(19)
(11)EP 3 686 870 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
29.07.2020 Bulletin 2020/31

(21)Application number: 18859584.7

(22)Date of filing:  11.09.2018
(51)Int. Cl.: 
G09C 1/00  (2006.01)
G06F 21/71  (2013.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2018/033595
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/059042 (28.03.2019 Gazette  2019/13)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 21.09.2017 JP 2017181262
21.09.2017 JP 2017181263

(71)Applicant: Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation
Tokyo 100-8116 (JP)

(72)Inventor:
  • HAMADA, Koki
    Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180-8585 (JP)

(74)Representative: MERH-IP Matias Erny Reichl Hoffmann Patentanwälte PartG mbB 
Paul-Heyse-Strasse 29
80336 München
80336 München (DE)

  


(54)SECRET READING DEVICE, SECRET WRITING DEVICE, METHOD FOR SAID DEVICES, AND PROGRAM


(57) Data is efficiently read from a sequence without a read position being revealed. A secure reading apparatus 1 receives a secret text sequence and a secret text of a read position as input, and outputs an element at the read position of the secret text sequence. A vector creating part (12) creates a vector expressing the read position. A compression computing part (13) repeatedly generates a new secret text sequence in which an inner product of a vector based on the secret text sequence and a vector expressing the read position is set as an element. The reading part (14) outputs the new secret text sequence having the number of elements of one as the element at the read position of the secret text sequence.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to a cryptography application technology, and, particularly, to a technique of reading data from and writing data in a sequence without revealing an access position.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] As a method for obtaining a particular computation result without reconstructing an encrypted numerical value, there is a method called secure computation (see, for example, Non-patent literature 1). With the method disclosed in Non-patent literature 1, by encryption being performed so that fragments of numerical values are distributed to three secure computation apparatuses, and the three secure computation apparatuses performing cooperative computation, it is possible to maintain a state where results of addition and subtraction, constant addition, multiplication, constant multiplication, logical operation (NOT, AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE-OR) and data format conversion (integer, binary) are distributed to the three secure computation apparatuses, that is, encrypted without the numerical values being reconstructed.

[0003] In a case where the i-th data is read from a sequence without a read position i being revealed, commonly the i-th data is obtained by determining whether or not a position matches the read position i for all elements, and, in a case where the position does not match the read position i, replacing a value of the position with 0, and adding up values of all the elements (see, for example, Non-patent literature 2).

[0004] In a case where a value d is written in the i-th data of a sequence without a write position i being revealed, commonly, a new sequence having the same size as a size n of the sequence is prepared, d is set only for the i-th element, 0 is set for other elements, and the new sequence is added to a sequence of a write destination (see, for example, Non-patent literature 2).

PRIOR ART LITERATURE


NON-PATENT LITERATURE



[0005] 

Non-patent literature 1: Koji Chida, Koki Hamada, Dai Ikarashi, Katsumi Takahashi, "Reconsideration of Lightweight Verifiable Three-party Secure Function Evaluation", CSS, 2010

Non-patent literature 2: Marcel Keller and Peter Scholl, "Efficient, oblivious data structures for MPC", Advances in Cryptology - ASIACRYPT 2014, Vol. 8874 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 506-525, 2014.


SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION


PROBLEMS TO BE SOLVED BY THE INVENTION



[0006] However, in related art disclosed in Non-patent literature 2, in a case where data is read from a sequence having a size n through constant-depth multiplication, it has been necessary to perform multiplication the number of times proportional to n. Further, in related art disclosed in Non-patent literature 2, a communication amount Q(nm) has been required to write m values in a sequence having the size n through constant-depth communication.

[0007] In view of the above-described points, it is an object of the present invention to enable efficient reading of data from a sequence without a read position being revealed with a smaller number of times than that in related art through constant-depth multiplication. Further, it is another object of the present invention to enable efficient writing of data in a sequence without a write position being revealed with a smaller communication amount than that in related art through constant-depth communication.

