(19)
(11)EP 3 705 582 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
09.09.2020 Bulletin 2020/37

(21)Application number: 20157569.3

(22)Date of filing:  12.07.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12Q 1/6806(2018.01)
C12N 15/10(2006.01)
C12N 1/06(2006.01)
C12Q 1/686(2018.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 24.07.2015 US 201562196774 P

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
16742522.2 / 3325647

(71)Applicant: Cepheid
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • HO, Kenneth E.
    Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (US)

(74)Representative: Donald, Jenny Susan 
Forresters IP LLP Skygarden Erika-Mann-Strasse 11
80636 München
80636 München (DE)

 
Remarks:
This application was filed on 17.02.2020 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
Remarks:
Claims filed after the date of filing of the application /after the date of receipt of the divisional application (Rule 68(4) EPC).
 


(54)COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR DNA AND RNA EXTRACTION FROM TISSUE SAMPLES


(57) Methods and reagents are provided for the rapid extraction of nucleic acids from a cell or tissue sample. In certain embodiments the sample comprises a formalin fixed paraffin embedded sample (e.g., a FFPET sample), or a fine needle aspirate and/or a cell/tissue smear. In some embodiments, the methods comprise incubating one or more sections of said tissue sample in a lysis solution comprising a buffer sufficient to maintain the pH of said solution at a pH ranging from about pH 4 to about pH 9; a chaotropic agent; a chelating agent; and a detergent; where the incubating is at a temperature ranging from about 50°C to about 100°C; and recovering the nucleic acid from said lysis solution.




Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS



[0001] This application claims benefit of and priority to USSN 62/196,774, filed on July 24, 2015, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT


[Not Applicable]


BACKGROUND



[0002] The use of gene expression profiling is not only prevalent in various research applications, but is rapidly becoming part of many therapeutic regimes. For example, the determination of gene expression levels in tissues is of great importance for accurately diagnosing human disease and is increasingly used to determine a patient's course of treatment. Pharmacogenomic methods can identify patients likely to respond to a particular drug and can lead the way to new therapeutic approaches

[0003] For example, thymidylate synthase (TS) is an integral enzyme in DNA biosynthesis where it catalyzes the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and provides a route for de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides within the cell (Johnston et al. (1995) Cancer Res., 55: 1407-1412). Thymidylate synthase is a target for chemotherapeutic drugs, most commonly the antifolate agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). As an effective agent for the treatment of colon, head and neck and breast cancers, it is believed the primary action of 5-FU is to inhibit TS activity, resulting in depletion of intracellular thymine levels and subsequently leading to cell death.

[0004] Thymidylate synthase is also known to have clinical importance in the development of tumor resistance, as demonstrated by studies that have shown acute induction of TS protein and an increase in TS enzyme levels in neoplastic cells after exposure to 5-FU (Spears et al. (1982) Cancer Res. 42: 450-456; Swain et al. (1989) J. Clin. Oncol. 7: 890-899). The ability of a tumor to acutely overexpress TS in response to cytotoxic agents such as 5-FU may play a role in the development of fluorouracil resistance. the levels of TS protein appear to directly correlate with the effectiveness of 5-FU therapy, that there is a direct correlation between protein and RNA expression and TS expression is a powerful prognostic marker in colorectal and breast cancer (Jackman et al. (1985) Experimental and Clinical Progress in Cancer Chemotherapy, F. M. Muggia ed., Martinus et al. (1992) Cancer Res., 52: 108-116). In advanced metastatic disease, both high TS mRNA, quantified by RT-PCR, and high TS protein expression, have been shown to predict a poor response to fluoropyrimidine-based therapy for colorectal (Johnston et al. (1995) supra.; Farrugia et al. (1997) Proc. Annu. Meet Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 38: A4132; Leichman et al. (1997) J. Clin. Oncol. 15(10): 3223-3229), gastric (Lenz et al. (1998) Clin. Cancer Res., 4(5): 1227-1234), and head and neck (Johnston et al. (1995) Cancer Res., 55: 1407-1412; Leichman et al. (1997) J. Clin. Oncol. 15(10): 3223-3229) cancers.

[0005] Similarly, mutation of the KRAS oncogene is predictive of a very poor response to panitumumab (VECTIBIX®) and cetuximab (ERBITUX®) therapy in colorectal cancer (Lièvre et al. (2006) Cancer Res., 66(8): 3992-3995). Currently, one of the most reliable ways to predict whether a colorectal cancer patient will respond to one of the EGFR-inhibiting drugs is to test for certain "activating" mutations in the gene that encodes KRAS, which occur in 40% of colorectal cancers. Studies show patients whose tumors express the mutated version of the KRAS gene will not respond to cetuximab or panitumumab.

[0006] One important source for this type of information comes in the form of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue ("FFPET") samples, that are routinely created from biopsy specimens taken from patients undergoing a variety of diagnostic and/or therapeutic regimens for a variety of different diseases. These samples are usually associated with the corresponding clinical records and often play an important role in diagnosis and determination of treatment modality. For example, tumor biopsy FFPET samples are often linked with cancer stage classification, patient survival, and treatment regime, thereby providing a potential wealth of information that can be cross-referenced and correlated with gene expression patterns. However, the poor quality and quantity of nucleic acids isolated from FFPET samples has led to their underutilization in gene expression profiling studies.

[0007] It is known that RNA can be purified and analyzed from FFPET samples (Rupp and Locker (1988) Biotechniques 6: 56-60), however, RNA isolated from FFPET samples is often moderately to highly degraded and fragmented. In addition to being degraded and fragmented, chemical modification of RNA by formalin restricts the binding of oligo-dT primers to the polyadenylic acid tail and can impede the efficiency of reverse transcription.

[0008] In view of these difficulties, the analysis of nucleic acids from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) has proven challenging due to the multiple steps required for generating PCR-amplifiable genetic material. The procedure to isolate nucleic acids from FFPET may include removal of paraffin (deparaffinization), lysis of preserved sample (protease digestion), reversal of cross-links acquired during the fixation process and solid phase-based purification of nucleic acids. These protocols are typically complex and labor intensive.

SUMMARY



[0009] Methods and reagents for the isolation of nucleic acids from cell or tissue samples (e.g., fine needle aspirates and/or fixed embedded tissue samples (e.g., FFPET samples, and/or cryosections) are provided. In some embodiments, the methods are simple, easily semi-automated or fully automated and typically require minimal hands-on time, while extracting nucleic acids of high yield and PCR-amplifiable quality.

[0010] Various embodiments contemplated herein may include, but need not be limited to, one or more of the following:

Embodiment 1: A lysis solution for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said lysis solution comprising: NaCl2 at a concentration of greater than about 300 mM; a buffer sufficient to maintain the pH of said solution at a pH ranging from about pH 6.8 to about pH 7.3; a chelating agent; MgCl2 at a concentration less than about 50 mM; and a detergent.

Embodiment 2: The lysis solution of embodiment 1, wherein said lysis solution is for a formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sample.

Embodiment 3: The lysis solution of embodiment 1, wherein said lysis solution is for a fine needle aspirate and/or a cell smear.

Embodiment 4: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-3, wherein said solution comprises an antifoaming agent.

Embodiment 5: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-4, wherein said solution comprises a preservative/biocide.

Embodiment 6: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-5, wherein said buffer is a HEPES sodium salt buffer.

Embodiment 7: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-6, wherein the concentration of said buffer ranges from about 10 mM up to about 100 mM, or from about 20 mM up to about 50 mM, or is about 50 mM.

Embodiment 8: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-7, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.8 to about 7.2.

Embodiment 9: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-8, wherein said NaCl is at a concentration ranging from about 300 mM to about 500mM, or from about 350 mM up to about 450 mM, or is about 400 mM.

Embodiment 10: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-9, wherein said chelating agent comprises an agent selected from the group consisting of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and a phosphonate chelating agent.

Embodiment 11: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-10, wherein said chelating agent comprises EDTA.

Embodiment 12: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-11, wherein the concentration of said chelating agent in said solution ranges from about 5 mM to about 100 mM, or from about 10 mM to about 50 mM, or is about 25 mM.

Embodiment 13: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-12, wherein the concentration of said MgCl2 ranges from about 2 mM up to about 20 mM, or from about 5 mM up to about 15 mM, or is about 10 mM.

Embodiment 14: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-13, wherein said detergent is an ionic detergent or a non-ionic detergent.

Embodiment 15: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-13, wherein said detergent comprises a detergent selected from the group consisting of N-lauroylsarcosine, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), TRITON®-X-100, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, CHAPS, n-octanoylsucrose, n-octyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside, PLURONIC® F-127, TWEEN® 20, and n-heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside.

Embodiment 16: The lysis solution of embodiment 13, wherein said detergent comprises TWEEN® 20.

Embodiment 17: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-16, wherein said detergent comprises about 0.1% to about 2% of said solution, or about 0.5% to about 1.5% of said solution, or about 1% of said solution.

Embodiment 18: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 4-17, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises an organic antifoam emulsion or a siloxane based antifoam emulsion.

Embodiment 19: The lysis solution of embodiment 18, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises a siloxane emulsion.

Embodiment 20: The lysis solution of embodiment 18, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises a 10% emulsion of an active silicon antifoam and non-ionic emulsifiers (SE-15).

Embodiment 21: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 4-20, wherein said antifoaming agent is present at an amount ranging from about 0.001% up to about 0.05%, or ranging from about 0.005% up to about 0.03%, or from about 0.008% up to about 0.02% of said lysis solution, or is present at an amount of about 0.01% of said lysis solution.

Embodiment 22: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 5-17, wherein said biocide comprise one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sodium azide, sodium dehydroacetate, sodium borate decahydrate, and disodium edetate.

Embodiment 23: The lysis solution of embodiment 22, wherein said biocide comprises sodium azide.

Embodiment 24: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 5-23, wherein said biocide is present at an amount ranging from about 0.001% up to about 0.05%, or ranging from about 0.005% up to about 0.03%, or from about 0.008% up to about 0.02% of said lysis solution, or is present at an amount of about 0.01% of said lysis solution.

Embodiment 25: The lysis solution of embodiment 1, wherein said solution comprises: about 400 mM NaCl; about 50 mM HEPES sodium salt (MW 260.29); about 25 mM EDTA; about 10 mM MgCl2; and about 1% Tween 20.

Embodiment 26: The lysis solution of embodiment 25, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.90 to about 7.25.

Embodiment 27: The lysis solution of embodiment 25, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.95 to about 7.15.

Embodiment 28: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 25-27, wherein said solution comprises about 0.01% antifoaming agent.

Embodiment 29: The lysis solution of embodiment 28, wherein said antifoaming agent is SE-15.

Embodiment 30: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 25-29, wherein said solution comprises about 0.01% sodium azide.

Embodiment 31: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-30, wherein said solution further comprises a protease.

Embodiment 32: The lysis solution of embodiment 31, wherein said protease is selected from the group consisting of proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain.

Embodiment 33: The lysis solution of embodiment 31, wherein said protease is Proteinase K.

Embodiment 34: The lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 31-33, wherein said protease ranges in concentration from of 14 mg/mL to about 22 mg/mL and is added to said lysis solution at amount ranging from about 10 µL up to about 100 µL, or from about 20 µL up to about 50 µL, or about 20 µL up to about 40 µL.

Embodiment 35: A method for extracting a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said method comprising: incubating one or more cell or tissue samples in a lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-34, wherein said incubating is at a temperature ranging from about 50°C to about 100°C and said incubation is for a time ranging from about 10 minutes up to about 24 hours.

Embodiment 36: The method of embodiment 35, wherein said temperature is from about 60°C to about 90°C, or from about 70°C to about 90°C, or from about 75°C to about 85°C, or about 80°C.

Embodiment 37: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-36, wherein said incubating is for a time ranging from about 15 minutes up to about 12 hours, or from about 20 minutes up to about 8 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 6 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 4 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 2 hours, or for about 15 min, or for about 30 min, or for about 45 min, or for about 60 min, or for about 90 min, or for about 120 min.

Embodiment 38: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-37, wherein said method further comprises recovering said nucleic acid from said lysis solution.

Embodiment 39: The method of embodiment 38, wherein said recovering comprises the addition of a lower alcohol to said solution.

Embodiment 40: The method of embodiment 39, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol or isopropanol.

Embodiment 41: The method of embodiment 39, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol.

Embodiment 42: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-41, wherein said nucleic acid is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Embodiment 43: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-41, wherein said nucleic acid is a ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Embodiment 44: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-43, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) are selected from the group consisting of tissue biopsies, an aspirates, a cell smears, a wipe, a scrape, an archived sample, a fixed tissue section, a cryosection, a cell button, and a tissue microarray.

Embodiment 45: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained from a punch biopsy.

Embodiment 46: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained from a buccal scrape, or a gynecological scrape.

