(19)
(11)EP 3 701 796 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
02.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/36

(21)Application number: 19190758.3

(22)Date of filing:  08.08.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A01N 43/80(2006.01)
A01P 3/00(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: Bayer AG
51373 Leverkusen (DE)

(72)Inventor:
  • The designation of the inventor has not yet been filed
     ()

(74)Representative: BIP Patents 
c/o Bayer Intellectual Property GmbH Alfred-Nobel-Straße 10
40789 Monheim am Rhein
40789 Monheim am Rhein (DE)

  


(54)ACTIVE COMPOUND COMBINATIONS


(57) The present invention relates to active compound combinations, in particular within a fungicide composition, which comprise (A) fluoxapiprolin and (B) at least one biological control agent and/or (C) at least one compound selected from insecticides, acaricides and nematicides. Moreover, the invention relates to compositions comprising such compound combination and to the use thereof as biologically active combinations, especially for control of harmful microorganisms, in particular oomycetes, in crop protection.


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to active compound combinations, in particular within a fungicide composition, which comprise (A) fluoxapiprolin and (B) at least one biological control agent and/or (C) at least one compound selected from insecticides, acaricides and nematicides. Moreover, the invention relates to compositions comprising such compound combination and to the use thereof as biologically active combinations, especially for control of harmful microorganisms, in particular oomycetes, in crop protection, for control of animal pests and as plant growth regulators.

[0002] Fluoxapiprolin (2-{3-[2-(1-{[3,5-bis(difluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetyl}piperidin-4-yl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-4,5-dihydro-1,2-oxazol-5-yl}-3-chlorophenyl methanesulfonate), its preparation and its fungicidal efficacy are known from WO 2012/025557. Certain active compounds combinations comprising fluoxapiprolin are disclosed in WO 2013/127704.

[0003] Albeit fluoxapiprolin and the known compound combinations comprising this compound provide excellent means in protecting plants from diseases caused by fungi, there is still need to even improve those means in order to address the ever increasing environmental and economic requirements imposed on modern-day crop protection agents and compositions. This includes, for example, improvement to the spectrum of action, safety profile, selectivity, application rate, formation of residues, and favourable preparation ability, and development of new compositions to deal with potential problems, like resistances.

[0004] The present invention provides active compound combinations and compositions comprising said combinations which in some aspects at least achieve the stated objective.

[0005] Accordingly, the present invention provides an active compound combination comprising
  1. (A) fluoxapiprolin,
    and
  2. (B) at least one biological control agent,
    and/or
  3. (C) at least one further active ingredient selected from insecticides, acaricides and nematicides.


[0006] "Insecticides" as well as the term "insecticidal" refers to the ability of a substance to increase mortality or inhibit growth rate of insects. As used herein, the term "insects" comprises all organisms in the class "Insecta".

[0007] "Nematicide" and "nematicidal" refers to the ability of a substance to increase mortality or inhibit the growth rate of nematodes. In general, the term "nematode" comprises eggs, larvae, juvenile and mature forms of said organism.

[0008] "Acaricide" and "acaricidal" refers to the ability of a substance to increase mortality or inhibit growth rate of ectoparasites belonging to the class Arachnida, sub-class Acari.

[0009] As used herein, the term"biological control" is defined as control of harmful organisms such as a phytopathogenic fungi and/or insects and/or acarids and/or nematodes by the use or employment of a biological control agent.

[0010] As used herein, the term "biological control agent" is defined as an organism other than the harmful organisms and / or proteins or secondary metabolites produced by such an organism for the purpose of biological control. Mutants of the second organism shall be included within the definition of the biological control agent. The term "mutant" refers to a variant of the parental strain as well as methods for obtaining a mutant or variant in which the pesticidal activity is greater than that expressed by the parental strain. The "parent strain" is defined herein as the original strain before mutagenesis. To obtain such mutants the parental strain may be treated with a chemical such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethylmethanesulfone, or by irradiation using gamma, x-ray, or UV-irradiation, or by other means well known to those skilled in the art. Known mechanisms of biological control agents comprise enteric bacteria that control root rot by out-competing fungi for space on the surface of the root. Bacterial toxins, such as antibiotics, have been used to control pathogens. The toxin can be isolated and applied directly to the plant or the bacterial species may be administered so it produces the toxin in situ.

[0011] A "variant" is a strain having all the identifying characteristics of the NRRL or ATCC Accession Numbers as indicated in this text and can be identified as having a genome that hybridizes under conditions of high stringency to the genome of the NRRL or ATCC Accession Numbers.

[0012] "Hybridization" refers to a reaction in which one or more polynucleotides react to form a complex that is stabilized via hydrogen bonding between the bases of the nucleotide residues. The hydrogen bonding may occur by Watson-Crick base pairing, Hoogstein binding, or in any other sequence-specific manner. The complex may comprise two strands forming a duplex structure, three or more strands forming a multi-stranded complex, a single self-hybridizing strand, or any combination of these. Hybridization reactions can be performed under conditions of different "stringency". In general, a low stringency hybridization reaction is carried out at about 40 °C in 10 X SSC or a solution of equivalent ionic strength/temperature. A moderate stringency hybridization is typically performed at about 50 °C in 6 X SSC, and a high stringency hybridization reaction is generally performed at about 60 °C in 1 X SSC.

[0013] A variant of the indicated NRRL or ATCC Accession Number may also be defined as a strain having a genomic sequence that is greater than 85%, more preferably greater than 90% or more preferably greater than 95% sequence identity to the genome of the indicated NRRL or ATCC Accession Number. A polynucleotide or polynucleotide region (or a polypeptide or polypeptide region) has a certain percentage (for example, 80%, 85%, 90%, or 95%) of "sequence identity" to another sequence means that, when aligned, that percentage of bases (or amino acids) are the same in comparing the two sequences. This alignment and the percent homology or sequence identity can be determined using software programs known in the art, for example, those described in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (F. M. Ausubel et al., eds., 1987).

[0014] NRRL is the abbreviation for the Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection, an international depositary authority for the purposes of deposing microorganism strains under the Budapest treaty on the international recognition of the deposit of microorganisms for the purposes of patent procedure, having the address National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Agricultural Research service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1815 North university Street, Peroira, Illinois 61604 USA.

[0015] ATCC is the abbreviation for the American Type Culture Collection, an international depositary authority for the purposes of deposing microorganism strains under the Budapest treaty on the international recognition of the deposit of microorganisms for the purposes of patent procedure, having the address ATCC Patent Depository, 10801 University Blvd., Manassas, VA 10110 USA.

[0016] The active compound combinations according to the invention comprises as compound (A) fluoxapiprolin.

[0017] Fluoxapiprolin is the common name of 2-{(5RS)-3-[2-(1-{[3,5-bis(difluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]acetyl}-4-piperidyl)thiazol-4-yl]-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl}-3-chlorophenyl methanesulfonate, also named 2-[3,5-bis(difluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-1-[4-[4-[5-[2-chloro-6-[(methylsulfonyl)oxy]phenyl]-4,5-dihydro-3-isoxazolyl]-2-thiazolyl]-1-piperidinyl]ethanone, having the CAS Reg. No: 1360819-11-9.

[0018] The active compound combinations according to the invention comprise (B) at least one biological control agent, and/or (C) at least one further active ingredient selected from insecticides, acaricides and nematicides.

[0019] The compound combinations according to the invention may comprise 1, 2 or even more biological control agents (B).

[0020] According to the present invention the biological control agents (B) are selected from the group consisting of:

(B1) antibacterial agents selected from the group of

(B1.1) bacteria, such as (B1.1.1) Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (available as SERENADE OPTI or SERENADE ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having NRRL Accession No. B21661, U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051); (B1.1.2) Bacillus sp., in particular strain D747 (available as DOUBLE NICKEL® from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.), having Accession No. FERM BP-8234, U.S. Patent No. 7,094,592; (B1.1.3) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain BU F-33, having NRRL Accession No. 50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA® product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); (B1.1.4) Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); (B 1.1.5) a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; (B1.1.6) Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); (B1.1.7) Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B1.1.8) Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B1.1.9) Paenibacillus polymyxa, in particular strain AC-1 (e.g. TOPSEED® from Green Biotech Company Ltd.); (B1.1.10) Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); (B1.1.11) Pantoea agglomerans, in particular strain E325 (Accession No. NRRL B-21856) (available as BLOOMTIME BIOLOGICAL™ FD BIOPESTICIDE from Northwest Agri Products); and

(B1.2) fungi, such as (B1.2.1) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM14940, blastospores of strain DSM 14941 ormixtures of blastospores of strains DSM14940 and DSM14941 (e.g., BOTECTOR® and BLOSSOM PROTECT® from bio-ferm, CH); (B1.2.2) Pseudozyma aphidis (as disclosed in WO2011/151819 by Yissum Research Development Company of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem); (B1.2.3) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular strains CNCM No. 1-3936, CNCM No. 1-3937, CNCM No. 1-3938 or CNCM No. 1-3939 (WO 2010/086790) from Lesaffre et Compagnie, FR;

(B2) biological fungicides selected from the group of:

(B2.1) bacteria, for example (B2.1.1) Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (available as SERENADE OPTI or SERENADE ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having NRRL Accession No. B21661 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051); (B2.1.2) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain QST2808 (available as SONATA® from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having Accession No. NRRL B-30087 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,245,551); (B2.1.3) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain GB34 (available as Yield Shield® from Bayer AG, DE); (B2.1.4) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain BU F-33, having NRRL Accession No. 50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); (B2.1.5) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain D747 (available as Double Nickel™ from from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., having accession number FERM BP-8234, US Patent No. 7,094,592); (B2.1.6) Bacillus subtilis Y1336 (available as BIOBAC® WP from Bion-Tech, Taiwan, registered as a biological fungicide in Taiwan under Registration Nos. 4764, 5454, 5096 and 5277); (B2.1.7) Bacillus subtilis strain MBI 600 (available as SUBTILEX from BASF SE), having Accession Number NRRL B-50595, U.S. Patent No. 5,061,495; (B2.1.8) Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 (available as Kodiak® from Bayer AG, DE); (B2.1.9) Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); (B2.1.10) Bacillus mycoides, isolate J , having Accession No. B-30890 (available as BMJ TGAI® or WG and LifeGard™ from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.); (B2.1.11) Bacillus licheniformis, in particular strain SB3086 , having Accession No. ATCC 55406, WO 2003/000051 (available as ECOGUARD® Biofungicide and GREEN RELEAF™ from Novozymes); (B2.1.12) a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; (B2.1.13) Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); (B2.1.14) Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B2.1.15) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain F727 (also known as strain MBI110) (NRRL Accession No. B-50768; WO 2014/028521) (STARGUS® from Marrone Bio Innovations); (B2.1.16) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42, Accession No. DSM 23117 (available as RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); (B2.1.17) Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (QUARTZO® (WG) and PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); (B2.1.18) Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B2.1.19) Paenibacillus polymyxa ssp. plantarum (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; (B2.1.20) Paenibacillus epiphyticus (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; (B.1.21) Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009, having Accession No. NRRL B-50897, WO 2017/019448 (e.g., HOWLER™ and ZIO® from AgBiome Innovations, US); (B2.1.22) Pseudomonas chlororaphis, in particular strain MA342 (e.g. CEDOMON®, CERALL®, and CEDRESS® by Bioagri and Koppert); (B2.1.23) Streptomyces lydicus strain WYEC108 (also known as Streptomyces lydicus strain WYCD108US) (ACTINO-IRON® and ACTINOVATE® from Novozymes); (B2.1.24) Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 (e.g. GALLTROL-A® from AgBioChem, CA); (B2.1.25) Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026 (e.g. NOGALL™ from BASF SE); (B2.1.26) Bacillus subtilis KTSB strain (FOLIACTIVE® from Donaghys); (B2.1.27) Bacillus subtilis IAB/BS03 (AVIV™ from STK Bio-Ag Technologies); (B2.1.28) Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336 (available as BIOBAC® WP from Bion-Tech, Taiwan, registered as a biological fungicide in Taiwan under Registration Nos. 4764, 5454, 5096 and 5277); (B2.1.29) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolate B246 (e.g. AVOGREEN™ from University of Pretoria); (B2.1.30) Bacillus methylotrophicus strain BAC-9912 (from Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Applied Ecology); (B2.1.31) Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); (B2.1.32) Streptomyces griseoviridis strain K61 (also known as Streptomyces galbus strain K61) (Accession No. DSM 7206) (MYCOSTOP® from Verdera; PREFENCE® from BioWorks; cf. Crop Protection 2006, 25, 468-475); (B2.1.33) Pseudomonasfluorescens strain A506 (e.g. BLIGHTBAN® A506 by NuFarm); and

(B2.2) fungi, for example: (B2.2.1) Coniothyrium minitans, in particular strain CON/M/91-8 (Accession No. DSM-9660; e.g. Contans ® from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH); (B2.2.2) Metschnikowia fructicola, in particular strain NRRL Y-30752; (B2.2.3) Microsphaeropsis ochracea; (B2.2.5) Trichoderma atroviride, in particular strain SC1 (having Accession No. CBS 122089, WO 2009/116106 and U.S. Patent No. 8,431,120 (from Bi-PA)), strain 77B (T77 from Andermatt Biocontrol) or strain LU132 (e.g. Sentinel from Agrimm Technologies Limited); (B2.2.6) Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (e.g. Trianum-P from Andermatt Biocontrol or Koppert) or strain Cepa Simb-T5 (from Simbiose Agro); (B2.2.14) Gliocladium roseum (also known as Clonostachys rosea f rosea), in particular strain 321U from Adjuvants Plus, strain ACM941 as disclosed in Xue (Efficacy of Clonostachys rosea strain ACM941 and fungicide seed treatments for controlling the root tot complex of field pea, Can Jour Plant Sci 83(3): 519-524), or strain IK726 (Jensen DF, et al. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain 'IK726'; Australas Plant Pathol. 2007;36:95-101); (B2.2.35) Talaromyces flavus, strain V117b; (B2.2.36) Trichoderma viride, in particular strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137); (B2.2.37) Trichoderma asperellum, in particular strain SKT-1, having Accession No. FERM P-16510 (e.g. ECO-HOPE® from Kumiai Chemical Industry), strain T34 (e.g. T34 Biocontrol by Biocontrol Technologies S.L., ES) or strain ICC 012 from Isagro; (B2.2.38) Trichoderma atroviride, strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR); (B2.2.39) Trichoderma atroviride, strain no. V08/002387; (B2.2.40) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002388; (B2.2.41) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002389; (B2.2.42) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002390; (B2.2.43) Trichoderma atroviride, strain LC52 (e.g. Tenet by Agrimm Technologies Limited); (B2.2.44) Trichoderma atroviride, strain ATCC 20476 (IMI 206040); (B2.2.45) Trichoderma atroviride, strain T11 (IMI352941/ CECT20498); (B2.2.46) Trichoderma harmatum; (B2.2.47) Trichoderma harzianum; (B2.2.48) Trichoderma harzianum rifai T39 (e.g. Trichodex® from Makhteshim, US); (B2.2.49) Trichoderma asperellum, in particular, strain kd (e.g. T-Gro from Andermatt Biocontrol); (B2.2.50) Trichoderma harzianum, strain ITEM 908 (e.g. Trianum-P from Koppert); (B2.2.51) Trichoderma harzianum, strain TH35 (e.g. Root-Pro by Mycontrol); (B2.2.52) Trichoderma virens (also known as Gliocladium virens), in particular strain GL-21 (e.g. SoilGard by Certis, US); (B2.2.53) Trichoderma viride, strain TV1(e.g. Trianum-P by Koppert); (B2.2.54) Ampelomyces quisqualis, in particular strain AQ 10 (e.g. AQ 10® by IntrachemBio Italia); (B2.2.56) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM14940; (B2.2.57) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM 14941; (B2.2.58) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular mixtures of blastospores of strains DSM14940 and DSM 14941 (e.g. Botector® by bio-ferm, CH); (B2.2.64) Cladosporium cladosporioides, strain H39, having Accession No. CBS122244, US 2010/0291039 (by Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek); (B2.2.69) Gliocladium catenulatum (Synonym: Clonostachys rosea f. catenulate) strain J1446 (e.g. Prestop ® by Lallemand); (B2.2.70) Lecanicillium lecanii (formerly known as Verticillium lecanii) conidia of strain KV01 (e.g. Vertalec® by Koppert/Arysta); (B2.2.71) Penicillium vermiculatum; (B2.2.72) Pichia anomala, strain WRL-076 (NRRL Y-30842), U.S. Patent No. 7,579,183; (B2.2.75) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-1 (FERM P-16510), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.76) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-2 (FERM P-16511), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.77) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-3 (FERM P-17021), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.78) Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride), strain ICC080 (IMI CC 392151 CABI, e.g. BioDerma by AGROBIOSOL DE MEXICO, S.A. DE C.V.); (B2.2.79) Trichoderma harzianum, strain DB 103 (available as T-GRO® 7456 by Dagutat Biolab); (B2.2.80) Trichoderma polysporum, strain IMI 206039 (e.g. Binab TF WP by BINAB Bio-Innovation AB, Sweden); (B2.2.81) Trichoderma stromaticum, having Accession No. Ts3550 (e.g. Tricovab by CEPLAC, Brazil); (B2.2.83) Ulocladium oudemansii strain U3, having Accession No. NM 99/06216 (e.g., BOTRY-ZEN® by Botry-Zen Ltd, New Zealand and BOTRYSTOP® from BioWorks, Inc.); (B2.2.84) Verticillium albo-atrum (formerly V. dahliae), strain WCS850 having Accession No. WCS850, deposited at the Central Bureau for Fungi Cultures (e.g., DUTCH TRIG® by Tree Care Innovations); (B2.2.86) Verticillium chlamydosporium; (B2.2.87) mixtures of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 (also known as Trichoderma harzianum ICC012), having Accession No. CABI CC IMI 392716 and Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride) strain ICC 080, having Accession No. IMI 392151 (e.g., BIO-TAM™ from Isagro USA, Inc. and BIODERMA® by Agrobiosol de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.); (B2.2.88) Trichoderma asperelloides JM41R (Accession No. NRRL B-50759) (TRICHO PLUS® from BASF SE); (B2.2.89) Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 21882 (products known as AFLA-GUARD® from Syngenta/ChemChina); (B2.2.90) Chaetomium cupreum (Accession No. CABI 353812) (e.g. BIOKUPRUM™ by AgriLife); (B2.2.91) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular strain LASO2 (from Agro-Levures et Dérivés), strain LAS117 cell walls (CEREVISANE® from Lesaffre; ROMEO® from BASF SE), strains CNCM No. 1-3936, CNCM No. 1-3937, CNCM No. 1-3938, CNCM No. 1-3939 (WO 2010/086790) from Lesaffre et Compagnie, FR; (B2.2.92) Trichoderma virens strain G-41, formerly known as Gliocladium virens (Accession No. ATCC 20906) (e.g., ROOTSHIELD® PLUS WP and TURFSHIELD® PLUS WP from BioWorks, US); (B2.2.93) Trichoderma hamatum, having Accession No. ATCC 28012; (B2.2.94) Ampelomyces quisqualis strain AQ10, having Accession No. CNCM 1-807 (e.g., AQ 10® by IntrachemBio Italia); (B2.2.95) Phlebiopsis gigantea strain VRA 1992 (ROTSTOP® C from Danstar Ferment); (B2.2.96) Penicillium steckii (DSM 27859; WO 2015/067800) from BASF SE; (B2.2.97) Chaetomium globosum (available as RIVADIOM® by Rivale); (B2.2.98) Cryptococcus flavescens, strain 3C (NRRL Y-50378); (B2.2.99) Dactylaria candida; (B2.2.100) Dilophosphora alopecuri (available as TWIST FUNGUS®); (B2.2.101) Fusarium oxysporum, strain Fo47 (available as FUSACLEAN® by Natural Plant Protection); (B2.2.102) Pseudozyma flocculosa, strain PF-A22 UL (available as SPORODEX® L by Plant Products Co., CA); (B2.2.103) Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride), strain ICC 080 (IMI CC 392151 CABI) (available as BIODERMA® by AGROBIOSOL DE MEXICO, S.A. DE C.V.); (B2.2.104) Trichoderma fertile (e.g. product TrichoPlus from BASF); (B2.2.105) Muscodor roseus, in particular strain A3-5 (Accession No. NRRL 30548); (B2.2.106) Simplicillium lanosoniveum;

(B3) biological control agents having an effect for improving plant growth and/or plant health which may be combined in the compound combinations according to the invention including

(B3.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain QST2808 (having Accession No. NRRL No. B-30087); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (having NRRL Accession No. B-21661 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051; available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30002 (having Accession Nos. NRRL B-50421 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30004 (and NRRL B-50455 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Sinorhizobium meliloti strain NRG-185-1 (NITRAGIN® GOLD from Bayer CropScience); Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as TEQUALIS® from BASF SE); Bacillus subtilis rm303 (RHIZOMAX® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pm414 (LOLI-PEPTA® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus mycoides BT155 (NRRL No. B-50921), Bacillus mycoides EE118 (NRRL No. B-50918), Bacillus mycoides EE141 (NRRL No. B-50916), Bacillus mycoides BT46-3 (NRRL No. B-50922), Bacillus cereus family member EE128 (NRRL No. B-50917), Bacillus thuringiensis BT013A (NRRL No. B-50924) also known as Bacillus thuringiensis 4Q7, Bacillus cereus family member EE349 (NRRL No. B-50928), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB3281 (ATCC # PTA-7542; WO 2017/205258), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000 (available as QUIKROOTS® from Novozymes); Bacillus firmus, in particular strain CNMC 1-1582 (e.g. VOTIVO® from BASF SE); Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain GB34 (e.g. YIELD SHIELD® from Bayer Crop Science, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain IN937a; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain FZB42 (e.g. RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS27 (Accession No. NRRL B-5015); a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (available as QUARTZO® (WG), PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); Bacillus cereus, in particular strain BP01 (ATCC 55675; e.g. MEPICHLOR® from Arysta Lifescience, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain MBI 600 (e.g. SUBTILEX® from BASF SE); Bradyrhizobium japonicum (e.g. OPTIMIZE® from Novozymes); Mesorhizobium cicer (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Rhizobium leguminosarium biovar viciae (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Delftia acidovorans, in particular strain RAY209 (e.g. BIOBOOST® from Brett Young Seeds); Lactobacillus sp. (e.g. LACTOPLANT® from LactoPAFI); Paenibacillus polymyxa, in particular strain AC-1 (e.g. TOPSEED® from Green Biotech Company Ltd.); Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); Azospirillum brasilense (e.g., VIGOR® from KALO, Inc.); Azospirillum lipoferum (e.g., VERTEX-IF™ from TerraMax, Inc.); a mixture of Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium pasteurianum (available as INVIGORATE® from Agrinos); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in particular strain PN1; Rhizobium leguminosarum, in particular bv. viceae strain Z25 (Accession No. CECT 4585); Azorhizobium caulinodans, in particular strain ZB-SK-5; Azotobacter chroococcum, in particular strain H23; Azotobacter vinelandii, in particular strain ATCC 12837; Bacillus siamensis, in particular strain KCTC 13613T; Bacillus tequilensis, in particular strain NII-0943; Serratia marcescens, in particular strain SRM (Accession No. MTCC 8708); Thiobacillus sp. (e.g. CROPAID® from Cropaid Ltd UK); and

