(19)
(11)EP 3 686 044 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 19305088.7

(22)Date of filing:  23.01.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B60L 5/00(2006.01)
B60L 55/00(2019.01)
B60L 9/04(2006.01)
B60L 7/10(2006.01)
B60L 53/10(2019.01)
B60L 9/18(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: ALSTOM Transport Technologies
93400 Saint-Ouen (FR)

(72)Inventors:
  • SOEFFKER, Carsten
    38321 Denkte (DE)
  • HOFSTAEDTER, Raphael
    38229 Salzgitter (DE)

(74)Representative: Lavoix 
2, place d'Estienne d'Orves
75441 Paris Cedex 09
75441 Paris Cedex 09 (FR)

  


(54)DC TRACTION SUB-STATION FOR SUPPLYING AT LEAST ONE VEHICLE


(57) The present invention relates to DC traction sub-station (1) for supplying at least one vehicle, preferentially a railway vehicle, with a direct current, DC, comprising: a first terminal (3) adapted to connect DC traction sub-station (1) to an alternating current, AC, electrical power grid (4); a second terminal (5) adapted to connect DC traction sub-station (1) to a power supply conductor (6) in order to provide driving current to the at least one vehicle or to receive regenerative braking current from the at least one vehicle; a third terminal (7) adapted to be connected to an energy storage device (11) for storing electrical energy; one or more first current supply chains (13) electrically connecting the first terminal (3) to the second terminal (5), wherein the first current supply chain comprising a first AC/DC converter (19); one or more second current supply chains (23) electrically connecting the first terminal (3) to the third terminal (7), wherein the second current supply chain comprising a second AC/DC converter (29), and wherein a DC/DC converter (30) electrically connects, within the DC traction sub-station (1), the second terminal to the third terminal.




Description


[0001] The present invention generally relates to DC traction sub-station for supplying at least one vehicle, preferentially a railway vehicle, with a direct current, DC, comprising: a first terminal adapted to connect the power supply and storage system to an electric power grid; a second terminal adapted to connect the power supply and storage system to a power supply conductor in order to provide driving current to the at least one railway vehicle or to receive regenerative braking current from the at least one railway vehicle.

[0002] In classical systems the total DC power request from all rail vehicles in vicinity of the DC substation needs to be satisfied instantaneously by the AC grid through a transformer and a rectifier. Thus, the function of power versus time is varying frequently. Should the braking energy of these trains exceed the total traction needs, dissipation by means of brake resistors is necessary.

[0003] WO 2017/060444 A1 discloses an arrangement for supplying traction power to a railway device comprising an energy storage system.

[0004] US 2013/0147441 A1 relates to an automatic tuning method for energy storage system of a railway vehicle.

[0005] Several architectures have been proposed to provide a power supply and storage system for a railway network. For example, the SEPTA (Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation authority) has proposed an architecture for a power supply and storage system, where a rechargeable battery was electrically coupled via a DC/DC converter to the power supply conductor. Further, the power supply conductor is connected via a unidirectional AC/DC converter to the electrical power grid. The rechargeable battery was charged, for example via the DC/DC converter, by regenerative braking of trains.

[0006] With such architecture, the current cannot be fed back into the electrical power grid, neither from the rechargeable battery nor from the trains using regenerative braking. In particular, when using architecture with classical rectifiers only, frequency regulation is only possible around an average traction load, i.e. not 24 hours a day. However, it is a mandatory requirement for primary control reserve in many countries that a frequency regulation is available 24 hours a day. Primary control reserve is the most economical market platform for energy storage systems with short reaction times but low energy content, like for examples batteries coupled to the AC grid via electrical power converters.

[0007] Object of the present disclosure is to provide a power supply and storage system for a railway network, which can be easily implemented in current existing power supply systems, i.e. where the presently used devices can be continued to be used and enable to feed back energy from the trains and the energy storage device in the electrical power grid. Further, the architecture should easily comply with regulatory provisions and have a high flexibility.