Embodiment 47: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained using a device selected from the group consisting of a multispatula, an extended tip spatula, a cytobrush, a cytopick, a cervexbrush, swab, a baynebrush, a profilebrush, a bulb aspirator, an Ayre spatula, and an Aylesbury device.

Embodiment 48: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a fine needle aspirate and/or a cell smear.

Embodiment 49: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples.

Embodiment 50: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples.

Embodiment 51: The method of embodiment 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise tissue section(s).

Embodiment 52: The method of embodiment 51, wherein said tissue section(s) range in thickness from about 1 µm to about 15 µm.

Embodiment 53: The method of embodiment 52, wherein said tissue section(s) having a thickness of about 8 µm or less, or about 6 µm or less, or about 5 µm or less, or about 4 µm or less, or about 3 µm or less, or about 2 µm or less.

Embodiment 54: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-53, wherein said tissue sample(s) are from a cancerous tissue.

Embodiment 55: The method of embodiment 54, wherein said tissue sample comprises a sample from a cancer selected from the group consisting of ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, melanoma, retinoblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumor, cervical carcinoma, sarcoma, prostate tumor, bladder tumor, tumor of reticuloendothelial tissue, Wilm's tumor, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, ovarian carcinoma, osteosarcoma, renal cancer, and head and neck cancer.

Embodiment 56: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-55, wherein said method does not include further steps of deparaffinization and/or additional reagents for deparaffinization.

Embodiment 57: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-56, wherein said method does not utilize an organic solvent for deparaffinization.

Embodiment 58: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-57, wherein said incubating is not in the presence of an organic solvent.

Embodiment 59: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-58, wherein the lysed tissue sample is mixed with a lower alcohol and stored.

Embodiment 60: The method of embodiment 59, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol or isopropanol.

Embodiment 61: The method of embodiment 59, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol.

Embodiment 62: The method according to any one of embodiments 59-61, wherein said tissue sample(s) are stored at a temperature of -20°C or lower.

Embodiment 63: The method according to any one of embodiments 59-62, wherein the lysis solution is stored over a period of at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years and in later RT-PCR provides consistent cycle thresholds.

Embodiment 64: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-63, wherein said method further comprises amplifying all or a portion of said nucleic acid.

Embodiment 65: The method of embodiment 64, wherein said method further comprising utilizing said nucleic acid as a template in a PCR amplification.

Embodiment 66: The method of embodiment 64, wherein said method further comprising utilizing said nucleic acid in RT PCR.

Embodiment 67: The method of embodiment 64, wherein said method further comprising amplifying said nucleic acid in a GeneXpert system.

Embodiment 68: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-67, wherein said nucleic acid is used to determine the presence and/or expression level of expression of at least one target RNA that is an mRNA.

Embodiment 69: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-67, wherein said nucleic acid is used to determine the presence and/or expression level of expression of at least one target RNA selected from the group consisting of KRT20, IGF2, ANXA10, CRH, ABL, ERBB1, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4, ESR1, PGR, MPO, CDKN2A, MKI67, TOP2A, MCM5, BIRC5, MMP9, and MCM2, PTEN, APC, KRAS, GATA3, PIC3CA, MAP3K1, TP53, and mutations of any of these.

Embodiment 70: The method according to any one of embodiments 35-69, where nucleic acids are amplified from the original lysed samples two or more different times.

Embodiment 71: The method of embodiment 70, wherein said two or more different times are over a period at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years.

Embodiment 72: The method according to any one of embodiments 70-71, wherein a second or later amplification comprise a repeat test.

Embodiment 73: The method according to any one of embodiments 70-71, wherein a second or later amplification comprise a reflex cartridge test.

Embodiment 74: A method for quantitative measurement of gene expression of a target gene in a fixed paraffin embedded tissue sample comprising: extracting an RNA from a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biological tissue sample according to the method of any one of embodiments 35-73; subjecting the extracted nucleic acid to amplification using a pair of oligonucleotide primers capable of amplifying a region of a target gene mRNA, to obtain an amplified sample; and determining the presence and/or quantity of said target gene mRNA.

Embodiment 75: The method of embodiment 74, wherein the quantity of said target gene mRNA is determined relative to the quantity of an internal control gene's mRNA from the isolated mRNA.

Embodiment 76: The method according to any one of embodiments 74-75, wherein determining the relative gene expression level comprises using RT-PCR.

Embodiment 77: The method according to any one of embodiments 74-76, wherein the internal control gene is β-actin.

Embodiment 78: The method according to any one of embodiments 74-77, wherein said target gene is selected from the group consisting of an ALK gene rearrangement, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), BCR-ABL fusion gene, BRAF mutation V600E, CA15-3/CA27.29, CA19-9, CA-125, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, chromogranin A (CgA), chromosome 3, chromosome 7, chromosome 17, chromosome 9p21, chromosome 20q13, cytokeratin fragments 21-1, EGFR mutation analysis, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), fibrin/fibrinogen, HE4, HER4, HER2/neu, KIT, KRAS mutation analysis, lactate dehydrogenase, nuclear matrix protein 22, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), thyroglobulin, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1).

Embodiment 79: A kit for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell and/or tissue sample, said kit comprising a container containing a lysis solution according to any one of embodiments 1-30.

Embodiment 80: The kit of embodiment 79, wherein said kit further comprises a container containing a protease.

Embodiment 81: The kit of embodiment 80, wherein said protease is selected from the group consisting of proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain.

Embodiment 82: The kit of embodiment 80, wherein said protease is proteinase K.

Embodiment 83: The kit according to any one of embodiments 80-82, wherein said protease and said lysis solution mixed together.

Embodiment 84: The kit according to any one of embodiments 80-82, wherein said protease and said lysis solution are provided in separate containers.

Embodiment 85: The kit according to any one of embodiments 79-84, wherein said kit further comprises a device for the collection of a cell or tissue sample.

Embodiment 86: The kit of embodiment 85, wherein said kit comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a device or device tip for performing a scrape, a wipe, a device or device tip for obtaining an aspirate, a punch biopsy device, and a blade for obtaining a skin biopsy.

Embodiment 87: The kit of embodiment 86, wherein said kit comprises a device or device tip for obtaining a fine needle aspirate.

Embodiment 88: The kit of embodiment 86, wherein said kit comprises a device or device tip for obtaining a vacuum assisted aspirate.

Embodiment 89: The kit of embodiment 86, wherein said kit comprises a device for performing a buccal scrape, or a gynecological scrape.

Embodiment 90: The kit of embodiment 86, wherein said kit comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a multispatula, an extended tip spatula, a cytobrush, a cytopick, a cervexbrush, swab, a baynebrush, a profilebrush, a bulb aspirator, an Ayre spatula, and an Aylesbury device.

Embodiment 91: The kit according to any one of embodiments 79-90, wherein said kit comprises a container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample and to store that sample in said lysis solution or in a buffer.

Embodiment 92: The kit of embodiment 91, wherein said container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample is configured for storage and/or shipping.


BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0011] 

Figure 1 schematically illustrates one embodiment of an FFPET GENEXPERT® workflow.

Figures 2A- 2C illustrate results of varying salinity of the lysis solution. Figure 2A shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for ESR and PGR. Figure 2B shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for ERBB2 and CYFIP1. Figure 2C shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for MKi67.

Figures 3A and 3B show stability of samples over time. Figure 3A shows the stability (repeatable of cycle threshold) for ESR, and PGR for samples stored over 62 days. Figure 3B shows the stability (repeatable of cycle threshold) for ESR, and PGR for samples stored over 62 days.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0012] Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET) samples represent the most commonly collected and stored samples for use in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases, including, but not limited to, cancer. Nevertheless, historically these samples have been underutilized for the purpose of gene expression profiling because of the poor quality and quantity of FFPET nucleic acids. The analysis of nucleic acids from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue (FFPET) is challenging due to the multiple steps required for generating amplifiable (e.g., PCR-amplifiable) genetic material. The procedure to isolate nucleic acids from FFPET has typically involved removal of paraffin (deparaffinization), lysis of preserved sample (protease digestion), reversal of cross-links acquired during the fixation process, and solid phase-based purification of nucleic acids.

[0013] There are various sample-prep procedures for extracting PCR-ready DNA/RNA, but most are complex and labor intensive. The compositions and methods described herein overcome these and other problems and provide reagents and protocols that can be used to rapidly isolate amplifiable quality nucleic acid samples (e.g., DNA, RNA). The methods provided are simple, easily semi- or fully-automated, and require requiring minimal hands-on time. The nucleic acids are extracted at high yield and are of PCR-amplifiable quality.

[0014] In certain embodiments, a lysis solution is provided that can be used to extract nucleic acids from a paraffin embedded formalin fixed sample using a single solution and incubation at a single temperature. This is provides a significant improvement is simplicity, efficiency and cost over previous two buffer/two temperature systems used to isolate nucleic acids from tissue samples.

[0015] It will be noted that while the discussion below focuses on FFPE samples, the lysis reagents described herein and uses thereof are effective with essentially any cellular or tissue sample including, but not limited to, fresh tissue sections, frozen tissue sections, cell biopsies, needle aspirates, cell buttons, tissue microarrays, and the like.

Lysis solution.



[0016] In certain embodiments the lysis solutions comprise a high concentration sodium salt (e.g., NaCl), a buffer sufficient to maintain the pH of the solution at a pH ranging from about pH 6.5 to about pH 7.5, or from about pH 6.8 to about pH 7.3, a chelating agent, a magnesium salt (e.g., MgCl2), and a detergent. In certain embodiments the lysis solution additionally contains an antifoaming agent, and/or a preservative/biocide, and/or a protease. In certain embodiments the lysis solution omits the protease which can then be added immediately prior to use.

[0017] One illustrative, but non-limiting embodiment of a lysis solution is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Illustrating, but non-limiting lysis solution.
ComponentConcentrationDescription
NaCl (MW 58.44) 400mM Sodium salt
Tween 20 1% Detergent
MgCl2 (MW 95.21) 10mM Magnesium salt
EDTA (MW 372.24) 25mM Chelating agent
HEPES sodium salt (MW 260.29) 50mM Buffer
Sodium azide (w/v) 0.01% Preservative/biocide
Antifoam SE-15* 0.01% Antifoaming Agent
pH 7.05 (+/- 0.1)  


[0018] This formulation is intended to be illustrative, but non-limiting. Using the teachings provided herein, other lysis solutions useful for a 1-step, 1 temperature extraction of nucleic acids from a tissue sample will be available to one of skill in the art.

Sodium salt.



[0019] In various embodiments the lysis solution comprises a sodium salt (NaCl). In certain embodiments the sodium salt is at a concentration ranging from about 300 mM to about 500mM, or from about 350 mM up to about 450 mM, or is about 400 mM. In certain embodiments a calcium salt (e.g., CaCl) may be used in addition to or instead of a sodium salt.

Buffer



[0020] In some embodiments, the lysis solution comprises a buffer that buffers the solution at a pH ranging from about pH 6.5 up to about pH 7.5. In some embodiments the buffer buffers the solution at a pH ranging from about pH 6.6, or about pH 6.7, or about pH 6.8 up to about pH 7.5 or up to about pH 7.4, or up to about pH 7.3, or up to about pH 7.2. In certain embodiments the pH is buffered at pH 7.05 (+/- 0.1).

[0021] In certain embodiments, the concentration of the buffer ranges from about 10 mM up to about 100 mM, or from about 20 mM up to about 50 mM, or is about 50 mM

[0022] In certain embodiments any of a number of buffers used in biology are suitable. Such include, but are not limited to buffers such as citrate buffer, Tris, phosphate, PBS, citrate, TAPS, Bicine, Tricine, TAPSO, HEPES, TES, MOPS, PIPES, Cacodylate, SSC, MES, and the like. An illustrative, but non-limiting list of buffer compounds is provided in Table 2.
Table 2. Common buffers that can be used in a lysis solution.
Common NamepKa at 25°CBuffer RangeFull Compound Name
TAPS 8.43 7.7-9.1 3-{[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino}propanesulfonic acid
Bicine 8.35 7.6-9.0 N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine
Tris 8.06 7.5-9.0 tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamine
Tricine 8.05 7.4-8.8 N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methylglycine
TAPSO 7.635 7.0-8.2 3-[N-Tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic Acid
HEPES 7.48 6.8-8.2 4-2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid
TES 7.40 6.8-8.2 2-{[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]amino}ethanesulfonic acid
MOPS 7.20 6.5-7.9 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid
PIPES 6.76 6.1-7.5 piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)
Cacodylate 6.27 5.0-7.4 dimethylarsinic acid
SSC 7.0 6.5-7.5 saline sodium citrate
MES 6.15 5.5-6.7 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid
Citrate     Sodium citrate


[0023] In one illustrative, but non-limiting embodiment, the buffer is a HEPES HEPES sodium salt (MW 260.29) present at about 50 mM.

