or of serine/threonine kinases; glucokinase/regulatory protein modulators incl. glucokinase activators; glycogen synthase kinase inhibitors; inhibitors of the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase type 2 (SHIP2) ; IKK inhibitors such as high-dose salicylate; JNK1 inhibitors; protein kinase C-theta inhibitors; beta 3 agonists such as ritobegron, YM 178, solabegron, talibegron, N-5984, GRC-1087, rafabegron, FMP825; aldosereductase inhibitors such as AS 3201, zenarestat, fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat, NZ-314, CP-744809, and CT-112; SGLT-1 or SGLT-2 inhibitors; KV 1.3 channel inhibitors; GPR40 modulators such as e.g. [(3S)-6-({2',6'-dimethyl-4'-[3-(methylsulfonyl)propoxy]biphenyl-3-yl}methoxy)-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-3-yl]acetic acid; SCD-1 inhibitors; CCR-2 antagonists; dopamine receptor agonists (bromocriptine mesylate [Cycloset]); 4-(3-(2,6-dimethylbenzyloxy)phenyl)-4-oxobutanoic acid; sirtuin stimulants; and other DPP IV inhibitors.

[0220] Metformin is usually given in doses varying from about 500 mg to 2000 mg up to 2500 mg per day using various dosing regimens from about 100 mg to 500 mg or 200 mg to 850 mg (1-3 times a day), or about 300 mg to 1000 mg once or twice a day, or delayed-release metformin in doses of about 100 mg to 1000 mg or preferably 500 mg to 1000 mg once or twice a day or about 500 mg to 2000 mg once a day. Particular dosage strengths may be 250, 500, 625, 750, 850 and 1000 mg of metformin hydrochloride.

[0221] For children 10 to 16 years of age, the recommended starting dose of metformin is 500 mg given once daily. If this dose fails to produce adequate results, the dose may be increased to 500 mg twice daily. Further increases may be made in increments of 500 mg weekly to a maximum daily dose of 2000 mg, given in divided doses (e.g. 2 or 3 divided doses). Metformin may be administered with food to decrease nausea.

[0222] A dosage of pioglitazone is usually of about 1-10 mg, 15 mg, 30 mg, or 45 mg once a day.

[0223] Rosiglitazone is usually given in doses from 4 to 8 mg once (or divided twice) a day (typical dosage strengths are 2, 4 and 8 mg).

[0224] Glibenclamide (glyburide) is usually given in doses from 2.5-5 to 20 mg once (or divided twice) a day (typical dosage strengths are 1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg), or micronized glibenclamide in doses from 0.75-3 to 12 mg once (or divided twice) a day (typical dosage strengths are 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 mg).

[0225] Glipizide is usually given in doses from 2.5 to 10-20 mg once (or up to 40 mg divided twice) a day (typical dosage strengths are 5 and 10 mg), or extended-release glibenclamide in doses from 5 to 10 mg (up to 20 mg) once a day (typical dosage strengths are 2.5, 5 and 10 mg).

[0226] Glimepiride is usually given in doses from 1-2 to 4 mg (up to 8 mg) once a day (typical dosage strengths are 1, 2 and 4 mg).

[0227] A dual combination of glibenclamide/metformin is usually given in doses from 1.25/250 once daily to 10/1000 mg twice daily. (typical dosage strengths are 1.25/250, 2.5/500 and 5/500 mg).
A dual combination of glipizide/metformin is usually given in doses from 2.5/250 to 10/1000 mg twice daily (typical dosage strengths are 2.5/250, 2.5/500 and 5/500 mg).
A dual combination of glimepiride/metformin is usually given in doses from 1/250 to 4/1000 mg twice daily.
A dual combination of rosiglitazone/glimepiride is usually given in doses from 4/1 once or twice daily to 4/2 mg twice daily (typical dosage strengths are 4/1, 4/2, 4/4, 8/2 and 8/4 mg). A dual combination of pioglitazone/glimepiride is usually given in doses from 30/2 to 30/4 mg once daily (typical dosage strengths are 30/4 and 45/4 mg).
A dual combination of rosiglitazone/metformin is usually given in doses from 1/500 to 4/1000 mg twice daily (typical dosage strengths are 1/500, 2/500, 4/500, 2/1000 and 4/1000 mg).
A dual combination of pioglitazone/metformin is usually given in doses from 15/500 once or twice daily to 15/850 mg thrice daily (typical dosage strengths are 15/500 and 15/850 mg).