(B3.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Purpureocillium lilacinum (previously known as Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251 (AGAL 89/030550; e.g. BioAct from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH)Penicillium bilaii, strain ATCC 22348 (e.g. JumpStart® from Acceleron BioAg), Talaromyces flavus,strain V117b; Trichoderma atroviride strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR), Trichoderma viride, e.g. strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137); Trichoderma atroviride strain LC52 (also known as Trichoderma atroviride strain LU132; e.g. Sentinel from Agrimm Technologies Limited); Trichoderma atroviride strain SC1 described in International Application No. PCT/IT2008/000196); Trichoderma asperellum strain kd (e.g. T-Gro from Andermatt Biocontrol); Trichoderma asperellum strain Eco-T (Plant Health Products, ZA); Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (e.g. Trianum-P from Andermatt Biocontrol or Koppert); Myrothecium verrucaria strain AARC-0255 (e.g. DiTera™ from Valent Biosciences); Penicillium bilaii strain ATCC ATCC20851; Pythium oligandrum strain M1 (ATCC 38472; e.g. Polyversum from Bioprepraty, CZ); Trichoderma virens strain GL-21 (e.g. SoilGard® from Certis, USA); Verticillium albo-atrum (formerly V. dahliae) strain WCS850 (CBS 276.92; e.g. Dutch Trig from Tree Care Innovations); Trichoderma atroviride, in particular strain no. V08/002387, strain no. NMI No. V08/002388, strain no. NMI No. V08/002389, strain no. NMI No. V08/002390; Trichoderma harzianum strain ITEM 908; Trichoderma harzianum, strain TSTh20; Trichoderma harzianum strain 1295-22; Pythium oligandrum strain DV74; Rhizopogon amylopogon (e.g. comprised in Myco-Sol from Helena Chemical Company); Rhizopogon fulvigleba (e.g. comprised in Myco-Sol from Helena Chemical Company); or; Trichoderma virens strain GI-3;

(B4) insecticidally active biological control agents selected from

(B4.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, in particular strain ABTS-1857 (SD-1372; e.g. XENTARI® from Valent BioSciences); Bacillus mycoides, isolate J. (e.g. BmJ from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.); Bacillus sphaericus, in particular Serotype H5a5b strain 2362 (strain ABTS-1743) (e.g. VECTOLEX® from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain BMP 123 from Becker Microbial Products, IL; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, in particular serotype H-7 (e.g. FLORBAC® WG from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1 (e.g. DIPEL® ES from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain BMP 123 by Becker Microbial Products, IL; Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis strain BMP 144 (e.g. AQUABAC® by Becker Microbial Products IL); Burkholderia spp., in particular Burkholderia rinojensis strain A396 (also known as Burkholderia rinojensis strain MBI 305) (Accession No. NRRL B-50319; WO 2011/106491 and WO 2013/032693; e.g. MBI-206 TGAI and ZELTO® from Marrone Bio Innovations); Chromobacterium subtsugae, in particular strain PRAA4-1T (MBI-203; e.g. GRANDEVO® from Marrone Bio Innovations); Paenibacillus popilliae (formerly Bacillus popilliae; e.g. MILKY SPORE POWDER™ and MILKY SPORE GRANULAR™ from St. Gabriel Laboratories); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (serotype H-14) strain AM65-52 (Accession No. ATCC 1276) (e.g. VECTOBAC® by Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain EVB-113-19 (e.g., BIOPROTEC® from AEF Global); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain NB 176 (SD-5428; e.g. NOVODOR® FC from BioFa DE); Bacillus thuringiensis var. japonensis strain Buibui; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain ABTS 351; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain PB 54; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain SA 11; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain SA 12; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain EG 2348; Bacillus thuringiensis var. Colmeri (e.g. TIANBAOBTC by Changzhou Jianghai Chemical Factory); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain GC-91; Serratia entomophila (e.g. INVADE® by Wrightson Seeds); Serratia marcescens, in particular strain SRM (Accession No. MTCC 8708); and Wolbachia pipientis ZAP strain (e.g., ZAP MALES® from MosquitoMate); and

(B4.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Isaria fumosorosea (previously known as Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain apopka 97; Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 (e.g. NATURALIS® from Intrachem Bio Italia); Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Accession No. ATCC74250; e.g. BOTANIGUARD® ES and MYCONTROL-O® from Laverlam International Corporation); Zoophtora radicans; Metarhizium robertsii 15013-1 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67073), Metarhizium robertsii 23013-3 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67075), and Metarhizium anisopliae 3213-1 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67074) (WO 2017/066094; Pioneer Hi-Bred International); Beauveria bassiana strain ATP02 (Accession No. DSM 24665). Among these, Isaria fumosorosea (previously known as Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain apopka 97 is particularly preferred;

(B5) Viruses selected from the group consisting of
Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix) granulosis virus (GV), Cydia pomonella (codling moth) granulosis virus (GV), Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) mNPV, Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) mNPV, and Spodoptera littoralis (African cotton leafworm) NPV;

(B6) Bacteria and fungi which can be added as 'inoculant' to plants or plant parts or plant organs and which, by virtue of their particular properties, promote plant growth and plant health selected from the group consisting of
Agrobacterium spp., Azorhizobium caulinodans, Azospirillum spp., Azotobacter spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., Burkholderia spp., in particular Burkholderia cepacia (formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia), Gigaspora spp., or Gigaspora monosporum, Glomus spp., Laccaria spp., Lactobacillus buchneri, Paraglomus spp., Pisolithus tinctorus, Pseudomonas spp., Rhizobium spp., in particular Rhizobium trifolii, Rhizopogon spp., Scleroderma spp., Suillus spp., and Streptomyces spp.;

(B7) Plant extracts and products formed by microorganisms including proteins and secondary metabolites which can be used as biological control agents, such as
Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, azadirachtin, Biokeeper WP, Cassia nigricans, Celastrus angulatus, Chenopodium anthelminticum, chitin, Armour-Zen, Dryopteris filix-mas, Equisetum arvense, Fortune Aza, Fungastop, Heads Up (Chenopodium quinoa saponin extract), Pyrethrum/Pyrethrins, Quassia amara, Quercus, Quillaja, Regalia, "Requiem ™ Insecticide", rotenone, ryania/ryanodine, Symphytum officinale, Tanacetum vulgare, thymol, Triact 70, TriCon, Tropaeulum majus, Urtica dioica, Veratrin, Viscum album, Brassicaceae extract, in particular oilseed rape powder or mustard powder.



[0021] In some preferred embodiments according to the invention, the compound combination comprises as component (B) at least one bactericidally active biological control agent selected from
(B.1.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus subtilis strain QST713/AQ713, (available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-21661, U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051; a Paenibacillus sp. having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33, having Accession No. NRRL B-50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA® product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); Bacillus sp. D747 (available as DOUBLE NICKEL® from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.), having Accession No. FERM BP-8234, U.S. Patent No. 7,094,592; Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24, having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co..

[0022] In some more preferred embodiments, the at least one bactericidally active biological control agent is selected from
(B.1.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus subtilis strain QST713/AQ713, (available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-21661, U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051 and a Paenibacillus sp. having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297.

[0023] In some preferred embodiments according to the invention, the compound combination comprises as component (B) at least one fungicidally active biological control agents selected from

(B2.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus subtilis strain QST713/AQ713, (available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-21661; Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 (available as SONATA® from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-30087, U.S. Patent No. 6,245,551; a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33, having Accession No. NRRL B-50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747, (available as DOUBLE NICKEL® from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.), having Accession Number FERM BP-8234, U.S. Patent No. 7,094,592; Bacillus subtilis strain MBI 600 (available as SUBTILEX® from BASF DE), having Accession Number NRRL B-50595, U.S. Patent No. 5,061,495; Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 (available as KODIAK® from Bayer Crop Science AG, DE); Bacillus pumilus strain GB34, having Accession No. ATCC 700814 (available as YIELD SHIELD® from Bayer CropScience AG, DE); Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain F727 (also known as strain MBI110) (NRRL Accession No. B-50768; WO 2014/028521) (STARGUS® from Marrone Bio Innovations); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42, Accession No. DSM 23117 (available as RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); Bacillus mycoides, isolate J, having Accession No. B-30890 (available as BMJ TGAI® or WG and LifeGard™ from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.); Bacillus licheniformis strain SB3086, having Accession No. ATCC 55406, WO 2003/000051 (available as ECOGUARD® Biofungicide and GREEN RELEAF™ from Novozymes); Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (QUARTZO® (WG) and PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); Bacillus licheniformis strain SB3086 (available as ECOGUARD™ BIOFUNGICIDE or GREEN RELEAF™ from Novozymes); Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; Paenibacillus polymyxa ssp. plantarum (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; Paenibacillus epiphyticus (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009, having Accession No. NRRL B-50897, WO 2017/019448 (e.g., HOWLER™ and ZIO® from AgBiome Innovations, US); Pseudomonas chlororaphis, in particular strain MA342 (e.g. CEDOMON®, CERALL®, and CEDRESS® by Bioagri and Koppert); Streptomyces lydicus strain WYEC108 (also known as Streptomyces lydicus strain WYCD108US) (ACTINO-IRON® and ACTINOVATE® from Novozymes); Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 (e.g. GALLTROL-A® from AgBioChem, CA); Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026 (e.g. NOGALL™ from BASF SE); and

(B2.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-8 (Accession No. DSM-9660; e.g. Contans® from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH); Talaromyces flavus strain V117b; Trichoderma atroviride strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR); Gliocladium catenulatum (Synonym: Clonostachys rosea f. catenulate) strain J1446 (e.g. Prestop ® by Lallemand); Trichoderma viride strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137); Metschnikowia fructicola strain NRRL Y-30752; Gliocladium roseum (also known as Clonostachys rosea f rosea), in particular strain 321U from Adjuvants Plus, strain ACM941 as disclosed in Xue (Efficacy of Clonostachys rosea strain ACM941 and fungicide seed treatments for controlling the root tot complex of field pea, Can Jour Plant Sci 83(3): 519-524), strain IK726 (Jensen DF, et al. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain 'IK726'; Australas Plant Pathol. 2007;36:95-101); Trichoderma asperellum strain SKT-1, having Accession No. FERM P-16510 (e.g., ECO-HOPE® from Kumiai Chemical Industry); Trichoderma asperellum T34 (ASPERELLO® from Biobest Group NV and T34 BIOCONTROL® by Biocontrol Technologies S.L., ES); Trichoderma asperelloides JM41R (Accession No. NRRL B-50759) (TRICHO PLUS® from BASF SE); Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 (Isagro); Trichoderma atroviride strain SCI, having Accession No. CBS 122089, WO 2009/116106 and U.S. Patent No. 8,431,120 (from Bi-PA); Trichoderma atroviride strain 77B (T77 from Andermatt Biocontrol); Trichoderma atroviride strain LU132 (e.g. Sentinel from Agrimm Technologies Limited); Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (e.g. Trianum-P from Andermatt Biocontrol or Koppert); Trichoderma virens (also known as Gliocladium virens), in particular strain GL-21 (e.g. SoilGard by Certis, US); and Trichoderma harzianum strain Cepa Simb-T5 (from Simbiose Agro).



[0024] In some more preferred embodiments, the at least one fungicidally active biological control agent is selected from

(B2.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus subtilis strain QST713/AQ713, (available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-21661; Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 (available as SONATA® from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-30087, U.S. Patent No. 6,245,551; aqnd a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; and

(B2.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-8 (Accession No. DSM-9660; e.g. Contans® from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH); Talaromyces flavus strain V117b; Trichoderma atroviride strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR); Gliocladium catenulatum (Synonym: Clonostachys rosea f. catenulate) strain J1446 (e.g. Prestop ® by Lallemand); and Trichoderma viride strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137).



[0025] The active compound combinations according to the invention may comprise (C) at least one further active ingredient selected from insecticides, acaricides and nematicides.

[0026] The compound combinations according to the invention may comprise 1, 2 or even more compound (C).

[0027] According to the present invention, the at least one further active ingredient (C) is selected from the group consisting of:

(C1) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, preferably carbamates selected from alanycarb, aldicarb, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, methiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, triazamate, trimethacarb, XMC and xylylcarb, or organophosphates selected from acephate, azamethiphos, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, cadusafos, chlorethoxyfos, chlorfenvinphos, chlormephos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, coumaphos, cyanophos, demeton-S-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos/DDVP, dicrotophos, dimethoate, dimethylvinphos, disulfoton, EPN, ethion, ethoprophos, famphur, fenamiphos, fenitrothion, fenthion, fosthiazate, heptenophos, imicyafos, isofenphos, isopropyl O-(methoxyaminothiophosphoryl) salicylate, isoxathion, malathion, mecarbam, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, monocrotophos, naled, omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, parathion-methyl, phenthoate, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, phoxim, pirimiphos-methyl, profenofos, propetamphos, prothiofos, pyraclofos, pyridaphenthion, quinalphos, sulfotep, tebupirimfos, temephos, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, thiometon, triazophos, triclorfon and vamidothion;

(C2) GABA-gated chloride channel blockers, preferably cyclodiene-organochlorines selected from chlordane and endosulfan, or phenylpyrazoles (fiproles) selected from ethiprole and fipronil;

(C3) sodium channel modulators, preferably pyrethroids selected from acrinathrin, allethrin, d-cis-trans allethrin, d-trans allethrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin s-cyclopentenyl isomer, bioresmethrin, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, theta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyphenothrin [(1R)-trans-isomer], deltamethrin, empenthrin [(EZ)-(1R)-isomer], esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, flucythrinate, flumethrin, tau-fluvalinate, halfenprox, imiprothrin, kadethrin, momfluorothrin, permethrin, phenothrin [(1R)-trans-isomer], prallethrin, pyrethrins (pyrethrum), resmethrin, silafluofen, tefluthrin, tetramethrin, tetramethrin [(1R)- isomer)], tralomethrin and transfluthrin or DDT or methoxychlor;

(C4) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulators, preferably neonicotinoids selected from acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam, or nicotine, or sulfoximines selected from sulfoxaflor, or butenolids selected from flupyradifurone, or mesoionics selected from triflumezopyrim;

(C5) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) allosteric modulators, preferably spinosyns selected from spinetoram and spinosad;

(C6) glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) allosteric modulators, preferably avermectins/milbemycins selected from abamectin, emamectin benzoate, lepimectin and milbemectin;

(C7) juvenile hormone mimics, preferably juvenile hormone analogues selected from hydroprene, kinoprene and methoprene, or fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen;

(C8) miscellaneous non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors, preferably alkyl halides selected from methyl bromide and other alkyl halides, or chloropicrine or sulphuryl fluoride or borax or tartar emetic or methyl isocyanate generators selected from diazomet and metam;

(C9) chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators selected from pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazone;

(C10) mite growth inhibitors selected from clofentezine, hexythiazox, diflovidazin and etoxazole;

(C11) microbial disruptors of the insect gut membrane selected from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis, and B.t. plant proteins selected from Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab, Vip3A, mCry3A, Cry3Ab, Cry3Bb and Cry34Ab1/35Ab1;

(C12) inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase, preferably ATP disruptors selected from diafenthiuron, or organotin compounds selected from azocyclotin, cyhexatin and fenbutatin oxide, or propargite or tetradifon;

(C13) uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient selected from chlorfenapyr, DNOC and sulfluramid;

(C14) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel blockers selected from bensultap, cartap hydrochloride, thiocylam and thiosultap-sodium;

(C15) inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, selected from bistrifluron, chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, novaluron, noviflumuron, teflubenzuron and triflumuron;

(C16) inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1 selected from buprofezin;

(C17) moulting disruptor (in particular for Diptera, i.e. dipterans) selected from cyromazine;

(C18) ecdysone receptor agonists selected from chromafenozide, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide;

(C19) octopamine receptor agonists selected from amitraz;

(C20) mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors selected from hydramethylnone, acequinocyl and fluacrypyrim;

(C21) mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors, preferably METI acaricides selected from fenazaquin, fenpyroximate, pyrimidifen, pyridaben, tebufenpyrad and tolfenpyrad, or rotenone (Derris) ;

(C22) voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers selected from indoxacarb and metaflumizone;

(C23) inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase, preferably tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives selected from spirodiclofen, spiromesifen and spirotetramat;

(C24) mitochondrial complex IV electron transport inhibitors, preferably phosphines selected from aluminium phosphide, calcium phosphide, phosphine and zinc phosphide, or cyanides selected from calcium cyanide, potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide;

(C25) mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors, preferably beta-ketonitrile derivatives selected from cyenopyrafen and cyflumetofen, and carboxanilides selected from pyflubumide;

(C28) ryanodine receptor modulators, preferably diamides selected from chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide;

(C29) chordotonal organ Modulators (with undefined target site) selected from flonicamid; and

(C30) further active compounds selected from Acynonapyr, Afidopyropen, Afoxolaner, Azadirachtin, Benclothiaz, Benzoximate, Benzpyrimoxan, Bifenazate, Broflanilide, Bromopropylate, Chinomethionat, Chloroprallethrin, Cryolite, Cyclaniliprole, Cycloxaprid, Cyhalodiamide, Dicloromezotiaz, Dicofol, Dimpropyridaz, epsilon-Metofluthrin, epsilon-Momfluthrin, Flometoquin, Fluazaindolizine, Fluensulfone, Flufenerim, Flufenoxystrobin, Flufiprole, Fluhexafon, Flupyrimin, Fluralaner, Fluxametamide, Fufenozide, Guadipyr, Heptafluthrin, Imidaclothiz, Iprodione, Isocycloseram, kappa-Bifenthrin, kappa-Tefluthrin, Lotilaner, Meperfluthrin, Oxazosulfyl, Paichongding, Pyridalyl, Pyrifluquinazon, Pyriminostrobin, Spirobudiclofen, Spiropidion, Tetramethylfluthrin, Tetraniliprole, Tetrachlorantraniliprole, Tigolaner, Tioxazafen, Thiofluoximate iodomethane; furthermore preparations based on Bacillus firmus (1-1582, BioNem, Votivo), and also the following compounds: 1-{2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)sulphinyl]phenyl}-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-amine (known from WO2006/043635) (CAS 885026-50-6), {1'-[(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]-5-fluorospiro[indol-3,4'-piperidin]-1(2H)-yl}(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)methanone (known from WO2003/106457) (CAS 637360-23-7), 2-chloro-N-[2-{1-[(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]piperidin-4-yl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]isonicotinamide (known from WO2006/003494) (CAS 872999-66-1), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-one (known from WO 2010052161) (CAS 1225292-17-0), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl ethyl carbonate (known from EP2647626) (CAS 1440516-42-6), 4-(but-2-yn-1-yloxy)-6-(3,5-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-5-fluoropyrimidine (known from WO2004/099160) (CAS 792914-58-0), PF1364 (known from JP2010/018586) (CAS 1204776-60-2), (3E)-3-[1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-2-pyridylidene]-1,1,1-trifluoro-propan-2-one (known from WO2013/144213) (CAS 1461743-15-6), N-[3-(benzylcarbamoyl)-4-chlorophenyl]-1-methyl-3-(pentafluoroethyl)-4-(trifluoro-methyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO2010/051926) (CAS 1226889-14-0), 5-bromo-4-chloro-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2-pyridyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide (known from CN103232431) (CAS 1449220-44-3), 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(cis-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)-benzamide,4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl) -4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(trans-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)-benzamide and 4-[(5S)-5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(cis-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)benzamide (known from WO 2013/050317 A1) (CAS 1332628-83-7), N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide, (+)-N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide and (-)-N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide (known from WO 2013/162715 A2, WO 2013/162716 A2, US 2014/0213448 A1) (CAS 1477923-37-7), 5-[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]amino]-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile (known from CN 101337937 A) (CAS 1105672-77-2), 3-bromo-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)thioxomethyl]phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide, (Liudaibenjiaxuanan, known from CN 103109816 A) (CAS 1232543-85-9); N-[4-chloro-2-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]carbonyl]-6-methylphenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-3-(fluoromethoxy)-1H-Pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO 2012/034403 A1) (CAS 1268277-22-0), N-[2-(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl]-3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO 2011/085575 A1) (CAS 1233882-22-8), 4-[3-[2,6-dichloro-4-[(3,3-dichloro-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]phenoxy]propoxy]-2-methoxy-6-(trifluoromethyl)-pyrimidine (known from CN 101337940 A) (CAS 1108184-52-6); (2E)- and 2(Z)-2-[2-(4-cyanophenyl)-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethylidene]-N-[4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]-hydrazinecarboxamide (known from CN 101715774 A) (CAS 1232543-85-9); 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ester (known from CN 103524422 A) (CAS 1542271-46-4); (4aS)-7-chloro-2,5-dihydro-2-[[(methoxycarbonyl) [4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]phenyl]amino]carbonyl]-indeno[1,2-e][1,3,4]oxadiazine-4a(3H)-carboxylic acid methyl ester (known from CN 102391261 A) (CAS 1370358-69-2); 6-deoxy-3-O-ethyl-2,4-di-O-methyl-, 1-[N-[4-[1-[4-(1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate]-α-L-mannopyranose (known from US 2014/0275503 A1) (CAS 1181213-14-8); 8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (CAS 1253850-56-4), (8-anti)-8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (CAS 933798-27-7), (8-syn)-8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (known from WO 2007040280 A1, WO 2007040282 A1) (CAS 934001-66-8), N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)thio]-propanamide (known from WO 2015/058021 A1, WO 2015/058028 A1) (CAS 1477919-27-9) and N-[4-(aminothioxomethyl)-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known fromCN 103265527 A) (CAS 1452877-50-7), 5-(1,3-dioxan-2-yl)-4-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methoxy] -pyrimidine (known from WO 2013/115391 A1) (CAS 1449021-97-9), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-1-methyl-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-dione (known from WO 2014/187846 A1) (CAS 1638765-58-8), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl-carbonic acid ethyl ester (known from WO 2010/066780 A1, WO 2011151146 A1) (CAS 1229023-00-0), 4-[(5S)-5-(3,5-Dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-[(4R)-2-ethyl-3-oxo-4-isoxazolidinyl]-2-methyl-benzamide (bekannt aus WO 2011/067272, WO2013/050302) (CAS 1309959-62-3),

and compounds of formula (IIa), known from WO 2006/089633 A1 or (IIb), known from WO 2008/067911 A1 or (IIc) or (IIc'), wherein said mentioned compounds are preferred.





[0028] Some preferred compound combinations according to the invention comprise as component (C) at least one further active ingredient selected from chlorantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, imidacloprid, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, fipronil, thiametoxam, ethiprole and preparations based on Bacillus firmus (1-1582, BioNem, Votivo).

[0029] According to the invention the expression "combination" stands for the various combinations of compounds (A) and (B) and/or (C), for example in a single "ready-mix" form, in a combined spray mixture composed from separate formulations of the single active compounds, such as a "tank-mix", and in a combined use of the single active ingredients when applied in a sequential manner, i.e. one after the other with a reasonably short period, such as a few hours or days. Preferably the order of applying the compounds (A) and (B) and/or (C) is not essential for working the present invention.

[0030] In the combinations according to the invention the compound (A) and the biological control agent (B), if present, can be present in a broad range of effective weight ratio of A:B, for example in a range of 5000:1 to 1:5000, preferably in a weight ratio of 1000:1 to 1:1000, more preferably in a weight ratio of 500:1 to 1:500, and most preferably in a weight ratio of 100:1 to 1:100.