MEANS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS



[0008] To solve the above-described problems, a secure reading apparatus according to a first aspect of the present invention is a secure reading apparatus which receives a secret text sequence and a secret text of a read position as input, and outputs an element at the read position of the secret text sequence, in which generation of a new secret text sequence in which an inner product of a vector expressing the read position and a vector based on the secret text sequence is set as an element is repeated until a number of elements of the new secret text sequence becomes one, and the new secret text sequence having the number of elements of one is output as the element at the read position.

[0009] To solve the above-described problems, a secure writing apparatus according to a second aspect of the present invention is a secure writing apparatus which receives a secret text sequence, a secret text of a write address, and a secret text of a value to be written as input, and adds the value to an element at the write address of the secret text sequence, in which an inner product of a vector expressing the write address and a vector expressing the value to be written is added to the secret text sequence.

EFFECTS OF THE INVENTION



[0010] According to the secure reading technique in the first aspect of the present invention, it is possible to efficiently read data from a sequence without revealing a read position with a smaller number of times than that in related art through constant-depth multiplication. According to the secure writing technique in the second aspect of the present invention, it is possible to efficiently write data in a sequence without revealing a write position with a smaller communication amount than that in related art through constant-depth communication.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0011] 

Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating a functional configuration of a secure reading apparatus;

Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating processing procedure of a secure reading method;

Fig. 3 is a diagram illustrating a functional configuration of a secure writing apparatus; and

Fig. 4 is a diagram illustrating processing procedure of a secure writing method.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0012] Prior to the description of embodiments, a notation method and definition of terms in this specification will be described.

<Notation method >



[0013] A value obtained by concealing a certain value "a" through encryption, secret sharing, or the like, will be referred to as a secret text of "a", and expressed as [a]. Further, "a" is referred to as a plain text of [a]. In a case where concealment is performed through secret sharing, an aggregate of fragments of secret sharing, possessed by respective secure computation apparatuses is referred to by [a]. The i-th element of a vector a = (a0, a1, ...) is referred to by a[i]. The number of elements of the vector a is expressed as |a|.

[0014] └x
is a floor function, and indicates a maximum integer equal to or less than a real number x.

[0015] ┌x
is a ceiling function and indicates a minimum integer equal to or greater than the real number x.

<Addition, subtraction, multiplication>



[0016] In each operation of addition, subtraction and multiplication to be performed on a secret text, secret texts [a] and [b] of two values a and b are input, and secret texts [c1], [c2] and [c3] of c1, c2 and c3 which are respectively computation results of a+b, a-b and ab are computed. Execution of these kinds of operation will be expressed as in the following expressions.







[0017] In a case where there is no possibility that misunderstanding is caused, Add([a], [b]), Sub([a], [b]), and Mul([a], [b]) will be respectively abbreviated as [a]+[b], [a]-[b] and [a][b].

<Equality testing>



[0018] Processing in which the secret texts [a] and [b] of two values a and b are input, and a secret text [c] in which, if a = b, c = 1, and, if a ≠ b, c = 0, is computed will be expressed as in the following expression.



[0019] Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below. Note that, in the drawings, the same reference numerals will be assigned to component parts having the same functions, and redundant description will be omitted.

<First embodiment>



[0020] A secure reading apparatus according to a first embodiment receives a secret text sequence and a secret text of a read position as input, and outputs an element at the read position of the secret text sequence. At this time, generation of a new secret text sequence in which an inner product of a vector expressing the read position and a vector based on the secret text sequence is set as an element is repeated until the number of elements of the new secret text sequence becomes one, and the new secret text sequence having the number of elements of one is output as the element at the read position.

[0021] As illustrated in Fig. 1, a secure reading apparatus 1 in the first embodiment includes an input part 11, a vector creating part 12, a compression computing part 13 and a reading part 14. By this secure reading apparatus 1 performing processing in each step illustrated in Fig. 2, a secure reading method in the first embodiment is implemented.