[0008] According to one aspect, a DC traction sub-station for supplying at least one vehicle, preferentially a railway vehicle, with a direct current, DC, comprising:

a first terminal adapted to connect DC traction sub-station to an alternating current, AC, electrical power grid;

a second terminal adapted to connect DC traction sub-station to a power supply conductor in order to provide driving current to the at least one vehicle or to receive regenerative braking current from the at least one vehicle;

a third terminal adapted to be connected to an energy storage device for storing electrical energy;

one or more first current supply chains electrically connecting the first terminal to the second terminal, wherein the first current supply chain comprising a first AC/DC converter; one or more second current supply chains electrically connecting the first terminal to the third terminal, wherein the second current supply chain comprising a second AC/DC converter, and wherein a DC/DC converter electrically connects, within the DC traction sub-station, the second terminal to the third terminal.



[0009] Further embodiments may relate to one or more of the following features, which may be combined in any technical feasible combination:
  • the power supply conductor is at least one selected of a catenary, a ground rail and an overhead rail;
  • the energy storage device is a rechargeable battery, a pumped hydroelectric energy storage, a fly-wheel electrical storage, compressed air energy storage, at least one capacitor, or the like;
  • the first AC/DC converter is a unidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current;
  • the first AC/DC converter is a bidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current and vice versa;
  • DC traction sub-station according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the second AC/DC converter is a bidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current and vice versa;
  • the DC/DC converter is a bidirectional DC/DC converter;
  • in the first current supply chain, a first electricity meter for measuring electrical energy is electrically connected between the first terminal and the first AC/DC converter;
  • in the second current supply chain, a second electricity meter for measuring electrical energy is electrically connected between the first terminal and the second AC/DC converter;
  • in the first current supply chain, a transformer is electrically connected between the first terminal and the first AC/DC converter, preferably between a first electricity meter and the first AC/DC converter; and/or
  • in the second current supply chain, a transformer is electrically connected between the first terminal and the second AC/DC converter, preferably between a second electricity meter and the second AC/DC converter.


[0010] So that the manner in which the above recited features of the present invention can be understood in detail, a more particular description of the invention, briefly summarized above, may be read by reference to embodiments. The accompanying drawings relate to embodiments of the invention and are described in the following:
Fig. 1 shows schematically the electric circuit of a traction sub-station for a railway, in particular a DC (direct current) traction substation 1.

[0011] The DC traction sub-station 1 is provided in order to supply at least one railway vehicle with a direct current, DC, for traction. The DC traction sub-station 1 includes a first terminal 3 adapted to connect the DC traction sub-station 1 to an electrical power grid 4. The electrical power grid 4 is for example an AC (alternating current) power grid and connected to electrical energy producing plants. Further, the DC traction sub-station 1 includes a second terminal 5 adapted to connect the DC traction sub-station 1 to a power supply conductor 6 in order to provide current to the at least one railway vehicle or to receive regenerative braking current from the at least one railway vehicle. According to embodiments, the power supply conductor 6 is at least one selected of a catenary, a third rail, i.e. a ground rail, and an overhead rail. The nominal voltage for driving or traction current of railway vehicles is for example 600V, 750V, 1200V, 1500V or 3kV. The power supply conductor 6 extends in parallel to a railway track in order to enable the railway vehicles to continuously contact the power supply conductor 6 when travelling along the railway track, for example using a pantograph or a current collector shoe.

[0012] Further, the DC traction sub-station 1 includes a third terminal 7 adapted to be connected to an energy storage device 11 for storing electrical energy. The energy storage may be a rechargeable battery, a pumped hydroelectric energy storage, a fly-wheel electrical storage, compressed air energy storage, at least one capacitor, super-cap, or the like, or a combination thereof.

[0013] Each terminal 3, 5, 7 may comprise one or more electrical connecting wires. For example the electrical power grid 4 may provide a three phase current to the DC traction sub-station 1.