[0031] Further ratios of A:B which can be used according to the present invention are: 95:1 to 1:95, 90:1 to 1:90, 85:1 to 1:85, 80:1 to 1:80, 75:1 to 1:75, 70:1 to 1:70, 65:1 to 1:65, 60:1 to 1:60, 55:1 to 1:55, 50:1 to 1:50, 45:1 to 1:45, 40:1 to 1:40, 35:1 to 1:35, 30:1 to 1:30, 25:1 to 1:25, 20:1 to 1:20, 15:1 to 1:15, 10:1 to 1:10, 5:1 to 1:5, 4:1 to 1:4, 3:1 to 1:3, 2:1 to 1:2.

[0032] Further ratios of A:B which can be used according to the present invention are: 1000:1 to 1:1, 500:1 to 1:1, 250:1 to 1:1, 100:1 to 1:1,95:1 to 1:1,90:1 to 1:1, 85:1 to 1:1, 80:1 to 1:1,75:1 to 1:1, 70:1 to 1:1, 65:1 to 1:1, 60:1 to 1:1, 55:1 to 1:1, 50:1 to 1:1, 45:1 to 1:1, 40:1 to 1:1, 35:1 to 1:1, 30:1 to 1:1, 25:1 to 1:1, 20:1 to 1:1, 15:1 to 1:1, 10:1 to 1:1, 5:1 to 1:1, 4:1 to 1:1, 3:1 to 1:1, 2:1 to 1:1.

[0033] Further ratios of A:B which can be used according to the present invention are: 1:1 to 1:1000, 1:1 to 1:500, 1:1 to 1:250, 1:1 to 1:100, 1:1 to 1:95, 1:1 to 1:90, 1:1 to 1:85, 1:1 to 1:80, 1:1 to 1:75, 1:1 to 1:70, 1:1 to 1:65, 1:1 to 1:60,1:1 to 1:55,1:1 to 1:50,1:1 to 1:45,1:1 to 1:40,1:1 to 1:35, 1:1 to 1:30, 1:1 to 1:25, 1:1 to 1:20, 1:1 to 1:15,1:1 to 1:10, 1:1 to 1:5, 1:1 to 1:4, 1:1 to 1:3, 1:1 to 1:2.

[0034] If more than one, e.g. 2 or 3, biological control agents (B) are present, the weight ratio refers to the total amount of biological control agents (B), i.e. to the sum of the amount of each biological control agent (B) present in the combination.

[0035] In the combinations according to the invention the compound (A) and the compound (C), if present, can be present in a broad range of effective weight ratio of A:C, for example in a range of 5000:1 to 1:5000, preferably in a weight ratio of 1000:1 to 1:1000, more preferably in a weight ratio of 500:1 to 1:500, and most preferably in a weight ratio of 100:1 to 1:100.

[0036] Further ratios of A:C which can be used according to the present invention are: 95:1 to 1:95, 90:1 to 1:90, 85:1 to 1:85, 80:1 to 1:80, 75:1 to 1:75, 70:1 to 1:70, 65:1 to 1:65, 60:1 to 1:60, 55:1 to 1:55, 50:1 to 1:50, 45:1 to 1:45, 40:1 to 1:40, 35:1 to 1:35, 30:1 to 1:30, 25:1 to 1:25, 20:1 to 1:20, 15:1 to 1:15, 10:1 to 1:10, 5:1 to 1:5, 4:1 to 1:4, 3:1 to 1:3, 2:1 to 1:2.

[0037] Further ratios of A:C which can be used according to the present invention are: 1000:1 to 1:1, 500:1 to 1:1, 250:1 to 1:1, 100:1 to 1:1,95:1 to 1:1,90:1 to 1:1, 85:1 to 1:1, 80:1 to 1:1,75:1 to 1:1, 70:1 to 1:1, 65:1 to 1:1, 60:1 to 1:1, 55:1 to 1:1, 50:1 to 1:1, 45:1 to 1:1, 40:1 to 1:1, 35:1 to 1:1, 30:1 to 1:1, 25:1 to 1:1, 20:1 to 1:1, 15:1 to 1:1, 10:1 to 1:1, 5:1 to 1:1, 4:1 to 1:1, 3:1 to 1:1, 2:1 to 1:1.

[0038] Further ratios of A:C which can be used according to the present invention are: 1:1 to 1:1000, 1:1 to 1:500, 1:1 to 1:250, 1:1 to 1:100, 1:1 to 1:95, 1:1 to 1:90, 1:1 to 1:85, 1:1 to 1:80, 1:1 to 1:75, 1:1 to 1:70, 1:1 to 1:65, 1:1 to 1:60,1:1 to 1:55,1:1 to 1:50,1:1 to 1:45,1:1 to 1:40,1:1 to 1:35, 1:1 to 1:30, 1:1 to 1:25, 1:1 to 1:20, 1:1 to 1:15,1:1 to 1:10, 1:1 to 1:5, 1:1 to 1:4, 1:1 to 1:3, 1:1 to 1:2.

[0039] Where a compound (A), a compound (B) or a compound (C) can be present in different stereoisomeric forms and/or tautomeric forms, such a compound is understood hereinabove and hereinbelow also to include, where applicable, corresponding stereoisomeric and/or tautomeric forms or mixtures thereof, even when these are not specifically mentioned in each case.

[0040] The compounds present in the compound combination of the invention may independently of one another be present in the form of the free compound or, if applicable, an agrochemically active salt thereof.

[0041] Agrochemically active salts include acid addition salts of inorganic and organic acids well as salts of customary bases. Examples of inorganic acids are hydrohalic acids, such as hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid and nitric acid, and acidic salts, such as sodium bisulfate and potassium bisulfate. Useful organic acids include, for example, formic acid, carbonic acid and alkanoic acids such as acetic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid and propionic acid, and also glycolic acid, thiocyanic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, oxalic acid, saturated or mono- or diunsaturated fatty acids having 6 to 20 carbon atoms, alkylsulphuric monoesters, alkylsulphonic acids (sulphonic acids having straight-chain or branched alkyl radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms), arylsulphonic acids or aryldisulphonic acids (aromatic radicals, such as phenyl and naphthyl, which bear one or two sulphonic acid groups), alkylphosphonic acids (phosphonic acids having straight-chain or branched alkyl radicals having 1 to 20 carbon atoms), arylphosphonic acids or aryldiphosphonic acids (aromatic radicals, such as phenyl and naphthyl, which bear one or two phosphonic acid radicals), where the alkyl and aryl radicals may bear further substituents, for example p-toluenesulphonic acid, salicylic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, 2-phenoxybenzoic acid, 2-acetoxybenzoic acid.

[0042] The compounds present in the compound combinations of the invention may exist in multiple crystalline and/or amorphous forms. Crystalline forms include unsolvated crystalline forms, solvates and hydrates.

[0043] Solvates of the compounds present in the compound combinations of the invention or their salts are stoichiometric compositions of the compounds with solvents.

Compositions/Formulations



[0044] The present invention further relates to a composition for controlling unwanted microorganisms, comprising the compound combination according to the invention. The composition may be applied to the microorganisms and/or in their habitat.

[0045] The composition comprises the compound combination of the invention and at least one agriculturally suitable auxiliary, e.g. carrier(s) and/or surfactant(s).

[0046] A carrier is a solid or liquid, natural or synthetic, organic or inorganic substance that is generally inert. The carrier generally improves the application of the compounds, for instance, to plants, plants parts or seeds. Examples of suitable solid carriers include, but are not limited to, ammonium salts, in particular ammonium sulfates, ammonium phosphates and ammonium nitrates, natural rock flours, such as kaolins, clays, talc, chalk, quartz, attapulgite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth, silica gel and synthetic rock flours, such as finely divided silica, alumina and silicates. Examples of typically useful solid carriers for preparing granules include, but are not limited to crushed and fractionated natural rocks such as calcite, marble, pumice, sepiolite and dolomite, synthetic granules of inorganic and organic flours and granules of organic material such as paper, sawdust, coconut shells, maize cobs and tobacco stalks. Examples of suitable liquid carriers include, but are not limited to, water, organic solvents and combinations thereof. Examples of suitable solvents include polar and nonpolar organic chemical liquids, for example from the classes of aromatic and nonaromatic hydrocarbons (such as cyclohexane, paraffins, alkylbenzenes, xylene, toluene, tetrahydronaphthalene, alkylnaphthalenes, chlorinated aromatics or chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons such as chlorobenzenes, chloroethylenes or methylene chloride), alcohols and polyols (which may optionally also be substituted, etherified and/or esterified, such as ethanol, propanol, butanol, benzylalcohol, cyclohexanol or glycol), ketones (such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone or cyclohexanone), esters (including fats and oils) and (poly)ethers, unsubstituted and substituted amines, amides (such as dimethylformamide or fatty acid amides) and esters thereof, lactams (such as N-alkylpyrrolidones, in particular N-methylpyrrolidone) and lactones, sulfones and sulfoxides (such as dimethyl sulfoxide), oils of vegetable or animal origin. The carrier may also be a liquefied gaseous extender, i.e. liquid which is gaseous at standard temperature and under standard pressure, for example aerosol propellants such as halohydrocarbons, butane, propane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

[0047] Preferred solid carriers are selected from clays, talc and silica.

[0048] Preferred liquid carriers are selected from water, fatty acid amides and esters thereof, aromatic and nonaromatic hydrocarbons, lactams and carbonic acid esters.

[0049] The amount of carrier typically ranges from 1 to 99.99%, preferably from 5 to 99.9%, more preferably from 10 to 99.5%, and most preferably from 20 to 99% by weight of the composition.

[0050] Liquid carriers are typically present in a range of from 20 to 90%, for example 30 to 80% by weight of the composition.

[0051] Solid carriers are typically present in a range of from 0 to 50%, preferably 5 to 45%, for example 10 to 30% by weight of the composition.

[0052] If the composition comprises two or more carriers, the outlined ranges refer to the total amount of carriers.

[0053] The surfactant can be an ionic (cationic or anionic), amphoteric or non-ionic surfactant, such as ionic or non-ionic emulsifier(s), foam former(s), dispersant(s), wetting agent(s), penetration enhancer(s) and any mixtures thereof. Examples of suitable surfactants include, but are not limited to, salts of polyacrylic acid, salts of lignosulfonic acid (such as sodium lignosulfonate), salts of phenolsulfonic acid or naphthalenesulfonic acid, polycondensates of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide with fatty alcohols, fatty acids or fatty amines (for example, polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters such as castor oil ethoxylate, polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers, for example alkylaryl polyglycol ethers), substituted phenols (preferably alkylphenols or arylphenols) and ethoxylates thereof (such as tristyrylphenol ethoxylate), salts of sulfosuccinic esters, taurine derivatives (preferably alkyl taurates), phosphoric esters of polyethoxylated alcohols or phenols, fatty esters of polyols (such a fatty acid esters of glycerol, sorbitol or sucrose), sulfates (such as alkyl sulfates and alkyl ether sulfates), sulfonates (for example, alkylsulfonates, arylsulfonates and alkylbenzene sulfonates), phosphate esters, protein hydrolysates, lignosulfite waste liquors and methylcellulose. Any reference to salts in this paragraph refers preferably to the respective alkali, alkaline earth and ammonium salts.

[0054] Preferred surfactants are selected from polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ethers, polyoxyethylene fatty acid esters, alkylbenzene sulfonates, such as calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, castor oil ethoxylate, sodium lignosulfonate and arylphenol ethoxylates, such as tristyrylphenol ethoxylate.

[0055] The amount of surfactants typically ranges from 5 to 40%, for example 10 to 20%, by weight of the composition.

[0056] Further examples of suitable auxiliaries include water repellents, siccatives, binders (adhesive, tackifier, fixing agent, such as carboxymethylcellulose, natural and synthetic polymers in the form of powders, granules or latices, such as gum arabic, polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl acetate, natural phospholipids such as cephalins and lecithins and synthetic phospholipids, polyvinylpyrrolidone and tylose), thickeners and secondary thickeners (such as cellulose ethers, acrylic acid derivatives, xanthan gum, modified clays, e.g. the products available under the name Bentone, and finely divided silica), stabilizers (e.g. cold stabilizers, preservatives (e.g. dichlorophene and benzyl alcohol hemiformal), antioxidants, light stabilizers, in particular UV stabilizers, or other agents which improve chemical and/or physical stability), dyes or pigments (such as inorganic pigments, e.g. iron oxide, titanium oxide and Prussian Blue; organic dyes, e.g. alizarin, azo and metal phthalocyanine dyes), antifoams (e.g. silicone antifoams and magnesium stearate), antifreezes, stickers, gibberellins and processing auxiliaries, mineral and vegetable oils, perfumes, waxes, nutrients (including trace nutrients, such as salts of iron, manganese, boron, copper, cobalt, molybdenum and zinc), protective colloids, thixotropic substances, penetrants, sequestering agents and complex formers.

[0057] The choice of the auxiliaries depends on the intended mode of application of the compound combination according to the invention and/or on the physical properties of the compound(s). Furthermore, the auxiliaries may be chosen to impart particular properties (technical, physical and/or biological properties) to the compositions or use forms prepared therefrom. The choice of auxiliaries may allow customizing the compositions to specific needs.

[0058] The composition may further comprise one or more safeners such as, for example, benoxacor, cloquintocet (-mexyl), cyometrinil. Cyprosulfamide, dichlormid, fenchlorazole (-ethyl), fenclorim, flurazole, fluxofenim, furilazole, isoxadifen (-ethyl), mefenpyr (diethyl-), naphthalic anhydride, oxabetrinil, 2-methoxy-N-({4-[(methylcarbamoyl)amino]phenyl}sulphonyl)benzamide (CAS 129531-12-0), 4-(dichloroacetyl)-1-oxa-4-azaspiro[4.5]decane (CAS 71526-07-3), 2,2,5-trimethyl-3-(dichloroacetyl)-1,3-oxazolidine (CAS 52836-31-4).

[0059] The composition may further comprise one or more agriculturally beneficial agents.

[0060] Examples of agriculturally beneficial agents include biostimulants, plant growth regulators, plant signal molecules, growth enhancers, microbial stimulating molecules, biomolecules, soil amendments, nutrients, plant nutrient enhancers, etc., such as lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO), chitooligosaccharides (CO), chitinous compounds, flavonoids, jasmonic acid or derivatives thereof (e.g., jasmonates), cytokinins, auxins, gibberellins, absiscic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids, salicylates, macro- and micro-nutrients, linoleic acid or derivatives thereof, linolenic acid or derivatives thereof, karrikins, and beneficial microorganisms (e.g., Rhizobium spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., Sinorhizobium spp., Azorhizobium spp., Glomus spp., Gigaspora spp., Hymenoscyphous spp., Oidiodendron spp., Laccaria spp., Pisolithus spp., Rhizopogon spp., Scleroderma spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Acinetobacter spp., Arthrobacter spp., Arthrobotrys spp., Aspergillus spp., Azospirillum spp., Bacillus spp., Burkholderia spp., Candida spp., Chryseomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., Eupenicillium spp., Exiguobacterium spp., Klebsiella spp., Kluyvera spp., Microbacterium spp., Mucor spp., Paecilomyces spp., Paenibacillus spp., Penicillium spp., Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp., Stenotrophomonas spp., Streptomyces spp., Streptosporangium spp., Swaminathania spp., Thiobacillus spp., Torulospora spp., Vibrio spp., Xanthobacter spp., Xanthomonas spp., etc.), and combinations thereof.

[0061] According to some embodiments, the composition of the present invention may comprise one or more biostimulants. Biostimulants may enhance metabolic or physiological processes such as respiration, photosynthesis, nucleic acid uptake, ion uptake, nutrient delivery, or a combination thereof. Non-limiting examples of biostimulants that may be included or used in the composition of the present invention may include seaweed extracts (e.g., ascophyllum nodosum), bacterial extracts (e.g., extracts of one or more diazotrophs, phosphate-solubilizing microorgafjaponisms and/or biopesticides), fungal extracts, humic acids (e.g., potassium humate), fulvic acids, myo-inositol, and/or glycine, and any combinations thereof. According to some embodiments, the biostimulants may comprise one or more Azospirillum extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising A. brasilense INTA Az-39), one or more Bradyrhizobium extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising B. elkanii SEMIA 501, B. elkanii SEMIA 587, B. elkanii SEMIA 5019, B. japonicum NRRL B-50586 (also deposited as NRRL B-59565), B. japonicum NRRL B-50587 (also deposited as NRRL B-59566), B. japonicum NRRL B-50588 (also deposited as NRRL B-59567), B. japonicum NRRL B-50589 (also deposited as NRRL B-59568), B. japonicum NRRL B-50590 (also deposited as NRRL B-59569), B. japonicum NRRL B-50591 (also deposited as NRRL B-59570), B. japonicum NRRL B-50592 (also deposited as NRRL B-59571), B. japonicum NRRL B-50593 (also deposited as NRRL B-59572), B. japonicum NRRL B-50594 (also deposited as NRRL B-50493), B. japonicum NRRL B-50608, B. japonicum NRRL B-50609, B. japonicum NRRL B-50610, B. japonicum NRRL B-50611, B. japonicum NRRL B-50612, B. japonicum NRRL B-50726, B. japonicum NRRL B-50727, B. japonicum NRRL B-50728, B. japonicum NRRL B-50729, B. japonicum NRRL B-50730, B. japonicum SEMIA 566, B. japonicum SEMIA 5079, B. japonicum SEMIA 5080, B. japonicum USDA 6, B. japonicum USDA 110, B. japonicum USDA 122, B. japonicum USDA 123, B. japonicum USDA 127, B. japonicum USDA 129 and/or B. japonicum USDA 532C), one or more Rhizobium extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising R. leguminosarum S012A-2), one or more Sinorhizobium extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising S. fredii CCBAU114 and/or S. fredii USDA 205), one or more Penicillium extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising P. bilaiae ATCC 18309, P. bilaiae ATCC 20851, P. bilaiae ATCC 22348, P. bilaiae NRRL 50162, P. bilaiae NRRL 50169, P. bilaiae NRRL 50776, P. bilaiae NRRL 50777, P. bilaiae NRRL 50778, P. bilaiae NRRL 50777, P. bilaiae NRRL 50778, P. bilaiae NRRL 50779, P. bilaiae NRRL 50780, P. bilaiae NRRL 50781, P. bilaiae NRRL 50782, P. bilaiae NRRL 50783, P. bilaiae NRRL 50784, P. bilaiae NRRL 50785, P. bilaiae NRRL 50786, P. bilaiae NRRL 50787, P. bilaiae NRRL 50788, P. bilaiae RS7B-SD1, P. brevicompactum AgRF18, P. canescens ATCC 10419, P. expansum ATCC 24692, P. expansum YT02, P. fellatanum ATCC 48694, P. gaestrivorus NRRL 50170, P. glabrum DAOM 239074, P. glabrum CBS 229.28, P. janthinellum ATCC 10455, P. lanosocoeruleum ATCC 48919, P. radicum ATCC 201836, P. radicum FRR 4717, P. radicum FRR 4719, P. radicum N93/47267 and/or P. raistrickii ATCC 10490), one or more Pseudomonas extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising P. jessenii PS06), one or more acaricidal, insecticidal and/or nematicidal extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising Bacillus firmus 1-1582, Bacillus mycoides AQ726, NRRL B-21664; Beauveria bassiana ATCC-74040, Beauveria bassiana ATCC-74250, Burkholderia sp. A396 sp. nov. rinojensis, NRRL B-50319, Chromobacterium subtsugae NRRL B-30655, Chromobacterium vaccinii NRRL B-50880, Flavobacterium H492, NRRL B-50584, Metarhizium anisopliae F52 (also known as Metarhizium anisopliae strain 52, Metarhizium anisopliae strain 7, Metarhizium anisopliae strain 43 and Metarhizium anisopliae BIO-1020, TAE-001; deposited as DSM 3884, DSM 3885, ATCC 90448, SD 170 and ARSEF 7711) and/or Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FE991), and/or one or more fungicidal extracts (e.g., an extract of media comprising Ampelomyces quisqualis AQ 10® (Intrachem Bio GmbH & Co. KG, Germany), Aspergillus flavus AFLA-GUARD® (Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., CH), Aureobasidium pullulans BOTECTOR® (bio-ferm GmbH, Germany), Bacillus pumilus AQ717 (NRRL B-21662), Bacillus pumilus NRRL B-30087, Bacillus AQ175 (ATCC 55608), Bacillus AQ177 (ATCC 55609), Bacillus subtilis AQ713 (NRRL B-21661), Bacillus subtilis AQ743 (NRRL B-21665), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB24, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NRRL B-50349, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000 (also known as 1BE, isolate ATCC BAA-390), Bacillus thuringiensis AQ52 (NRRL B-21619), Candida oleophila 1-82 (e.g., ASPIRE® from Ecogen Inc., USA), Candida saitoana BIOCURE® (in mixture with lysozyme; BASF, USA) and BIOCOAT® (ArystaLife Science, Ltd., Cary, NC), Clonostachys rosea f. catenulata (also referred to as Gliocladium catenulatum) J1446 (PRESTOP®, Verdera, Finland), Coniothyrium minitans CONTANS® (Prophyta, Germany), Cryphonectria parasitica (CNICM, France), Cryptococcus albidus YIELD PLUS® (Anchor Bio-Technologies, South Africa), Fusarium oxysporum BIOFOX® (from S.I.A.P.A., Italy) and FUSACLEAN® (Natural Plant Protection, France), Metschnikowiafructicola SHEMER® (Agrogreen, Israel), Microdochium dimerum ANTIBOT® (Agrauxine, France), Muscodor albus NRRL 30547, Muscodor roseus NRRL 30548, Phlebiopsis gigantea ROTSOP® (Verdera, Finland), Pseudozymaflocculosa SPORODEX® (Plant Products Co. Ltd., Canada), Pythium oligandrum DV74 (POLYVERSUM®, Remeslo SSRO, Biopreparaty, Czech Rep.), Reynoutria sachlinensis (e.g., REGALIA® from Marrone BioInnovations, USA), Streptomyces NRRL B-30145, Streptomyces M1064, Streptomyces galbus NRRL 30232, Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 (ATCC 55445), Streptomyces violaceusniger YCED 9 (ATCC 55660; DE-THATCH-9®, DECOMP-9® and THATCH CONTROL®, Idaho Research Foundation, USA), Streptomyces WYE 53 (ATCC 55750; DE-THATCH-9®, DECOMP-9® and THATCH CONTROL®, Idaho Research Foundation, USA), Talaromyces flavus V117b (PROTUS®, Prophyta, Germany), Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 (ECO-HOPE®, Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Japan), Trichoderma atroviride LC52 (SENTINEL®, Agrimm Technologies Ltd, NZ), Trichoderma harzianum T-22 (PLANTSHIELD®, der Firma BioWorks Inc., USA), Trichoderma harzianum TH-35 (ROOT PRO®, from Mycontrol Ltd., Israel), Trichoderma harzianum T-39 (TRICHODEX®, Mycontrol Ltd., Israel; TRICHODERMA 2000®, Makhteshim Ltd., Israel), Trichoderma harzianum ICC012 and Trichoderma viride TRICHOPEL (Agrimm Technologies Ltd, NZ), Trichoderma harzianum ICC012 and Trichoderma viride ICC080 (REMEDIER® WP, Isagro Ricerca, Italy), Trichoderma polysporum and Trichoderma harzianum (BINAB®, BINAB Bio-Innovation AB, Sweden), Trichoderma stromaticum TRICOVAB® (C.E.P.L.A.C., Brazil), Trichoderma virens GL-21 (SOILGARD®, Certis LLC, USA), Trichoderma virens G1-3, ATCC 57678, Trichoderma virens G1-21 (Thermo Trilogy Corporation, Wasco, CA), Trichoderma virens G1-3 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB2, Trichoderma virens G1-3 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NRRL B-50349, Trichoderma virens G1-3 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000, Trichoderma virens G1-21 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB24, Trichoderma virens G1-21 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NRRL B-50349, Trichoderma virens G1-21 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000, Trichoderma viride TRIECO® (Ecosense Labs. (India) Pvt. Ltd., Indien, BIO-CURE® F from T. Stanes & Co. Ltd., Indien), Trichoderma viride TV1 (Agribiotec srl, Italy), Trichoderma viride ICC080, and/or Ulocladium oudemansii HRU3 (BOTRY-ZEN®, Botry-Zen Ltd, NZ)), and combinations thereof.