[0022] The secure reading apparatus 1 is a special apparatus configured by, for example, a special program being read into a publicly-known or dedicated computer having a central processing unit (CPU), a random access memory (RAM), or the like. The secure reading apparatus 1, for example, executes various kinds of processing under control of the CPU. Data input to the secure reading apparatus 1 and data obtained through respective kinds of processing are, for example, stored in the RAM, and the data stored in the RAM is read out to the CPU as necessary and is utilized for other processing. At least part of respective processing parts of the secure reading apparatus 1 may be configured with hardware such as an integrated circuit.

[0023] A secure reading method to be executed by the secure reading apparatus 1 in the first embodiment will be described below with reference to Fig. 2.

[0024] In step S11, the input part 11 receives a secret text sequence [a0] = ([a0[0]], [a0[1]], ..., [a0[n-1]]) having a size n, and a secret text [x] of a read position x as input. The input part 11 outputs the secret text sequence [a0] and the secret text [x] to the vector creating part 12.

[0025] In step S12, the vector creating part 12 receives the secret text sequence [a0] and the secret text [x] from the input part 11, and creates a vector [vj] of k secret texts. However, k is an integer equal to or greater than 2, and j is each integer equal to or greater than 1 and equal to or less than k. Specifically, the secret text vector [vj] having a size mj in which m1, m2, ..., mk are set as natural numbers satisfying n ≤ m1×m2×...×mk, and xj is set as an integer defined in the formula (1) for each integer j, and the (xj mod mj)-th element is one, and other elements are zero, is created.



[0026] Particularly, if each input secret text is a share obtained through (t, s) Shamir secret sharing, k, mi (i = 1, 2, ..., k) can be set as in formula (2). Note that (t, s) Shamir secret sharing is secret sharing in which distributed values obtained by dividing an input plain text into s pieces are stored in s secure computation apparatuses, and if arbitrary t shares are collected, the plain text can be reconstructed, while any information regarding the plain text cannot be obtained from less than t shares. At this time, t is an integer equal to or greater than 1, and s ≥ 2t-1.



[0027] In step S13-1, the compression computing part 13 initializes j to 1.

[0028] In step S13-2, the compression computing part 13 creates a vector of nj secret texts [bj, i] using a secret text sequence [aj-1]. The number nj of the secret text vector [bj, i] to be created differs depending on a value of j. Specifically, the secret text vector [bj, j] is computed assuming that nj is an integer defined in formula (3), i is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than nj, and [bj, i] = ([aj-1[mji+0]], [aj-1[mji+1]], ..., [aj-1[mji+mj-1]]) (where, if λ = |aj-1|, [aj-1[λ]] = 0).



[0029] In step S13-3, the compression computing part 13 computes a secret text sequence [aj] in which an inner product of the secret text vector [bj, j] and the secret text vector [vj] is set as the i-th element.

[0030] In step S13-4, the compression computing part 13 determines if j+1 is equal to or less than k (j+1 ≤ k), and, if j+1 is equal to or less than k, increments j (j ← j+1), and returns the processing to step S13-2, and, if j+1 is greater than k (j+1 > k), outputs a secret text sequence [ak]. Note that, at this time, the secret text sequence [ak] is a sequence having the number of elements of one.

[0031] In step S14, the reading part 14 outputs the secret text sequence [ak] having the number of elements of one as a secret text [a0[x]] which is the x-th element in a secret text sequence [a0].

[0032] The first embodiment has a feature that reading of the i-th element is expressed with a k-depth inner product using a vector having a size Θ(n1/k) by utilizing characteristics that it is possible to perform up to k-1-depth multiplication (inner product) through communication corresponding to multiplication of one time in (t, s) Shamir secret sharing. As a result of a size of each vector being set as O(n1/k), so that k-1-depth computation can be completed with O(n1/k) times, it is possible to suppress an overall communication amount to O(n1/k).

<Second embodiment>



[0033] A secure writing apparatus in a second embodiment receives a secret text sequence, a secret text of a write address, and a secret text of a value to be written as input, and adds the value to an element at the write address of the secret text sequence. At this time, an inner product of a vector expressing the write address and a vector expressing the value to be written is added to the secret text sequence.