[0014] According to embodiments, the DC traction sub-station 1 comprises a first current supply chain 13 electrically connecting the first terminal 3 to the second terminal 5. According to an embodiment, the first current supply chain 13 comprises a first electricity meter 15, a first transformer 17, and a first AC/DC converter 19, in this order.

[0015] The first electricity meter 15 is provided for measuring electrical energy provided to the first current supply chain 13 and is for example electrically connected between the first terminal 3 and the first transformer 17.

[0016] The first transformer 17 transforms a first AC current, for example a three phase current, having a first voltage into a second AC current having a second voltage. According to some embodiments, the second voltage is lower than the first voltage. The first voltage side of the first transformer 17 is directed towards the electrical power grid. The first voltage may be between 5 kV and 50 kV, in particular between 10 kV and 20kV, for example 10 kV, 11 kV or 20 kV. The second voltage is for example 20 to 40% lower than the nominal DC voltage for driving or traction current of railway vehicles as discussed above.

[0017] Finally, the first AC/DC converter 19 is electrically connected between the first transformer 17 and the second terminal 5. The first AC/DC converter 19 is a unidirectional AC/DC converter converting from the alternating current, for example from the first transformer 17 and/or from the electrical power grid 4 connected to the first terminal 3 to a direct current intended to provide driving current to the at least one railway vehicle and/or to provide charging current to the energy storage device 11 for storing electrical energy. For example the first AC/DC converter 19 may be a rectifier.

[0018] Alternatively, the first AC/DC converter 19 is a bidirectional AC/DC converter.

[0019] In some embodiments, the first transformer 17 may be omitted in the first current supply chain 13. Then, the first electrically meter 15 is directly connected to the AC/DC converter 19. In other embodiments, the first electricity meter 15 may be placed between the first transformer 17 and the first AC/DC converter 19.

[0020] According to embodiments, the DC traction sub-station 1 comprises a second current supply chain 23 electrically connecting the first terminal 3 to the third terminal 7. According to an embodiment, the second current supply chain 23 comprises a second electricity meter 25, a second transformer 27, and a second AC/DC converter 29, in this order.

[0021] The second electricity meter 25 being provided for measuring electrical energy is electrically connected between the first terminal 3 and the second transformer 27. The second electricity meter 25 is adapted to measure electrical energy flowing in both directions, towards the electrical power grid 4 and from the electrical power grid 4.

[0022] The second transformer 27 transforms a first AC current, for example a three phase current, having a first voltage into a second AC current having a second voltage and vice versa. According to some embodiments, the second voltage is lower than the first voltage. The first voltage side of the second transformer 27 is directed towards the electrical power grid 4. The first voltage may be between 5 kV and 50 kV, in particular between 10 kV and 20kV, for example 10 kV, 11 kV or 20 kV. The second voltage is for example between 100V and 10kV, and/or is depending on the energy storage device 11 connected at the third terminal 7.

[0023] The second AC/DC converter 29 is electrically connected between the second transformer 27 and the third terminal 7. The second AC/DC converter 29 is a bidirectional AC/DC converter converting from the alternating current, for example from the second transformer 27 and/or from the electrical power grid 4 connected to the first terminal 3 to a direct current intended to provide driving current to the at least one railway vehicle and/or to the energy storage device 11 for storing electrical energy, and vice versa.

[0024] In some embodiments, the second transformer 27 may be omitted in the second current supply chain 23. In other embodiments, the second electricity meter 25 may be placed between the second transformer 27 and the second AC/DC converter 29.

[0025] According to an embodiment, the DC traction sub-station 1 includes a DC/DC converter 30, electrically connecting the second terminal 5 with the third terminal 7. In other words, the connection of the second terminal 5 to the third terminal 7 is provided within the DC traction sub-station. For that purpose, the DC/DC converter is connected to a first electrical connection 32 between the first current supply chain 13 and the second terminal 5 on one side and to a second electrical connection 34 between the second current supply chain 23 and the third terminal 7 at the other side. The first electrical connection 32 and the second electrical connection 34 are provided within the DC traction sub-station 1.