[0062] According to some embodiments, the composition of the present invention may comprise one or more lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), chitooligosaccharides (COs), and/or chitinous compounds. LCOs, sometimes referred to as symbiotic nodulation (Nod) signals (or Nod factors) or as Myc factors, consist of an oligosaccharide backbone of β-1,4-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine ("GlcNAc") residues with an N-linked fatty acyl chain condensed at the non-reducing end. As understood in the art, LCOs differ in the number of GlcNAc residues in the backbone, in the length and degree of saturation of the fatty acyl chain and in the substitutions of reducing and non-reducing sugar residues. See, e.g., Denarie et al., Ann. Rev. Biochem. 65:503 (1996); Diaz et al., Mol. Plant-Microbe Interactions 13:268 (2000); Hungria et al., Soil Biol. Biochem. 29:819 (1997); Hamel et al., Planta 232:787 (2010); and Prome et al., Pure & Appl. Chem. 70(1):55 (1998).

[0063] LCOs (and derivatives thereof) may be included or utilized in the composition according to the invention in various forms of purity and can be used alone or in the form of a culture of LCO-producing bacteria or fungi. For example, OPTIMIZE® (commercially available from Bayer Company) contains a culture of Bradyrhizobium japonicum that produces LCO. Methods to provide substantially pure LCOs include removing the microbial cells from a mixture of LCOs and the microbe, or continuing to isolate and purify the LCO molecules through LCO solvent phase separation followed by HPLC chromatography as described, for example, in U.S. Patent No. 5,549,718. Purification can be enhanced by repeated HPLC and the purified LCO molecules can be freeze-dried for long-term storage. Compositions and methods of the present disclosure may comprise analogues, derivatives, hydrates, isomers, salts and/or solvates of LCOs. LCOs may be incorporated into the composition according to the inventionin any suitable amount(s)/concentration(s). For example, the composition according to the invention comprise about 1 x 10-20 M to about 1 x 10-1 M LCO(s). The amount/concentration of LCO may be an amount effective to impart a positive trait or benefit to a plant, such as to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant to which the composition is applied. According to some embodiments, the LCO amount/concentration is not effective to enhance the yield of the plant without beneficial contributions from one or more other constituents of the composition, such as CO and/or one or more pesticides.

[0064] The composition according to the invention may comprise any suitable COs, perhaps in combination with one or more LCOs. COs differ from LCOs in that they lack the pendant fatty acid chain that is characteristic of LCOs. COs, sometimes referred to as N-acetylchitooligosaccharides, are also composed of GlcNAc residues but have side chain decorations that make them different from chitin molecules [(C8-H13NO5)n, CAS No. 1398-61-4] and chitosan molecules [(C5H11NO4)n, CAS No. 9012-76-4]. See, e.g., D'Haeze et al., Glycobiol. 12(6):79R (2002); Demont-Caulet et al., Plant Physiol. 120(1):83 (1999); Hanel et al., Planta 232:787 (2010); Muller et al., Plant Physiol. 124:733 (2000); Robina et al., Tetrahedron 58:521-530 (2002); Rouge et al., Docking of Chitin Oligomers and Nod Factors on Lectin Domains of the LysM-RLK Receptors in the Medicago-Rhizobium Symbiosis, in The Molecular Immunology of Complex Carbohydrates-3 (Springer Science, 2011); Van der Holst et al., Curr. Opin. Struc. Biol. 11:608 (2001); and Wan et al., Plant Cell 21:1053 (2009). COs may be obtained from any suitable source. For example, the CO may be derived from an LCO. For example, in an aspect, the composition according to the invention comprise one or more COs derived from an LCO obtained (i.e., isolated and/or purified) from a strain of Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium (e.g., B. japonicum), Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium (e.g., R. leguminosarum), Sinorhizobium (e.g., S. meliloti), or mycorhizzal fungi (e.g., Glomus intraradicus). Alternatively, the CO may be synthetic. Methods for the preparation of recombinant COs are known in the art. See, e.g., Cottaz et al., Meth. Eng. 7(4):311 (2005); Samain et al., Carbohydrate Res. 302:35 (1997.); and Samain et al., J. Biotechnol. 72:33 (1999), the contents and disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference.

[0065] COs (and derivatives thereof) may be included or utilized in the composition according to the invention in various forms of purity and can be used alone or in the form of a culture of CO-producing bacteria or fungi. It is to be understood that the composition of the present invention can comprise hydrates, isomers, salts and/or solvates of COs. COs may be incorporated into the composition according to the inventionin any suitable amount(s)/concentration(s). For example, the composition according to the inventionmay comprise about 1 x 10-20 M to about 1 x 10-1 M COs. The amount/concentration of CO may be an amount effective to impart or confer a positive trait or benefit to a plant, such as to enhance the soil microbial environment, nutrient uptake, or increase the growth and/or yield of the plant to which the composition is applied. According to some embodiments, a CO amount/concentration may not be effective to enhance the growth of the plant without beneficial contributions from one or more other ingredients of the composition, such as LCO and/or one or more inoculants, biomolecules, nutrients, or pesticides.

[0066] The composition according to the invention may comprise one or more suitable chitinous compounds, such as, for example, chitin, chitosan, and isomers, salts and solvates thereof. Chitins and chitosans, which are major components of the cell walls of fungi and the exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans, are composed of GlcNAc residues. Chitins and chitosans may be obtained commercially or prepared from insects, crustacean shells, or fungal cell walls. Methods for the preparation of chitin and chitosan are known in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 4,536,207 (preparation from crustacean shells) and 5,965,545 (preparation from crab shells and hydrolysis of commercial chitosan); and Pochanavanich et al., Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 35:17 (2002) (preparation from fungal cell walls). Deacetylated chitins and chitosans may be obtained that range from less than 35% to greater than 90% deacetylation and cover a broad spectrum of molecular weights, e.g., low molecular weight chitosan oligomers of less than 15kD and chitin oligomers of 0.5 to 2kD; "practical grade" chitosan with a molecular weight of about 15kD; and high molecular weight chitosan of up to 70kD. Chitin and chitosan compositions formulated for seed treatment are commercially available. Commercial products include, for example, ELEXA® (Plant Defense Boosters, Inc.) and BEYOND™ (Agrihouse, Inc.).

[0067] The composition according to the invention may comprise one or more suitable flavonoids, including, but not limited to, anthocyanidins, anthoxanthins, chalcones, coumarins, flavanones, flavanonols, flavans and isoflavonoids, as well as analogues, derivatives, hydrates, isomers, polymers, salts and solvates thereof. Flavonoids are phenolic compounds having the general structure of two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon bridge. Classes of flavonoids are known in the art. See, e.g., Jain et al., J. Plant Biochem. & Biotechnol. 11:1 (2002); and Shaw et al., Environ. Microbiol. 11:1867 (2006), the contents and disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. Several flavonoid compounds are commercially available. Flavonoid compounds may be isolated from plants or seeds, e.g., as described in U.S. Patents 5,702,752; 5,990,291; and 6,146,668. Flavonoid compounds may also be produced by genetically engineered organisms, such as yeast. See, e.g., Ralston et al., Plant Physiol. 137:1375 (2005).

[0068] According to some embodiments, the composition according to the invention may comprise one or more flavanones, such as one or more of butin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, hesperidin, homoeriodictyol, isosakuranetin, naringenin, naringin, pinocembrin, poncirin, sakuranetin, sakuranin, and/or sterubin, one or more flavanonols, such as dihydrokaempferol and/or taxifolin, one or more flavans, such as one or more flavan-3-ols (e.g., catechin (C), catechin 3-gallate (Cg), epicatechins (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC) epicatechin 3-gallate (ECg), epigallcatechin 3-gallate (EGCg), epiafzelechin, fisetinidol, gallocatechin (GC), gallcatechin 3-gallate (GCg), guibourtinidol, mesquitol, robinetinidol, theaflavin-3-gallate, theaflavin-3'-gallate, theflavin-3,3'-digallate, thearubigin), flavan-4-ols (e.g., apiforol and/or luteoforol) and/or flavan-3,4-diols (e.g., leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin, leucofisetinidin, leucomalvidin, luecopelargonidin, leucopeonidin, leucorobinetinidin, melacacidin and/or teracacidin) and/or dimers, trimers, oligomers and/or polymers thereof (e.g., one or more proanthocyanidins), one or more isoflavonoids, such as one or more isoflavones or flavonoid derivatives (e.g., biochanin A, daidzein, formononetin, genistein and/or glycitein), isoflavanes (e.g., equol, ionchocarpane and/or laxifloorane), isoflavandiols, isoflavenes (e.g., glabrene, haginin D and/or 2-methoxyjudaicin), coumestans (e.g., coumestrol, plicadin and/or wedelolactone), pterocarpans, roetonoids, neoflavonoids (e.g., calophyllolide, coutareagenin, dalbergichromene, dalbergin, nivetin), and/or pterocarpans (e.g., bitucarpin A, bitucarpin B, erybraedin A, erybraedin B, erythrabyssin II, erthyrabissin-1, erycristagallin, glycinol, glyceollidins, glyceollins, glycyrrhizol, maackiain, medicarpin, morisianine, orientanol, phaseolin, pisatin, striatine, trifolirhizin), and combinations thereof. Flavonoids and their derivatives may be included in the present composition in any suitable form, including, but not limited to, polymorphic and crystalline forms. Flavonoids may be included in the composition according to the invention in any suitable amount(s) or concentration(s). The amount/concentration of a flavonoid(s) may be an amount effective to impart a benefit to a plant, which may be indirectly through activity on soil microorganisms or other means, such as to enhance plant nutrition and/or yield. According to some embodiments, a flavonoid amount/concentration may not be effective to enhance the nutrition or yield of the plant without the beneficial contributions from one or more other ingredients of the composition, such as LCO, CO, and/or one or more pesticides.

[0069] The composition according to the invention may comprise one or more suitable non-flavonoid nod-gene inducer(s), including, but not limited to, jasmonic acid ([1R-[1α,2β(Z)]]-3-οxο-2-(pentenyl)cyclopentaneacetic acid; JA), linoleic acid ((Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid) and/or linolenic acid ((Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid), and analogues, derivatives, hydrates, isomers, polymers, salts and solvates thereof. Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), collectively known as jasmonates, are octadecanoid-based compounds that occur naturally in some plants (e.g., wheat), fungi (e.g., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Gibbrella fujikuroi), yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli). Linoleic acid and linolenic acid may be produced in the course of the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid. Jasmonates, linoleic acid and linolenic acid (and their derivatives) are reported to be inducers of nod gene expression or LCO production by rhizobacteria. See, e.g., Mabood et al., PLANT PHYSIOL. BIOCHEM. 44(11):759 (2006); Mabood et al., AGR. J. 98(2):289 (2006); Mabood et al., FIELD CROPS RES.95(2-3):412 (2006); and Mabood & Smith, Linoleic and linolenic acid induce the expression of nod genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 3, PLANT BIOL. (2001).

[0070] Derivatives of jasmonic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid that may be included or used in the composition according to the invention include esters, amides, glycosides and salts thereof. Representative esters are compounds in which the carboxyl group of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, or jasmonic acid has been replaced with a --COR group, where R is an --OR1 group, in which R1 is: an alkyl group, such as a C1-C8 unbranched or branched alkyl group, e.g., a methyl, ethyl or propyl group; an alkenyl group, such as a C2-C8 unbranched or branched alkenyl group; an alkynyl group, such as a C2-C8 unbranched or branched alkynyl group; an aryl group having, for example, 6 to 10 carbon atoms; or a heteroaryl group having, for example, 4 to 9 carbon atoms, wherein the heteroatoms in the heteroaryl group can be, for example, N, O, P, or S. Representative amides are compounds in which the carboxyl group of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, or jasmonic acid has been replaced with a --COR group, where R is an NR2R3 group, in which R2 and R3 are each independently: a hydrogen; an alkyl group, such as a C1-C8 unbranched or branched alkyl group, e.g., a methyl, ethyl or propyl group; an alkenyl group, such as a C2-C8 unbranched or branched alkenyl group; an alkynyl group, such as a C2-C8 unbranched or branched alkynyl group; an aryl group having, for example, 6 to 10 carbon atoms; or a heteroaryl group having, for example, 4 to 9 carbon atoms, wherein the heteroatoms in the heteroaryl group can be, for example, N, O, P, or S. Esters may be prepared by known methods, such as acid-catalyzed nucleophilic addition, wherein the carboxylic acid is reacted with an alcohol in the presence of a catalytic amount of a mineral acid. Amides may also be prepared by known methods, such as by reacting the carboxylic acid with the appropriate amine in the presence of a coupling agent, such as dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC), under neutral conditions. Suitable salts of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and jasmonic acid include, for example, base addition salts. The bases that may be used as reagents to prepare metabolically acceptable base salts of these compounds include those derived from cations such as alkali metal cations (e.g., potassium and sodium) and alkaline earth metal cations (e.g., calcium and magnesium). These salts may be readily prepared by mixing a solution of linoleic acid, linolenic acid, or jasmonic acid with a solution of the base. The salts may be precipitated from solution and collected by filtration, or may be recovered by other means such as by evaporation of the solvent.

[0071] Non-flavonoid nod-gene inducers may be incorporated into the composition according to the invention in any suitable amount(s)/concentration(s). For example, the amount/concentration of non-flavonoid nod-gene inducers may be an amount effective to impart or confer a positive trait or benefit to a plant, such as to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant to which the composition is applied. According to some embodiments, the amount/concentration of non-flavonoid nod-gene inducers may not be effective to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant without beneficial contributions from one or more other ingredients of the composition, such as a LCO, CO and/or one or more pesticides.

[0072] The composition according to the invention may comprise karrakins, including but not limited to 2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-ones, as well as analogues, derivatives, hydrates, isomers, polymers, salts and solvates thereof. Examples of biologically acceptable salts of karrakins include acid addition salts formed with biologically acceptable acids, examples of which include hydrochloride, hydrobromide, sulphate or bisulphate, phosphate or hydrogen phosphate, acetate, benzoate, succinate, fumarate, maleate, lactate, citrate, tartrate, gluconate; methanesulphonate, benzenesulphonate and p-toluenesulphonic acid. Additional biologically acceptable metal salts may include alkali metal salts, with bases, examples of which include the sodium and potassium salts. Karrakins may be incorporated into the composition according to the invention in any suitable amount(s) or concentration(s). For example, the amount/concentration of a karrakin may be an amount or concentration effective to impart or confer a positive trait or benefit to a plant, such as to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant to which the composition is applied. In an aspect, a karrakin amount/concentration may not be effective to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant without beneficial contributions from one or more other ingredients of the composition, such as a LCO, CO and/or one or more pesticides.

[0073] The composition according to the invention may comprise one or more anthocyanidins and/or anthoxanthins, such as one or more of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin, flavones (e.g., apigenin, baicalein, chrysin, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, diosmin, flavoxate, 6-hydroxyflavone, luteolin, scutellarein, tangeritin and/or wogonin) and/or flavonols (e.g., amurensin, astragalin, azaleatin, azalein, fisetin, furanoflavonols galangin, gossypetin, 3-hydroxyflavone, hyperoside, icariin, isoquercetin, kaempferide, kaempferitrin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, morin, myricetin, myricitrin, natsudaidain, pachypodol, pyranoflavonols quercetin, quericitin, rhamnazin, rhamnetin, robinin, rutin, spiraeoside, troxerutin and/or zanthorhamnin), and combinations thereof.

[0074] The composition according to the inventionmay comprise gluconolactone and/or an analogue, derivative, hydrate, isomer, polymer, salt and/or solvate thereof. Gluconolactone may be incorporated into the composition according to the inventionin any suitable amount(s)/concentration(s). For example, the amount/concentration of a gluconolactone amount/concentration may be an amount effective to impart or confer a positive trait or benefit to a plant, such as to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant to which the composition is applied. In an aspect, the gluconolactone amount/concentration may not be effective to enhance the growth and/or yield of the plant without beneficial contributions from one or more other ingredients of the composition, such as a LCO, CO and/or one or more pesticides.

[0075] The composition of the present invention may comprise one or more suitable nutrient(s) and/or fertilizer(s), such as organic acids (e.g., acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, taurine, etc.), macrominerals (e.g., phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, etc.), trace minerals (e.g., boron, cobalt, chloride, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, etc.), vitamins, (e.g., vitamin A, vitamin B complex (i.e., vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B5, vitamin B6, vitamin B7, vitamin B8, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, choline) vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K.), and/or carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, etc.), and combinations thereof. In an aspect, the composition according to the inventionmay comprise macro- and micronutrients of plants or microbes, including phosphorous, boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum and/or zinc. According to some embodiments, the composition according to the invention may comprise one or more beneficial micronutrients. Non-limiting examples of micronutrients for use in compositions described herein may include vitamins, (e.g., vitamin A, vitamin B complex (i.e., vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B5, vitamin B6, vitamin B7, vitamin B8, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, choline) vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids (a-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin, etc.), macrominerals (e.g., phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, etc.), trace minerals (e.g., boron, cobalt, chloride, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, zinc, etc.), organic acids (e.g., acetic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, taurine, etc.), and combinations thereof. In a particular aspect, compositions may comprise phosphorous, boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and/or zinc, and combinations thereof. For compositions comprising phosphorous, it is envisioned that any suitable source of phosphorous may be used. For example, phosphorus may be derived from a rock phosphate source, such as monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, monocalcium phosphate, super phosphate, triple super phosphate, and/or ammonium polyphosphate, an organic phosphorous source, or a phosphorous source capable of solubilization by one or more microorganisms (e.g., Penicillium bilaiae).

[0076] The composition of the present invention may comprise one or more nitrification inhibitors selected from the group consisting of 2-(3,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)succinic acid, 2-(4,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)succinic acid, 3,4-dimethyl pyrazolium glycolate, 3,4-dimethyl pyrazolium citrate, 3,4-dimethyl pyrazolium lactate, 3,4-dimethyl pyrazolium mandelate, 1 ,2,4-triazole, 4-Chloro-3-methylpyrazole, N-((3(5)-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)acetamide, N-((3(5)-methyl-1H-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)formamide, N-((3(5),4-dimethylpyrazole-1-yl)methyl)formamide, N-((4-chloro-3(5)-methyl-pyrazole-1-yl)methyl)-formamide; reaction adducts of dicyandiamide, urea and formaldehyde, triazonyl- formaldehyde-dicyandiamide adducts, 2-cyano-1-((4-oxo-1,3,5-triazinan-1-yl)methyl)guanidine, 1-((2-cyanoguanidino)-methyl)urea, 2-cyano-1-((2-cyanoguanidino)methyl)guanidine, 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine (nitrapyrin or N-serve), dicyandiamide, 3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate, 4,5-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate, 3,4-dimethylpyrazole, 4,5-dimethyl pyrazole, ammoniumthiosulfate, neem, products based on ingredients of neem, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate, methyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionate, karanjin, brachialacton, p-benzoquinone sorgoleone, 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole hydrochloride, 1-amido-2-thiourea, 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methylpyrimidine, 2-mercapto-benzothiazole, 5-ethoxy-3-trichloromethyl-1,2,4-thiodiazole (terrazole, etridiazole), 2-sulfanilamidothiazole, 3-methyl-pyrazol, 1,2,4-triazol thiourea, cyan amide, melamine, zeolite powder, catechol, benzoquinone, sodium tetraborate, allylthiourea, chlorate salts, and zinc sulfate.

[0077] The composition of the invention may be provided to the end user as ready-for-use formulation, i.e. the composition may be directly applied to the plants or seeds by a suitable device, such as a spraying or dusting device. Alternatively, the composition may be provided to the end user in the form of concentrates which have to be diluted, preferably with water, prior to use.

[0078] The composition of the invention can be prepared in conventional manners, for example by mixing the compound combination of the invention with one or more suitable auxiliaries, such as disclosed herein above.

[0079] The composition comprises a fungicidally effective amount of the compound combination according to the invention. The term "effective amount" denotes an amount, which is sufficient for controlling harmful fungi on cultivated plants or in the protection of materials and which does not result in a substantial damage to the treated plants. Such an amount can vary in a broad range and is dependent on various factors, such as the fungal species to be controlled, the treated cultivated plant or material, the climatic conditions and the specific compound of the invention used. Usually, the composition according to the invention contains from 0.01 to 99% by weight, preferably from 0.05 to 98% by weight, more preferred from 0.1 to 95% by weight, even more preferably from 0.5 to 90% by weight, most preferably from 1 to 80% by weight of the compound combination of the invention.

[0080] The composition of the invention may be in any customary composition type, such as solutions (e.g aqueous solutions), emulsions, water- and oil-based suspensions, powders (e.g. wettable powders, soluble powders), dusts, pastes, granules (e.g. soluble granules, granules for broadcasting), suspoemulsion concentrates, natural or synthetic products impregnated with the compound combination of the invention, fertilizers and also microencapsulations in polymeric substances. The active compounds contained in the combination of the invention (i.e. compound (A), (B) and/or (C)) may be present independently of one another in a suspended, emulsified or dissolved form. Examples of particular suitable composition types are solutions, watersoluble concentrates (e.g. SL, LS), dispersible concentrates (DC), suspensions and suspension concentrates (e.g. SC, OD, OF, FS), emulsifiable concentrates (e.g. EC), emulsions (e.g. EW, EO, ES, ME, SE), capsules (e.g. CS, ZC), pastes, pastilles, wettable powders or dusts (e.g. WP, SP, WS, DP, DS), pressings (e.g. BR, TB, DT), granules (e.g. WG, SG, GR, FG, GG, MG), insecticidal articles (e.g. LN), as well as gel formulations for the treatment of plant propagation materials such as seeds (e.g. GW, GF). These and further compositions types are defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). An overview is given in the "Catalogue of pesticide formulation types and international coding system", Technical Monograph No. 2, 6th Ed. May 2008, Croplife International.

[0081] Preferably, the composition of the invention is in form of one of the following types: EC, SC, FS, SE, OD and WG, more preferred EC, SC,OD and WG.

