(19)
(11)EP 3 725 322 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
21.10.2020 Bulletin 2020/43

(21)Application number: 19169818.2

(22)Date of filing:  17.04.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 35/761(2015.01)
C07K 14/47(2006.01)
C12N 15/86(2006.01)
A61K 48/00(2006.01)
C12N 9/64(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: TARGOVAX ASA
0283 Oslo (NO)

(72)Inventors:
  • KURYK, Lukasz
    00180 Helsinki (FI)
  • ERIKSEN, Jon Amund
    3916 Porsgrunn (NO)
  • SKORPIL, Peter
    1447 Drøbak (NO)
  • BURNS, Robert
    Oxford, OX1 5ER (GB)
  • MØLLER, Anne-Sophie
    1358 Jar (NO)

(74)Representative: Boco IP Oy Ab 
Itämerenkatu 5
00180 Helsinki
00180 Helsinki (FI)

  


(54)ONCOLYTIC ADENOVIRAL VECTOR EXPRESSING GRANZYME AND PERFORIN


(57) The present invention relates to cancer therapies. More specifically, the present invention relates to oncolytic adenoviral vectors and cells and pharmaceutical compositions comprising said vectors. The present invention also relates to a use of said vectors in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer in a subject and a method of treating cancer in a subject. Furthermore, the present invention relates to methods of producing granzyme and perforin in a cell and increasing anti-tumor effect and induction of specific immune response in a subject, as well as uses of the oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention for producing transgenes in a cell and increasing anti-tumor effect and generation of specific immune response in a subject.


Description

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0001] The present invention relates to cancer therapies. More specifically, the present invention relates to oncolytic adenoviral vectors and cells and pharmaceutical compositions comprising said vectors. The present invention also relates to a use of said vectors in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer in a subject and a method of treating cancer in a subject. Furthermore, the present invention relates to methods of producing granzyme and perforin in a cell and increasing anti-tumor effect and induction of specific immune response in a subject, as well as uses of the oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention for producing transgenes in a cell and increasing anti-tumor effect and generation of specific immune response in a subject.

BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0002] During the last twenty years gene transfer technology has been under intensive examination. The aim of cancer gene therapies is to introduce a therapeutic gene into a tumor cell. These therapeutic genes introduced to a target cell may for example correct mutated genes, suppress active oncogenes or generate additional properties to the cell. Suitable exogenous therapeutic genes include but are not limited to immunotherapeutic, anti-angiogenic, chemoprotective and "suicide" genes, and they can be introduced to a cell by utilizing modified virus vectors or non-viral methods including electroporation, gene gun and lipid or polymer coatings.

[0003] Requirements of optimal viral vectors include an efficient capability to find specific target cells and express the viral genome in the target cells. Furthermore, optimal vectors have to stay active in the target tissues or cells. All these properties of viral vectors have been developed during the last decades and for example retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated viral vectors have been widely studied in biomedicine.

[0004] To further improve tumor penetration and local amplification of the anti-tumor effect, selectively oncolytic agents, e.g. conditionally replicating adenoviruses, have been constructed. Oncolytic adenoviruses are a promising tool for treatment of cancers. Tumor cells are killed by oncolytic adenoviruses due to a replication of the virus in a tumor cell, the last phase of the replication resulting in a release of thousands of virions into the surrounding tumor tissues for effective tumor penetration and vascular re-infection. Tumor cells allow replication of the virus while normal cells are spared due to engineered changes in the virus genome, which prevent replication in non-tumor cells. In addition to replication mediated cell killing, oncolytic adenoviruses can also be armed with different therapeutic transgenes. This approach combines the advantages of conventional gene delivery with the potency of replication competent agents. One goal of arming viruses is induction of an immune reaction towards the cells that allow virus replication. Virus replication alone, although immunogenic, is normally not enough to induce effective anti-tumor immunity. To strengthen induction of therapeutic immunity, viruses can be armed with stimulatory proteins such as cytokines for facilitation of the introduction of tumor antigens to antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, and their stimulation and/or maturation. Introduction of immunotherapeutic genes into tumor cells and furthermore, translation of the proteins, leads to activation of the immune response and efficient destruction of tumor cells. The most relevant immune cells in this regard are natural killer cells (NK) and cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells.

[0005] More than 50 different serotypes of adenoviruses have been found in humans. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is known to cause respiratory diseases and it is the most common serotype studied in the field of gene therapy. In the first Ad5 vectors E1 and/or E3 regions were deleted enabling insertion of foreign DNA to the vectors. Furthermore, deletions of other regions as well as further mutations have provided extra properties to viral vectors, indeed, various modifications of adenoviruses have been suggested for achieving efficient antitumor effects.

[0006] Granzymes are serine proteases released by cytoplasmic granules within cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. They induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the target cell, thus eliminating cells that have become cancerous or are infected with viruses or bacteria. The family of granzymes (a family of lymphocyte granule serine proteases) comprises five known human protein members: A, B, H, M and tryptase-2, which is also known as granzyme 3. Granzyme B (GrB) is a serine protease most commonly found in the granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs), natural killer cells (NK cells) and cytotoxic T cells (Rousalova and Krepela, 2010). It is secreted by these cells along with the pore forming protein perforin to mediate apoptosis in target cells.