[0026] The DC/DC converter 30 is a bidirectional converter converting a DC current having a first voltage for charging or discharging the energy storage system 11 to a DC current having a second voltage to be used as traction current for railway vehicles.

[0027] In other words, the DC/DC converter 30 defines another supply chain in order to electrically connect the first terminal 3 via the first current supply chain 13 to the energy storage device 11, to electrically connect the first terminal 3 via the second current supply chain 23 to the second terminal 5, or to electrically connect the energy storage device 11 to the second terminal 5.

[0028] In a first function, the DC traction sub-station 1 provides a DC power supply for railway vehicles along the route shown with the arrow A, via the optional first transformer 17, the first AC/DC converter or rectifier 19, the second terminal 5 to the power supply conductor 6 in order to provide driving current to the at least one railway vehicle.

[0029] In some embodiments, other loads like electric road vehicles, for example electric busses, electric trucks, electric cars, electric vans or even electric bikes could be supplied with DC current from the second terminal 5.

[0030] In a second function, the DC traction sub-station 1 is adapted to provide electrical energy from the electrical power grid 4 to the energy storage system 11, for example for charging a battery, along the route shown in figure 1 with the arrow B, via the second transformer 27, the second AC/DC converter 29 and the third terminal 7.

[0031] In a third function, the DC traction sub-station 1 is adapted to provide electrical energy from the energy storage system 11 to the electrical power grid 4 along the route shown in figure 1 with the arrow C.

[0032] In other words, the DC traction sub-station 1, in particular the energy storage system 11, may be dimensioned to qualify as a primary control reserve. For that purpose, the energy storage system 11 has a capacity of at least 350 kWh.

[0033] In other words, the DC traction sub-station 1 may be used in a primary control reserve to balance the electrical energy consumption in the electrical power grid 4 with the electrical energy production. For that purpose, the DC traction sub-station 1 is controlled by measuring the frequency of the electrical power grid 4 in order to act as a primary control reserve. The objective of the activation of the control reserve is to maintain the frequency of the electrical power grid 4 on the target frequency of for example 50 or 60 Hz and/or to eliminate regional deviations in the balance from their reference values. For example, as a primary control reserve the charging and discharging of the energy storage system 11 may be activated within 30 seconds and the period per incident to be covered is between 0 and 30 minutes. The request to act as primary control request is automatically generated, in particular of a controller of the DC traction sub-station 1, as a function of a frequency deviation from the nominal value, for example 50 Hz as indicated above, in the electrical power grid 4. The requested power needs to be provided for a certain time.

[0034] In another function, the second current supply chain 23 and the DC/DC converter 30 may be used to provide the DC driving or traction current for a railway vehicle at the second terminal 5, see arrow D, via the optional second transformer 27, the second AC/DC converter 29 and the DC/DC converter 30. Or vice versa, for example if more railway vehicles are using regenerative braking than accelerating and the energy storage system 11 shall not receive the energy.

[0035] In a further function, the first current supply chain 13 and the DC/DC converter 30 may be used to provide energy to the energy storage system 11, see arrow E, via the optional first transformer 17, the first AC/DC converter 19 or rectifier and the DC/DC converter 30. Thus, the energy storage system 11 may be charged using the first current supply chain 13.

[0036] In another function, the energy storage system 11 and the DC/DC converter 30 are used to provide traction current to the power supply conductor 6 for a railway vehicle, see arrow F.

[0037] Figure 1 shows a further function, namely the energy storage system 11 and the DC/DC converter 30 are used to store energy provided from the power supply conductor 6 via the second terminal 5, for example if more railway vehicles are using regenerative braking than accelerating, see arrow G.