[0082] Further details about examples of composition types and their preparation are given below.

i) Water-soluble concentrates (SL, LS)



[0083] 10-60 % by weight of the compound combination and 5-15 % by weight surfactant (e.g. polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether) are dissolved in such amount of water and/or water-soluble solvent (e.g. alcohols such as propylene glycol or carbonates such as propylene carbonate) to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Before application the concentrate is diluted with water.

ii) Dispersible concentrates (DC)



[0084] 5-25 % by weight of the compound combination and 1-10 % by weight surfactant and/or binder (e.g. polyvinylpyrrolidone) are dissolved in such amount of organic solvent (e.g. cyclohexanone) to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives a dispersion.

iii) Emulsifiable concentrates (EC)



[0085] 15-70 % by weight of the compound combination and 5-10 % by weight surfactant (e.g. a mixture of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate) are dissolved in such amount of water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon or fatty acid amide) and if needed additional water-soluble solvent to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives an emulsion.

iv) Emulsions (EW, EO, ES)



[0086] 5-40 % by weight of the compound combination and 1-10 % by weight surfactant (e.g. a mixture of calcium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and castor oil ethoxylate) are dissolved in 20-40 % by weight water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon). This mixture is added to such amount of water by means of an emulsifying machine to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. The resulting composition is a homogeneous emulsion. Before application the emulsion may be further diluted with water.

v) Suspensions and suspension concentrates


v-1) Water-based (SC, FS)



[0087] In a suitable grinding equipment, e.g. an agitated ball mill, 20-60 % by weight of the compound combination are comminuted with addition of 2-10 % by weight surfactant (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate and polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether), 0.1-2 % by weight thickener (e.g. xanthan gum) and water to give a fine active substance suspension. The water is added in such amount to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance. For FS type compositions up to 40 % by weight binder (e.g. polyvinylalcohol) is added.

v-2) Oil-based(OD, OF)



[0088] In a suitable grinding equipment, e.g. an agitated ball mill, 20-60 % by weight of the compound combination are comminuted with addition of 2-10 % by weight surfactant (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate and polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether), 0.1-2 % by weight thickener (e.g. modified clay, in particular Bentone, or silica) and an organic carrier to give a fine active substance oil suspension. The organic carrier is added in such amount to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion of the active substance.

vi) Water-dispersible granules and water-soluble granules (WG, SG)



[0089] 50-80 % by weight of the compound combination are ground finely with addition of surfactant (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate and polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether) and converted to water-dispersible or water-soluble granules by means of technical appliances (e. g. extrusion, spray tower, fluidized bed). The surfactant is used in such amount to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active substance.

vii) Water-dispersible powders and water-soluble powders (WP, SP, WS)



[0090] 50-80 % by weight of the compound combination are ground in a rotor-stator mill with addition of 1-8 % by weight surfactant (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate, polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether) and such amount of solid carrier, e.g. silica gel, to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Dilution with water gives a stable dispersion or solution of the active substance.

viii) Gel (GW, GF)



[0091] In an agitated ball mill, 5-25 % by weight of the compound combination are comminuted with addition of 3-10 % by weight surfactant (e.g. sodium lignosulfonate), 1-5 % by weight binder (e.g. carboxymethylcellulose) and such amount of water to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. This results in a fine suspension of the active substance. Dilution with water gives a stable suspension of the active substance.

ix) Microemulsion (ME)



[0092] 5-20 % by weight of the compound combination are added to 5-30 % by weight organic solvent blend (e.g. fatty acid dimethylamide and cyclohexanone), 10-25 % by weight surfactant blend (e.g. polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol ether and arylphenol ethoxylate), and such amount of water to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. This mixture is stirred for 1 h to produce spontaneously a thermodynamically stable microemulsion.

x) Microcapsules (CS)



[0093] An oil phase comprising 5-50 % by weight of the compound combination, 0-40 % by weight water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon), 2-15 % by weight acrylic monomers (e.g. methylmethacrylate, methacrylic acid and a di- or triacrylate) are dispersed into an aqueous solution of a protective colloid (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol). Radical polymerization initiated by a radical initiator results in the formation of poly(meth)acrylate microcapsules. Alternatively, an oil phase comprising 5-50 % by weight of the compound combination , 0-40 % by weight water-insoluble organic solvent (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon), and an isocyanate monomer (e.g. diphenylmethene-4,4'-diisocyanatae) are dispersed into an aqueous solution of a protective colloid (e.g. polyvinyl alcohol). The addition of a polyamine (e.g. hexamethylenediamine) results in the formation of polyurea microcapsules. The monomers amount to 1-10 % by weight of the total CS composition.

xi) Dustable powders (DP, DS)



[0094] 1-10 % by weight of the compound combination are ground finely and mixed intimately with such amount of solid carrier, e.g. finely divided kaolin, to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight.

xii) Granules (GR, FG)



[0095] 0.5-30 % by weight of the compound combination are ground finely and associated with such amount of solid carrier (e.g. silicate) to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight. Granulation is achieved by extrusion, spray-drying or the fluidized bed.

xiii) Ultra-low volume liquids (UL)



[0096] 1-50 % by weight of the compound combination are dissolved in such amount of organic solvent, e.g. aromatic hydrocarbon, to result in a total amount of 100 % by weight.

[0097] The compositions types i) to xiii) may optionally comprise further auxiliaries, such as 0.1-1 % by weight preservatives, 0.1-1 % by weight antifoams, 0.1-1 % by weight dyes and/or pigments, and 5-10% by weight antifreezes.

Methods and uses



[0098] The compound combination and the composition of the invention have potent microbicidal activity and/or plant defense modulating potential. They can be used for controlling unwanted microorganisms, such as unwanted fungi and bacteria, on plants. They can be particularly useful in crop protection (they control microorganisms that cause plants diseases) or for protecting materials (e.g. industrial materials, timber, storage goods) as described in more details herein below. More specifically, the compound combination and the composition of the invention can be used to protect seeds, germinating seeds, emerged seedlings, plants, plant parts, fruits, harvest goods and/or the soil in which the plants grow from unwanted microorganisms.

[0099] Control or controlling as used herein encompasses protective, curative and eradicative treatment of unwanted microorganisms. Unwanted microorganisms may be pathogenic bacteria, pathogenic virus, pathogenic oomycetes or pathogenic fungi, more specifically phytopathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic virus, phytopathogenic oomycetes or phytopathogenic fungi. As detailed herein below, these phytopathogenic microorganims are the causal agents of a broad spectrum of plants diseases.

[0100] More specifically, the compound combination and the composition of the invention can be used as fungicides. For the purpose of the specification, the term "fungicide" refers to a compound or composition that can be used in crop protection for the control of unwanted fungi, such as Plasmodiophoromycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and Deuteromycetes and/or for the control of Oomycetes.

[0101] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be used as antibacterial agent. In particular, they may be used in crop protection, for example for the control of unwanted bacteria, such as Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Streptomycetaceae.

[0102] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be used as antiviral agent in crop protection. For example the compound combination and the composition of the invention may have effects on diseases from plant viruses, such as the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tobacco rattle virus, tobacco stunt virus (TStuV), tobacco leaf curl virus (VLCV), tobacco nervilia mosaic virus (TVBMV), tobacco necrotic dwarf virus (TNDV), tobacco streak virus (TSV), potato virus X (PVX), potato viruses Y, S, M, and A, potato acuba mosaic virus (PAMV), potato mop-top virus (PMTV), potato leaf-roll virus (PLRV), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), cucumber green mottlemosaic virus (CGMMV), cucumber yellows virus (CuYV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV), sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), rice drawf virus, rice stripe virus, rice black-streaked drawf virus, strawberry mottle virus (SMoV), strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV), strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), strawberry crinkle virus (SCrV), broad beanwilt virus (BBWV), and melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV).

[0103] The present invention also relates to a method for controlling unwanted microorganisms, such as unwanted fungi, oomycetes and bacteria, on plants comprising the step of applying the compound combination of the invention or the composition of the invention to the microorganisms and/or their habitat (to the plants, plant parts, seeds, fruits or to the soil in which the plants grow).

[0104] Typically, when the compound combination or the composition of the invention are used in curative or protective methods for controlling phytopathogenic fungi and/or phytopathogenic oomycetes, an effective and plant-compatible amount thereof is applied to the plants, plant parts, fruits, seeds or to the soil or substrates in which the plants grow. Suitable substrates that may be used for cultivating plants include inorganic based substrates, such as mineral wool, in particular stone wool, perlite, sand or gravel; organic substrates, such as peat, pine bark or sawdust; and petroleum based substrates such as polymeric foams or plastic beads. Effective and plant-compatible amount means an amount that is sufficient to control or destroy the fungi present or liable to appear on the cropland and that does not entail any appreciable symptom of phytotoxicity for said crops. Such an amount can vary within a wide range depending on the fungus to be controlled, the type of crop, the crop growth stage, the climatic conditions and the respective compound combination or composition of the invention used. This amount can be determined by systematic field trials that are within the capabilities of a person skilled in the art.

Plants and plant parts



[0105] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may be applied to any plants or plant parts.

[0106] Plants mean all plants and plant populations, such as desired and undesired wild plants or crop plants (including naturally occurring crop plants). Crop plants may be plants which can be obtained by conventional breeding and optimization methods or by biotechnological and genetic engineering methods or combinations of these methods, including the genetically modified plants (GMO or transgenic plants) and the plant cultivars which are protectable and non-protectable by plant breeders' rights.

[0107] Plant cultivars are understood to mean plants which have new properties ("traits") and have been obtained by conventional breeding, by mutagenesis or by recombinant DNA techniques. They can be cultivars, varieties, bio- or genotypes.

[0108] Plant parts are understood to mean all parts and organs of plants above and below the ground, such as shoots, leaves, needles, stalks, stems, flowers, fruit bodies, fruits, seeds, roots, tubers and rhizomes. The plant parts also include harvested material and vegetative and generative propagation material, for example cuttings, tubers, rhizomes, slips and seeds.

[0109] Plants which may be treated in accordance with the methods of the invention include the following: cotton, flax, grapevine, fruit, vegetables, such as Rosaceae sp. (for example pome fruits such as apples and pears, but also stone fruits such as apricots, cherries, almonds and peaches, and soft fruits such as strawberries), Ribesioidae sp., Juglandaceae sp., Betulaceae sp., Anacardiaceae sp., Fagaceae sp., Moraceae sp., Oleaceae sp., Actinidaceae sp., Lauraceae sp., Musaceae sp. (for example banana trees and plantations), Rubiaceae sp. (for example coffee), Theaceae sp., Sterculiceae sp., Rutaceae sp. (for example lemons, oranges and grapefruit); Solanaceae sp. (for example tomatoes), Liliaceae sp., Asteraceae sp. (for example lettuce), Umbelliferae sp., Cruciferae sp., Chenopodiaceae sp., Cucurbitaceae sp. (for example cucumber), Alliaceae sp. (for example leek, onion), Papilionaceae sp. (for example peas); major crop plants, such as Gramineae sp. (for example maize, turf, cereals such as wheat, rye, rice, barley, oats, millet and triticale), Asteraceae sp. (for example sunflower), Brassicaceae sp. (for example white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, pak choi, kohlrabi, radishes, and oilseed rape, mustard, horseradish and cress), Fabacae sp. (for example bean, peanuts), Papilionaceae sp. (for example soya bean), Solanaceae sp. (for example potatoes), Chenopodiaceae sp. (for example sugar beet, fodder beet, swiss chard, beetroot); useful plants and ornamental plants for gardens and wooded areas; and genetically modified varieties of each of these plants.

[0110] Plants and plant cultivars which may be treated by the above disclosed methods include plants and plant cultivars which are resistant against one or more biotic stresses, i.e. said plants show a better defense against animal and microbial pests, such as against nematodes, insects, mites, phytopathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and/or viroids.

[0111] Plants and plant cultivars which may be treated by the above disclosed methods include those plants which are resistant to one or more abiotic stresses. Abiotic stress conditions may include, for example, drought, cold temperature exposure, heat exposure, osmotic stress, flooding, increased soil salinity, increased mineral exposure, ozone exposure, high light exposure, limited availability of nitrogen nutrients, limited availability of phosphorus nutrients, shade avoidance.

[0112] Plants and plant cultivars which may be treated by the above disclosed methods include those plants characterized by enhanced yield characteristics. Increased yield in said plants may be the result of, for example, improved plant physiology, growth and development, such as water use efficiency, water retention efficiency, improved nitrogen use, enhanced carbon assimilation, improved photosynthesis, increased germination efficiency and accelerated maturation. Yield may furthermore be affected by improved plant architecture (under stress and non-stress conditions), including but not limited to, early flowering, flowering control for hybrid seed production, seedling vigor, plant size, internode number and distance, root growth, seed size, fruit size, pod size, pod or ear number, seed number per pod or ear, seed mass, enhanced seed filling, reduced seed dispersal, reduced pod dehiscence and lodging resistance. Further yield traits include seed composition, such as carbohydrate content and composition for example cotton or starch, protein content, oil content and composition, nutritional value, reduction in anti-nutritional compounds, improved processability and better storage stability.

[0113] Plants and plant cultivars which may be treated by the above disclosed methods include plants and plant cultivars which are hybrid plants that already express the characteristic of heterosis or hybrid vigor which results in generally higher yield, vigor, health and resistance towards biotic and abiotic stresses.

Transgenic plants, seed treatment and integration events



[0114] The compound combination according to the invention can be advantageously used to treat transgenic plants, plant cultivars or plant parts that received genetic material which imparts advantageous and/or useful properties (traits) to these plants, plant cultivars or plant parts. Therefore, it is contemplated that the present invention may be combined with one or more recombinant traits or transgenic event(s) or a combination thereof. For the purposes of this application, a transgenic event is created by the insertion of a specific recombinant DNA molecule into a specific position (locus) within the chromosome of the plant genome. The insertion creates a novel DNA sequence referred to as an "event" and is characterized by the inserted recombinant DNA molecule and some amount of genomic DNA immediately adjacent to/flanking both ends of the inserted DNA. Such trait(s) or transgenic event(s) include, but are not limited to, pest resistance, water use efficiency, yield performance, drought tolerance, seed quality, improved nutritional quality, hybrid seed production, and herbicide tolerance, in which the trait is measured with respect to a plant lacking such trait or transgenic event. Concrete examples of such advantageous and/or useful properties (traits) are better plant growth, vigor, stress tolerance, standability, lodging resistance, nutrient uptake, plant nutrition, and/or yield, in particular improved growth, increased tolerance to high or low temperatures, increased tolerance to drought or to levels of water or soil salinity, enhanced flowering performance, easier harvesting, accelerated ripening, higher yields, higher quality and/or a higher nutritional value of the harvested products, better storage life and/or processability of the harvested products, and increased resistance against animal and microbial pests, such as against insects, arachnids, nematodes, mites, slugs and snails.

[0115] Among DNA sequences encoding proteins which confer properties of tolerance to such animal and microbial pests, in particular insects, mention will particularly be made of the genetic material from Bacillus thuringiensis encoding the Bt proteins widely described in the literature and well known to those skilled in the art. Mention will also be made of proteins extracted from bacteria such as Photorhabdus (WO97/17432 and WO98/08932). In particular, mention will be made of the Bt Cry or VIP proteins which include the CrylA, CryIAb, CryIAc, CryIIA, CryIIIA, CryIIIB2, Cry9c Cry2Ab, Cry3Bb and CryIF proteins or toxic fragments thereof and also hybrids or combinations thereof, especially the CrylF protein or hybrids derived from a CrylF protein (e.g. hybrid CrylA-CrylF proteins or toxic fragments thereof), the CrylA-type proteins or toxic fragments thereof, preferably the CrylAc protein or hybrids derived from the CrylAc protein (e.g. hybrid CrylAb-CrylAc proteins) or the CrylAb or Bt2 protein or toxic fragments thereof, the Cry2Ae, Cry2Af or Cry2Ag proteins or toxic fragments thereof, the Cry1A.105 protein or a toxic fragment thereof, the VIP3Aal9 protein, the VIP3Aa20 protein, the VIP3A proteins produced in the COT202 or COT203 cotton events, the VIP3Aa protein or a toxic fragment thereof as described in Estruch et al. (1996), Proc Natl Acad Sci US A. 28;93(11):5389-94, the Cry proteins as described in WO2001/47952, the insecticidal proteins from Xenorhabdus (as described in WO98/50427), Serratia (particularly from S. entomophila) or Photorhabdus species strains, such as Tc-proteins from Photorhabdus as described in WO98/08932. Also any variants or mutants of any one of these proteins differing in some amino acids (1-10, preferably 1-5) from any of the above named sequences, particularly the sequence of their toxic fragment, or which are fused to a transit peptide, such as a plastid transit peptide, or another protein or peptide, is included herein.

[0116] Another and particularly emphasized example of such properties is conferred tolerance to one or more herbicides, for example imidazolinones, sulphonylureas, glyphosate or phosphinothricin. Among DNA sequences encoding proteins which confer properties of tolerance to certain herbicides on the transformed plant cells and plants, mention will be particularly be made to the bar or PAT gene or the Streptomyces coelicolor gene described in WO2009/152359 which confers tolerance to glufosinate herbicides, a gene encoding a suitable EPSPS (5-Enolpyruvylshikimat-3-phosphat-synthase) which confers tolerance to herbicides having EPSPS as a target, especially herbicides such as glyphosate and its salts, a gene encoding glyphosate-n-acetyltransferase, or a gene encoding glyphosate oxidoreductase. Further suitable herbicide tolerance traits include at least one ALS (acetolactate synthase) inhibitor (e.g. WO2007/024782), a mutated Arabidopsis ALS/AHAS gene (e.g. U.S. Patent 6,855,533), genes encoding 2,4-D-monooxygenases conferring tolerance to 2,4-D (2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and genes encoding Dicamba monooxygenases conferring tolerance to dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid).

[0117] Yet another example of such properties is resistance to one or more phytopathogenic fungi, for example Asian Soybean Rust. Among DNA sequences encoding proteins which confer properties of resistance to such diseases, mention will particularly be made of the genetic material from glycine tomentella described in WO2019/103918.

[0118] Further and particularly emphasized examples of such properties are increased resistance against bacteria and/or viruses owing, for example, to systemic acquired resistance (SAR), systemin, phytoalexins, elicitors and also resistance genes and correspondingly expressed proteins and toxins.

[0119] Particularly useful transgenic events in transgenic plants or plant cultivars which can be treated with preference in accordance with the invention include Event 531/ PV-GHBK04 (cotton, insect control, described in WO2002/040677), Event 1143-14A (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2006/128569); Event 1143-51B (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2006/128570); Event 1445 (cotton, herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in US-A 2002-120964 or WO2002/034946); Event 17053 (rice, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-9843, described in WO2010/117737); Event 17314 (rice, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-9844, described in WO2010/117735); Event 281-24-236 (cotton, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-6233, described in WO2005/103266 or US-A 2005-216969); Event 3006-210-23 (cotton, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-6233, described in US-A 2007-143876 or WO2005/103266); Event 3272 (corn, quality trait, deposited as PTA-9972, described in WO2006/098952 or US-A 2006-230473); Event 33391 (wheat, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-2347, described in WO2002/027004), Event 40416 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-11508, described in WO 11/075593); Event 43A47 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-11509, described in WO2011/075595); Event 5307 (corn, insect control, deposited as ATCC PTA-9561, described in WO2010/077816); Event ASR-368 (bent grass, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-4816, described in US-A 2006-162007 or WO2004/053062); Event B16 (corn, herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in US-A 2003-126634); Event BPS-CV127- 9 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as NCIMB No. 41603, described in WO2010/080829); Event BLR1 (oilseed rape, restoration of male sterility, deposited as NCIMB 41193, described in WO2005/074671), Event CE43-67B (cotton, insect control, deposited as DSM ACC2724, described in US-A 2009-217423 or WO2006/128573); Event CE44-69D (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in US-A 2010- 0024077); Event CE44-69D (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2006/128571); Event CE46-02A (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2006/128572); Event COT102 (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in US-A 2006-130175 or WO2004/039986); Event COT202 (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in US-A 2007-067868 or WO2005/054479); Event COT203 (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2005/054480); ); Event DAS21606-3 / 1606 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11028, described in WO2012/033794), Event DAS40278 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-10244, described in WO2011/022469); Event DAS-44406-6 / pDAB8264.44.06.1 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11336, described in WO2012/075426), Event DAS-14536-7 /pDAB8291.45.36.2 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11335, described in WO2012/075429), Event DAS-59122-7 (corn, insectcontrol - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA 11384, described in US-A 2006-070139); Event DAS-59132 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in WO2009/100188); Event DAS68416 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-10442, described in WO2011/066384 or WO2011/066360); Event DP-098140-6 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-8296, described in US-A 2009- 137395 orWO 08/112019); Event DP-305423-1 (soybean, quality trait, not deposited, described in US-A 2008-312082 or WO2008/054747); Event DP-32138-1 (corn, hybridization system, deposited as ATCC PTA-9158, described in US-A 2009-0210970 or WO2009/103049); Event DP-356043-5 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-8287, described in US-A 2010-0184079 or WO2008/002872); Event EE-I (brinjal, insect control, not deposited, described in WO 07/091277); Event Fil 17 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 209031, described in US-A 2006-059581 or WO 98/044140); Event FG72 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11041, described in WO2011/063413), Event GA21 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 209033, described in US-A 2005-086719 or WO 98/044140); Event GG25 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 209032, described in US-A 2005-188434 or WO98/044140); Event GHB119 (cotton, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-8398, described in WO2008/151780); Event GHB614 (cotton, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-6878, described in US-A 2010-050282 or WO2007/017186); Event GJ11 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 209030, described in US-A 2005-188434 or WO98/044140); Event GM RZ13 (sugar beet, virus resistance, deposited as NCIMB-41601, described in WO2010/076212); Event H7-1 (sugar beet, herbicide tolerance, deposited as NCIMB 41158 or NCIMB 41159, described in US-A 2004-172669 or WO 2004/074492); Event JOPLIN1 (wheat, disease tolerance, not deposited, described in US-A 2008-064032); Event LL27 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as NCIMB41658, described in WO2006/108674 or US-A 2008-320616); Event LL55 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as NCIMB 41660, described in WO 2006/108675 or US-A 2008-196127); Event LLcotton25 (cotton, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-3343, described in WO2003/013224 or US- A 2003-097687); Event LLRICE06 (rice, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 203353, described in US 6,468,747 or WO2000/026345); Event LLRice62 (rice, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC 203352, described in WO2000/026345), Event LLRICE601 (rice, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-2600, described in US-A 2008-2289060 or WO2000/026356); Event LY038 (corn, quality trait, deposited as ATCC PTA-5623, described in US-A 2007-028322 or WO2005/061720); Event MIR162 (corn, insect control, deposited as PTA-8166, described in US-A 2009-300784 or WO2007/142840); Event MIR604 (corn, insect control, not deposited, described in US-A 2008-167456 or WO2005/103301); Event MON15985 (cotton, insect control, deposited as ATCC PTA-2516, described in US-A 2004-250317 or WO2002/100163); Event MON810 (corn, insect control, not deposited, described in US-A 2002-102582); Event MON863 (corn, insect control, deposited as ATCC PTA-2605, described in WO2004/011601 or US-A 2006-095986); Event MON87427 (corn, pollination control, deposited as ATCC PTA-7899, described in WO2011/062904); Event MON87460 (corn, stress tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-8910, described in WO2009/111263 or US-A 2011-0138504); Event MON87701 (soybean, insect control, deposited as ATCC PTA- 8194, described in US-A 2009-130071 or WO2009/064652); Event MON87705 (soybean, quality trait - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-9241, described in US-A 2010-0080887 or WO2010/037016); Event MON87708 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-9670, described in WO2011/034704); Event MON87712 (soybean, yield, deposited as PTA-10296, described in WO2012/051199), Event MON87754 (soybean, quality trait, deposited as ATCC PTA-9385, described in WO2010/024976); Event MON87769 (soybean, quality trait, deposited as ATCC PTA- 8911, described in US-A 2011-0067141 or WO2009/102873); Event MON88017 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-5582, described in US-A 2008-028482 or WO2005/059103); Event MON88913 (cotton, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-4854, described in WO2004/072235 or US-A 2006-059590); Event MON88302 (oilseed rape, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-10955, described in WO2011/153186), Event MON88701 (cotton, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11754, described in WO2012/134808), Event MON89034 (corn, insect control, deposited as ATCC PTA-7455, described in WO 07/140256 or US-A 2008-260932); Event MON89788 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-6708, described in US-A 2006-282915 or WO2006/130436); Event MS11 (oilseed rape, pollination control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-850 or PTA-2485, described in WO2001/031042); Event MS8 (oilseed rape, pollination control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-730, described in WO2001/041558 or US-A 2003-188347); Event NK603 (corn, herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-2478, described in US-A 2007-292854); Event PE-7 (rice, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2008/114282); Event RF3 (oilseed rape, pollination control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-730, described in WO2001/041558 or US-A 2003-188347); Event RT73 (oilseed rape, herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in WO2002/036831 or US-A 2008-070260); Event SYHT0H2 / SYN-000H2-5 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11226, described in WO2012/082548), Event T227-1 (sugar beet, herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in WO2002/44407 or US-A 2009-265817); Event T25 (corn, herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in US-A 2001-029014 or WO2001/051654); Event T304-40 (cotton, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-8171, described in US-A 2010-077501 or WO2008/122406); Event T342-142 (cotton, insect control, not deposited, described in WO2006/128568); Event TC1507 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, not deposited, described in US-A 2005-039226 or WO2004/099447); Event VIP1034 (corn, insect control - herbicide tolerance, deposited as ATCC PTA-3925, described in WO2003/052073), Event 32316 (corn, insect control-herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11507, described in WO2011/084632), Event 4114 (corn, insect control-herbicide tolerance, deposited as PTA-11506, described in WO2011/084621), event EE-GM3 / FG72 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11041) optionally stacked with event EE-GM1/LL27 or event EE-GM2/LL55 (WO2011/063413A2), event DAS-68416-4 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N° PTA-10442, WO2011/066360A1), event DAS-68416-4 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N° PTA-10442, WO2011/066384A1), event DP-040416-8 (corn, insect control, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11508, WO2011/075593A1), event DP-043A47-3 (corn, insect control, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11509, WO2011/075595A1), event DP- 004114-3 (corn, insect control, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11506, WO2011/084621A1), event DP-032316-8 (corn, insect control, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11507, WO2011/084632A1), event MON-88302-9 (oilseed rape, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N° PTA-10955, WO2011/153186A1), event DAS-21606-3 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession No. PTA-11028, WO2012/033794A2), event MON-87712-4 (soybean, quality trait, ATCC Accession N°. PTA-10296, WO2012/051199A2), event DAS-44406-6 (soybean, stacked herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N°. PTA-11336, WO2012/075426A1), event DAS-14536-7 (soybean, stacked herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N°. PTA-11335, WO2012/075429A1), event SYN-000H2-5 (soybean, herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N°. PTA-11226, WO2012/082548A2), event DP-061061-7 (oilseed rape, herbicide tolerance, no deposit N° available, WO2012071039A1), event DP-073496-4 (oilseed rape, herbicide tolerance, no deposit N° available, US2012131692), event 8264.44.06.1 (soybean, stacked herbicide tolerance, Accession N° PTA-11336, WO2012075426A2), event 8291.45.36.2 (soybean, stacked herbicide tolerance, Accession N°. PTA-11335, WO2012075429A2), event SYHT0H2 (soybean, ATCC Accession N°. PTA-11226, WO2012/082548A2), event MON88701 (cotton, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11754, WO2012/134808A1), event KK179-2 (alfalfa, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11833, WO2013/003558A1), event pDAB8264.42.32.1 (soybean, stacked herbicide tolerance, ATCC Accession N° PTA-11993, WO2013/010094A1), event MZDT09Y (corn, ATCC Accession N° PTA-13025, WO2013/012775A1).