[0024] The various buffers described above are intended to be illustrative and not limiting. Using the teaching and examples provided herein, numerous other buffers for use in a lysis solution in accordance with the methods described herein will be available to one of skill in the art.

Chelating agent.



[0025] As indicated above, in some embodiments, the lysis solution comprises one or more chelating agents. Chelating agents are well known to those of skill in the art and include, but are not limited to N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and phosphonate chelating agents (e.g., including, but not limited to nitrilotris(methylene)phosphonic acid (NTMP), ethylenediamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP), diethylenetriamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid (DTPMP), 1-hydroxy ethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDP), and the like). In some embodiments the chelating agent comprises EDTA, or DTAP. In some embodiments, the chelating agent comprises EDTA.

[0026] In some embodiments, when present, the chelating agent is present in the lysis solution at a concentration ranging from about 5 mM up to about 200 mM, or from about 10 mM up to about 100 mM. In some embodiments, the chelating agent is present at a concentration ranging from about 10 mM, or from about 20 mM, or from about 30 mM, or from about 40 mM up to about 60 mM, or up to about 70 mM, or up to about 80 mM, or up to about 90 mM, or up to about 100 mM. In some embodiments, the chelating agent is present at a concentration of about 50 mM. In some embodiments, the chelating agent ranges from about 1 mM up to about 140 mM, or from about 5 mM up to about 100 mM, or from about 10 mM to about 50 mM, or is about 25 mM.

Magnesium salt.



[0027] In certain embodiments the lysis solution contains a magnesium salt. In certain embodiments the magnesium salt is MgCl2. In certain embodiments the concentration of the magnesium salt in the lysis solution ranges from about 2 mM up to about 20 mM, or from about 5 mM up to about 15 mM, or is about 10 mM.

Detergent



[0028] As indicated above, in some embodiments, the lysis solution comprises one or more detergents. In some embodiments, the detergent comprises an ionic detergent or a non-ionic detergent. In some embodiments, the detergent includes one or more detergents shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Illustrative, but non-limiting detergents for use in some embodiments of the lysis solution described herein.
DescriptionMFormulaClass
Benzethonium chloride 448.08 C27H42ClNO2 cationic
BRIJ® 35 1198.56 C58H118O24 nonionic
BRIJ® 58 1123.51 C56H114O21 nonionic
Cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate 358.01 C21H38ClN·H2O cationic
Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide 364.46 C19H42BrN cationic
CHAPS 614.89 C32H58N2O7S zwitterionic
CHAPSO 630.87 C32H58N2O8S zwitterionic
1-Decanesulfonic acid sodium salt 244.33 C10H21NaO3S anionic
n-Decyl-β-D-glucopyranoside 320.43 C16H32O6 nonionic
n-Decyl-β-D-maltoside 482.57 C22H42O11 nonionic
Deoxy-BIGCHAP 862.07 C42H75N3O16 nonionic
Digitonin 1229.34 C56H92O29 nonionic
1-Dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt 272.38 C12H35NaO3S anionic
n-Dodecyl-β-D-glucopyranoside 348.48 C18H36O6 nonionic
Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside 510.63 C24H46O11 nonionic
Dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide 308.35 C15H34BrN cationic
HECAMEG 335.39 C15H29NO7 nonionic
1-Heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt anhydrous 202.25 C7H15NaO3S anionic
1-Heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate 220.27 C7H15NaO3S·H2O anionic
1-Hexanesulfonic acid sodium salt anhydrous 188.22 C6H13NaO3S anionic
1-Hexanesulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate 206.24 C6H13NaO3S·H2O anionic
n-Lauroylsarcosine sodium salt 293.39 C15H28NNaO3 anionic
Lithium dodecylsulfate (LiDS) 272.33 C12H25LiO4S anionic
MEGA-8 321.42 C15H31NO6 nonionic
MEGA-9 335.44 C16H33NO6 nonionic
1-Nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt 230.30 C9H19NaO3S anionic
n-Nonyl-β-D-glucopyranoside 306.40 C15H30O6 nonionic
n-Nonyl-β-D-maltoside 468.41 C21H40O11 nonionic
1-Octanesulfonic acid sodium salt 216.28 C8H17NaO3S anionic
n-Octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside 292.38 C14H28O6 nonionic
n-Octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside 308.44 C14H28O5S nonionic
Octyl- D-glucopyranoside 292.38 C14H28O6 nonionic
1-Pentanesulfonic acid sodium salt anhydrous 174.20 C5H11NaO3S anionic
1-Pentanesulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate 192.12 C5H11NaO3S·H2O anionic
PLURONIC® F-68 ∼8350   nonionic
Saponin     nonionic
SDS (Sodium dodecylsulfate) 288.38 C12H25NaO4S anionic
Sodium cholate 430.57 C24H39NaO5 anionic
Sodium deoxycholate 414.57 C24H39NaO4 anionic
Sucrose monolaurate 524.60 C24H44O12 nonionic
Sulfobetaine SB 12 335.55 C17H37NO3S zwitterionic
Sulfobetaine SB 14 363.60 C19H41NO3S zwitterionic
n-Tetradecyl-β-D-maltoside 538.63 C26H50O11 nonionic
n-Tridecyl-β-D-maltoside 524.64 C25H48O11 nonionic
TRITON® X-100 646.85 C34H62O11 nonionic
TRITON® X-114 558.75 C30H54O9 nonionic
TWEEN® 20 1227.72 C58H114O26 nonionic
TWEEN® 80 1310   nonionic
n-Undecyl-β-D-maltoside 496.59 C23H44O11 Nonionic
N-Lauroylsarcosine   CH3(CH2)10CON(CH3)CH2COOH anionic


[0029] In some embodiments the detergent comprises Tween 20, full strength.

[0030] In some embodiments, when present, the detergent is present in the lysis solution at a concentration ranging from about 5 mM up to about 200 mM, or from about 10 mM up to about 100 mM, or from about 20 mM up to about 50 mM, or from about 30 mM up to about 40 mM. In some embodiments the detergent ranges from about 5 mM, or from about 10 mM, or from about 15 mM or from about 20 mM or from about 25 mM up to about 200 mM or up to about 150 mM, or up to about 100 mM, or up to about 75 mM, or up to about 50 mM, or up to about 40 mM. In some embodiments, the detergent is present at a concentration of about 35 mM. In some embodiments, the detergent is present at a percentage ranging from about 0.5% (v/v) up to about 30% (v/v), or from about 1% (v/v) up to about 20% (v/v) or from about 5% up to about 15% (v/v). In some embodiments the detergent comprises about 0.1% to about 2% of said solution, or about 0.5% to about 1.5% of said solution, or about 1% of the lysis solution.

[0031] In some embodiments, the detergents used in the lysis solutions described herein need not be limited to the detergents described above. Using the teaching and examples provided herein, other detergents will be available to one of skill in the art.

Additional components



[0032] In some embodiments, the lysis solution additionally comprises one or more of the following: a second detergent, a chaotrope and/or reducing agent, calcium chloride or other salt, and/or a protease.

Protease



[0033] In some embodiments the lysis solution additionally includes one or more proteases. Suitable proteases include, but are not limited to serine proteases, threonine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartate proteases, metalloproteases, glutamic acid proteases, metalloproteases, and combinations thereof. Illustrative suitable proteases include, but are not limited to proteinase k (a broad-spectrum serine protease), subtilysin trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, and the like.

[0034] In some embodiments, when present in the lysis solution the protease is present at an amount that provides an activity that ranges from 1U/ml up to about 200U/ml of lysis solution. In some embodiments, the amount provides an activity ranging from about 1 U/ml, or from about 5 U/ml, or from about 10 U/ml, or from about 15 U/ml, up to about 200 U/ml, or up to about 100 U/ml, or up to about 80 U/ml, or up to about 60 U/ml, or up to about 40 U/ml, or up to about 30 U/ml of lysis solution. In some embodiments, the amount of protease ranges from about 0.05 to about 5 mg/ml. In some embodiments, the amount of protease ranges from about 0.1 mg/mL, or about 0.2 mg/mL, or about 0.3 mg/mL, or about 0.4 mg/mL, or about 0.5 mg/mL, or about 0.6 mg/mL, or about 0.7 mg/mL, or about 0.8 mg/mL up to about 5 mg/mL, or up to about 4 mg/mL, or up to about 3 mg/mL, or up about 2 mg/Ml, or up to about 1 mg/mL.

[0035] In some embodiments, the lysis solutions in the methods described herein need not be limited to the use of the proteases described above. Using the teaching and examples provided herein, other proteases will be available to one of skill in the art.

Methods of use.



[0036] In various embodiments methods of use of the lysis solutions described herein are provided. One embodiment of the methods is schematically illustrated in Figure 1. As shown therein, one or more sections of a fixed, paraffin-embedded, tissue sample, are incubated in a lysis solution at a temperature ranging from about 50°C to about 110°C, typically a single temperature of about 80°C. In certain embodiments the lysis solution lacks a protease, however, more typically a protease (e.g., proteinase K) is included.

[0037] The nucleic acids can be recovered from the lysis solution, e.g., using an alcohol extraction (e.g., an alcohol precipitation). The procedure results in a relatively high yield extraction and produces a nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, RNA) of sufficient quality for PCR amplification, detection, and/or quantification of a target nucleic acid sequence. In some embodiments the incubating is for a period of time up to about 3 hours. However, in typical embodiments, the incubating can range from about 15, 20, or 30 minutes up to about 1 hour. As noted above, in some embodiments no protease is required. Similarly, in some embodiments, the method does not include further steps of deparaffinization and/or additional reagents for deparaffinization. In some embodiments the method does not utilize an organic solvent for deparaffinization and/or the incubating is not in the presence of an organic solvent. According, the method is rapid, simple, and easily amenable to automation and high throughput methodologies.

[0038] The nucleic acids extracted using the methods and reagents described herein are of good quality and can readily be amplified to detect and/or quantify one or more target nucleic acid sequences in the sample. The nucleic acids are compatible with any of a number of amplification methods including, but not limited to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (see. e.g., Innis, et al. (1990) PCR Protocols. A guide to Methods and Application. Academic Press, Inc. San Diego,) including RT-PCR, ligase chain reaction (LCR) (see, e.g., Wu and Wallace (1989) Genomics 4: 560; Landegren et al. (1988) Science 241: 1077; Barringer et al. (1990) Gene 89: 117), transcription amplification (see, e.g., Kwoh et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA_86: 1173), self-sustained sequence replication (see, e.g., Guatelli et al. (1990) Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 1874), dot PCR, linker adapter PCR, and the like.

[0039] Moreover it was a surprising discovery that samples processed in accordance with the methods using the materials described herein, particularly using the lysis solution(s) described herein (see, e.g., Table 1) give earlier Ct results, sometimes better than 2 Cts, or better than 3 Cts, or better than 4 Cts, as compared to various commercial lysis systems.

[0040] Additionally a lysate stability study was performed in which FFPE cell buttons and FPE patient samples were lysed, mixed with Ethanol and then stored at -20C with scheduled test dates (see, e.g., Example 1, experiment G, on-going thru Day 62, and Figures 3A and 3B). In one experiment, presently out to 62 days consistent cycle thresholds were observed over the course of the 62 days for all targets. It is thus possible to measure multiple pulls from the original lysed scroll to perform either a repeat test (if needed) or reflex cartridge test(s).

[0041] While in some embodiments, the extracted nucleic acids are used in amplification reactions, other uses are also contemplated. Thus, for example, the extracted nucleic acids (or their amplification product(s)) can be used in various hybridization protocols including, but not limited to nucleic acid based microarrays. In some embodiments any nucleic acid-based microarray can be used with the methods described herein. Such microarrays include but are not limited to, commercially available microarrays, for example microarrays available from Affymetrix, Inc. (Santa Clara, CA), Agilent Technologies, Inc. (Santa Clara, CA), Illumina, Inc. (San Diego, Calif.), GE Healthcare (Piscataway, N.J.), NimbleGen Systems, Inc. (Madison, Wis.), Invitrogen Corp. (Carlsbad, Calif.), and the like.

[0042] The methods and reagents described herein are thus applicable to basic research aimed at the discovery of gene expression profiles relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. The methods are also applicable to the diagnosis and/or prognosis of disease, the determination particular treatment regiments, monitoring of treatment effectiveness and the like. In some embodiments the methods are also applicable to other fields where the quality of nucleic acid is poor, such as forensics, archeology, medical history, paleontology, and the like. In view of the teachings and protocols provided herein, these and other applications will readily be recognized by those of skill in the art.

Samples.