[0034] As illustrated in Fig. 3, a secure writing apparatus 2 in the second embodiment includes an input part 21, an address decomposing part 22, a vector creating part 23 and a writing part 24. By this secure writing apparatus 2 performing processing in each step illustrated in Fig. 4, a secure writing method in the second embodiment is implemented.

[0035] The secure writing apparatus 2 is a special apparatus configured by, for example, a special program being read into a publicly-known or dedicated computer having a central processing unit (CPU), a random access memory (RAM), or the like. The secure writing apparatus 2, for example, executes various kinds of processing under control of the CPU. Data input to the secure writing apparatus 2 and data obtained through respective kinds of processing are, for example, stored in the RAM, and the data stored in the RAM is read out to the CPU as necessary and is utilized for other processing. At least part of respective processing parts of the secure writing apparatus 2 may be configured with hardware such as an integrated circuit.

[0036] A secure writing method to be executed by the secure writing apparatus 2 in the second embodiment will be described below with reference to Fig. 4.

[0037] In step S21, the input part 21 receives a secret text sequence [a] = ([a[0]], [a[1]], ..., [a[n-1]]) having a size n, a secret text [xi] of m write addresses and a secret text [yi] of m values to be written as input. However, m is an integer equal to or greater than 2, and i is each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than m. The input part 21 outputs the secret text [xi] of the write addresses and the secret text [yi] of the values to be written to the address decomposing part 22.

[0038] In step S22, the address decomposing part 22 receives the secret text [xi] of the write addresses and the secret text [yi] of the values to be written from the input part 21, and creates a secret text vector [wi] which expresses writing of each value yi of the write address xi. Specifically, secret text vectors [pi], [qi] in which n1 and n2 are set as natural numbers satisfying n1n2 ≥ n, pi1]qi2] becomes [yi] when n2λ1 + λ2 = xi, otherwise, becomes 0, are created, and the secret text vectors [pi], [qi] are concatenated to generate a secret text vector [wi] = [pi]∥[qi]. At this time, the secret text vector [pi] may be a secret text vector having a size n1 in which an element of


is one, and other elements are zero, and the secret text vector [qi] may be a secret text vector having a size n2 in which an element of


is [yi], and other elements are zero.

[0039] Particularly, if each input secret text is a share obtained through (t, s) Shamir secret sharing, n1 and n2 can be set as in formula (4). Note that (t, s) Shamir secret sharing is secret sharing in which distributed values obtained by dividing an input plain text into s pieces are stored in s secure computation apparatuses, and, if arbitrary t shares are collected, the plain text can be reconstructed, while any information regarding the plain text cannot be obtained from less than t shares. At this time, t is an integer equal to or greater than 1, and s ≥ 2t-1.



[0040] In step S23, the vector creating part 23 selects an element from the secret text vector [wi] and generates secret text vectors [uj] and [vj] while j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than n. Specifically, λ1 and λ2 are expressed as in formula (5) while i is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than m, and j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than n.



[0041] The secret text vectors [uj] and [vj] are generated as in formula (6).



[0042] In step S24, the writing part 24 adds an inner product of the secret text vector [uj] and the secret text vector [vj] to a secret text [a[j]] which is the j-th element in the secret text sequence [a] while j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than n.

[0043] The second embodiment has a feature that a value to be written is expressed with an inner product of two vectors, so that a value to be added to each address of a write destination can be computed from the inner product of the vectors having a size m. Because the inner product can be computed through communication corresponding to multiplication of one time, it is possible to suppress an overall communication amount to O(n+m√n).

[0044] While the embodiments of the present invention have been described above, a specific configuration is not limited to these embodiments, and it goes without saying that change, or the like, of design is incorporated into the present invention as appropriate within a scope not deviating from the gist of the present invention. Various kinds of processing described in the embodiments are not only executed in a chronological order in accordance with order of description, but may be executed in parallel or individually in accordance with processing performance of an apparatus which executes the processing or as necessary.