[0228] The non-sulphonylurea insulin secretagogue nateglinide is usually given in doses from 60 to 120 mg with meals (up to 360 mg/day, typical dosage strengths are 60 and 120 mg); repaglinide is usually given in doses from 0.5 to 4 mg with meals (up to 16 mg/day, typical dosage strengths are 0.5, 1 and 2 mg). A dual combination of repaglinide/metformin is available in dosage strengths of 1/500 and 2/850 mg.

[0229] Acarbose is usually given in doses from 25 to 100 mg with meals. Miglitol is usually given in doses from 25 to 100 mg with meals.

[0230] Examples of combination partners that lower the lipid level in the blood are HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors such as simvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin and rosuvastatin; fibrates such as bezafibrate, fenofibrate, clofibrate, gemfibrozil, etofibrate and etofyllinclofibrate; nicotinic acid and the derivatives thereof such as acipimox; PPAR-alpha agonists; PPAR-delta agonists such as e.g. {4-[(R)-2-ethoxy-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-propylsulfanyl]-2-methyl-phenoxy}-acetic acid; inhibitors of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterolacyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26) such as avasimibe; cholesterol resorption inhibitors such as ezetimib; substances that bind to bile acid, such as cholestyramine, colestipol and colesevelam; inhibitors of bile acid transport; HDL modulating active substances such as D4F, reverse D4F, LXR modulating active substances and FXR modulating active substances; CETP inhibitors such as torcetrapib, JTT-705 (dalcetrapib) or compound 12 from WO 2007/005572 (anacetrapib); LDL receptor modulators; MTP inhibitors (e.g. lomitapide); and ApoB100 antisense RNA.

[0231] A dosage of atorvastatin is usually from 1 mg to 40 mg or 10 mg to 80 mg once a day.

[0232] Examples of combination partners that lower blood pressure are beta-blockers such as atenolol, bisoprolol, celiprolol, metoprolol and carvedilol; diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide, chlortalidon, xipamide, furosemide, piretanide, torasemide, spironolactone, eplerenone, amiloride and triamterene; calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine, nisoldipine, nicardipine, felodipine, lacidipine, lercanipidine, manidipine, isradipine, nilvadipine, verapamil, gallopamil and diltiazem; ACE inhibitors such as ramipril, lisinopril, cilazapril, quinapril, captopril, enalapril, benazepril, perindopril, fosinopril and trandolapril; as well as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as telmisartan, candesartan, valsartan, losartan, irbesartan, olmesartan, azilsartan and eprosartan.

[0233] A dosage of telmisartan is usually from 20 mg to 320 mg or 40 mg to 160 mg per day.

[0234] Examples of combination partners which increase the HDL level in the blood are Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) inhibitors; inhibitors of endothelial lipase; regulators of ABC1; LXRalpha antagonists; LXRbeta agonists; PPAR-delta agonists; LXRalpha/beta regulators, and substances that increase the expression and/or plasma concentration of apolipoprotein A-I.

[0235] Examples of combination partners for the treatment of obesity are sibutramine; tetrahydrolipstatin (orlistat); alizyme (cetilistat); dexfenfluramine; axokine; cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists such as the CB1 antagonist rimonobant; MCH-1 receptor antagonists; MC4 receptor agonists; NPY5 as well as NPY2 antagonists (e.g. velneperit); beta3-AR agonists such as SB-418790 and AD-9677; 5HT2c receptor agonists such as APD 356 (lorcaserin); myostatin inhibitors; Acrp30 and adiponectin; steroyl CoA desaturase (SCD1) inhibitors; fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors; CCK receptor agonists; Ghrelin receptor modulators; Pyy 3-36; orexin receptor antagonists; and tesofensine; as well as the dual combinations bupropion/naltrexone, bupropion/zonisamide, topiramate/phentermine and pramlintide/metreleptin.

[0236] Examples of combination partners for the treatment of atherosclerosis are phospholipase A2 inhibitors; inhibitors of tyrosine-kinases (50 mg to 600 mg) such as PDGF-receptor-kinase (cf. EP-A-564409, WO 98/35958, US 5093330, WO 2004/005281, and WO 2006/041976); oxLDL antibodies and oxLDL vaccines; apoA-1 Milano; ASA; and VCAM-1 inhibitors.