[0043] Using the methods described herein DNA and/or RNA can be isolated from any biological sample. Such samples include, but are not limited to fresh samples or cell/tissue aspirates, frozen sections, needle biopsies, cell cultures, fixed tissue samples, cell buttons, tissue microarrays, and the like. The methods are particularly well suited for use with fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (e.g., FFPET) samples. While histological samples are typically fixed with an aldehyde fixative such as formalin (formaldehyde) and glutaraldehyde, it is believed the methods described herein additionally work with tissues fixed using other fixation techniques such as alcohol immersion, and the like.

[0044] Illustrative samples include, but are not limited to, FFPET samples from human tissues, laboratory animal tissues, companion animal tissues, or livestock animal tissues. Thus, for example, the samples include tissue samples from humans including, but not limited to samples from healthy humans (e.g., healthy human tissue samples), samples from a diseased subject and/or diseased tissue, samples used for diagnostic and/or prognostic assays and the like. Suitable samples also include samples from non-human animals. FFPET samples from, for example, a non-human primate, such as a chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, monkey, macaque, baboon, mangabey, colobus, langur, marmoset, lemur, a mouse, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, cat dog, ferret, fish, cow, pig, sheep, goat, horse, donkey, chicken, goose, duck, turkey, amphibian, or reptile can be used in the methods described herein.

[0045] In addition, FFPET samples of any age can be used with the methods described herein including, but not limited to, FFPET samples that are fresh, less than one week old, less than two weeks old, less than one month old, less than two months old, less than three months old, less than six months old, less than 9 months old, less than one year old, at least one year old, at least two years old, at least three years old, at least four years old, at least five years old, at least six years old, at least seven years old, at least eight years old, at least nine years old, at least ten years old, at least fifteen years old, at least twenty years old, or older.

[0046] In some embodiments the methods described herein are performed on one or more sections taken from a fixed, embedded tissue sample (e.g., an FFPET sample). The sections can be of any desired thickness. Thus, in some embodiments, both thin sections or thick sections are contemplated, including, but not limited to, sections that are less than 1 micron thick, about 1 micron thick, about 2 microns thick, about 3 microns thick, about 4 microns thick, about 5 microns thick, about 6 microns thick, about 7 microns thick, about 8 microns thick, about 9 microns thick, about 10 microns thick, about 15 microns thick, or about 20 microns thick, depending upon the desired application. In certain applications, the sections can be, for example, up to about 1 micron thick, up to about 2 microns thick, up to about 3 microns thick, up to about 4 microns thick, up to about 5 microns thick, up to about 6 microns thick, up to about 7 microns thick, up to about 8 microns thick, up to about 9 microns thick, up to about 10 microns thick, up to about 15 microns thick, up to about 20 microns thick, or up to about 25 or 30 microns thick. In some embodiments, the sections can be defined by a range of sizes, including, but not limited to, between about 1 and about 5 microns thick, between about 1 and about 20 microns thick, between about 1 and about 10 microns thick, or between about 5 and about 10 microns thick.

[0047] In many cases, the fixed embedded tissue samples (e.g., FFPET samples) comprise an area of diseased tissue, for example a tumor or other cancerous tissue. While such FFPET samples find utility in the methods described herein, FFPET samples that do not comprise an area of diseased tissue, for example FFPET samples from normal, untreated, placebo-treated, or healthy tissues, also can be used in the methods described herein. In some embodiments of the methods described herein, a desired diseased area or tissue, or an area containing a particular region, feature or structure within a particular tissue, is identified in a FFPET sample, or a section or sections thereof, prior to isolation of nucleic acids as described herein, in order to increase the percentage of nucleic acids obtained from the desired region. Such regions or areas can be identified using any method known to those of skill in the art, including, but not limited to, visual identification, staining, for example hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemical labeling, and the like. In any event, in some embodiments, the desired area of the tissue sample, or sections thereof, can be dissected, either by macrodissection or microdissection, to obtain the starting material for the isolation of a nucleic acid sample using the methods described herein.

[0048] While, in certain embodiments, the lysis reagents and methods described herein are particularly well suited for use with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) samples, it will be appreciated that the reagents and methods need to be limited to use with such samples. For example, in certain embodiments the lysis reagent(s) and methods described herein can be used on whole cells that are, for example, applied onto a glass slide as a smear. In certain embodiments the smears are derived from a fine needle aspirate. Smears can be a vehicle that has been associated with FNAs where the drawn sample is applied to a slide as a smear. The cells can be stained for visual observations but they can also be left unstained and simply allowed to air dry. In certain embodiments using these unstained smears cells can be scrapped off the slide and utilized with the lysis reagent and methods described herein.

[0049] In another illustrative, but non-limiting approach the fine needle aspirate cells can be injected directly into the lysis reagent. The sample can continue with the lysing procedure. In certain embodiments it is possible to transport the sample (in the lysis reagent) to a different site where the analysis procedure can be completed. In certain embodiments the fine needle aspirate sample can also be made into an FFPE cell button.

[0050] The use of fine needle aspirates provides a method of avoiding the tedious process of preparing formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and can significantly speed up the testing process. This method may be quite useful in developing areas of the world.

[0051] In addition, to fine needle aspirates, it will also be appreciated that the reagent(s) (e.g., lysis solution) and methods of use thereof are amendable to use with essentially any method of cell collection. Such methods include, but are not limited to scrapes (e.g., buccal scrapes, gynecological scrapes, throat scrapes, scrapes during surgical procedures, etc.), wipes (obtained, for example, using a cotton swab), and aspirates including, but not limited to vacuum assisted biopsies.

[0052] In certain illustrative, but non-limiting embodiments, the sample comprises a diseased area or tissue comprising cells from a cancer. In some embodiments the cancer comprises a cancer selected from the group consisting of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Adrenocortical carcinoma, AIDS-related cancers (e.g., kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma), anal cancer, appendix cancer, astrocytomas, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, bile duct cancer, extrahepatic cancer, bladder cancer, bone cancer (e.g., Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma), brain stem glioma, brain tumors (e.g., astrocytomas, brain and spinal cord tumors, brain stem glioma, central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, central nervous system embryonal tumors, central nervous system germ cell tumors, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, breast cancer, bronchial tumors, burkitt lymphoma, carcinoid tumors (e.g., childhood, gastrointestinal), cardiac tumors, cervical cancer, chordoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic myeloproliferative disorders, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, craniopharyngioma, cutaneous t-cell lymphoma, duct cancers e.g. (bile, extrahepatic), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), embryonal tumors, endometrial cancer, ependymoma, esophageal cancer, esthesioneuroblastoma, extracranial germ cell tumor, extragonadal germ cell tumor, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, eye cancer (e.g., intraocular melanoma, retinoblastoma), fibrous histiocytoma of bone, malignant, and osteosarcoma, gallbladder cancer, gastric (stomach) cancer, gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), germ cell tumors (e.g., ovarian cancer, testicular cancer, extracranial cancers, extragonadal cancers, central nervous system), gestational trophoblastic tumor, brain stem cancer, hairy cell leukemia, head and neck cancer, heart cancer, hepatocellular (liver) cancer, histiocytosis, langerhans cell cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, hypopharyngeal cancer, intraocular melanoma, islet cell tumors, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, kaposi sarcoma, kidney cancer (e.g., renal cell, Wilm's tumor, and other kidney tumors), langerhans cell histiocytosis, laryngeal cancer, leukemia, acute lymphoblastic (ALL), acute myeloid (AML), chronic lymphocytic (CLL), chronic myelogenous (CML), hairy cell, lip and oral cavity cancer, liver cancer (primary), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), lung cancer (e.g., childhood, non-small cell, small cell), lymphoma (e.g., AIDS-related, Burkitt (e.g., non-Hodgkin lymphoma), cutaneous T-Cell (e.g., mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome), Hodgkin, non-Hodgkin, primary central nervous system (CNS)), macroglobulinemia, Waldenstrom, male breast cancer, malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone and osteosarcoma, melanoma (e.g., childhood, intraocular (eye)), merkel cell carcinoma, mesothelioma, metastatic squamous neck cancer, midline tract carcinoma, mouth cancer, multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes, multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm, mycosis fungoides, myelodysplastic syndromes, Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML), multiple myeloma, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer, neuroblastoma, oral cavity cancer, lip and oropharyngeal cancer, osteosarcoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (islet cell tumors), papillomatosis, paraganglioma, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer, parathyroid cancer, penile cancer, pharyngeal cancer, pheochromocytoma, pituitary tumor, plasma cell neoplasm, pleuropulmonary blastoma, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma, prostate cancer, rectal cancer, renal cell (kidney) cancer, renal pelvis and ureter, transitional cell cancer, rhabdomyosarcoma, salivary gland cancer, sarcoma (e.g., Ewing, Kaposi, osteosarcoma, rhadomyosarcoma, soft tissue, uterine), Sezary syndrome, skin cancer (e.g., melanoma, merkel cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, nonmelanoma), small intestine cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, squamous neck cancer with occult primary, stomach (gastric) cancer, testicular cancer, throat cancer, thymoma and thymic carcinoma, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic tumor, ureter and renal pelvis cancer, urethral cancer, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Wilm's tumor, and the like.

[0053] It will be recognized that the methods described herein are believed to be compatible with essentially any fixed (e.g., formalin fixed, glutaraldehyde fixed, etc.) paraffin embedded tissue sample. Such samples include, but are not limited to biopsies and fine needle aspirates and archived samples (e.g. tissue microarrays), and the like.

Heating



[0054] In some embodiments, one or more tissue sections are heated in the lysis solution. In this regard, it is noted that where thinner sections are used it is possible and can be desirable to utilize a plurality of sections (e.g., at least 2 sections, or at least 3 sections, or at least 4 sections, or at least 5 sections, or at least 6 sections, or at least 7 sections, or at least 8 sections, or at least 9 sections, or at least 10 sections). Particularly where the section is 5 µm thick or smaller multiple sections can be desirable.

[0055] In some embodiments, the sections are heated in the lysis solution at a temperature of about 40°C up to about 110°C. In some embodiments the sections are heated at a temperature ranging from about 40°C, or from about 45°C, or from about 50°C, or from about 55°C, or from about 60°C, or from about 65°C, or from about 70°C, or from about 74°C up to about 110°C, or up to about 100°C, or up to about 95°C, or up to about 90°C. In some embodiments, the sections are heated at a temperature ranging from about 80°C to about 90°C. In certain embodiments the heating is at 80°C.

[0056] In some embodiments, the incubation time ranges from about 10 minutes up to about 4 hours. In some embodiments, the incubation time ranges from about 10 minutes, or from about 15 minutes, or from about 20 minutes, or from about 25 minutes, or from about 30 minutes up to about 24 hours, or up to about 12 hours, or up to about 6 hours, or up to about 4 hours, or up to about 3.5 hours, or up to about 3 hours, or up to about 2.5 hours, or up to about 2 hours, or up to about 1.5 hours, or up to about 1 hour. In some embodiments, the incubation time ranges from about 30 minutes up to about 1 hour.

[0057] In one illustrative, but non-limiting, embodiment the one or more sections are incubated (heated) in the lysis solution (e.g., a solution as shown in Table 1) for about 60 minutes at a temperature of about 80°C. In another illustrative, but non-limiting, embodiment the one or more sections are incubated (heated) in the lysis solution (e.g., a solution as shown in Table 1) for about 30 minutes at a temperature of about 90°C.

[0058] These heating temperatures and periods are illustrative and not intended to be limiting. Using the teaching provided herein, one of skill may optimized the protocol for a particular sample type at a particular time and temperature.

Nucleic acid recovery



[0059] After the tissue section(s) are heated in the lysis solution the extracted nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, RNA) can be recovered. Numerous methods for DNA and/or RNA recovery are known to those of skill in the art.

[0060] In some embodiments, the nucleic acid is precipitated and/or bound to a solid substrate. Precipitation and/or binding to a substrate is readily accomplished by use of an alcohol, for example a lower alcohol (e.g., a C1-C6 alcohol). In some embodiments the alcohol is ethanol or isopropanol. In some embodiments the alcohol is ethanol. It will be recognized that in some embodiments, dry alcohols can be used.

[0061] In some embodiments the alcohol is used to simply precipitate the nucleic acid(s). In some embodiments, the alcohol is used to precipitate the nucleic acids in the present of a compatible solid phase that results in binding of the nucleic acid to that solid phase.

[0062] For example, in some embodiments, the alcohol treatment is performed in the present of a glass or cellulose substrate resulting in the binding of the nuclei acid(s) to that substrate. Remaining contaminants can be washed away while retaining the recovered nucleic acids that are then ready for amplification or other uses.

[0063] In some embodiments the solid phase comprises glass, silica, or cellulose. The solid phase can be provided by the walls of a container, as a fiber (e.g., glass fiber), as a membrane (e.g., cellulose membrane), in the form of beads (e.g., microparticles, or nanoparticles, etc.), and the like.