[0120] Further, a list of such transgenic event(s) is provided by the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and can be found on their website on the world wide web at aphis.usda.gov. For this application, the status of such list as it is/was on the filing date of this application, is relevant.

[0121] The genes/events which impart the desired traits in question may also be present in combinations with one another in the transgenic plants. Examples of transgenic plants which may be mentioned are the important crop plants, such as cereals (wheat, rice, triticale, barley, rye, oats), maize, soya beans, potatoes, sugar beet, sugar cane, tomatoes, peas and other types of vegetable, cotton, tobacco, oilseed rape and also fruit plants (with the fruits apples, pears, citrus fruits and grapes), with particular emphasis being given to maize, soya beans, wheat, rice, potatoes, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and oilseed rape. Traits which are particularly emphasized are the increased resistance of the plants to insects, arachnids, nematodes and slugs and snails, as well as the increased resistance of the plants to one or more herbicides.

[0122] Commercially available examples of such plants, plant parts or plant seeds that may be treated with preference in accordance with the invention include commercial products, such as plant seeds, sold or distributed under the GENUITY®, DROUGHTGARD®, SMARTSTAX®, RIB COMPLETE®, ROUNDUP READY®, VT DOUBLE PRO®, VT TRIPLE PRO®, BOLLGARD II®, ROUNDUP READY 2 YIELD®, YIELDGARD®, ROUNDUP READY® 2 XTENDTM, INTACTA RR2 PRO®, VISTIVE GOLD®, and/or XTENDFLEX™ trade names.

Pathogens



[0123] Non-limiting examples of pathogens of fungal diseases which may be treated in accordance with the invention include:

diseases caused by powdery mildew pathogens, for example Blumeria species, for example Blumeria graminis; Podosphaera species, for example Podosphaera leucotricha; Sphaerotheca species, for example Sphaerotheca fuliginea; Uncinula species, for example Uncinula necator;

diseases caused by rust disease pathogens, for example Gymnosporangium species, for example Gymnosporangium sabinae; Hemileia species, for example Hemileia vastatrix; Phakopsora species, for example Phakopsora pachyrhizi or Phakopsora meibomiae; Puccinia species, for example Puccinia recondita, Puccinia graminis oder Puccinia striiformis; Uromyces species, for example Uromyces appendiculatus;

diseases caused by pathogens from the group of the Oomycetes, for example Albugo species, for example Albugo candida; Bremia species, for example Bremia lactucae; Peronospora species, for example Peronospora pisi or P. brassicae; Phytophthora species, for example Phytophthora infestans; Plasmopara species, for example Plasmopara viticola; Pseudoperonospora species, for example Pseudoperonospora humuli or Pseudoperonospora cubensis; Pythium species, for example Pythium ultimum;

leaf blotch diseases and leaf wilt diseases caused, for example, by Alternaria species, for example Alternaria solani; Cercospora species, for example Cercospora beticola; Cladiosporium species, for example Cladiosporium cucumerinum; Cochliobolus species, for example Cochliobolus sativus (conidial form: Drechslera, syn: Helminthosporium) or Cochliobolus miyabeanus; Colletotrichum species, for example Colletotrichum lindemuthanium; Corynespora species, for example Corynespora cassiicola; Cycloconium species, for example Cycloconium oleaginum; Diaporthe species, for example Diaporthe citri; Elsinoe species, for example Elsinoe fawcettii; Gloeosporium species, for example Gloeosporium laeticolor; Glomerella species, for example Glomerella cingulata; Guignardia species, for example Guignardia bidwelli; Leptosphaeria species, for example Leptosphaeria maculans; Magnaporthe species, for example Magnaporthe grisea; Microdochium species, for example Microdochium nivale; Mycosphaerella species, for example Mycosphaerella graminicola, Mycosphaerella arachidicola or Mycosphaerella fijiensis; Phaeosphaeria species, for example Phaeosphaeria nodorum; Pyrenophora species, for example Pyrenophora teres or Pyrenophora tritici repentis; Ramularia species, for example Ramularia collo-cygni or Ramularia areola; Rhynchosporium species, for example Rhynchosporium secalis; Septoria species, for example Septoria apii or Septoria lycopersici; Stagonospora species, for example Stagonospora nodorum; Typhula species, for example Typhula incarnata; Venturia species, for example Venturia inaequalis;

root and stem diseases caused, for example, by Corticium species, for example Corticium graminearum; Fusarium species, for example Fusarium oxysporum; Gaeumannomyces species, for example Gaeumannomyces graminis; Plasmodiophora species, for example Plasmodiophora brassicae; Rhizoctonia species, for example Rhizoctonia solani; Sarocladium species, for example Sarocladium oryzae; Sclerotium species, for example Sclerotium oryzae; Tapesia species, for example Tapesia acuformis; Thielaviopsis species, for example Thielaviopsis basicola;

ear and panicle diseases (including corn cobs) caused, for example, by Alternaria species, for example Alternaria spp.; Aspergillus species, for example Aspergillus flavus; Cladosporium species, for example Cladosporium cladosporioides; Claviceps species, for example Claviceps purpurea; Fusarium species, for example Fusarium culmorum; Gibberella species, for example Gibberella zeae; Monographella species, for example Monographella nivalis; Stagnospora species, for example Stagnospora nodorum;

diseases caused by smut fungi, for example Sphacelotheca species, for example Sphacelotheca reiliana; Tilletia species, for example Tilletia caries or Tilletia controversa; Urocystis species, for example Urocystis occulta; Ustilago species, for example Ustilago nuda;

fruit rot caused, for example, by Aspergillus species, for example Aspergillus flavus; Botrytis species, for example Botrytis cinerea; Monilinia species, for example Monilinia laxa; Penicillium species, for example Penicillium expansum or Penicillium purpurogenum; Rhizopus species, for example Rhizopus stolonifer; Sclerotinia species, for example Sclerotinia sclerotiorum; Verticilium species, for example Verticilium alboatrum;

seed- and soil-borne rot and wilt diseases, and also diseases of seedlings, caused, for example, by Alternaria species, for example Alternaria brassicicola; Aphanomyces species, for example Aphanomyces euteiches; Ascochyta species, for example Ascochyta lentis; Aspergillus species, for example Aspergillus flavus; Cladosporium species, for example Cladosporium herbarum; Cochliobolus species, for example Cochliobolus sativus (conidial form: Drechslera, Bipolaris Syn: Helminthosporium); Colletotrichum species, for example Colletotrichum coccodes; Fusarium species, for example Fusarium culmorum; Gibberella species, for example Gibberella zeae; Macrophomina species, for example Macrophomina phaseolina; Microdochium species, for example Microdochium nivale; Monographella species, for example Monographella nivalis; Penicillium species, for example Penicillium expansum; Phoma species, for example Phoma lingam; Phomopsis species, for example Phomopsis sojae; Phytophthora species, for example Phytophthora cactorum; Pyrenophora species, for example Pyrenophora graminea; Pyricularia species, for example Pyricularia oryzae; Pythium species, for example Pythium ultimum; Rhizoctonia species, for example Rhizoctonia solani; Rhizopus species, for example Rhizopus oryzae; Sclerotium species, for example Sclerotium rolfsii; Septoria species, for example Septoria nodorum; Typhula species, for example Typhula incarnata; Verticillium species, for example Verticillium dahliae;

cancers, galls and witches' broom caused, for example, by Nectria species, for example Nectria galligena;

wilt diseases caused, for example, by Verticillium species, for example Verticillium longisporum; Fusarium species, for example Fusarium oxysporum;

deformations of leaves, flowers and fruits caused, for example, by Exobasidium species, for example Exobasidium vexans; Taphrina species, for example Taphrina deformans;

degenerative diseases in woody plants, caused, for example, by Esca species, for example Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum or Fomitiporia mediterranea; Ganoderma species, for example Ganoderma boninense;

diseases of plant tubers caused, for example, by Rhizoctonia species, for example Rhizoctonia solani; Helminthosporium species, for example Helminthosporium solani;

diseases caused by bacterial pathogens, for example Xanthomonas species, for example Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae; Pseudomonas species, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans; Erwinia species, for example Erwinia amylovora; Liberibacter species, for example Liberibacter asiaticus; Xyella species, for example Xylella fastidiosa; Ralstonia species, for example Ralstonia solanacearum; Dickeya species, for example Dickeya solani; Clavibacter species, for example Clavibacter michiganensis; Streptomyces species, for example Streptomyces scabies.

diseases of soya beans:

Fungal diseases on leaves, stems, pods and seeds caused, for example, by Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria spec. atrans tenuissima), Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporoides dematium var. truncatum), brown spot (Septoria glycines), cercospora leaf spot and blight (Cercospora kikuchii), choanephora leaf blight (Choanephora infundibulifera trispora (Syn.)), dactuliophora leaf spot (Dactuliophora glycines), downy mildew (Peronospora manshurica), drechslera blight (Drechslera glycini), frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina), leptosphaerulina leaf spot (Leptosphaerulina trifolii), phyllostica leaf spot (Phyllosticta sojaecola), pod and stem blight (Phomopsis sojae), powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa), pyrenochaeta leaf spot (Pyrenochaeta glycines), rhizoctonia aerial, foliage, and web blight (Rhizoctonia solani), rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Phakopsora meibomiae), scab (Sphaceloma glycines), stemphylium leaf blight (Stemphylium botryosum), sudden death syndrome (Fusarium virguliforme), target spot (Corynespora cassiicola).

Fungal diseases on roots and the stem base caused, for example, by black root rot (Calonectria crotalariae), charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina), fusarium blight or wilt, root rot, and pod and collar rot (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium orthoceras, Fusarium semitectum, Fusarium equiseti), mycoleptodiscus root rot (Mycoleptodiscus terrestris), neocosmospora (Neocosmospora vasinfecta), pod and stem blight (Diaporthe phaseolorum), stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora), phytophthora rot (Phytophthora megasperma), brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata), pythium rot (Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium irregulare, Pythium debaryanum, Pythium myriotylum, Pythium ultimum), rhizoctonia root rot, stem decay, and damping-off (Rhizoctonia solani), sclerotinia stem decay (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), sclerotinia southern blight (Sclerotinia rolfsii), thielaviopsis root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola).


Mycotoxins



[0124] In addition, the compound combination and the composition of the invention may reduce the mycotoxin content in the harvested material and the foods and feeds prepared therefrom. Mycotoxins include particularly, but not exclusively, the following: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 15-Ac-DON, 3-Ac-DON, T2- and HT2-toxin, fumonisins, zearalenon, moniliformin, fusarin, diaceotoxyscirpenol (DAS), beauvericin, enniatin, fusaroproliferin, fusarenol, ochratoxins, patulin, ergot alkaloids and aflatoxins which can be produced, for example, by the following fungi: Fusarium spec., such as F. acuminatum, F. asiaticum, F. avenaceum, F. crookwellense, F. culmorum, F. graminearum (Gibberella zeae), F. equiseti, F. fujikoroi, F. musarum, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. poae, F. pseudograminearum, F. sambucinum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. sporotrichoides, F. langsethiae, F. subglutinans, F. tricinctum, F. verticillioides, and also by Aspergillus spec., such as A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. nomius, A. ochraceus, A. clavatus, A. terreus, A. versicolor, Penicillium spec., such as P. verrucosum, P. viridicatum, P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. claviforme, P. roqueforti, Claviceps spec., such as C. purpurea, C. fusiformis, C. paspali, C. africana, Stachybotrys spec. and others.

Material Protection



[0125] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be used in the protection of materials, especially for the protection of industrial materials against attack and destruction by phytopathogenic fungi.

[0126] In addition, the compound combination and the composition of the invention may be used as antifouling compositions, alone or in combinations with other active ingredients.

[0127] Industrial materials in the present context are understood to mean inanimate materials which have been prepared for use in industry. For example, industrial materials which are to be protected from microbial alteration or destruction may be adhesives, glues, paper, wallpaper and board/cardboard, textiles, carpets, leather, wood, fibers and tissues, paints and plastic articles, cooling lubricants and other materials which can be infected with or destroyed by microorganisms. Parts of production plants and buildings, for example cooling-water circuits, cooling and heating systems and ventilation and air-conditioning units, which may be impaired by the proliferation of microorganisms may also be mentioned within the scope of the materials to be protected. Industrial materials within the scope of the present invention preferably include adhesives, sizes, paper and card, leather, wood, paints, cooling lubricants and heat transfer fluids, more preferably wood.

[0128] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may prevent adverse effects, such as rotting, decay, discoloration, decoloration or formation of mould.

[0129] In the case of treatment of wood the compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be used against fungal diseases liable to grow on or inside timber.

[0130] Timber means all types of species of wood, and all types of working of this wood intended for construction, for example solid wood, high-density wood, laminated wood, and plywood. In addition, the compound combination and the composition of the invention may be used to protect objects which come into contact with saltwater or brackish water, especially hulls, screens, nets, buildings, moorings and signalling systems, from fouling.

[0131] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be employed for protecting storage goods. Storage goods are understood to mean natural substances of vegetable or animal origin or processed products thereof which are of natural origin, and for which long-term protection is desired. Storage goods of vegetable origin, for example plants or plant parts, such as stems, leaves, tubers, seeds, fruits, grains, may be protected freshly harvested or after processing by (pre)drying, moistening, comminuting, grinding, pressing or roasting. Storage goods also include timber, both unprocessed, such as construction timber, electricity poles and barriers, or in the form of finished products, such as furniture. Storage goods of animal origin are, for example, hides, leather, furs and hairs. The compound combination and the composition of the invention may prevent adverse effects, such as rotting, decay, discoloration, decoloration or formation of mould.

[0132] Microorganisms capable of degrading or altering industrial materials include, for example, bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and slime organisms. The compound combination and the composition of the invention preferably act against fungi, especially moulds, wood-discoloring and wood-destroying fungi (Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Zygomycetes), and against slime organisms and algae. Examples include microorganisms of the following genera: Alternaria, such as Alternaria tenuis; Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus niger; Chaetomium, such as Chaetomium globosum; Coniophora, such as Coniophora puetana; Lentinus, such as Lentinus tigrinus; Penicillium, such as Penicillium glaucum; Polyporus, such as Polyporus versicolor; Aureobasidium, such as Aureobasidium pullulans; Sclerophoma, such as Sclerophoma pityophila; Trichoderma, such as Trichoderma viride; Ophiostoma spp., Ceratocystis spp., Humicola spp., Petriella spp., Trichurus spp., Coriolus spp., Gloeophyllum spp., Pleurotus spp., Poria spp., Serpula spp. and Tyromyces spp., Cladosporium spp., Paecilomyces spp. Mucor spp., Escherichia, such as Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Staphylococcus, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Candida spp. and Saccharomyces spp., such as Saccharomyces cerevisae.

Seed Treatment



[0133] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may also be used to protect seeds from unwanted microorganisms, such as phytopathogenic microorganisms, for instance phytopathogenic fungi or phytopathogenic oomycetes. The term seed(s) as used herein include dormant seeds, primed seeds, pregerminated seeds and seeds with emerged roots and leaves.

[0134] Thus, the present invention also relates to a method for protecting seeds from unwanted microorganisms which comprises the step of treating the seeds with the compound combination or the composition of the invention.

[0135] The treatment of seeds with the compound combination or the composition of the invention protects the seeds from phytopathogenic microorganisms, but also protects the germinating seeds, the emerging seedlings and the plants after emergence from the treated seeds. Therefore, the present invention also relates to a method for protecting seeds, germinating seeds and emerging seedlings.

[0136] The seeds treatment may be performed prior to sowing, at the time of sowing or shortly thereafter.

[0137] When the seeds treatment is performed prior to sowing (e.g. so-called on-seed applications), the seeds treatment may be performed as follows: the seeds may be placed into a mixer with a desired amount of the compound combination or the composition of the invention, the seeds and the compound combination or the composition of the invention are mixed until an homogeneous distribution on seeds is achieved. If appropriate, the seeds may then be dried.

[0138] The invention also relates to seeds coated with the compound combination or the composition of the invention.

[0139] Preferably, the seeds are treated in a state in which it is sufficiently stable for no damage to occur in the course of treatment. In general, seeds can be treated at any time between harvest and shortly after sowing. It is customary to use seeds which have been separated from the plant and freed from cobs, shells, stalks, coats, hairs or the flesh of the fruits. For example, it is possible to use seeds which have been harvested, cleaned and dried down to a moisture content of less than 15% by weight. Alternatively, it is also possible to use seeds which, after drying, for example, have been treated with water and then dried again, or seeds just after priming, or seeds stored in primed conditions or pre-germinated seeds, or seeds sown on nursery trays, tapes or paper.

[0140] The amount of the compound combination or the composition of the invention applied to the seeds is typically such that the germination of the seed is not impaired, or that the resulting plant is not damaged. This must be ensured particularly in case the the compound combination of the invention would exhibit phytotoxic effects at certain application rates. The intrinsic phenotypes of transgenic plants should also be taken into consideration when determining the amount of the compound combination of the invention to be applied to the seed in order to achieve optimum seed and germinating plant protection with a minimum amount of compound being employed.

[0141] The compound combination of the invention can be applied as such, directly to the seeds, i.e. without the use of any other components and without having been diluted. Also the composition of the invention can be applied to the seeds.

[0142] The compound combination and the composition of the invention are suitable for protecting seeds of any plant variety. Preferred seeds are that of cereals (such as wheat, barley, rye, millet, triticale, and oats), oilseed rape, maize, cotton, soybean, rice, potatoes, sunflower, beans, coffee, peas, beet (e.g. sugar beet and fodder beet), peanut, vegetables (such as tomato, cucumber, onions and lettuce), lawns and ornamental plants. More preferred are seeds of wheat, soybean, oilseed rape, maize and rice.

[0143] The compound combination and the composition of the invention may be used for treating transgenic seeds, in particular seeds of plants capable of expressing a polypeptide or protein which acts against pests, herbicidal damage or abiotic stress, thereby increasing the protective effect. Seeds of plants capable of expressing a polypeptide or protein which acts against pests, herbicidal damage or abiotic stress may contain at least one heterologous gene which allows the expression of said polypeptide or protein. These heterologous genes in transgenic seeds may originate, for example, from microorganisms of the species Bacillus, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Trichoderma, Clavibacter, Glomus or Gliocladium. These heterologous genes preferably originate from Bacillus sp., in which case the gene product is effective against the European corn borer and/or the Western corn rootworm. Particularly preferably, the heterologous genes originate from Bacillus thuringiensis.

Application



[0144] The compound combination of the invention can be applied as such, or for example in the form of as ready-to-use solutions, emulsions, water- or oil-based suspensions, powders, wettable powders, pastes, soluble powders, dusts, soluble granules, granules for broadcasting, suspoemulsion concentrates, natural products impregnated with the compound combination of the invention, synthetic substances impregnated with the compound combination of the invention, fertilizers or microencapsulations in polymeric substances.

[0145] Application is accomplished in a customary manner, for example by watering, spraying, atomizing, broadcasting, dusting, foaming or spreading-on. It is also possible to deploy the compound combination of the invention by the ultra-low volume method, via a drip irrigation system or drench application, to apply it in-furrow or to inject it into the soil stem or trunk. It is further possible to apply the compound combination of the invention by means of a wound seal, paint or other wound dressing.