[0038] Thus, in order to have a smoother function of power versus time on the energy supply grid (peak shaving), the energy storage system 11 can be used to buffer energy from the electrical power grid 4 received via the first terminal 3 before supplying it to the railway vehicles via the DC/DC converter 30 (arrows B and F). Moreover, excess energy from the DC rail power system can also be buffered for later use (arrow G). Thus, the number of brake resistors in order to transform superfluous energy in heat may be reduced or even omitted.

[0039] In some embodiments, if the electrical power grid 4 fails, the energy storage system may provide electrical energy (arrow F) to the railway vehicles in order to allow them to move the trains to safe positions, for example for evacuation of the passengers.

[0040] According to embodiments, the DC traction sub-station 1 is adapted to switch between the different functions, or may use even several functions even in parallel, for example the energy storage system 11 may be charged or discharged using the second current supply chain 23 (arrows B and C) in parallel to the provision of electrical energy to the second terminal 5 via the first current supply chain 13 (arrow A).

[0041] According to the invention, the coupling of frequency regulation for an AC power grid with energy efficient rail power supply is provided, in order to reduce the investment.

[0042] Further, the primary control reserve is measured, according to an embodiment, with the second electricity meter 25 while the rail power supply is measured separately with the first electricity meter 15.

[0043] Further, already used equipment in the first current supply chain 13 may stay in place when upgrading to the DC traction substation with the second current supply chain 23 and the DC/DC converter 30.

[0044] Finally, the energy consumption from the electrical power grid 4 is reduced.


Claims

1. DC traction sub-station (1) for supplying at least one vehicle, preferentially a railway vehicle, with a direct current, DC, comprising:

a first terminal (3) adapted to connect DC traction sub-station (1) to an alternating current, AC, electrical power grid (4);

a second terminal (5) adapted to connect DC traction sub-station (1) to a power supply conductor (6) in order to provide driving current to the at least one vehicle or to receive regenerative braking current from the at least one vehicle;

a third terminal (7) adapted to be connected to an energy storage device (11) for storing electrical energy;

one or more first current supply chains (13) electrically connecting the first terminal (3) to the second terminal (5), wherein the first current supply chain comprising a first AC/DC converter (19);

one or more second current supply chains (23) electrically connecting the first terminal (3) to the third terminal (7), wherein the second current supply chain comprising a second AC/DC converter (29), and wherein a DC/DC converter (30) electrically connects, within the DC traction sub-station (1), the second terminal to the third terminal.


 
2. DC traction sub-station (1) according to claim 1, wherein the power supply conductor (6) is at least one selected of a catenary, a ground rail and an overhead rail.
 
3. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the energy storage device (11) is a rechargeable battery, a pumped hydroelectric energy storage, a fly-wheel electrical storage, compressed air energy storage, at least one capacitor, or the like.
 
4. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the first AC/DC converter (19) is a unidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current.
 
5. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the first AC/DC converter (19) is a bidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current and vice versa.
 
6. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the second AC/DC converter (29) is a bidirectional AC/DC converter converting from an alternating current to a direct current and vice versa.
 
7. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the DC/DC converter (30) is a bidirectional DC/DC converter.
 
8. DC traction sub-station 1 according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the first current supply chain (13), a first electricity meter (15) for measuring electrical energy is electrically connected between the first terminal and the first AC/DC converter.
 
9. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the second current supply chain (23), a second electricity meter (25) for measuring electrical energy is electrically connected between the first terminal and the second AC/DC converter.
 
10. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the first current supply chain (13), a transformer (17) is electrically connected between the first terminal and the first AC/DC converter, preferably between a first electricity meter and the first AC/DC converter.
 
11. DC traction sub-station (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein, in the second current supply chain (23), a transformer (27) is electrically connected between the first terminal and the second AC/DC converter, preferably between a second electricity meter and the second AC/DC converter.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description