[0064] In certain embodiments, the nucleic acid recovery can be performed in a GENEXPERT® cartridge, e.g., as described below.

Illustrative Uses of extracted DNA and/or RNA



[0065] The nucleic acids extracted using the methods and reagents described herein are of good quality and can readily be amplified to detect and/or quantify one or more target nucleic acid sequences in the sample. The nucleic acids are particular well suited to PCR amplification reactions including, but not limited to RT-PCR. While in some embodiments, the extracted nucleic acids are used in amplification reactions, other uses are also contemplated. Thus, for example, the extracted nucleic acids (or their amplification product(s)) can be used in various hybridization protocols including, but not limited to nucleic acid based microarrays.

[0066] The nucleic extraction methods and reagents described herein are applicable to basic research aimed at the discovery of gene expression profiles relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of disease. The methods are also applicable to the diagnosis and/or prognosis of disease, the determination particular treatment regiments, monitoring of treatment effectiveness and the like.

[0067] The methods described herein simply and efficiently produce extracted nucleic acids well suited for use in RT-PCR systems. While they can be used in any such system, in some embodiments, as illustrated herein in the Examples, the nucleic acids are particularly well suited for use in the GENEXPERT® cartridge and systems (Cepheid Systems Inc.).

[0068] The GENEXPERT® system is a closed, self-contained, fully-integrated and automated platform that represents a paradigm shift in the automation of molecular analysis, producing accurate results in a timely manner with minimal risk of contamination. The GENEXPERT® system combines on-board (in cartridge) sample preparation with real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification and detection functions for fully integrated and automated nucleic acid analysis in a cartridge (GENEXPERT® cartridge). The system is designed to purify, concentrate, detect and identify targeted nucleic acid sequences thereby delivering answers directly from samples (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,958,349, 6,403,037, 6,440,725, 6,783,736, and 6,818,185, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In various embodiments, components of the cartridge can include, but are not limited to, processing chambers containing reagents, filters, and capture technologies useful to extract, purify, and amplify target nucleic acids. A valve enables fluid transfer from chamber to chamber and contains nucleic acids lysis and filtration components. An optical window enables real-time optical detection (e.g., of PCR amplification products). A reaction tube can be provided that permits very rapid heating and/or thermal cycling.

[0069] In certain embodiments an illustrative GENEXPERT® cartridge comprises a plurality of chambers disposed around a central valve assembly and selectively in fluid communication with the central valve assembly where the central valve assembly is configured to accommodate a plunger that is capable of drawing fluid into or out of a chamber in fluid communication with the central valve. Rotation of the valve assembly determines which chamber are in fluid communication with the central valve.

[0070] Accordingly, in some embodiments, methods are provided for identification and/or quantitative measurement of a target nucleic acid sequence in a fixed paraffin embedded tissue sample (optionally utilizing a GENEXPERT® cartridge and system). In some embodiments the methods comprise extracting a nucleic acid (e.g., a DNA, an RNA) from a fixed paraffin embedded biological tissue sample according any of the extraction methods described herein, subjecting the extracted nucleic acid to amplification using a pair of oligonucleotide primers capable of amplifying a region of a target nucleic acid, to obtain an amplified sample; and determining the presence and/or quantity of the target nucleic acid. In some embodiments, the target nucleic acid is a DNA (e.g., a gene). In some embodiments, the target nucleic acid is an RNA (e.g., an mRNA, a non-coding RNA, and the like).

[0071] In some embodiments, the nucleic acids extracted using the methods described herein are well suited for use in diagnostic methods, prognostic methods, methods of monitoring treatments (e.g., cancer treatment), and the like. Accordingly, in some illustrative, but non-limiting embodiments, the nucleic acids extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded samples (e.g., from FFPET samples) can be used to identify the presence and/or the expression level of a gene, and/or the mutational status of a gene.

[0072] Such methods are particular well suited to identification of the presence, and/or expression level, and/or mutational status of one or more cancer markers. Accordingly, in some embodiments, the nucleic acids extracted using the methods described herein are utilized to detect the presence, and/or copy number, and/or expression level, and/or mutational status of one or more cancer markers. Illustrative, but non-limiting cancer markers are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Illustrative, but non-limiting, cancer markers and associated uses.
Cancer MarkerCancerUses
ALK gene rearrangements Non-small cell lung cancer and anaplastic large cell lymphoma To help determine treatment and prognosis
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Liver cancer and germ cell tumors To help diagnose liver cancer and follow response to treatment; to assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment of germ cell tumors
Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) Multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and some lymphomas To determine prognosis and follow response to treatment
Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (Beta-hCG) Choriocarcinoma and testicular cancer To assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment
BCR-ABL fusion gene Chronic myeloid leukemia To confirm diagnosis and monitor disease status
BRAF mutation V600E Cutaneous melanoma and colorectal cancer To predict response to targeted therapies
CA15-3/CA27.29 Breast cancer To assess whether treatment is working or disease has recurred
CA19-9 Pancreatic cancer, gallbladder cancer, bile duct cancer, and gastric cancer To assess whether treatment is working
CA-125 Ovarian cancer To help in diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and evaluation of recurrence
Calcitonin Medullary thyroid cancer To aid in diagnosis, check whether treatment is working, and assess recurrence
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Colorectal cancer and breast cancer To check whether colorectal cancer has spread; to look for breast cancer recurrence and assess response to treatment
CD20 Non-Hodgkin lymphoma To determine whether treatment with a targeted therapy is appropriate
Chromogranin A (CgA) Neuroendocrine tumors To help in diagnosis, assessment of treatment response, and evaluation of recurrence
Chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and 9p21 Bladder cancer To help in monitoring for tumor recurrence
Cytokeratin fragments 21-1 Lung cancer To help in monitoring for recurrence
EGFR mutation analysis Non-small cell lung cancer To help determine treatment and prognosis
Estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) Breast cancer To determine whether treatment with hormonal therapy (such as tamoxifen) is appropriate
Fibrin/fibrinogen Bladder cancer To monitor progression and response to treatment
HE4 Ovarian cancer To assess disease progression and monitor for recurrence
HER2/neu Breast cancer, gastric cancer, and esophageal cancer To determine whether treatment with trastuzumab is appropriate
Immunoglobulins Multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia To help diagnose disease, assess response to treatment, and look for recurrence
KIT Gastrointestinal stromal tumor and mucosal melanoma To help in diagnosing and determining treatment
KRAS mutation analysis Colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer To determine whether treatment with a particular type of targeted therapy is appropriate
Lactate dehydrogenase Germ cell tumors To assess stage, prognosis, and response to treatment
Nuclear matrix protein 22 Bladder cancer To monitor response to treatment
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Prostate cancer To help in diagnosis, assess response to treatment, and look for recurrence
Thyroglobulin Thyroid cancer To evaluate response to treatment and look for recurrence
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) Breast cancer To determine aggressiveness of cancer and guide treatment
5-Protein signature (Ova1) Ovarian cancer To pre-operatively assess pelvic mass for suspected ovarian cancer
21-Gene signature (Oncotype DX) Breast cancer To evaluate risk of recurrence
70-Gene signature (Mammaprint) Breast cancer To evaluate risk of recurrence


[0073] In some embodiments, the target nucleic acid comprises a microRNA described in U.S. Patent Publication Nos: 2012/0171686 and 2009/0062135, which are incorporated herein by reference for the target nucleic acid sequences listed therein. In some embodiments the target nucleic acid comprises a nucleic acid marker for the presence and/or severity and/or prognosis of lung cancer. In some embodiments the target nuclei acid comprises a target nucleic acid marker for lung cancer (e.g., non-small cell lung cancer) described in in U.S. Patent Publication No 2010/0233704, which is incorporated herein by reference for the target nucleic acid sequences listed therein. In some embodiments the target nucleic acid comprises a nucleic acid marker for the presence and/or severity and/or prognosis of cervical cancer and/or cervical dysplasia. In some embodiments the target nuclei acid comprises a target nucleic acid marker for cervical dysplasia and/or cervical cancer described in in U.S. Patent Publication No 2010/0240049, which is incorporated herein by reference for the target nucleic acid sequences listed therein.

[0074] The foregoing target nucleic acids are illustrative and non-limiting. Using the teaching provided herein, numerous other target nucleic acid sequences will be available to one of skill in the art.

[0075] In some, a normal level (a "control") for each target nucleic acid (e.g., RNA) can be determined as an average (or median) level or range that is characteristic of normal cells or other reference material, against which the level measured in the sample can be compared. The determined average (or median) or range of target nucleic acid (e.g., RNA) in normal subjects can be used as a benchmark for detecting above-normal levels of target RNA indicative of a disease state (e.g., the presence of or predilection for a cancer). In some embodiments, normal levels of target nucleic acid can be determined using individual or pooled RNA-containing samples from one or more individuals, such as, in the case of cervical cancer, from patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease.

[0076] In some embodiments, determining a normal level of expression of a target nucleic acid (e.g., RNA) comprises detecting a complex comprising a probe hybridized to a nucleic acid selected from a target RNA, a DNA amplicon of the target RNA, and a complement of the target RNA. That is, in some embodiments, a normal level of expression can be determined by detecting a DNA amplicon of the target RNA, or a complement of the target RNA rather than the target RNA itself. In some embodiments, a normal level of such a complex is determined and used as a control. The normal level of the complex, in some embodiments, correlates to the normal level of the target RNA.

[0077] In some embodiments, a control comprises RNA from cells of a single individual, cells known to be healthy from the same subject. In some embodiments, a control comprises RNA from a pool of cells from multiple individuals. In some embodiments, a control is drawn from anatomically and/or cytologically normal areas of the of the individual from whom the test sample was obtained. In some embodiments, a control comprises commercially-available human RNA, such as, for example in the case of cervical cancer, human cervix total RNA (Ambion; AM6992). In some embodiments, a normal level or normal range has already been predetermined prior to testing a sample for an elevated level.

[0078] In some embodiments, the normal level of target RNA can be determined from one or more continuous cell lines, typically cell lines previously shown to have expression levels of the at least one target RNA that approximate the level of expression in normal cells.

[0079] In some embodiments, a method comprises detecting the level of expression of at least one target RNA. In some embodiments, a method further comprises comparing the level of expression of at least one target RNA to a normal level of expression of the at least one target RNA. In some embodiments, a method further comprises comparing the level of expression of at least one target RNA to a control level of expression of the at least one target RNA. A control level of expression of the at least one target RNA is, in some embodiments, the level of expression of the at least one target RNA in a normal cell. In some such embodiments, a control level may be referred to as a normal level. In some embodiments, a greater level of expression of the at least one target RNA relative to the level of expression of the at least one target RNA in a normal cell indicates cervical dysplasia.

[0080] In some embodiments, the level of expression of the at least one target RNA is compared to a reference level of expression, e.g., from a confirmed neoplasia. In some such embodiments, a similar level of expression of the at least one target RNA relative to the reference sample indicates the presence of a neoplasia.

[0081] In some embodiments, a level of expression of at least one target RNA that is at least about two-fold greater than a normal level of expression of the respective at least one target RNA indicates the presence of a disease state (e.g., a cancer). In some embodiments, a level of expression of at least one target RNA that is at least about two-fold greater than the level of the respective at least one target RNA in a control sample comprised of normal cells indicates the presence of a cancer. In some embodiments, a level of expression of at least one target RNA that is at least about 3-fold, at least about 4-fold, at least about 5-fold, at least about 6-fold, at least about 7-fold, at least about 8-fold, at least about 9-fold, or at least about 10-fold greater than the level of expression of the respective at least one target RNA in a control sample comprised of normal cells indicates the presence of a cancer. In some embodiments, a level of expression of at least one target RNA that is at least about 3-fold, at least about 4-fold, at least about 5-fold, at least about 6-fold, at least about 7-fold, at least about 8-fold, at least about 9-fold, or at least about 10-fold greater than a normal level of expression of the at least one target RNA indicates the presence of a cancer.

[0082] In some embodiments, a control level of expression of a target RNA is determined contemporaneously, such as in the same assay or batch of assays, as the level of expression of the target RNA in a sample. In some embodiments, a control level of expression of a target RNA is not determined contemporaneously as the level of expression of the target RNA in a sample. In some such embodiments, the control level of expression has been determined previously.

[0083] In some embodiments, the level of expression of a target RNA is not compared to a control level of expression, for example, when it is known that the target RNA is expressed at very low levels, or not at all, in normal cells. In such embodiments, detection of a high level of the target RNA in a sample is indicative of a cancer.

Kits.



[0084] In certain embodiments kits are provided for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell and/or tissue sample. In certain embodiments the kit will typically comprises a container containing a lysis solution as described herein. In certain embodiments the kit further comprises a container containing a protease (e.g., proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, etc.). In certain embodiments the protease and the lysis solution are mixed together. In certain embodiments the protease and the lysis solution are provided in separate containers.