[0146] The effective and plant-compatible amount of the compound combination of the invention which is applied to the plants, plant parts, fruits, seeds or soil will depend on various factors, such as the compound/composition employed, the subject of the treatment (plant, plant part, fruit, seed or soil), the type of treatment (dusting, spraying, seed dressing), the purpose of the treatment (curative and protective), the type of microorganisms, the development stage of the microorganisms, the sensitivity of the microorganisms, the crop growth stage and the environmental conditions.

[0147] When the compound combination of the invention is used as a fungicide, the application rates can vary within a relatively wide range, depending on the kind of application. For the treatment of plant parts, such as leaves, the application rate may range from 0.1 to 10 000 g/ha, preferably from 10 to 1000 g/ha, more preferably from 50 to 300 g/ha (in the case of application by watering or dripping, it is even possible to reduce the application rate, especially when inert substrates such as rockwool or perlite are used). For the treatment of seeds, the application rate may range from 0.1 to 200 g per 100 kg of seeds, preferably from 1 to 150 g per 100 kg of seeds, more preferably from 2.5 to 25 g per 100 kg of seeds, even more preferably from 2.5 to 12.5 g per 100 kg of seeds. For the treatment of soil, the application rate may range from 0.1 to 10 000 g/ha, preferably from 1 to 5000 g/ha. The outlined application rates refer to the total application rates of compounds (A), (B) and (C) present in the compound combination of the present invention.

[0148] These application rates are merely examples and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

[0149] The compound combination of the invention can be used in combination with models e.g. embedded in computer programs for site specific crop management, satellite farming, precision farming or precision agriculture. Such models support the site specific management of agricultural sites with data from various sources such as soils, weather, crops (e.g. type, growth stage, plant health), weeds (e.g. type, growth stage), diseases, pests, nutrients, water, moisture, biomass, satellite data, yield etc. with the purpose to optimize profitability, sustainability and protection of the environment. In particular, such models can help to optimize agronomical decisions, control the precision of pesticide applications and record the work performed.

[0150] As an example, the compound of the invention can be applied to a crop plant according to appropriate dose regime if a model models the development of a fungal disease and calculates that a threshold has been reached for which it is recommendable to apply the compound of the invention to the crop plant.

[0151] Commercially available systems which include agronomic models are e.g. FieldScripts™ from The Climate Corporation, Xarvio™ from BASF, AGLogic™ from John Deere, etc.

[0152] The compounds of the invention can also be used in combination with smart spraying equipment such as e.g. spot spraying or precision spraying equipment attached to or housed within a farm vehicle such as a tractor, robot, helicopter, airplane, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) such as a drone, etc. Such an equipment usually includes input sensors (such as e.g. a camera) and a processing unit configured to analyze the input data and configured to provide a decision based on the analysis of the input data to apply the compound of the invention to the crop plants (respectively the weeds) in a specific and precise manner. The use of such smart spraying equipment usually also requires positions systems (e.g. GPS receivers) to localize recorded data and to guide or to control farm vehicles; geographic information systems (GIS) to represent the information on intelligible maps, and appropriate farm vehicles to perform the required farm action such as the spraying.

[0153] In an example, fungal diseases can be detected from imagery acquired by a camera. In an example fungal diseases can be identified and/or classified based on that imagery. Such identification and/ classification can make use of image processing algorithms. Such image processing algorithms can utilize machine learning algorithms, such as trained neutral networks, decision trees and utilize artificial intelligence algorithms. In this manner, the compounds described herein can be applied only where needed.

[0154] The advanced fungicidal activity of the active compound combinations according to the invention is evident from the example below. While the individual active compounds exhibit weaknesses with regard to the fungicidal activity, the combinations have an activity which exceeds a simple addition of activities.

[0155] A synergistic effect of fungicides is always present when the fungicidal activity of the active compound combinations exceeds the total of the activities of the active compounds when applied individually. The expected activity for a given combination of two active compounds can be calculated as follows (cf. Colby, S.R., "Calculating Synergistic and Antagonistic Responses of Herbicide Combinations", Weeds 1967, 15, 20-22):
If
X
is the efficacy when active compound A is applied at an application rate of m ppm (or g/ha),
Y
is the efficacy when active compound B is applied at an application rate of n ppm (or g/ha),
E
is the efficacy when the active compounds A and B are applied at application rates of m and n ppm (or g/ha), respectively, and
then



[0156] The degree of efficacy, expressed in % is denoted. 0 % means an efficacy which corresponds to that of the control while an efficacy of 100 % means that no disease is observed.

[0157] If the actual fungicidal activity exceeds the calculated value, then the activity of the combination is superadditive, i.e. a synergistic effect exists. In this case, the efficacy which was actually observed must be greater than the value for the expected efficacy (E) calculated from the abovementioned formula.

[0158] A further way of demonstrating a synergistic effect is the method of Tammes (cf. "Isoboles, a graphic representation of synergism in pesticides" in Neth. J. Plant Path., 1964, 70, 73-80).


Claims

1. Active compound combinations comprising

(A) fluoxapiprolin,
and

(B) at least one biological control agent selected from groups (B1) to (B7),
and/or

(C) at least one further active ingredient selected from groups (C1) to (C30),

wherein
biological control agent groups (B1) to (B7) are:

(B1) antibacterial agents selected from

(B1.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of (B1.1.1) Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (available as SERENADE OPTI or SERENADE ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having NRRL Accession No. B21661, U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051); (B1.1.2) Bacillus sp., in particular strain D747 (available as DOUBLE NICKEL® from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.), having Accession No. FERM BP-8234, U.S. Patent No. 7,094,592; (B1.1.3) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain BU F-33, having NRRL Accession No. 50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA® product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); (B1.1.4) Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); (B1.1.5) a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; (B1.1.6) Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); (B1.1.7) Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B1.1.8) Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B1.1.9) Paenibacillus polymyxa, in particular strain AC-1 (e.g. TOPSEED® from Green Biotech Company Ltd.); (B1.1.10) Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); (B1.1.11) Pantoea agglomerans, in particular strain E325 (Accession No. NRRL B-21856) (available as BLOOMTIME BIOLOGICAL™ FD BIOPESTICIDE from Northwest Agri Products); and

(B1.2) fungi, such as (B1.2.1) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM14940, blastospores of strain DSM 14941 ormixtures of blastospores of strains DSM14940 and DSM14941 (e.g., BOTECTOR® and BLOSSOM PROTECT® from bio-ferm, CH); (B1.2.2) Pseudozyma aphidis (as disclosed in WO2011/151819 by Yissum Research Development Company of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem); (B1.2.3) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular strains CNCM No. 1-3936, CNCM No. 1-3937, CNCM No. 1-3938 or CNCM No. 1-3939 (WO 2010/086790) from Lesaffre et Compagnie, FR;

(B2) biological fungicides selected from

(B2.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of (B2.1.1) Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (available as SERENADE OPTI or SERENADE ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having NRRL Accession No. B21661 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051); (B2.1.2) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain QST2808 (available as SONATA® from Bayer CropScience LP, US, having Accession No. NRRL B-30087 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,245,551); (B2.1.3) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain GB34 (available as Yield Shield® from Bayer AG, DE); (B2.1.4) Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain BU F-33, having NRRL Accession No. 50185 (available as part of the CARTISSA product from BASF, EPA Reg. No. 71840-19); (B2.1.5) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain D747 (available as Double Nickel™ from from Kumiai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., having accession number FERM BP-8234, US Patent No. 7,094,592); (B2.1.6) Bacillus subtilis Y1336 (available as BIOBAC® WP from Bion-Tech, Taiwan, registered as a biological fungicide in Taiwan under Registration Nos. 4764, 5454, 5096 and 5277); (B2.1.7) Bacillus subtilis strain MBI 600 (available as SUBTILEX from BASF SE), having Accession Number NRRL B-50595, U.S. Patent No. 5,061,495; (B2.1.8) Bacillus subtilis strain GB03 (available as Kodiak® from Bayer AG, DE); (B2.1.9) Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 having Accession No. DSM 10271 (available from Novozymes as TAEGRO® or TAEGRO® ECO (EPA Registration No. 70127-5)); (B2.1.10) Bacillus mycoides, isolate J , having Accession No. B-30890 (available as BMJ TGAI® or WG and LifeGard™ from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.); (B2.1.11) Bacillus licheniformis, in particular strain SB3086 , having Accession No. ATCC 55406, WO 2003/000051 (available as ECOGUARD® Biofungicide and GREEN RELEAF™ from Novozymes); (B2.1.12) a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; (B2.1.13) Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as VELONDIS® PLUS, VELONDIS® FLEX and VELONDIS® EXTRA from BASF SE); (B2.1.14) Bacillus subtilis CX-9060 from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B2.1.15) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain F727 (also known as strain MBI110) (NRRL Accession No. B-50768; WO 2014/028521) (STARGUS® from Marrone Bio Innovations); (B2.1.16) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB42, Accession No. DSM 23117 (available as RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); (B2.1.17) Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (QUARTZO® (WG) and PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); (B2.1.18) Bacillus mojavensis strain R3B (Accession No. NCAIM (P) B001389) (WO 2013/034938) from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.; (B2.1.19) Paenibacillus polymyxa ssp. plantarum (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; (B2.1.20) Paenibacillus epiphyticus (WO 2016/020371) from BASF SE; (B.1.21) Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009, having Accession No. NRRL B-50897, WO 2017/019448 (e.g., HOWLER™ and ZIO® from AgBiome Innovations, US); (B2.1.22) Pseudomonas chlororaphis, in particular strain MA342 (e.g. CEDOMON®, CERALL®, and CEDRESS® by Bioagri and Koppert); (B2.1.23) Streptomyces lydicus strain WYEC108 (also known as Streptomyces lydicus strain WYCD108US) (ACTINO-IRON® and ACTINOVATE® from Novozymes); (B2.1.24) Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 (e.g. GALLTROL-A® from AgBioChem, CA); (B2.1.25) Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K1026 (e.g. NOGALL™ from BASF SE); (B2.1.26) Bacillus subtilis KTSB strain (FOLIACTIVE® from Donaghys); (B2.1.27) Bacillus subtilis IAB/BS03 (AVIV™ from STK Bio-Ag Technologies); (B2.1.28) Bacillus subtilis strain Y1336 (available as BIOBAC® WP from Bion-Tech, Taiwan, registered as a biological fungicide in Taiwan under Registration Nos. 4764, 5454, 5096 and 5277); (B2.1.29) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolate B246 (e.g. AVOGREEN™ from University of Pretoria); (B2.1.30) Bacillus methylotrophicus strain BAC-9912 (from Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of Applied Ecology); (B2.1.31) Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); (B2.1.32) Streptomyces griseoviridis strain K61 (also known as Streptomyces galbus strain K61) (Accession No. DSM 7206) (MYCOSTOP® from Verdera; PREFENCE® from BioWorks; cf. Crop Protection 2006, 25, 468-475); (B2.1.33) Pseudomonasfluorescens strain A506 (e.g. BLIGHTBAN® A506 by NuFarm); and

(B2.2) fungi selected from (B2.2.1) Coniothyrium minitans, in particular strain CON/M/91-8 (Accession No. DSM-9660; e.g. Contans ® from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH); (B2.2.2) Metschnikowia fructicola, in particular strain NRRL Y-30752; (B2.2.3) Microsphaeropsis ochracea; (B2.2.5) Trichoderma atroviride, in particular strain SC1 (having Accession No. CBS 122089, WO 2009/116106 and U.S. Patent No. 8,431,120 (from Bi-PA)), strain 77B (T77 from Andermatt Biocontrol) or strain LU132 (e.g. Sentinel from Agrimm Technologies Limited); (B2.2.6) Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (e.g. Trianum-P from Andermatt Biocontrol or Koppert) or strain Cepa Simb-T5 (from Simbiose Agro); (B2.2.14) Gliocladium roseum (also known as Clonostachys rosea f rosea), in particular strain 321U from Adjuvants Plus, strain ACM941 as disclosed in Xue (Efficacy of Clonostachys rosea strain ACM941 and fungicide seed treatments for controlling the root tot complex of field pea, Can Jour Plant Sci 83(3): 519-524), or strain IK726 (Jensen DF, et al. Development of a biocontrol agent for plant disease control with special emphasis on the near commercial fungal antagonist Clonostachys rosea strain 'IK726'; Australas Plant Pathol. 2007;36:95-101); (B2.2.35) Talaromyces flavus, strain V117b; (B2.2.36) Trichoderma viride, in particular strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137); (B2.2.37) Trichoderma asperellum, in particular strain SKT-1, having Accession No. FERM P-16510 (e.g. ECO-HOPE® from Kumiai Chemical Industry), strain T34 (e.g. T34 Biocontrol by Biocontrol Technologies S.L., ES) or strain ICC 012 from Isagro; (B2.2.38) Trichoderma atroviride, strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR); (B2.2.39) Trichoderma atroviride, strain no. V08/002387; (B2.2.40) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002388; (B2.2.41) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002389; (B2.2.42) Trichoderma atroviride, strain NMI no. V08/002390; (B2.2.43) Trichoderma atroviride, strain LC52 (e.g. Tenet by Agrimm Technologies Limited); (B2.2.44) Trichoderma atroviride, strain ATCC 20476 (IMI 206040); (B2.2.45) Trichoderma atroviride, strain T11 (IMI352941/ CECT20498); (B2.2.46) Trichoderma harmatum; (B2.2.47) Trichoderma harzianum; (B2.2.48) Trichoderma harzianum rifai T39 (e.g. Trichodex® from Makhteshim, US); (B2.2.49) Trichoderma asperellum, in particular, strain kd (e.g. T-Gro from Andermatt Biocontrol); (B2.2.50) Trichoderma harzianum, strain ITEM 908 (e.g. Trianum-P from Koppert); (B2.2.51) Trichoderma harzianum, strain TH35 (e.g. Root-Pro by Mycontrol); (B2.2.52) Trichoderma virens (also known as Gliocladium virens), in particular strain GL-21 (e.g. SoilGard by Certis, US); (B2.2.53) Trichoderma viride, strain TV1(e.g. Trianum-P by Koppert); (B2.2.54) Ampelomyces quisqualis, in particular strain AQ 10 (e.g. AQ 10® by IntrachemBio Italia); (B2.2.56) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM14940; (B2.2.57) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular blastospores of strain DSM 14941; (B2.2.58) Aureobasidium pullulans, in particular mixtures of blastospores of strains DSM14940 and DSM 14941 (e.g. Botector® by bio-ferm, CH); (B2.2.64) Cladosporium cladosporioides, strain H39, having Accession No. CBS122244, US 2010/0291039 (by Stichting Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek); (B2.2.69) Gliocladium catenulatum (Synonym: Clonostachys rosea f. catenulate) strain J1446 (e.g. Prestop ® by Lallemand); (B2.2.70) Lecanicillium lecanii (formerly known as Verticillium lecanii) conidia of strain KV01 (e.g. Vertalec® by Koppert/Arysta); (B2.2.71) Penicillium vermiculatum; (B2.2.72) Pichia anomala, strain WRL-076 (NRRL Y-30842), U.S. Patent No. 7,579,183; (B2.2.75) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-1 (FERM P-16510), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.76) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-2 (FERM P-16511), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.77) Trichoderma atroviride, strain SKT-3 (FERM P-17021), JP Patent Publication (Kokai) 11-253151 A; (B2.2.78) Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride), strain ICC080 (IMI CC 392151 CABI, e.g. BioDerma by AGROBIOSOL DE MEXICO, S.A. DE C.V.); (B2.2.79) Trichoderma harzianum, strain DB 103 (available as T-GRO® 7456 by Dagutat Biolab); (B2.2.80) Trichoderma polysporum, strain IMI 206039 (e.g. Binab TF WP by BINAB Bio-Innovation AB, Sweden); (B2.2.81) Trichoderma stromaticum, having Accession No. Ts3550 (e.g. Tricovab by CEPLAC, Brazil); (B2.2.83) Ulocladium oudemansii strain U3, having Accession No. NM 99/06216 (e.g., BOTRY-ZEN® by Botry-Zen Ltd, New Zealand and BOTRYSTOP® from BioWorks, Inc.); (B2.2.84) Verticillium albo-atrum (formerly V. dahliae), strain WCS850 having Accession No. WCS850, deposited at the Central Bureau for Fungi Cultures (e.g., DUTCH TRIG® by Tree Care Innovations); (B2.2.86) Verticillium chlamydosporium; (B2.2.87) mixtures of Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 (also known as Trichoderma harzianum ICC012), having Accession No. CABI CC IMI 392716 and Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride) strain ICC 080, having Accession No. IMI 392151 (e.g., BIO-TAM™ from Isagro USA, Inc. and BIODERMA® by Agrobiosol de Mexico, S.A. de C.V.); (B2.2.88) Trichoderma asperelloides JM41R (Accession No. NRRL B-50759) (TRICHO PLUS® from BASF SE); (B2.2.89) Aspergillus flavus strain NRRL 21882 (products known as AFLA-GUARD® from Syngenta/ChemChina); (B2.2.90) Chaetomium cupreum (Accession No. CABI 353812) (e.g. BIOKUPRUM™ by AgriLife); (B2.2.91) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular strain LASO2 (from Agro-Levures et Dérivés), strain LAS117 cell walls (CEREVISANE® from Lesaffre; ROMEO® from BASF SE), strains CNCM No. 1-3936, CNCM No. 1-3937, CNCM No. 1-3938, CNCM No. 1-3939 (WO 2010/086790) from Lesaffre et Compagnie, FR; (B2.2.92) Trichoderma virens strain G-41, formerly known as Gliocladium virens (Accession No. ATCC 20906) (e.g., ROOTSHIELD® PLUS WP and TURFSHIELD® PLUS WP from BioWorks, US); (B2.2.93) Trichoderma hamatum, having Accession No. ATCC 28012; (B2.2.94) Ampelomyces quisqualis strain AQ10, having Accession No. CNCM 1-807 (e.g., AQ 10® by IntrachemBio Italia); (B2.2.95) Phlebiopsis gigantea strain VRA 1992 (ROTSTOP® C from Danstar Ferment); (B2.2.96) Penicillium steckii (DSM 27859; WO 2015/067800) from BASF SE; (B2.2.97) Chaetomium globosum (available as RIVADIOM® by Rivale); (B2.2.98) Cryptococcus flavescens, strain 3C (NRRL Y-50378); (B2.2.99) Dactylaria candida; (B2.2.100) Dilophosphora alopecuri (available as TWIST FUNGUS®); (B2.2.101) Fusarium oxysporum, strain Fo47 (available as FUSACLEAN® by Natural Plant Protection); (B2.2.102) Pseudozyma flocculosa, strain PF-A22 UL (available as SPORODEX® L by Plant Products Co., CA); (B2.2.103) Trichoderma gamsii (formerly T. viride), strain ICC 080 (IMI CC 392151 CABI) (available as BIODERMA® by AGROBIOSOL DE MEXICO, S.A. DE C.V.); (B2.2.104) Trichoderma fertile (e.g. product TrichoPlus from BASF); (B2.2.105) Muscodor roseus, in particular strain A3-5 (Accession No. NRRL 30548); and (B2.2.106) Simplicillium lanosoniveum;

(B3) biological control agents having an effect for improving plant growth and/or plant health selected from the group consisting of

(B3.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain QST2808 (having Accession No. NRRL No. B-30087); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (having NRRL Accession No. B-21661 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051; available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30002 (having Accession Nos. NRRL B-50421 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30004 (and NRRL B-50455 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Sinorhizobium meliloti strain NRG-185-1 (NITRAGIN® GOLD from Bayer CropScience); Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as TEQUALIS® from BASF SE); Bacillus subtilis rm303 (RHIZOMAX® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pm414 (LOLI-PEPTA® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus mycoides BT155 (NRRL No. B-50921), Bacillus mycoides EE118 (NRRL No. B-50918), Bacillus mycoides EE141 (NRRL No. B-50916), Bacillus mycoides BT46-3 (NRRL No. B-50922), Bacillus cereus family member EE128 (NRRL No. B-50917), Bacillus thuringiensis BT013A (NRRL No. B-50924) also known as Bacillus thuringiensis 4Q7, Bacillus cereus family member EE349 (NRRL No. B-50928), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB3281 (ATCC # PTA-7542; WO 2017/205258), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000 (available as QUIKROOTS® from Novozymes); Bacillus firmus, in particular strain CNMC 1-1582 (e.g. VOTIVO® from BASF SE); Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain GB34 (e.g. YIELD SHIELD® from Bayer Crop Science, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain IN937a; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain FZB42 (e.g. RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS27 (Accession No. NRRL B-5015); a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (available as QUARTZO® (WG), PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); Bacillus cereus, in particular strain BP01 (ATCC 55675; e.g. MEPICHLOR® from Arysta Lifescience, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain MBI 600 (e.g. SUBTILEX® from BASF SE); Bradyrhizobium japonicum (e.g. OPTIMIZE® from Novozymes); Mesorhizobium cicer (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Rhizobium leguminosarium biovar viciae (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Delftia acidovorans, in particular strain RAY209 (e.g. BIOBOOST® from Brett Young Seeds); Lactobacillus sp. (e.g. LACTOPLANT® from LactoPAFI); Paenibacillus polymyxa, in particular strain AC-1 (e.g. TOPSEED® from Green Biotech Company Ltd.); Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); Azospirillum brasilense (e.g., VIGOR® from KALO, Inc.); Azospirillum lipoferum (e.g., VERTEX-IF™ from TerraMax, Inc.); a mixture of Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium pasteurianum (available as INVIGORATE® from Agrinos); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in particular strain PN1; Rhizobium leguminosarum, in particular bv. viceae strain Z25 (Accession No. CECT 4585); Azorhizobium caulinodans, in particular strain ZB-SK-5; Azotobacter chroococcum, in particular strain H23; Azotobacter vinelandii, in particular strain ATCC 12837; Bacillus siamensis, in particular strain KCTC 13613T; Bacillus tequilensis, in particular strain NII-0943; Serratia marcescens, in particular strain SRM (Accession No. MTCC 8708); Thiobacillus sp. (e.g. CROPAID® from Cropaid Ltd UK); and

(B3.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Purpureocillium lilacinum (previously known as Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251 (AGAL 89/030550; e.g. BioAct from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH)Penicillium bilaii, strain ATCC 22348 (e.g. JumpStart® from Acceleron BioAg), Talaromyces flavus, strain V117b; Trichoderma atroviride strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR), Trichoderma viride, e.g. strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137); Trichoderma atroviride strain LC52 (also known as Trichoderma atroviride strain LU132; e.g. Sentinel from Agrimm Technologies Limited); Trichoderma atroviride strain SC1 described in International Application No. PCT/IT2008/000196); Trichoderma asperellum strain kd (e.g. T-Gro from Andermatt Biocontrol); Trichoderma asperellum strain Eco-T (Plant Health Products, ZA); Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (e.g. Trianum-P from Andermatt Biocontrol or Koppert); Myrothecium verrucaria strain AARC-0255 (e.g. DiTera™ from Valent Biosciences); Penicillium bilaii strain ATCC ATCC20851; Pythium oligandrum strain M1 (ATCC 38472; e.g. Polyversum from Bioprepraty, CZ); Trichoderma virens strain GL-21 (e.g. SoilGard® from Certis, USA); Verticillium albo-atrum (formerly V. dahliae) strain WCS850 (CBS 276.92; e.g. Dutch Trig from Tree Care Innovations); Trichoderma atroviride, in particular strain no. V08/002387, strain no. NMI No. V08/002388, strain no. NMI No. V08/002389, strain no. NMI No. V08/002390; Trichoderma harzianum strain ITEM 908; Trichoderma harzianum, strain TSTh20; Trichoderma harzianum strain 1295-22; Pythium oligandrum strain DV74; Rhizopogon amylopogon (e.g. comprised in Myco-Sol from Helena Chemical Company); Rhizopogon fulvigleba (e.g. comprised in Myco-Sol from Helena Chemical Company); or; Trichoderma virens strain GI-3;