[Program, recording medium]



[0045] In a case where various kinds of processing functions at the respective apparatuses described in the above-described embodiments are implemented with a computer, processing content of functions which should be provided at the respective apparatuses is described with a program. Further, by this program being executed in the computer, various kinds of processing functions at the above-described respective apparatuses are realized on the computer.

[0046] The program describing this processing content can be recorded in a computer-readable recording medium. The computer-readable recording medium may be, for example, any medium such as a magnetic recording apparatus, an optical disk, a magnetooptical recording medium and a semiconductor memory.

[0047] Further, this program is distributed by, for example, a portable recording medium such as a DVD and a CD-ROM in which the program is recorded, being sold, given, lent, or the like. Still further, it is also possible to employ a configuration where this program is stored in a storage apparatus of a server computer, and the program is distributed by being transferred from the server computer to other computers over a network.

[0048] A computer which executes such a program, for example, first, stores the program recorded in the portable recording medium or the program transferred from the server computer in a storage apparatus of the own computer once. Then, upon execution of the processing, this computer reads the program stored in the storage apparatus of the own computer and executes processing in accordance with the read program. Further, as another execution form of this program, the computer may directly read the program from the portable recording medium and execute processing in accordance with the program, and further, every time a program is transferred from the server computer to this computer, the computer may sequentially execute processing in accordance with the received program. Still further, it is also possible to employ a configuration where the above-described processing is executed through so-called ASP (Application Service Provider) service in which processing functions are realized only through an execution instruction and a result acquisition without the program being transferred from the server computer to this computer. Note that the program in the present embodiment includes information which is provided to be used for processing by an electronic computer and which is equivalent to a program (such as data which is not a direct command to the computer but has property of defining processing of a computer).

[0049] Further, while, in the present embodiment, the present apparatus is configured by a predetermined program being executed on a computer, at least part of the processing content may be realized with hardware.


Claims

1. A secure reading apparatus which receives a secret text sequence and a secret text of a read position as input, and outputs an element at the read position of the secret text sequence,
wherein the secure reading apparatus repeats generation of a new secret text sequence in which an inner product of a vector expressing the read position and a vector based on the secret text sequence is set as an element until a number of elements of the new secret text sequence becomes one, and outputs the new secret text sequence having the number of elements of one as the element at the read position.
 
2. The secure reading apparatus according to claim 1,
wherein n and k are set as integers equal to or greater than 2, and j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 1 and equal to or less than k,
the secure reading apparatus receives a secret text sequence [a0] = ([a0[0]], [a0[1]], ..., [a0[n-1]]) having a size n and a secret text [x] of a read position x as input, and outputs a secret text [a0[x]] which is an x-th element of the secret text sequence [a0],
the secure reading apparatus comprising:

a vector creating part configured to create a secret text vector [vj] using the secret text [x] for each integer j;

a compression computing part configured to create a secret text sequence [aj] using a secret text sequence [aj-1] and a secret text vector [vj] for each integer j; and

a reading part configured to output a secret text sequence [ak] having the number of elements of one as the secret text [a0[x]] which is an x-th element of the secret text sequence [a0].


 
3. The secure reading apparatus according to claim 2,
wherein m1, m2, ..., mk are set as natural numbers satisfying n ≤ m1 × m2 × ... × mk,
nj is set as an integer defined with the following formula, and i is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than nj:

and the compression computing part creates the secret text sequence [aj] in which an inner product of a secret text vector [bj, i] created using the secret text sequence [aj-1] for each integer i and the secret text vector [vj] is set as an i-th element.
 
4. The secure reading apparatus according to claim 3,
wherein the vector creating part creates the secret text vector [vj] having a size mj in which an xj mod mj-th element is one and other elements are zero while xj is set as an integer defined with the following formula for each integer j:

and the compression computing part creates the secret text vector [bj, i] in which [bj, i] = ([aj-1[mji+0]], [aj-1[mji+1]], ..., [aj-1[mji+mj-1]]), and when λ ≥ |aj-1|, [aj-1[λ]] = 0 for each integer i.
 