[0085] In certain embodiments the kit can further comprise a device for the collection of a cell or tissue sample. Illustrative devices include, but are not limited to a device selected from the group consisting of a device or device tip for performing a scrape, a wipe, a device or device tip for obtaining an aspirate, a punch biopsy device, and a blade for obtaining a skin biopsy. For example, in certain embodiments, the kit comprises a device or device tip for obtaining a fine needle aspirate and/or for obtaining a vacuum assisted aspirate. In certain embodiments the kit comprises a device for performing a buccal scrape, or a gynecological scrape. Illustrative devices include, but are not limited to a multispatula, an extended tip spatula, a cytobrush, a cytopick, a cervexbrush, swab, a baynebrush ., a profilebrush, a bulb aspirator, an Ayre spatula, an Aylesbury device, and the like. In typical embodiments the device for collection of a cell or tissue sample is provided in packaging that preserves sterility of the sample collecting device before use.

[0086] In certain embodiments the kit can comprise a container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample and to store that sample in said lysis solution or in a buffer. In certain embodiments the container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample is configured for storage and/or shipping. Thus, in certain embodiments, the container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample, is provided with a label to identify the sample, and, in certain embodiments sealable packaging to hold the container during storage and/or shipping and/or a shipping container.

[0087] In certain embodiments the kit can optionally further include a sterile swab (e.g., an alcohol swab) for cleaning the sample site, and/or a drying pad (e.g., a gauze pad) for drying the site, and/or a dressing (e.g. bandage) for dressing the site after obtaining the sample.

[0088] In certain embodiments, the components for a single collection operation are packaged together in a packet. Such packets can include, for example, a single use disposable sample device, optionally a sterile swab, optionally a drying pad, and optionally a dressing. In certain embodiments the kit includes at least 2 packets, or at least 3 packets, or at least 4 packets, or at least 5 packets, or at least 6 packets, or at least 7 packets, or at least 8 packets.

[0089] In certain embodiments the kit can further contain instructional materials teaching collection methods utilizing the kit components and, optionally, providing guidance to overcome problems that may occur during collection. The instructional materials can also include information and/or instructions regarding the use of the lysis reagent and/or instructions for the collection, and/or storage, and/or shipping of a cell or tissue sample. In certain embodiments the kits additionally contain reagents and/or instructions teaching the use of the lysis buffer for isolation and recovery of a nucleic acid.

[0090] Often and typically the instructional materials are provided in written form and can be printed on the kit components themselves (e.g. on the cover of a box, container, or on an envelope, or can be provided as an insert/instructional page or booklet. While the instructional materials typically comprise written or printed materials they are not limited to such. Any medium capable of storing such instructions and communicating them to an end user is contemplated by this invention. Such media include, but are not limited to electronic storage media (e.g., magnetic discs, tapes, cartridges, chips), optical media (e.g., CD ROM), and the like. Such media may include addresses to internet sites that provide such instructional materials.

EXAMPLES



[0091] The following examples are offered to illustrate, but not to limit the claimed invention.

Example 1


Examination Of Lysis Solution Parameters for Extraction of Nucleic Acids From Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue


Experiment A:



[0092] 

Goals: Perform a Proteinase K treatment using a test buffer, followed by modified FFPE lysis on patient 015445T2.

Samples: FFPE patient slides (4), 015445T2. 4µm thick and applied to glass slides.

IHC/FISH: ER: rich, PR: rich, HER2: amplified.

Table 5. Results.
Pt 015445T2 (N=4)cycle threshold
PGRESRref geneERBB2MKi67
FFPE control 31.1 27.3 30.8 30.0 31.8
Qiagen kit control 27.4 24.1 28.3 27.7 28.3
Qiagen, + Depar, no Pro K 32.8 28.9 32.7 31.5 34.0
Qiagen, no Depar, + Pro K 26.7 22.4 27.7 26.4 27.0
CPHD Pro K (56C) + mFFPE (80C) 25.8 21.8 26.2 25.5 26.5
           
 delta Ct  
 ESRPGRERBB2  
FFPE control 3.5 -0.3 0.8    
Qiagen kit control 4.2 0.9 0.6    
Qiagen, + Depar, no Pro K 3.8 -0.1 1.2    
Qiagen, no Depar, + Pro K 5.2 1.0 1.3    
CPHD Pro K (56C) + mFFPE (80C) 4.4 0.5 0.7    

Experiment B:



[0093] 

Goals: Test FFPE lysis reagent with 0.01% emulsion instead of Anti-foam on Pt 015445T2 slide.

Samples FFPE patient slide, 015445T2. 4um thick and applied to glass slides.

IHC/FISH: ER: rich, PR: rich, HER2: amplified.

Table 6. Results.
Pt 015445T2 (N=4)cycle threshold
PGRESRref geneERBB2MKi67
original FFPE + 0.01% AF (80C, 60m) 31.1 27.3 30.8 30.0 31.8
Qiagen kit control 27.4 24.1 28.3 27.7 28.3
m2FFPE w/ Proteinase K, (80C, 30m) 26.5 22.4 26.9 26.2 26.9
original FFPE + 0.01% emulsion (80C, 60m) 30.4 26.4 30.2 29.6 31.4
           
 delta Ct  
 ESRPGRERBB2  
original FFPE + 0.01% AF (80C, 60m) 3.5 -0.3 0.8    
Qiagen kit control 4.2 0.9 0.6    
m2FFPE w/ Proteinase K, (80C, 30m) 4.5 0.4 0.7    
original FFPE + 0.01% emulsion (80C, 60m) 3.8 -0.3 0.6    

Experiment C:



[0094] 

Goals: Optimize amount of PK added during off board lysis (before heat step).

Samples Alamak FFPE cell buttons, BT474.

Table 7. Results.
BT474 (N=4)cycle threshold
PGRESRref geneERBB2MKi67
no PK 28.5 30.4 31.3 28.7 33.6
20uL PK (80C, overnight) 27.8 29.5 30.7 28.4 32.5
5uL PK 24.6 27.6 29.4 26.2 30.7
10uL PK 24.6 27.9 29.9 26.7 31.0
20uL PK 24.6 27.6 29.5 26.4 31.3
40uL PK 24.6 27.5 29.5 25.9 30.7
           
 delta Ct  
 ESRPGRERBB2  
no PK 0.9 2.8 2.6    
20uL PK (80C, overnight) 1.2 3.0 2.3    
5uL PK 1.8 4.8 3.2    
10uL PK 2.1 5.3 3.3    
20uL PK 1.9 4.9 3.1    
40uL PK 2.0 4.9 3.6    

Experiment D, Varying NaCl concentration A:



[0095] 
Table 8. Results -- Effect of NaCl concentration.
NaCl concPGRESRCYFIP1ERBB2MKi67
200mM 25.6 22.8 29.7 26.9 31.7
200mM 26.5 28.3 29.4 27.3 31.2
200mM 26.6 28.3 30.1 27.6 31.7
200mM 26.1 26.9 29.3 26.4 31.1
300mM 24.8 26.7 29.2 25.5 30.1
300mM 25.6 28.1 29.8 26.7 30.8
300mM 25.0 27.6 29.0 26.0 30.6
300mM 25.1 27.6 29.4 25.5 30.7
400mM 24.6 27.4 29.5 25.7 30.7
400mM 24.9 26.4 27.8 25.2 30.1
400mM 25.4 28.2 29.7 26.2 31.0
400mM 24.5 26.9 29.4 25.5 30.8


[0096] Figure 2A shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for ESR and PGR. Figure 2B shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for ERBB2 and CYFIP1. Figure 2C shows cycle threshold as a function of NaCl concentration for MKi67.

Experiment E, varying NaCl concentration B:



[0097] 

Goals: Process BT474 cell button samples with m3FFPE, m3cFFPE, m3dFFPE and m3eFFPE lysis formulations.

Samples: BT474 FFPE cell buttons, cut and stored at 4°C. 4um thick and applied to glass slides.


Setup:



[0098] Each slide was transferred to a labeled 1.5mL tube.

[0099] 1.2mL of each designated lysis reagent was added to its tube.

[0100] 20uL of Proteinase K was added to each sample.

[0101] The samples were vortexed for 5 seconds, then incubated at 80C for 30 minutes.

[0102] The samples were vortexed for 5 seconds and pulse spun.

[0103] Each sample was transferred to a labeled 5mL vial containing 1.2mL 100% Ethanol.

[0104] The samples were each vortexed for at least 15 seconds.

[0105] Cartridge A's, NGB, were prepared with reaction beads in chamber 11 and liquid reagents in chambers 2 and 5.

[0106] Four 520uL aliquots from each sample was transferred to chamber 3 in their designated cartridges.

[0107] All carts were run using the 140421 Strat + 2X sonicate ADF.
Table 9. Results.
BT474 (N=4)cycle thresholdCell line status
PGRESRCYFIP1ERBB2MKi67
m3FFPE (200nM NaCl) 25.4 27.6 29.6 26.1 30.8 ER: pos, PR: pos, HER2: amplified
m3cFFPE (400nM NaCl) 24.6 27.2 28.8 25.4 29.8
m3dFFPE (800nM NaCl) 25.4 27.8 29.4 26.1 31.0
m3eFFPE (1200nM NaCl) 26.1 28.3 29.9 26.6 31.5
             
 delta Ct   
 ESRPGRERBB2   
m3FFPE (200nM NaCl) 2.0 4.2 3.5      
m3cFFPE (400nM NaCl) 1.6 4.2 3.4      
m3dFFPE (800nM NaCl) 1.6 4.1 3.4      
m3eFFPE (1200nM NaCl) 1.5 3.7 3.2      

Experiment F, varying antifoam concentrations.


Goals: Process BT474 FFPE cell buttons with m3f FFPE lysis reagents with varying antifoam concentrations.



[0108] Samples: BT474 FFPE cell buttons. Slides are 4um thick and applied to glass slides.

Setup:



[0109] Each slide was transferred to a labeled 1.5mL tube.

[0110] 1.2mL of each designated lysis reagent was added to its tube.

[0111] The samples were vortexed for 5 seconds, then incubated at 80°C for 30 minutes

[0112] The samples were vortexed for 5 seconds and pulse spun.

[0113] Each sample was transferred to a labeled 5mL vial containing 1.2mL 100% Ethanol.

[0114] The samples were each vortexed for at least 15 seconds.

[0115] Cart A's, NGB, were prepared with reaction beads in chamber 11 and liquid reagents in chambers 2 and 5.

[0116] Four 520uL aliquots per test condition were transferred to chamber 3 in their designated cartridges.

[0117] All carts were run using the 140421 Strat + 2X sonicate ADF.
Table 10. Results:
Test Condition (N=4)cycle thresholddelta Ct
PGRESRCYFIP1ERBB2MKi67ESRPGRERBB2
0.10% antifoam 25.8 27.6 30.1 27.3 32.2 2.5 4.3 2.8
0.04% antifoam 25.1 27.4 29.3 26.4 31.1 1.9 4.2 2.9
0.01% antifoam 25.8 27.9 29.2 26.2 31.5 1.3 3.4 2.9
0.005% antifoam 25.2 27.6 29.4 26.4 31.6 1.8 4.2 3.0

Experiment G, sample stability study:



[0118] Additionally a lysate stability study was performed in which FFPE cell buttons and FPE patient samples were lysed, mixed with Ethanol and then stored at -20C with scheduled test dates (see, e.g., Table 11, below and Figures 3A and 3B).
Table 11. Stability study results.
samplelysisdayPGRESRCYFIP1ERBB2MKi67
015465T2 m3f 0 26.9 20.3 26.0 24.7 25.4
015465T2 m3f 7 26.6 20.3 26.6 25.5 25.5
015465T2 m3f 15 27.2 20.7 26.6 24.6 25.1
015465T2 m3f 28 27.3 20.8 26.4 24.0 26.3
015465T2 m3f 35 27.3 21.1 26.9 25.4 26.4
015465T2 m3f 62 27.7 21.4 27.2 24.8 27.0
BT474 m3f 0 25.8 28.2 29.7 26.5 31.4
BT474 m3f 7 25.5 27.6 29.4 26.4 31.4
BT474 m3f 15 25.6 27.6 29.1 26.2 31.4
BT474 m3f 28 25.7 28.1 29.7 27.2 31.3
BT474 m3f 35 25.5 28.3 29.7 26.2 31.3
BT474 m3f 62 25.9 28.2 29.2 26.6 32.7
RA00-0741 m3f 0 35.1 21.9 25.7 24.0 25.7
RA00-0741 m3f 7 34.8 22.2 25.7 23.8 25.8
RA00-0741 m3f 15 37.8 22.1 25.9 23.6 25.6
RA00-0741 m3f 28 40.7 22.1 25.8 23.6 26.6
RA00-0741 m3f 35 35.9 21.6 25.3 23.3 25.6
RA00-0741 m3f 62 45.0 21.7 25.3 22.8 26.1
015465T2 m5 0 27.9 20.6 26.5 24.5 24.7
015465T2 m5 7 27.1 21.1 26.4 24.6 25.8
015465T2 m5 15 28.9 22.9 27.5 26.3 27.5
015465T2 m5 28 28.5 21.7 27.3 26.3 26.5
015465T2 m5 35 29.1 22.8 28.6 27.1 27.6
015465T2 m5 62 29.6 21.3 28.4 27.3 27.1
BT474 m5 0 25.6 28.5 29.7 26.5 32.1
BT474 m5 7 25.9 28.2 29.6 26.6 32.3
BT474 m5 15 25.4 19.8 29.5 26.6 31.6
BT474 m5 28 25.7 27.9 29.2 26.5 30.8
BT474 m5 35 26.2 29.1 29.5 27.6 31.7
BT474 m5 62 26.2 28.5 29.6 27.3 31.5
RA00-0741 m5 0 34.7 23.5 26.9 25.1 27.1
RA00-0741 m5 7 35.1 22.5 25.9 24.8 25.9
RA00-0741 m5 15 37.9 21.7 26.0 24.2 25.5
RA00-0741 m5 28 37.1 22.2 25.7 24.9 26.0
RA00-0741 m5 35 36.7 22.2 26.1 24.6 25.4
RA00-0741 m5 62 37.4 23.2 26.4 25.2 25.9


[0119] Figure 3A shows the stability (repeatable of cycle threshold) for ESR, and PGR for samples stored over 62 days. Figure 3B shows the stability (repeatable of cycle threshold) for ESR, and PGR for samples stored over 62 days.