[0237] Further, the certain DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be used in combination with a substrate of DPP-4 (particularly with an anti-inflammatory substrate of DPP-4), which may be other than GLP-1, for the purposes according to the present invention, such substrates of DPP-4 include, for example - without being limited to, one or more of the following:

Incretins:

Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)

Neuroactive:

Substance P

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

Peptide YY

Energy homeostasis:

GLP-2

Prolactin

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP)

Other hormones:

PACAP 27

Human chorionic gonadotrophin alpha chain

Growth hormone releasing factor (GHRF)

Luteinizing hormone alpha chain

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)

CCL8/eotaxin

CCL22/macrophage-derived chemokine

CXCL9/interferon-gamma-induced monokine

Chemokines:

CXCL10/interferon-gamma-induced protein-10

CXCL11/interferon-inducible T cell a chemoattractant

CCL3L1/macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha isoform

LD78beta

CXCL12/stromal-derived factor 1 alpha and beta

Other:

Enkephalins, gastrin-releasing peptide, vasostatin-1,

peptide histidine methionine, thyrotropin alpha



[0238] Further or in addition, the certain DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be used in combination with one or more active substances which are indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, such as selected from corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone or prednisolone), diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs such as e.g. telmisartan, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and/or anticoagulants.

[0239] Moreover, optionally in addition, the certain DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be used in combination with one or more antiplatelet agents, such as e.g. (low-dose) aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), a selective COX-2 or nonselective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor, or a ADP receptor inhibitor, such as a thienopyridine (e.g. clopidogrel or prasugrel), elinogrel or ticagrelor, or a thrombin receptor antagonist such as vorapaxar.

[0240] Yet moreover, optionally in addition, the certain DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be used in combination with one or more anticoagulant agents, such as e.g. heparin, warfarin, or a direct thrombin inhibitor (such as e.g. dabigatran), or a Faktor Xa inhibitor (such as e.g. rivaroxaban or apixaban or edoxaban or otamixaban).
Still yet moreover, optionally in addition, the certain DPP-4 inhibitor of this invention may be used in combination with one or more agents for the treatment of heart failure.

[0241] The present invention is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments described herein. Various modifications of the invention in addition to those described herein may become apparent to those skilled in the art from the present disclosure. Such modifications are intended to fall within the scope of the appended embodiments.

[0242] All patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0243] Further embodiments, features and advantages of the present invention may become apparent from the following examples. The following examples serve to illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention without restricting it.

Examples


Reduction in loss of podocytes; Expression of podocalyxin as a marker of podocyte integrity:



[0244] The expression of podocalyxin is analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a podocalyxin specific antibody. Kidney sections from male diabetic db/db mice (10 weeks old at start and treated for 3 months) in the following groups are analyzed:
Diabetic control (n=10), linagliptin 3 mg/kg (n=8), enalapril 20 mg/kg (n=10) and heterozygous control mice (n=8).
All of the evaluations of the glomerular staining intensities are done semiquantitatively by two different experts of kidney pathology blinded for the slides.
The predefined scoring gradient is 0, 1, 2, and 3. 0 means no expression, whearas 3 is given when expression is highest. Group means are compared with a non-parametric test. P values less than 0.05 are considered significant.

[0245] Figure 1 shows the expression of podocalyxin as a marker for podocyte integrity in linagliptin-, enalapril- or vehicle-treated diabetic db/db mice and in healthy control mice.

[0246] This prove of concept study in db/db mice (abstract see below) indicates that DPP-4 inhibition might offer an new therapeutic approach for the treatment of proteinuric diseases associated with podocyte loss. This study clearly demonstrates that the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin significantly reduces the loss of podocytes in a blood glucose independent manner in db/db mice (Fig. 1). Podocyte loss is determined by podocalyxin staining. Podocalyxin, a sialoglycoprotein, is thought to be the major constituent of the glycocalyx of podocytes. It is a member of the CD34 family of transmembrane sialomucin. It coats the secondary foot processes of the podocytes. It is negatively charged and thus functions to keep adjacent foot processes separated, thereby keeping the urinary filtration barrier open. This function is further supported by knockout studies in mice which reveal an essential role in podocyte morphogenesis.

Renoprotective effects of Linagliptin; Protection of podocytes:



[0247] Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. This study investigated the effects of linagliptin on diabetic nephropathy in severe insulin-resistant and old db/db mice as a model for diabetic nephropathy. Male diabetic db/db mice (10 weeks) were divided into 3 groups and treated for 12 weeks with vehicle (n=10), linagliptin 3 mg/kg/day (n=8), or the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril 20 mg/kg/day (n=10).