5. The secure reading apparatus according to claim 4,
wherein the secret text sequence [a0] and the secret text [x] are concealed through secret sharing in which, among shares obtained by dividing a plain text into s pieces, if arbitrary t shares are collected, the plain text can be reconstructed, while any information regarding the plain text cannot be obtained from less than t shares, where t is set as an integer equal to or greater than 1, s ≥ 2t-1, and
k, mi (i = 1, 2, ..., k) are defined with the following formula:


 
6. A secure reading method to be executed by a secure reading apparatus which receives a secret text sequence and a secret text of a read position as input, and outputs an element at the read position of the secret text sequence,
wherein the secure reading apparatus repeats generation of a new secret text sequence in which an inner product of a vector expressing the read position and a vector based on the secret text sequence is set as an element until a number of elements of the new secret text sequence becomes one, and outputs the new secret text sequence having the number of elements of one as the element at the read position.
 
7. A secure writing apparatus which receives a secret text sequence, a secret text of a write address, and a secret text of a value to be written as input, and adds the value to an element at the write address of the secret text sequence,
wherein the secure writing apparatus adds an inner product of a vector expressing the write address and a vector expressing the value to be written to the secret text sequence.
 
8. The secure writing apparatus according to claim 7,
wherein n and m are set as integers equal to or greater than 2, i is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than m, and j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than n,
the secure writing apparatus receives a secret text sequence [a] = ([a[0]], [a[1]], ..., [a[n-1]]) having a size n, a secret text [xi] of a write address xi and a secret text [yi] of a value to be written yi as input, and adds the value yi to a secret text [a[xi]] which is an xi-th element of the secret text sequence [a] for each integer i,
the secure writing apparatus comprising:

an address decomposing part configured to create a secret text vector [wi] which expresses a write address xi of the value yi for each integer i;

a vector creating part configured to select an element from the secret text vector [wi] and create secret text vectors [uj] and [vj] for each integer j; and

a writing part configured to add an inner product of the secret text vector [uj] and the secret text vector [vj] for each integer j to the secret text [a[j]] which is a j-th element of the secret text sequence [a].


 
9. The secure writing apparatus according to claim 8,
wherein the address decomposing part concatenates secret text vectors [pi] and [qi] in which, when n2λ1 + λ2 = xi, pi1]qi2] becomes [yi] and otherwise becomes zero, to create the secret text vector [wi] while n1 and n2 are set as natural numbers satisfying n1n2 ≥ n, and
the vector creating part creates the secret text vectors [uj] and [vj] as in the following formula:



where i is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than m, j is set as each integer equal to or greater than 0 and less than n, and λ1 and λ2 are set as in the following formula:




 
10. The secure writing apparatus according to claim 9,
wherein the secret text vector [pi] is a secret text vector having a size n1 in which an element of

is one and other elements are zero, and
the secret text vector [qi] is a secret text vector having a size n2 in which an element of

is [yi], and other elements are zero.
 
11. The secure writing apparatus according to claim 9 or 10,
wherein the secret text sequence [a], the secret text [xi] and the secret text [yi] are concealed through secret sharing in which t is set as an integer equal to or greater than 1, s ≥ 2t-1, and, among shares obtained by dividing a plain text into s pieces, if arbitrary t shares are collected, the plain text can be obtained, while any information regarding the plain text cannot be obtained from less than t shares, and
n1 and n2 are defined with the following formula:


 
12. A secure writing method to be executed by a secure writing apparatus which receives a secret text sequence, a secret text of a write address, and a secret text of a value to be written as input, and adds the value to an element at the write address of the secret text sequence,
wherein the secure writing apparatus adds an inner product of a vector expressing the write address and a vector expressing the value to be written to the secret text sequence.
 
13. A program for causing a computer to function as the secure reading apparatus according to any one of claims 1 to 5 or the secure writing apparatus according to any one of claims 7 to 11.
 




Drawing






















REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Non-patent literature cited in the description