Experiment H, analysis of tissue microarray:



[0120] Goal: Test the cores from slide 1, (TMA30 block from Yale), in the Stratifier assay.

[0121] Test Samples: 30 cores on a single slide, TMA block from Yale. Slide YTMA 308-1, Breast ER, 1-29-15, slide 1. Slide was cut 4um thick.
Table 12. Results:
Sample IDCycle Threshold
CYFIPPGRESRERBB2MKi67
TMA30, slide 1, A1 27.3 45.0 23.4 29.4 27.7
TMA30, slide 1, A2 30.2 37.0 28.8 33.9 30.7
TMA30, slide 1, A3 28.5 42.3 24.3 31.7 30.4
TMA30, slide 1, A4 27.6 37.5 31.8 30.5 28.3
TMA30, slide 1, A6 30.3 45.0 45.0 33.1 29.6
TMA30, slide 1, B1 28.4 44.8 24.4 31.5 30.0
TMA30, slide 1, B2 30.3 37.5 31.6 36.1 34.5
TMA30, slide 1, B3 30.5 32.4 25.6 33.2 39.4
TMA30, slide 1, B4 28.1 45.0 24.2 28.1 30.1
TMA30, slide 1, B5 30.3 45.0 45.0 31.9 30.9
TMA30, slide 1, B6 28.3 32.4 28.7 30.4 30.7
TMA30, slide 1, C1 30.1 35.5 25.2 32.3 36.1
TMA30, slide 1, C2 31.1 33.2 25.1 32.9 33.4
TMA30, slide 1, C3 28.3 41.3 30.2 31.2 29.2
TMA30, slide 1, C4 30.3 40.0 31.2 34.2 32.6
TMA30, slide 1, C5 33.0 35.0 29.4 37.5 45.0
TMA30, slide 1, C6 28.3 28.6 23.4 31.2 31.4
TMA30, slide 1, D1 30.3 45.0 33.2 38.3 29.9
TMA30, slide 1, D2 29.4 28.8 24.1 31.0 43.4
TMA30, slide 1, D3 27.2 28.7 25.3 32.2 36.8
TMA30, slide 1, D4 29.9 37.8 26.2 31.9 36.2
TMA30, slide 1, D5 28.3 45.0 30.2 31.8 27.1
TMA30, slide 1, D6 31.8 45.0 32.1 36.5 39.5
TMA30, slide 1, E1 29.0 38.4 26.8 31.4 30.4
TMA30, slide 1, E2 27.2 45.0 32.1 32.7 27.6
TMA30, slide 1, E3 28.0 38.4 45.0 28.1 28.3
TMA30, slide 1, E4 29.8 45.0 24.4 32.2 45.0
TMA30, slide 1, E5 28.1 45.0 33.9 40.0 31.9
TMA30, slide 1, E6 29.7 44.2 31.9 37.1 30.5
TMA30, slide 1, E7 29.7 45.0 31.7 36.1 36.7
Table 13. Results:
Sample IDDelta Ct
MKi67(-5)ESR(-1)PGR(-4)ERBB2(0)
TMA30, slide 1, A1 -0.4 3.9 -17.7 -2.1
TMA30, slide 1, A2 -0.5 1.4 -6.8 -3.7
TMA30, slide 1, A3 -1.9 4.2 -13.8 -3.2
TMA30, slide 1, A4 -0.7 -4.2 -9.9 -2.9
TMA30, slide 1, A6 0.7 -14.7 -14.7 -2.8
TMA30, slide 1, B1 -1.6 4.0 -16.4 -3.1
TMA30, slide 1, B2 -4.2 -1.3 -7.2 -5.8
TMA30, slide 1, B3 -8.9 4.9 -1.9 -2.7
TMA30, slide 1, B4 -2.0 3.9 -16.9 0.0
TMA30, slide 1, B5 -0.6 -14.7 -14.7 -1.6
TMA30, slide 1, B6 -2.4 -0.4 -4.1 -2.1
TMA30, slide 1, C1 -6.0 4.9 -5.4 -2.2
TMA30, slide 1, C2 -2.3 6.0 -2.1 -1.8
TMA30, slide 1, C3 -0.9 -1.9 -13.0 -2.9
TMA30, slide 1, C4 -2.3 -0.9 -9.7 -3.9
TMA30, slide 1, C5 -12.0 3.6 -2.0 -4.5
TMA30, slide 1, C6 -3.1 4.9 -0.3 -2.9
TMA30, slide 1, D1 0.4 -2.9 -14.7 -8.0
TMA30, slide 1, D2 -14.0 5.3 0.6 -1.6
TMA30, slide 1, D3 -9.6 1.9 -1.5 -5.0
TMA30, slide 1, D4 -6.3 3.7 -7.9 -2.0
TMA30, slide 1, D5 1.2 -1.9 -16.7 -3.5
TMA30, slide 1, D6 -7.7 -0.3 -13.2 -4.7
TMA30, slide 1, E1 -1.4 2.2 -9.4 -2.4
TMA30, slide 1, E2 -0.4 -4.9 -17.8 -5.5
TMA30, slide 1, E3 -0.3 -17.0 -10.4 -0.1
TMA30, slide 1, E4 -15.2 5.4 -15.2 -2.4
TMA30, slide 1, E5 -3.8 -5.8 -16.9 -11.9
TMA30, slide 1, E6 -0.8 -2.2 -14.5 -7.4
TMA30, slide 1, E7 -7.0 -2.0 -15.3 -6.4
Table 14. Results:
sample IDpotential Stratifier call
MKi67ERPRHER2
TMA30, slide 1, A1 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, A2 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, A3 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, A4 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, A6 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, B1 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, B2 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, B3 low pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, B4 pos pos neg pos
TMA30, slide 1, B5 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, B6 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, C1 low pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, C2 pos pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, C3 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, C4 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, C5 low pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, C6 pos pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, D1 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, D2 low pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, D3 low pos pos neg
TMA30, slide 1, D4 low pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, D5 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, D6 low pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E1 pos pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E2 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E3 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E4 low pos neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E5 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E6 pos neg neg neg
TMA30, slide 1, E7 low neg neg neg


[0122] It is understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes only and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and scope of the appended claims. All publications, patents, and patent applications cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety for all purposes.

[0123] The invention will now be defined by the following clauses:
  1. 1. A lysis solution for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said lysis solution comprising:

    NaCl2 at a concentration of greater than about 300 mM;

    a buffer sufficient to maintain the pH of said solution at a pH ranging from about pH 6.8 to about pH 7.3;

    a chelating agent;

    MgCl2 at a concentration less than about 50 mM; and

    a detergent.

  2. 2. The lysis solution of clause 1, wherein said lysis solution is for a formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sample.
  3. 3. The lysis solution of clause 1, wherein said lysis solution is for a fine needle aspirate and/or a cell smear.
  4. 4. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-3, wherein said solution comprises an antifoaming agent.
  5. 5. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-4, wherein said solution comprises a preservative/biocide.
  6. 6. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-5, wherein said buffer is a HEPES sodium salt buffer.
  7. 7. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-6, wherein the concentration of said buffer ranges from about 10 mM up to about 100 mM, or from about 20 mM up to about 50 mM, or is about 50 mM.
  8. 8. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-7, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.8 to about 7.2.
  9. 9. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-8, wherein said NaCl is at a concentration ranging from about 300 mM to about 500mM, or from about 350 mM up to about 450 mM, or is about 400 mM.
  10. 10. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-9, wherein said chelating agent comprises an agent selected from the group consisting of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and a phosphonate chelating agent.
  11. 11. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-10, wherein said chelating agent comprises EDTA.
  12. 12. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-11, wherein the concentration of said chelating agent in said solution ranges from about 5 mM to about 100 mM, or from about 10 mM to about 50 mM, or is about 25 mM.
  13. 13. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-12, wherein the concentration of said MgCl2 ranges from about 2 mM up to about 20 mM, or from about 5 mM up to about 15 mM, or is about 10 mM.
  14. 14. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-13, wherein said detergent is an ionic detergent or a non-ionic detergent.
  15. 15. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-13, wherein said detergent comprises a detergent selected from the group consisting of N-lauroylsarcosine, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyl methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), TRITON®-X-100, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, CHAPS, n-octanoylsucrose, n-octyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside, PLURONIC® F-127, TWEEN® 20, and n-heptyl-β-D-glucopyranoside.
  16. 16. The lysis solution of clause 13, wherein said detergent comprises TWEEN® 20.
  17. 17. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-16, wherein said detergent comprises about 0.1% to about 2% of said solution, or about 0.5% to about 1.5% of said solution, or about 1% of said solution.
  18. 18. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 4-17, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises an organic antifoam emulsion or a siloxane based antifoam emulsion.
  19. 19. The lysis solution of clause 18, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises a siloxane emulsion.
  20. 20. The lysis solution of clause 18, wherein said antifoaming agent comprises a 10% emulsion of an active silicon antifoam and non-ionic emulsifiers (SE-15).
  21. 21. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 4-20, wherein said antifoaming agent is present at an amount ranging from about 0.001% up to about 0.05%, or ranging from about 0.005% up to about 0.03%, or from about 0.008% up to about 0.02% of said lysis solution, or is present at an amount of about 0.01% of said lysis solution.
  22. 22. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 5-17, wherein said biocide comprise one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sodium azide, sodium dehydroacetate, sodium borate decahydrate, and disodium edetate.
  23. 23. The lysis solution of clause 22, wherein said biocide comprises sodium azide.
  24. 24. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 5-23, wherein said biocide is present at an amount ranging from about 0.001% up to about 0.05%, or ranging from about 0.005% up to about 0.03%, or from about 0.008% up to about 0.02% of said lysis solution, or is present at an amount of about 0.01% of said lysis solution.
  25. 25. The lysis solution of clause 1, wherein said solution comprises:

    about 400 mM NaCl;

    about 50 mM HEPES sodium salt (MW 260.29);

    about 25 mM EDTA;

    about 10 mM MgCl2; and

    about 1% Tween 20.