[0248] Heterozygous db/+ mice treated with vehicle were used as controls (n=8). Levels of glucose, triglycerides, insulin, cystatin C and creatinine were analyzed in serum and urine samples at baseline and monthly thereafter. Body weight, urinary albumin excretion and OGTT were monitored periodically.

[0249] Renal histology (glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis) and expression of the sialoglycoprotein podocalyxin (a marker of podocyte integrity in the glomeruli, marker for glomerular damage), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), alpha-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen were evaluated at the end of the study.

Results:



[0250] At 22 weeks, db/db mice showed significantly (p<0.01) higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and triglycerides, and increased body weight compared with healthy db/+ mice. Linagliptin and enalapril had limited effects on fasted or post-prandial glucose levels. However, histology analysis showed that tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion were reduced almost to control levels in both treatment groups compared with diabetic vehicle (p<0.05 for both). Urinary albumin excretion rates and tubulointerstitial fibrosis were significantly decreased in db/db mice treated with linagliptin compared with those treated with enalapril (both p<0.05).

[0251] Podocalyxin expression in db/db vehicle treated mice was significantly reduced compared with db/+ controls (1.59±0.2 vs 2.65±0.1; p<0.001). Mice treated with linagliptin and enalapril had significantly higher podocalyxin expression compared with diabetic mice (2.3±0.2 and 2.4±0.2, respectively; p<0.05 for both).

[0252] The expression pattern of α-smooth muscle actin was also determined in kidneys as a marker of mesangial cell damage. Linagliptin treatment normalized the expression of α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts in the interstitium and glomeruli of diabetic db/db mice. Similar results were obtained for type I collagen deposition.

[0253] Immunohistochemical staining of kidney sections revealed a decrease in GLP-1R expression in the cortical glomeruli of db/db mice (1.67 ± 0.07) compared with healthy control mice (2.15 ± 0.1; P < 0.01). Linagliptin treatment significantly increased the expression of GLP-1R in the glomeruli of db/db mice (1.90 ± 0.04; P < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated diabetic db/db mice.

[0254] In conclusion, this study suggests that linagliptin protects podocytes from injury and may therefore be efficacious in the treatment, prevention or delay in progression of diabetic nephropathy independent of its effect on glucose homeostasis. Further, this study suggests that linagliptin is useful for treating, preventing or delaying progression of glomerulosclerosis and/or tubulointerstitial fibrosis, or glomerular and/or tubulointerstitial injury. Further, this study suggests that linagliptin is useful for renoprotection through inhibition of podocyte damage and myofibroblast transformation (reduction of α-SMA expression).

[0255] The renoprotective effect of linagliptin in this model seems to be as effective as treatment with an ACE inhibitor, the current gold standard for treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

Linagliptin is as efficacious as telmisartan in preventing renal disease progression in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (rats with 5/6 nephrectomy)



[0256] DPP-4 inhibitors may have kidney-protective properties independent of glucose control. We compare the effect of linagliptin (LIN) with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist - currently clinical gold standard - on preventing renal disease progression in a nondiabetic rat model of chronic renal failure.

[0257] Male Wistar rats are allocated to 4 groups: sham operated; 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NX); 5/6 NX plus LIN (0.083 mg/kg in chow); 5/6 NX plus telmisartan (TEL; 5 mg/kg/d in drinking water). Study duration is 130 days; blood pressure and albumin excretion are assessed repeatedly. At study end, kidneys and plasma biomarkers are analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis increases by 69% in 5/6 NX rats vs SHAM rats (p<0.05), and decreases by 48% (p<0.05) with LIN and 24% with TEL (p=ns) vs PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats. Glomerular size increases by 28% in PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats vs SHAM rats (p<0.01), and decreases by 18% (p<0.001) with LIN but not significantly with TEL vs PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats. The glomerulosclerosic index is significantly increased in 5/6 NX rats vs SHAM rats. There is a trend towards decreased glomerulosclerosis with LIN and TEL. Analysis of collagen type I and III mRNA and protein concentrations confirms histopathologic findings. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio increases 14-fold in 5/6 NX rats vs SHAM rats (p<0.001), and decreases by 66% (p<0.05) with LIN and 92% (p<0.01) with TEL vs PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats. Blood pressure is lowered by TEL (31 mmHg; p<0.05) and unaffected by LIN. TIMP-1, calbindin, osteopontin and beta 2 microglobulin (B2M) are significantly increased in the PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats vs SHAM rats. LIN decreases plasma concentrations of TIMP-1, calbindin, osteopontin and B2M vs PBO-treated 5/6 NX rats (all p<0.05), whereas TEL significantly decreases osteopontin and TGF-β expression. In summary, LIN is as effective as TEL, in preventing renal disease progression in a model of chronic and progressive renal failure (rats with 5/6 nephrectomy). The underlying molecular mechanisms appear to be different. Linagliptin may be useful for treating, preventing, protecting against, reducing the risk of, slowing the progression of or delaying the onset of such conditions, e.g. (micro- or macro-) albuminuria or proteinuria and/or renal function impairment or deterioration of renal filtration rate, such as e.g. in (diabetes or non-diabetes) patients suffering therefrom or being at risk thereof.