(B4) insecticidally active biological control agents selected from

(B4.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, in particular strain ABTS-1857 (SD-1372; e.g. XENTARI® from Valent BioSciences); Bacillus mycoides, isolate J. (e.g. BmJ from Certis USA LLC, a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co.); Bacillus sphaericus, in particular Serotype H5a5b strain 2362 (strain ABTS-1743) (e.g. VECTOLEX® from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain BMP 123 from Becker Microbial Products, IL; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, in particular serotype H-7 (e.g. FLORBAC® WG from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1 (e.g. DIPEL® ES from Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain BMP 123 by Becker Microbial Products, IL; Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis strain BMP 144 (e.g. AQUABAC® by Becker Microbial Products IL); Burkholderia spp., in particular Burkholderia rinojensis strain A396 (also known as Burkholderia rinojensis strain MBI 305) (Accession No. NRRL B-50319; WO 2011/106491 and WO 2013/032693; e.g. MBI-206 TGAI and ZELTO® from Marrone Bio Innovations); Chromobacterium subtsugae, in particular strain PRAA4-1T (MBI-203; e.g. GRANDEVO® from Marrone Bio Innovations); Paenibacillus popilliae (formerly Bacillus popilliae; e.g. MILKY SPORE POWDER™ and MILKY SPORE GRANULAR™ from St. Gabriel Laboratories); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (serotype H-14) strain AM65-52 (Accession No. ATCC 1276) (e.g. VECTOBAC® by Valent BioSciences, US); Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain EVB-113-19 (e.g., BIOPROTEC® from AEF Global); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis strain NB 176 (SD-5428; e.g. NOVODOR® FC from BioFa DE); Bacillus thuringiensis var. japonensis strain Buibui; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain ABTS 351; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain PB 54; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain SA 11; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain SA 12; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain EG 2348; Bacillus thuringiensis var. Colmeri (e.g. TIANBAOBTC by Changzhou Jianghai Chemical Factory); Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain GC-91; Serratia entomophila (e.g. INVADE® by Wrightson Seeds); Serratia marcescens, in particular strain SRM (Accession No. MTCC 8708); and Wolbachia pipientis ZAP strain (e.g., ZAP MALES® from MosquitoMate); and

(B4.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Isaria fumosorosea (previously known as Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain apopka 97; Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 (e.g. NATURALIS® from Intrachem Bio Italia); Beauveria bassiana strain GHA (Accession No. ATCC74250; e.g. BOTANIGUARD® ES and MYCONTROL-O® from Laverlam International Corporation); Zoophtora radicans; Metarhizium robertsii 15013-1 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67073), Metarhizium robertsii 23013-3 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67075), and Metarhizium anisopliae 3213-1 (deposited under NRRL accession number 67074) (WO 2017/066094; Pioneer Hi-Bred International); Beauveria bassiana strain ATP02 (Accession No. DSM 24665). Among these, Isaria fumosorosea (previously known as Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain apopka 97 is particularly preferred;

(B5) Viruses selected from the group consisting of
Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix) granulosis virus (GV), Cydia pomonella (codling moth) granulosis virus (GV), Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) mNPV, Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) mNPV, and Spodoptera littoralis (African cotton leafworm) NPV;

(B6) Bacteria and fungi which can be added as 'inoculant' to plants or plant parts or plant organs and which, by virtue of their particular properties, promote plant growth and plant health selected from the group consisting of
Agrobacterium spp., Azorhizobium caulinodans, Azospirillum spp., Azotobacter spp., Bradyrhizobium spp., Burkholderia spp., in particular Burkholderia cepacia (formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia), Gigaspora spp., or Gigaspora monosporum, Glomus spp., Laccaria spp., Lactobacillus buchneri, Paraglomus spp., Pisolithus tinctorus, Pseudomonas spp., Rhizobium spp., in particular Rhizobium trifolii, Rhizopogon spp., Scleroderma spp., Suillus spp., and Streptomyces spp.;

(B7) Plant extracts and products formed by microorganisms including proteins and secondary metabolites which can be used as biological control agents, such as
Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, azadirachtin, Biokeeper WP, Cassia nigricans, Celastrus angulatus, Chenopodium anthelminticum, chitin, Armour-Zen, Dryopteris filix-mas, Equisetum arvense, Fortune Aza, Fungastop, Heads Up (Chenopodium quinoa saponin extract), Pyrethrum/Pyrethrins, Quassia amara, Quercus, Quillaja, Regalia, "Requiem ™ Insecticide", rotenone, ryania/ryanodine, Symphytum officinale, Tanacetum vulgare, thymol, Triact 70, TriCon, Tropaeulum majus, Urtica dioica, Veratrin, Viscum album, Brassicaceae extract, in particular oilseed rape powder or mustard powder;

and further active ingredient groups (C1) to (C30) are:

(C1) acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, preferably carbamates selected from alanycarb, aldicarb, bendiocarb, benfuracarb, butocarboxim, butoxycarboxim, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, ethiofencarb, fenobucarb, formetanate, furathiocarb, isoprocarb, methiocarb, methomyl, metolcarb, oxamyl, pirimicarb, propoxur, thiodicarb, thiofanox, triazamate, trimethacarb, XMC and xylylcarb, or organophosphates selected from acephate, azamethiphos, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, cadusafos, chlorethoxyfos, chlorfenvinphos, chlormephos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, coumaphos, cyanophos, demeton-S-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos/DDVP, dicrotophos, dimethoate, dimethylvinphos, disulfoton, EPN, ethion, ethoprophos, famphur, fenamiphos, fenitrothion, fenthion, fosthiazate, heptenophos, imicyafos, isofenphos, isopropyl O-(methoxyaminothiophosphoryl) salicylate, isoxathion, malathion, mecarbam, methamidophos, methidathion, mevinphos, monocrotophos, naled, omethoate, oxydemeton-methyl, parathion-methyl, phenthoate, phorate, phosalone, phosmet, phosphamidon, phoxim, pirimiphos-methyl, profenofos, propetamphos, prothiofos, pyraclofos, pyridaphenthion, quinalphos, sulfotep, tebupirimfos, temephos, terbufos, tetrachlorvinphos, thiometon, triazophos, triclorfon and vamidothion;

(C2) GABA-gated chloride channel blockers, preferably cyclodiene-organochlorines selected from chlordane and endosulfan, or phenylpyrazoles (fiproles) selected from ethiprole and fipronil;

(C3) sodium channel modulators, preferably pyrethroids selected from acrinathrin, allethrin, d-cis-trans allethrin, d-trans allethrin, bifenthrin, bioallethrin, bioallethrin s-cyclopentenyl isomer, bioresmethrin, cycloprothrin, cyfluthrin, beta-cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, theta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyphenothrin [(1R)-trans-isomer], deltamethrin, empenthrin [(EZ)-(1R)-isomer], esfenvalerate, etofenprox, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, flucythrinate, flumethrin, tau-fluvalinate, halfenprox, imiprothrin, kadethrin, momfluorothrin, permethrin, phenothrin [(1R)-trans-isomer], prallethrin, pyrethrins (pyrethrum), resmethrin, silafluofen, tefluthrin, tetramethrin, tetramethrin [(1R)- isomer)], tralomethrin and transfluthrin or DDT or methoxychlor;

(C4) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) competitive modulators, preferably neonicotinoids selected from acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam, or nicotine, or sulfoximines selected from sulfoxaflor, or butenolids selected from flupyradifurone, or mesoionics selected from triflumezopyrim;

(C5) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) allosteric modulators, preferably spinosyns selected from spinetoram and spinosad;

(C6) glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) allosteric modulators, preferably avermectins/milbemycins selected from abamectin, emamectin benzoate, lepimectin and milbemectin;

(C7) juvenile hormone mimics, preferably juvenile hormone analogues selected from hydroprene, kinoprene and methoprene, or fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen;

(C8) miscellaneous non-specific (multi-site) inhibitors, preferably alkyl halides selected from methyl bromide and other alkyl halides, or chloropicrine or sulphuryl fluoride or borax or tartar emetic or methyl isocyanate generators selected from diazomet and metam;

(C9) chordotonal organ TRPV channel modulators selected from pymetrozine and pyrifluquinazone;

(C10) mite growth inhibitors selected from clofentezine, hexythiazox, diflovidazin and etoxazole;

(C11) microbial disruptors of the insect gut membrane selected from Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki, Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis, and B.t. plant proteins selected from Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab, Vip3A, mCry3A, Cry3Ab, Cry3Bb and Cry34Ab1/35Ab1;

(C12) inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase, preferably ATP disruptors selected from diafenthiuron, or organotin compounds selected from azocyclotin, cyhexatin and fenbutatin oxide, or propargite or tetradifon;

(C13) uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient selected from chlorfenapyr, DNOC and sulfluramid;

(C14) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel blockers selected from bensultap, cartap hydrochloride, thiocylam and thiosultap-sodium;

(C15) inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 0, selected from bistrifluron, chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, novaluron, noviflumuron, teflubenzuron and triflumuron;

(C16) inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis, type 1 selected from buprofezin;

(C17) moulting disruptor (in particular for Diptera, i.e. dipterans) selected from cyromazine;

(C18) ecdysone receptor agonists selected from chromafenozide, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide;

(C19) octopamine receptor agonists selected from amitraz;

(C20) mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors selected from hydramethylnone, acequinocyl and fluacrypyrim;

(C21) mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors, preferably METI acaricides selected from fenazaquin, fenpyroximate, pyrimidifen, pyridaben, tebufenpyrad and tolfenpyrad, or rotenone (Derris);

(C22) voltage-dependent sodium channel blockers selected from indoxacarb and metaflumizone;

(C23) inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase, preferably tetronic and tetramic acid derivatives selected from spirodiclofen, spiromesifen and spirotetramat;

(C24) mitochondrial complex IV electron transport inhibitors, preferably phosphines selected from aluminium phosphide, calcium phosphide, phosphine and zinc phosphide, or cyanides selected from calcium cyanide, potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide;

(C25) mitochondrial complex II electron transport inhibitors, preferably beta-ketonitrile derivatives selected from cyenopyrafen and cyflumetofen, and carboxanilides selected from pyflubumide;

(C28) ryanodine receptor modulators, preferably diamides selected from chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide;

(C29) chordotonal organ Modulators (with undefined target site) selected from flonicamid; and

(C30) further active compounds selected from Acynonapyr, Afidopyropen, Afoxolaner, Azadirachtin, Benclothiaz, Benzoximate, Benzpyrimoxan, Bifenazate, Broflanilide, Bromopropylate, Chinomethionat, Chloroprallethrin, Cryolite, Cyclaniliprole, Cycloxaprid, Cyhalodiamide, Dicloromezotiaz, Dicofol, Dimpropyridaz, epsilon-Metofluthrin, epsilon-Momfluthrin, Flometoquin, Fluazaindolizine, Fluensulfone, Flufenerim, Flufenoxystrobin, Flufiprole, Fluhexafon, Flupyrimin, Fluralaner, Fluxametamide, Fufenozide, Guadipyr, Heptafluthrin, Imidaclothiz, Iprodione, Isocycloseram, kappa-Bifenthrin, kappa-Tefluthrin, Lotilaner, Meperfluthrin, Oxazosulfyl, Paichongding, Pyridalyl, Pyrifluquinazon, Pyriminostrobin, Spirobudiclofen, Spiropidion, Tetramethylfluthrin, Tetraniliprole, Tetrachlorantraniliprole, Tigolaner, Tioxazafen, Thiofluoximate iodomethane; furthermore preparations based on Bacillus firmus (1-1582, BioNem, Votivo), and also the following compounds: 1-{2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-[(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)sulphinyl]phenyl}-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-amine (known from WO2006/043635) (CAS 885026-50-6), {1'-[(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]-5-fluorospiro[indol-3,4'-piperidin]-1(2H)-yl}(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)methanone (known from WO2003/106457) (CAS 637360-23-7), 2-chloro-N-[2-{1-[(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-yl]piperidin-4-yl}-4-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]isonicotinamide (known from WO2006/003494) (CAS 872999-66-1), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-8-methoxy-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-2-one (known from WO 2010052161) (CAS 1225292-17-0), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-2-oxo-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl ethyl carbonate (known from EP2647626) (CAS 1440516-42-6), 4-(but-2-yn-1-yloxy)-6-(3,5-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-5-fluoropyrimidine (known from WO2004/099160) (CAS 792914-58-0), PF1364 (known from JP2010/018586) (CAS 1204776-60-2), (3E)-3-[1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-2-pyridylidene]-1,1,1-trifluoro-propan-2-one (known from WO2013/144213) (CAS 1461743-15-6), N-[3-(benzylcarbamoyl)-4-chlorophenyl]-1-methyl-3-(pentafluoroethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO2010/051926) (CAS 1226889-14-0), 5-bromo-4-chloro-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-(methylcarbamoyl)phenyl]-2-(3-chloro-2-pyridyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide (known from CN103232431) (CAS 1449220-44-3), 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(cis-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)-benzamide, 4-[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(trans-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)-benzamide and 4-[(5S)-5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-2-methyl-N-(cis-1-oxido-3-thietanyl)benzamide (known from WO 2013/050317 A1) (CAS 1332628-83-7), N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide, (+)-N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide and (-)-N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)sulfinyl]-propanamide (known from WO 2013/162715 A2, WO 2013/162716 A2, US 2014/0213448 A1) (CAS 1477923-37-7), 5-[[(2E)-3-chloro-2-propen-1-yl]amino]-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carbonitrile (known from CN 101337937 A) (CAS 1105672-77-2), 3-bromo-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino) thioxomethyl]phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide, (Liudaibenjiaxuanan, known from CN 103109816 A) (CAS 1232543-85-9); N-[4-chloro-2-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino] carbonyl]-6-methylphenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-3-(fluoro-methoxy)-1H-Pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO 2012/034403 A1) (CAS 1268277-22-0), N-[2-(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-4-chloro-6-methylphenyl]-3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from WO 2011/085575 A1) (CAS 1233882-22-8), 4-[3-[2,6-dichloro-4-[(3,3-dichloro-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]phenoxy]propoxy]-2-methoxy-6-(trifluoromethyl)-pyrimidine (known from CN 101337940 A) (CAS 1108184-52-6); (2E)- and 2(Z)-2-[2-(4-cyanophenyl)-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethylidene]-N-[4-(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]-hydrazinecarboxamide (known from CN 101715774 A) (CAS 1232543-85-9); 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)phenyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ester (known from CN 103524422 A) (CAS 1542271-46-4); (4aS)-7-chloro-2,5-dihydro-2-[[(methoxycarbonyl)[4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]phenyl]amino] carbonyl]-indeno[1,2-e][1,3,4]oxadiazine-4a(3H)-carboxylic acid methyl ester (known from CN 102391261 A) (CAS 1370358-69-2); 6-deoxy-3-O-ethyl-2,4-di-O-methyl-, 1-[N-[4-[1-[ 4-(1,1,2,2,2-pentafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]phenyl]carbamate]-α-L-mannopyranose (known from US 2014/0275503 A1) (CAS 1181213-14-8); 8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (CAS 1253850-56-4), (8-anti)-8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (CAS 933798-27-7), (8-syn)-8-(2-cyclopropylmethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-3-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (known from WO 2007040280 A1, WO 2007040282 A1) (CAS 934001-66-8), N-[3-chloro-1-(3-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-N-ethyl-3-[(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)thio]-propanamide (known from WO 2015/058021 A1, WO 2015/058028 A1) (CAS 1477919-27-9) and N-[4-(aminothioxomethyl)-2-methyl-6-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-3-bromo-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide (known from CN 103265527 A) (CAS 1452877-50-7), 5-(1,3-dioxan-2-yl)-4-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methoxy]-pyrimidine (known from WO 2013/115391 A1) (CAS 1449021-97-9), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-1-methyl-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-2,4-dione (known from WO 2014/187846 A1) (CAS 1638765-58-8), 3-(4-chloro-2,6-dimethylphenyl)-8-methoxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,8-diazaspiro[4.5]dec-3-en-4-yl-carbonic acid ethyl ester (known from WO 2010/066780 A1, WO 2011151146 A1) (CAS 1229023-00-0), 4-[(5S)-5-(3,5-Dichloro-4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-3-isoxazolyl]-N-[(4R)-2-ethyl-3-oxo-4-isoxazolidinyl]-2-methyl-benzamide (bekannt aus WO 2011/067272, WO2013/050302) (CAS 1309959-62-3),
and compounds of formula (IIa), (IIb), (IIc) or (IIc')






 
2. The active compound combination according to claim 1 comprising at least one fungicidally active biological control agent selected from

(B2.1) bacteria selected from the group consisting of Bacillus subtilis strain QST713/AQ713, (available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-21661; Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 (available as SONATA® from Bayer CropScience LP, US), having Accession No. NRRL B-30087, U.S. Patent No. 6,245,551; aqnd a Paenibacillus sp. strain having Accession No. NRRL B-50972 or Accession No. NRRL B-67129, WO 2016/154297; and

(B2.2) fungi selected from the group consisting of Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-8 (Accession No. DSM-9660; e.g. Contans® from Bayer CropScience Biologics GmbH); Talaromycesflavus strain V117b; Trichoderma atroviride strain CNCM 1-1237 (e.g. Esquive® WP from Agrauxine, FR); Gliocladium catenulatum (Synonym: Clonostachys rosea f. catenulate) strain J1446 (e.g. Prestop ® by Lallemand); and Trichoderma viride strain B35 (Pietr et al., 1993, Zesz. Nauk. A R w Szczecinie 161: 125-137).


 
3. The active compound combination according to claim 1 comprising
(B3.1) bacteria having an effect for improving plant growth and/or plant health selected from the group consisting of Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain QST2808 (having Accession No. NRRL No. B-30087); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain QST713/AQ713 (having NRRL Accession No. B-21661 and described in U.S. Patent No. 6,060,051; available as SERENADE® OPTI or SERENADE® ASO from Bayer CropScience LP, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30002 (having Accession Nos. NRRL B-50421 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain AQ30004 (and NRRL B-50455 and described in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/330,576); Sinorhizobium meliloti strain NRG-185-1 (NITRAGIN® GOLD from Bayer CropScience); Bacillus subtilis strain BU1814, (available as TEQUALIS® from BASF SE); Bacillus subtilis rm303 (RHIZOMAX® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens pm414 (LOLI-PEPTA® from Biofilm Crop Protection); Bacillus mycoides BT155 (NRRL No. B-50921), Bacillus mycoides EE118 (NRRL No. B-50918), Bacillus mycoides EE141 (NRRL No. B-50916), Bacillus mycoides BT46-3 (NRRL No. B-50922), Bacillus cereus family member EE128 (NRRL No. B-50917), Bacillus thuringiensis BT013A (NRRL No. B-50924) also known as Bacillus thuringiensis 4Q7, Bacillus cereus family member EE349 (NRRL No. B-50928), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SB3281 (ATCC # PTA-7542; WO 2017/205258), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TJ1000 (available as QUIKROOTS® from Novozymes); Bacillus firmus, in particular strain CNMC 1-1582 (e.g. VOTIVO® from BASF SE); Bacillus pumilus, in particular strain GB34 (e.g. YIELD SHIELD® from Bayer Crop Science, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain IN937a; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, in particular strain FZB42 (e.g. RHIZOVITAL® from ABiTEP, DE); Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS27 (Accession No. NRRL B-5015); a mixture of Bacillus licheniformis FMCH001 and Bacillus subtilis FMCH002 (available as QUARTZO® (WG), PRESENCE® (WP) from FMC Corporation); Bacillus cereus, in particular strain BP01 (ATCC 55675; e.g. MEPICHLOR® from Arysta Lifescience, US); Bacillus subtilis, in particular strain MBI 600 (e.g. SUBTILEX® from BASF SE); Bradyrhizobium japonicum (e.g. OPTIMIZE® from Novozymes); Mesorhizobium cicer (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Rhizobium leguminosarium biovar viciae (e.g., NODULATOR from BASF SE); Delftia acidovorans, in particular strain RAY209 (e.g. BIOBOOST® from Brett Young Seeds); Lactobacillus sp. (e.g. LACTOPLANT® from LactoPAFI); Paenibacillus polymyxa, in particular strain AC-1 (e.g. TOPSEED® from Green Biotech Company Ltd.); Pseudomonas proradix (e.g. PRORADIX® from Sourcon Padena); Azospirillum brasilense (e.g., VIGOR® from KALO, Inc.); Azospirillum lipoferum (e.g., VERTEX-IF™ from TerraMax, Inc.); a mixture of Azotobacter vinelandii and Clostridium pasteurianum (available as INVIGORATE® from Agrinos); Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in particular strain PN1; Rhizobium leguminosarum, in particular bv. viceae strain Z25 (Accession No. CECT 4585); Azorhizobium caulinodans, in particular strain ZB-SK-5; Azotobacter chroococcum, in particular strain H23; Azotobacter vinelandii, in particular strain ATCC 12837; Bacillus siamensis, in particular strain KCTC 13613T; Bacillus tequilensis, in particular strain NII-0943; Serratia marcescens, in particular strain SRM (Accession No. MTCC 8708); Thiobacillus sp. (e.g. CROPAID® from Cropaid Ltd UK).
 
4. The active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 3 comprising at least one active ingredient (C) selected from the group consisting of chlorantraniliprole, tetraniliprole, imidacloprid, clothianidin, cyantraniliprole, fipronil, thiametoxam, ethiprole and preparations based on Bacillus firmus (1-1582, BioNem, Votivo).
 
5. A composition for controlling unwanted microorganisms in crop protection comprising the compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 and at least one agriculturally suitable auxiliary.
 
6. The composition according to claim 5 further comprising at least one agriculturally beneficial agent selected from biostimulants, plant growth regulators, plant signal molecules, growth enhancers, microbial stimulating molecules, biomolecules, soil amendments, nutrients, plant nutrient enhancers, lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCO), chitooligosaccharides (CO), chitinous compounds, flavonoids, jasmonic acid and derivatives thereof, cytokinins, auxins, gibberellins, absiscic acid, ethylene, brassinosteroids, salicylates, macro- and micro-nutrients, linoleic acid and derivatives thereof, linolenic acid and derivatives thereof, karrikins, and beneficial microorganisms.
 
7. A method for controlling unwanted microorganisms on plants comprising the step of applying the compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 to the microorganisms and/or their habitat.
 
8. Use of the active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 for control of unwanted microorganisms in crop protection and in the protection of materials.
 
9. Use of the active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 for controlling animal pests.
 
10. Use of the active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 as a plant-strengthening agent.
 
11. Use of the active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 for treatment of a transgenic plant.
 
12. Use of the active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6 for treatment of seed.
 
13. Seed coated with an active compound combination according to any of claims 1 to 4 or the composition according to claim 5 or 6.
 





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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description