  26. 26. The lysis solution of clause 25, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.90 to about 7.25.
  27. 27. The lysis solution of clause 25, wherein the pH of said solution ranges from about 6.95 to about 7.15.
  28. 28. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 25-27, wherein said solution comprises about 0.01% antifoaming agent.
  29. 29. The lysis solution of clause 28, wherein said antifoaming agent is SE-15.
  30. 30. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 25-29, wherein said solution comprises about 0.01% sodium azide.
  31. 31. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-30, wherein said solution further comprises a protease.
  32. 32. The lysis solution of clause 31, wherein said protease is selected from the group consisting of proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain.
  33. 33. The lysis solution of clause 31, wherein said protease is Proteinase K.
  34. 34. The lysis solution according to any one of clauses 31-33, wherein said protease ranges in concentration from of 14 mg/mL to about 22 mg/mL and is added to said lysis solution at amount ranging from about 10 µL up to about 100 µL, or from about 20 µL up to about 50 µL, or about 20 µL up to about 40 µL.
  35. 35. A method for extracting a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said method comprising:
    incubating one or more cell or tissue samples in a lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-34, wherein said incubating is at a temperature ranging from about 50°C to about 100°C and said incubation is for a time ranging from about 10 minutes up to about 24 hours.
  36. 36. The method of clause 35, wherein said temperature is from about 60°C to about 90°C, or from about 70°C to about 90°C, or from about 75°C to about 85°C, or about 80°C.
  37. 37. The method according to any one of clauses 35-36, wherein said incubating is for a time ranging from about 15 minutes up to about 12 hours, or from about 20 minutes up to about 8 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 6 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 4 hours, or from about 30 minutes up to about 2 hours, or for about 15 min, or for about 30 min, or for about 45 min, or for about 60 min, or for about 90 min, or for about 120 min.
  38. 38. The method according to any one of clauses 35-37, wherein said method further comprises recovering said nucleic acid from said lysis solution.
  39. 39. The method of clause 38, wherein said recovering comprises the addition of a lower alcohol to said solution.
  40. 40. The method of clause 39, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol or isopropanol.
  41. 41. The method of clause 39, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol.
  42. 42. The method according to any one of clauses 35-41, wherein said nucleic acid is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
  43. 43. The method according to any one of clauses 35-41, wherein said nucleic acid is a ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  44. 44. The method according to any one of clauses 35-43, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) are selected from the group consisting of tissue biopsies, an aspirates, a cell smears, a wipe, a scrape, an archived sample, a fixed tissue section, a cryosection, a cell button, and a tissue microarray.
  45. 45. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained from a punch biopsy.
  46. 46. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained from a buccal scrape, or a gynecological scrape.
  47. 47. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a sample obtained using a device selected from the group consisting of a multispatula, an extended tip spatula, a cytobrush, a cytopick, a cervexbrush, swab, a baynebrush, a profilebrush, a bulb aspirator, an Ayre spatula, and an Aylesbury device.
  48. 48. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise a fine needle aspirate and/or a cell smear.
  49. 49. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples.
  50. 50. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples.
  51. 51. The method of clause 44, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) comprise tissue section(s).
  52. 52. The method of clause 51, wherein said tissue section(s) range in thickness from about 1 µm to about 15 µm.
  53. 53. The method of clause 52, wherein said tissue section(s) having a thickness of about 8 µm or less, or about 6 µm or less, or about 5 µm or less, or about 4 µm or less, or about 3 µm or less, or about 2 µm or less.
  54. 54. The method according to any one of clauses 35-53, wherein said tissue sample(s) are from a cancerous tissue.
  55. 55. The method of clause 54, wherein said tissue sample comprises a sample from a cancer selected from the group consisting of ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, melanoma, retinoblastoma, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, testicular cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, brain tumor, cervical carcinoma, sarcoma, prostate tumor, bladder tumor, tumor of reticuloendothelial tissue, Wilm's tumor, astrocytoma, glioblastoma, neuroblastoma, ovarian carcinoma, osteosarcoma, renal cancer, and head and neck cancer.
  56. 56. The method according to any one of clauses 35-55, wherein said method does not include further steps of deparaffinization and/or additional reagents for deparaffinization.
  57. 57. The method according to any one of clauses 35-56, wherein said method does not utilize an organic solvent for deparaffinization.
  58. 58. The method according to any one of clauses 35-57, wherein said incubating is not in the presence of an organic solvent.
  59. 59. The method according to any one of clauses 35-58, wherein the lysed tissue sample is mixed with a lower alcohol and stored.
  60. 60. The method of clause 59, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol or isopropanol.
  61. 61. The method of clause 59, wherein said lower alcohol comprises ethanol.
  62. 62. The method according to any one of clauses 59-61, wherein said tissue sample(s) are stored at a temperature of -20°C or lower.
  63. 63. The method according to any one of clauses 59-62, wherein the lysis solution is stored over a period of at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years and in later RT-PCR provides consistent cycle thresholds.
  64. 64. The method according to any one of clauses 35-63, wherein said method further comprises amplifying all or a portion of said nucleic acid.
  65. 65. The method of clause 64, wherein said method further comprising utilizing said nucleic acid as a template in a PCR amplification.
  66. 66. The method of clause 64, wherein said method further comprising utilizing said nucleic acid in RT PCR.
  67. 67. The method of clause 64, wherein said method further comprising amplifying said nucleic acid in a GeneXpert system.
  68. 68. The method according to any one of clauses 35-67, wherein said nucleic acid is used to determine the presence and/or expression level of expression of at least one target RNA that is an mRNA.
  69. 69. The method according to any one of clauses 35-67, wherein said nucleic acid is used to determine the presence and/or expression level of expression of at least one target RNA selected from the group consisting of KRT20, IGF2, ANXA10, CRH, ABL, ERBB1, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4, ESR1, PGR, MPO, CDKN2A, MKI67, TOP2A, MCM5, BIRC5, MMP9, and MCM2, PTEN, APC, KRAS, GATA3, PIC3CA, MAP3K1, TP53, and mutations of any of these.
  70. 70. The method according to any one of clauses 35-69, where nucleic acids are amplified from the original lysed samples two or more different times.
  71. 71. The method of clause 70, wherein said two or more different times are over a period at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years.
  72. 72. The method according to any one of clauses 70-71, wherein a second or later amplification comprise a repeat test.
  73. 73. The method according to any one of clauses 70-71, wherein a second or later amplification comprise a reflex cartridge test.
  74. 74. A method for quantitative measurement of gene expression of a target gene in a fixed paraffin embedded tissue sample comprising:

    extracting an RNA from a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biological tissue sample according to the method of any one of clauses 35-73;

    subjecting the extracted nucleic acid to amplification using a pair of oligonucleotide primers capable of amplifying a region of a target gene mRNA, to obtain an amplified sample; and

    determining the presence and/or quantity of said target gene mRNA.

  75. 75. The method of clause 74, wherein the quantity of said target gene mRNA is determined relative to the quantity of an internal control gene's mRNA from the isolated mRNA.
  76. 76. The method according to any one of clauses 74-75, wherein determining the relative gene expression level comprises using RT-PCR.
  77. 77. The method according to any one of clauses 74-76, wherein the internal control gene is β-actin.
  78. 78. The method according to any one of clauses 74-77, wherein said target gene is selected from the group consisting of an ALK gene rearrangement, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), BCR-ABL fusion gene, BRAF mutation V600E, CA15-3/CA27.29, CA19-9, CA-125, calcitonin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CD20, chromogranin A (CgA), chromosome 3, chromosome 7, chromosome 17, chromosome 9p21, chromosome 20q13, cytokeratin fragments 21-1, EGFR mutation analysis, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), fibrin/fibrinogen, HE4, HER4, HER2/neu, KIT, KRAS mutation analysis, lactate dehydrogenase, nuclear matrix protein 22, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), thyroglobulin, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1).
  79. 79. A kit for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell and/or tissue sample, said kit comprising a container containing a lysis solution according to any one of clauses 1-30.
  80. 80. The kit of clause 79, wherein said kit further comprises a container containing a protease.
  81. 81. The kit of clause 80, wherein said protease is selected from the group consisting of proteinase K, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain.
  82. 82. The kit of clause 80, wherein said protease is proteinase K.
  83. 83. The kit according to any one of clauses 80-82, wherein said protease and said lysis solution mixed together.
  84. 84. The kit according to any one of clauses 80-82, wherein said protease and said lysis solution are provided in separate containers.
  85. 85. The kit according to any one of clauses 79-84, wherein said kit further comprises a device for the collection of a cell or tissue sample.
  86. 86. The kit of clause 85, wherein said kit comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a device or device tip for performing a scrape, a wipe, a device or device tip for obtaining an aspirate, a punch biopsy device, and a blade for obtaining a skin biopsy.
  87. 87. The kit of clause 86, wherein said kit comprises a device or device tip for obtaining a fine needle aspirate.
  88. 88. The kit of clause 86, wherein said kit comprises a device or device tip for obtaining a vacuum assisted aspirate.
  89. 89. The kit of clause 86, wherein said kit comprises a device for performing a buccal scrape, or a gynecological scrape.
  90. 90. The kit of clause 86, wherein said kit comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a multispatula, an extended tip spatula, a cytobrush, a cytopick, a cervexbrush, swab, a baynebrush, a profilebrush, a bulb aspirator, an Ayre spatula, and an Aylesbury device.
  91. 91. The kit according to any one of clauses 79-90, wherein said kit comprises a container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample and to store that sample in said lysis solution or in a buffer.
  92. 92. The kit of clause 91, wherein said container configured to receive a cell or tissue sample is configured for storage and/or shipping.



Claims

1. A lysis solution for the extraction of a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said lysis solution comprising:

NaCl at a concentration of greater than 300 mM;

a buffer sufficient to maintain the pH of said solution at a pH ranging from pH 6.8 to pH 7.3;

a chelating agent;

MgCl2 at a concentration less than 50 mM; and

a detergent.


 
2. The lysis solution according to claim 1, wherein said buffer is a HEPES sodium salt buffer
 
3. The lysis solution according to claims 1 or 2, wherein said solution comprises an antifoaming agent, and/or;
a preservative/biocide.
 
4. The lysis solution according to any preceding claim, wherein
the concentration of said buffer ranges from 10 mM up to 100 mM, or from 20 mM up to 50 mM, or is 50 mM, and/or
the pH of said solution ranges from 6.8 to 7.2, and/or
said NaCl is at a concentration ranging from 300 mM to 500mM, or from 350 mM up to 450 mM, or is 400 mM
 
5. The lysis solution according to any preceding claim, wherein said chelating agent comprises an agent selected from the group consisting of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), and a phosphonate chelating agent, and/or;
said detergent is an ionic detergent or a non-ionic detergent, and/or;
said antifoaming agent comprises an organic antifoam emulsion or a siloxane based antifoam emulsion, and/or;
said biocide comprise one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sodium azide, sodium dehydroacetate, sodium borate decahydrate, and disodium edetate.
 
6. The lysis solution according to any preceding claim, wherein the concentration of said chelating agent in said solution ranges from 5 mM to 100 mM, or from 10 mM to 50 mM, or is 25 mM, and/or;
the concentration of said MgCl2 ranges from 2 mM up to 20 mM, or from 5 mM up to 15 mM, or is 10 mM, and/or;
said detergent comprises about 0.1% to 2% of said solution, or 0.5% to 1.5% of said solution, or 1% of said solution.
 
7. The lysis solution of claim 1, wherein said solution comprises:

400 mM NaCl;

50 mM HEPES sodium salt (MW 260.29);

25 mM EDTA;

10 mM MgCl2; and

1% Tween 20.


 
8. The lysis solution according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein said solution further comprises a protease.
 
9. A method for extracting a nucleic acid from a cell or tissue sample, said method comprising:
incubating one or more cell or tissue samples in a lysis solution according to any preceding claim, wherein said incubating is at a temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C and said incubation is for a time ranging from 10 minutes up to 24 hours to produce one or more lysed samples in which the nucleic acid has been extracted from the one or more cell or tissue samples and, optionally comprises recovering said nucleic acid from said lysis solution .
 
10. The method of claim 9, wherein said temperature is from 60°C to 90°C, or from 70°C to 90°C, or from 75°C to 85°C, or 80°C, and/or
said incubating is for a time ranging from 15 minutes up to 12 hours, or from 20 minutes up to 8 hours, or from 30 minutes up to 6 hours, or from 30 minutes up to 4 hours, or from 30 minutes up to 2 hours, or for 15 min, or for 30 min, or for 45 min, or for 60 min, or for 90 min, or for 120 min.
 
11. The method according to claims 9 or 10, wherein said cell or tissue sample(s) are selected from the group consisting of tissue biopsies, an aspirates, a cell smears, a wipe, a scrape, an archived sample, a fixed tissue section, a cryosection, a cell button, and a tissue microarray.
 
12. The method according to any one of claims 9-11, wherein said method does not include further steps of deparaffinization and/or additional reagents for deparaffinization, and/or
said method does not utilize an organic solvent for deparaffinization, and/or
said incubating is not in the presence of an organic solvent, and/or
wherein the lysed tissue sample is mixed with a lower alcohol and stored.
 
13. The method according to any one of claims 9-12, wherein the lysis solution is stored over a period of at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years, as measured by post-storage RT-PCR.
 
14. The method according to any one of claims 9-13, where nucleic acids are amplified from the original lysed samples two or more different times.
 
15. The method of claim 14, wherein said two or more different times are over a period at least 6 hours, or over a period of at least one day, or over a period of at least two days, or over a period of at least 4 days, or over a period of at least one week, or over a period of at least two weeks, or over a period of at least one month, or over a period of at least two months, or over a period of at least three months, or over a period of at least 6 months, or over a period of at least one year, or over a period of at least two years, or over a period of at least 5 years.
 




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Search report




Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description