Linagliptin for use in lowering albuminuria on top of recommended standard treatment for diabetic nephropathy:



[0258] Despite optimal therapy, people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remain at high risk for kidney damage, manifest as albuminuria, and many develop progressive renal failure. Further, despite optimal therapy with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systeme (RAAS), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remain at an increased risk of progressive renal failure and cardiovascular disease, for which albuminuria has emerged as a predictive biomarker. Linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has previously shown evidence of albumin lowering on top of telmisartan in mice. We explored the clinical effect of linagliptin on albuminuria in T2D patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Four randomized, double-blind, 24-week, placebo-controlled trials of linagliptin (5 mg qd) on no, mono, or dual oral glucose-lowering background therapy (such as e.g. linagliptin monotherapy, linagliptin add-on to metformin or linagliptin add-on to metformin plus a sulphonylurea, or linagliptin plus metformin initial combination) had data available for urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and were pooled for analysis (n=2472). Participants were included in this analysis if they had: i) 30≤UACR≤3000 mg/g creatinine; ii) stable treatment with ACE/ARBs ≥4 weeks prior and during the trial; and iii) eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m2. The endpoint was the percentage change in geometric mean UACR. In this analysis, 492 (19.9%) patients met UACR and eGFR thresholds of whom 46% received stable ACE/ARB therapy (linagliptin n=168; placebo n=59). Mean baseline A1C and median UACR were 8.2% vs 8.5% and 76 vs 78 mg/g creatinine for the linagliptin and placebo groups, respectively. After 24 weeks, placebo-corrected changes in A1C and FPG were -0.71% and -26 mg/dl, respectively (both p<.0001). Linagliptin significantly lowered adjusted UACR by 33% (95%CI 22 to 42%; p<.05) with a between group difference vs placebo of -29% (-3 to -48%; p<.05). Overall, kidney function and blood pressure were unchanged although more patients on placebo received new anti-hypertensive drugs (17% vs 11% with linagliptin). Sensitivity analyses in patients not previously treated with RAS blockade (n=265) found similar results. Linagliptin may have kidney-protective properties beyond glucose-lowering effects. This protective effect may be independent of race. Linagliptin may be useful for treating or lowering albuminuria on top of standard of care of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition or angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB) in T2DM patients with early diabetic nephropathy.

Linagliptin for use in treatment of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy:



[0259] Background and aims: Diabetes mellitus has become the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease and a high proportion of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are found to have microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy shortly after the diagnosis of their diabetes. Linagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has recently demonstrated glycaemic efficacy and safety in T2D patients at advanced stages of kidney disease. Here the clinical effect of linagliptin on albuminuria in T2D patients with early diabetic nephropathy is reported.

[0260] Materials and methods: Seven randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (duration 24-52 weeks) of linagliptin (5 mg q.d.) as monotherapy or add-on to various glucose-lowering background therapies had data available for urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and were eligible for this analysis (n=4113). Data after 24 weeks of treatment were generated to allow pooling and two sets were defined: 1) Diabetic nephropathy in earlier stages of T2D (with and without oral glucose-lowering background therapies, such as e.g. linagliptin monotherapy, linagliptin add-on to metformin or linagliptin add-on to metformin plus a sulphonylurea, or linagliptin plus metformin initial combination): participants from four 24-week pivotal phase III trials if they had persistent albuminuria, defined as 30≤UACR≤3000 mg/g (eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and stable treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) at baseline (ongoing tretament with ACEi or ARB); 2) Diabetic nephropathy in elderly patients (various glucose-lowering background therapies including insulin, such as e.g. linagliptin monotherapy, linagliptin add-on to metformin or linagliptin add-on to metformin plus a sulphonylurea, or linagliptin plus metformin initial combination, or linagliptin in combination with basal insulin): patients from all seven trials, fulfilling UACR criteria 30≤UACR≤3000 mg/g (eGFR >30 ml/min/1.73 m2) and aged ≥65 years (with or without ongoing treatment with ACEi or ARB). The endpoint in both sets was the percentage change in geometric mean UACR after 24 weeks.

[0261] Results: For set #1, 492 out of 2472 patients met UACR criteria of whom 46% received stable ACEi/ARB therapy (linagliptin, n=168; placebo, n=59). For set #2, 1331 patients were aged ≥65 years of whom 377 (28%) met UACR criteria (linagliptin, n=232; placebo, n=145). Mean baseline HbA1c and median UACR were 8.3% and 76 mg/g overall for set #1, and 8.1% (overall), 77 mg/g (linagliptin) and 86 mg/g (placebo) for set #2. In set 1, placebo-corrected changes in HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose were -0.71% and -1.4 mmol/L (-26 mg/dL), respectively (both P<0.0001). Linagliptin significantly lowered adjusted UACR by 33% (95% CI: 22%, 42%; P<0.05) with a between-group difference versus placebo of -29% (95% CI: -3%, -48%; P<0.05). In set 2, linagliptin also significantly lowered adjusted UACR by 30% (95% CI: 13%, 43%; P<0.05) with a trend towards a reduction versus placebo of-25% (95% CI: -47%, +6%). In all seven studies, blood pressure and renal function were not affected to a clinically meaningful extent by either treatment.

[0262] Conclusions: In studies up to 52 weeks, linagliptin lowered albuminuria beyond what may be expected by its glucose-lowering effects. Changes in albuminuria were seen more rapidly (e.g. with the overall UACR effect occuring as early as 12 weeks treatment duration) than would be expected based on structural changes. A decrease in albuminuria suggests a long-term renal benefit.

[0263] Further, linagliptin (5 mg qd) lowers (micro)albuminuria in vulnerable diabetic nephropathy patients (with or without additional standard background therapy such as e.g. with an ACEi or ARB) such as who are aged ≥ 65 years typically having longer diabetes duration (> 5 years), renal impairment (such as mild (60 to <90 eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2) or moderate (30 to <60 eGFR ml/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment) and/or higher baseline UACR (such as advanced stages of micro- or macroalbuminuria).

[0264] In some instances, the diabetic nephropathy patients amenable to the therapy of this invention may be on hypertension and/or lipid lowering medication at baseline, such as e.g. on (ongoing) therapy with an ACE inhibitor, ARB, beta-blocker, Calcium-anatgonist or diuretic, or combination thereof, and/or on (ongoing) therapy with a fibrate, niacin or statin, or combination thereof.

Renal Safety and Outcomes with Linagliptin: Meta-Analysis in 5466 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes:



[0265] Long-term glycemic control in diabetes is associated with reduced risk of renal microvascular complications. Linagliptin has shown nephroprotective effects in animal models and significantly reduced albuminuria in type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated nephropathy. As these effects were independent of short-term glycemic improvements, it was speculated that linagliptin may have nephroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal safety/outcomes with linagliptin in phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (≥ 12 wks). Predefined events from 13 trials were analyzed using a composite primary endpoint: new onset of a) micro- (first documented UACR ≥30 mg/g) or b) macro- (first documented UACR ≥300 mg/g) albuminuria, c) CKD (serum creatinine increase ≥250 µmol/L), d) worsening of CKD (loss in eGFR >50% vs baseline), e) acute renal failure (ARF, standardized MedDRA query) and f) death (any cause). Of 5466 patients included (mean baseline HbA1c: 8.2% and eGFR: 91.4 ml/min/1.73m2), 3505 received linagliptin 5mg qd and 1961 placebo; cumulative exposure (person yrs) was 1756 and 1057, respectively. Events occurred in 448 (12.8%) patients receiving linagliptin vs 306 (15.6%) for placebo. The hazard ratio (HR) for the composite endpoint for linagliptin vs. placebo was 0.84 (95% CI 0.72-0.97, p<.05) and was not significantly altered by race, but was lower in patients <65 vs >65 yrs (HR: 0.77 vs 1.04). RRs were consistently reduced for individual renal endpoints: micro- (-15%) and macroalbuminuria (-12%), new onset (-56%) or worsening of CKD (-24%), ARF (-7%), and death (-23%). In this large meta-analysis, renal safety and outcomes were significantly improved in patients with T2D treated with linagliptin. These data support a direct nephroprotective effect of linagliptin. Linagliptin may be useful for preventing, reducing or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death. Thus, linagliptin may be useful for preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, preferably in T2DM patients.

[0266] In some instances, the (at-risk) patients amenable to the renoprotection or risk-reduction of this invention (e.g. prevention, reduction or delay of the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, the onset of acute renal failure and/or of death) may have renal/cardiovascular history and/or medications, such as diabetic nephropathy, macrovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery diasease, periperal artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension), microvascular disease (e.g. diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy), coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, hypertension, ex-smoker or current smoker, and/or on acetylsalicylic acid, antihypertensive and/or lipid lowering medication, such as e.g. on (ongoing) therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, an ACE inhibitor, ARB, beta-blocker, Calcium-anatgonist or diuretic, or combination thereof, and/or on (ongoing) therapy with a fibrate, niacin or statin, or combination thereof.

Particular embodiments



[0267] 
  1. 1. A DPP-4 inhibitor which is of

    formula (I)

    or formula (II)

    or formula (III)

    or formula (IV)

    wherein R1 denotes ([1,5]naphthyridin-2-yl)methyl, (quinazolin-2-yl)methyl, (quinoxalin-6-yl)methyl, (4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl, 2-cyano-benzyl, (3-cyano-quinolin-2-yl)methyl, (3-cyano-pyridin-2-yl)methyl, (4-methyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl, or (4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl and R2 denotes 3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl, (2-amino-2-methyl-propyl)-methylamino or (2-(S)-amino-propyl)-methylamino,
    or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof;
    optionally in combination with one or more other active agents,
    for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in a patient.

  2. 2. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodimentembodiment 1 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, and/or podocytopathy.
  3. 3. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1 or 2 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing or reducing the risk of nephrotic syndrome.
  4. 4. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to embodiment 3, wherein the nephrotic syndrome includes, is caused by or is associated with minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  5. 5. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 4, wherein the nephrotic syndrome is primary or secondary.
  6. 6. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 5, wherein the nephrotic syndrome is resistant or refractory to conventional therapy (e.g. corticosteroid therapy).
  7. 7. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  8. 8. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy).
  9. 9. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis).
  10. 10. The DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1 (preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents) for use in treating, preventing and/or reducing the risk of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  11. 11. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein the patient has diabetes, such as e.g. type 1 or type 2 diabetes or LADA.
  12. 12. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 12, wherein the patient has type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  13. 13. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 10, wherein the patient is non-diabetic.
  14. 14. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 13, wherein the patient is impaired in renal function (such as e.g. with renal failure) and/or has nephropathy and/or albuminuria.
  15. 15. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 14, wherein the one or more other active agents include active substances which are indicated in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, such as selected from corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone or prednisolone), diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) such as e.g. telmisartan, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and/or anticoagulants.
  16. 16. A DPP-4 inhibitor according to embodiment 1, preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, for use in treating and/or preventing a metabolic disease, particularly diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus, and/or conditions related thereto (e.g. diabetic complications), in a patient (particularly human patient) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  17. 17. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to embodiment 15, wherein the metabolic disease is at least one selected from type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, postabsorptive hyperglycemia, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperNEFA-emia, postprandial lipemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, chronic systemic inflammation, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and/or metabolic syndrome.
  18. 18. A DPP-4 inhibitor, preferably linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, for use in at least one of the following methods:
    • preventing, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating a metabolic disorder or disease, such as e.g. type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), hyperglycemia, postprandial hyperglycemia, postabsorptive hyperglycemia, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), overweight, obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperNEFA-emia, postprandial lipemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, osteoporosis, chronic systemic inflammation, non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and/or metabolic syndrome;
    • improving and/or maintaining glycemic control and/or for reducing of fasting plasma glucose, of postprandial plasma glucose, of postabsorptive plasma glucose and/or of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c, or preventing, reducing the risk of, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating worsening or deterioration of glycemic control, need for insulin therapy or elevated HbA1c despite treatment;
    • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or reversing progression from pre-diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), insulin resistance and/or from metabolic syndrome to type 2 diabetes mellitus;
    • preventing, reducing the risk of, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating of complications of diabetes mellitus such as micro- and macrovascular diseases, such as nephropathy, micro- or macroalbuminuria, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, retinopathy, cataracts, neuropathy, learning or memory impairment, neurodegenerative or cognitive disorders, cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases, tissue ischaemia, diabetic foot or ulcus, atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina pectoris, stable angina pectoris, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, cardiomyopathy, heart failure, heart rhythm disorders, vascular restenosis, and/or stroke;
    • reducing body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat or preventing an increase in body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat or facilitating a reduction in body weight and/or body fat and/or liver fat and/or intra-myocellular fat;
    • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or treating the degeneration of pancreatic beta cells and/or the decline of the functionality of pancreatic beta cells and/or for improving, preserving and/or restoring the functionality of pancreatic beta cells and/or stimulating and/or restoring or protecting the functionality of pancreatic insulin secretion;
    • preventing, slowing, delaying the onset of or treating non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and/or liver fibrosis (such as e.g. preventing, slowing the progression, delaying the onset of, attenuating, treating or reversing hepatic steatosis, (hepatic) inflammation and/or an abnormal accumulation of liver fat);
    • preventing, slowing the progression of, delaying the onset of or treating type 2 diabetes with failure to conventional antidiabetic mono- or combination therapy;
    • achieving a reduction in the dose of conventional antidiabetic medication required for adequate therapeutic effect;
    • reducing the risk for adverse effects associated with conventional antidiabetic medication (e.g. hypoglycemia or weight gain); and/or
    • maintaining and/or improving the insulin sensitivity and/or for treating or preventing hyperinsulinemia and/or insulin resistance;
    in a patient (particularly human patient, such as e.g. human patient having diabetes) with or at risk of podocyte related disorders, disturbance of podocyte function, podocyte loss or injury, podocytopathy, glomerulopathy, nephrotic syndrome, minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  19. 19. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 16 to 18, wherein the patient (particularly human patient, such as e.g. human patient having diabetes) has or is at risk of nephrotic syndrome.
  20. 20. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to embodiment 19, wherein the nephrotic syndrome includes, is caused by or is associated with minimal change disease (MCD, e.g. minimal change nephropathy, such as steroid hormone refractory minimal change nephropathy), membranous nephropathy (MN, e.g. membranous glomerulonephritis) and/or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  21. 21. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 16 to 20, wherein the one or more other active agents include active substances selected from other antidiabetic substances, active substances that lower the blood sugar level, active substances that lower the lipid level in the blood, active substances that raise the HDL level in the blood, active substances that lower blood pressure, and/or active substances that are indicated in the treatment of atherosclerosis or obesity.
  22. 22. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to embodiment 21, wherein the one or more other active agents include active substances selected from diuretics, ARBs and/or ACE inhibitors.
  23. 23. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of embodiments 1 to 22, wherein the nephrotic syndrome is manifested by proteinuria, edema (which may be associated with weight gain), hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia (e.g. hypercholesterolemia) and, optionally, hypertension.
  24. 24. The DPP-4 inhibitor for use according to any one of the preceding embodiments, wherein the DPP-4 inhibitor is 1-[(4-methyl-quinazolin-2-yl)methyl]-3-methyl-7-(2-butyn-1-yl)-8-(3-(R)-amino-piperidin-1-yl)-xanthine.
  25. 25. Linagliptin for use in a method of treating, preventing, reducing the risk of, delaying the onset or slowing the progression of albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering linagliptin in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.
  26. 26. Linagliptin for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or slowing the progression of renal morbidity and/or mortality, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.
  27. 27. Linagliptin for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, and/or the onset of acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.



Claims

1. Linagliptin for use in a method of treating, preventing, reducing the risk of, delaying the onset or slowing the progression of albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic nephropathy, especially in those patients with inadequate control of albuminuria despite therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), particularly said method comprising administering linagliptin in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and/or the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) to the patient.
 
2. Linagliptin for use in preventing, reducing the risk of or delaying the onset or progression of micro- or macro-albuminuria, the onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the worsening of CKD, and/or the onset of acute renal failure, preferably in type 2 diabetes patients.
 
3. Linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents (such as e.g. one or more antidiabetics, optionally in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB) for use in renoprotection and/or in treating, preventing and/or delaying the progress of albuminuria, in a patient (particularly human patient with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) suffering from nephropathy (diabetic nephropathy).
 
4. Linagliptin, optionally in combination with one or more other active agents, for use in treating or lowering albuminuria or diabetic nephropathy on top of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy and/or angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB) therapy in type 2 diabetes patients, particularly with early diabetic nephropathy.
 
5. Linagliptin for use in lowering albuminuria on top of recommended standard treatment for diabetic nephropathy.
 
6. Linagliptin for use in treatment of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.
 
7. Linagliptin for use according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein linagliptin is administered in a daily oral amount of 5 mg.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description