[0007] Perforin (PERF, PERF1) is a pore forming cytolytic protein found in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells (Osinska et al., 2014). Upon degranulation, perforin binds to the target cell's plasma membrane, and oligomerises in a Ca2+ dependent manner to form pores on the target cell (Krzewski and Coligan, 2012). The pore formed allows for the passive diffusion of a family of pro-apoptotic proteases, known as the granzymes, into the target cell.

[0008] Interactions between granzyme and perforin is crucial to initiate apoptosis of target cell. The cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) are able to recognize their target cells and form an immunological synapse. The microtubule-organizing centre (MTOC) of the cytotoxic lymphocyte polarizes and secretory granule traffic towards the presynaptic membrane. The granules then fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release perforin and granzymes. Subsequently, perforin forms large transmembrane pores that enable transfer of granzymes into the target cell cytosol. Granzymes then initiate apoptosis of the target cell, and the CTLs move from the dying cell and can interact with another target cell to carry out killing effect (Voskoboinik et al., 2015).

[0009] GrB is reported to be the most potent of all the human granzymes produced by CTLs. Its biological activity during a CTL or NK cell-mediated immune response is dependent upon: (i) co-release with perforin towards target cells at intercellular spaces called immunological synapses (ii) successful entry into the cytosol of the cell (iii) activation of several pro-apoptotic pathways by proteolytically attacking several intracellular protein substrates (Hlongwane et al., 2018).

[0010] EP2379586B1 discloses an oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone, a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 of adenoviral E1 and a nucleic acid sequence encoding a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the place of the deleted gp19k/6.7K in the adenoviral E3 region. EP2415783B1 discloses a recombinant vaccinia virus that can express one or more therapeutic genes, whose products cause cell death or whose products cause an anti-tumor immune response. US20150037297A1 discloses an insertion of a potent tumoricidal transgene into a lenti-viral vector. Document further describes recombinant nucleic acid vector comprising a gene(s) encoding one or a plurality of tumoricidal transgenes encoding tumoricidal proteins or nucleotides.

[0011] Still, more efficient and accurate gene transfer as well as increased specificity and sufficient tumor killing ability of gene therapies are warranted. The present invention provides a cancer therapeutic tool with these aforementioned properties by utilizing both oncolytic and immunotherapeutic properties of adenoviruses in a novel and inventive way.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0012] The object of the invention is to provide novel methods and means for achieving the above-mentioned properties of adenoviruses and thus, solving the problems of conventional cancer therapies. More specifically, the invention provides novel methods and means for gene therapy.

[0013] The present inventors hypothesized that the proteins of granzyme and perforin families could contribute in cancer treatment and enhance properties of an oncolytic virus. The double transgene construct (TGX-14) coding for Granzyme B and Perforin utilize the properties of oncolytic viruses. The virus is capable of selectively lysing tumors due to the fact that it incorporates a 24bp deletion in E1A region for cancer cell restricted replication (Kuryk et al., 2016) and enhanced tropism due to fiber knob modifications (chimeric virus5/3 knob) (Kuryk et al., 2018). In addition to that, due to the presence of transgenes, the construct was surprisingly found to exhibit enhanced anti-tumor effects by increasing the oncolytic potency through apoptosis of both infected and non-infected tumour cells leading to an increase in the release of tumour antigens and thereby enhancing cross presentation of tumour antigens and priming of cancer specific T cells. The incorporated transgenes enhance along with the oncolytic properties of the construct and can be deduced expected to result in synergistic anti-cancer effects and improved clinical outcomes.

[0014] The double transgene viruses were found to be more efficient compared to the case where both transgenes were encoded by separate viruses but used together. The double transgene simplifies the production process especially in clinical studies over combined viruses expressing transgenes separately.

[0015] The present application describes construction of recombinant viral vectors, methods related to the vectors, and their use in tumor cells lines and animal models.

[0016] The present invention relates to an oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone, a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 of adenoviral E1 and a nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and Perforin transgenes.

[0017] In a preferred embodiment, the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprises an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone, a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 of adenoviral E1 and a nucleic acid sequence encoding Granzyme B (GrB) and Perforin transgenes (PERF1, PERF). The transgenes can be inserted with or without IRES in the place of the in E3 with 2.7 kb deletion in E3 and/or between the L5 and E4 polyA signals in the place of deleted gp19k/6.7K in the adenoviral E3 region. The vector can contain an adenovirus 3 serotype knob replacing the wild type serotype 5 knob (5/3 chimeric).

[0018] The present invention further relates to a cell comprising the adenoviral vector of the invention.

[0019] The present invention also relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising the adenoviral vector of the invention.

[0020] The present invention also relates to a use of the adenoviral vector of the invention in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer in a subject.

[0021] The present invention also relates to a method of treating cancer in a subject, wherein the method comprises administration of the vector or pharmaceutical composition of the invention to a subject.

[0022] Furthermore, the present invention also relates to a method of producing granzyme and perforin in a cell, wherein the method comprises: a) infecting a cell with an oncolytic virus of the invention, and b) expressing granzyme and perforin of said vector in the cell.

[0023] Furthermore, the present invention also relates to a method of increasing tumor specific immune response in a subject, wherein the method comprises: a) carrying a vehicle comprising an oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention to a target cell or tissue, b) expressing granzyme and perforin of said vector in the cell, and c) increasing amount of cytotoxic T cells and/or natural killer cells in said target cell or tissue.

[0024] Still, the present invention also relates to a use of the oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention for producing granzyme and perforin in a cell.

[0025] Still, the present invention also relates to a use of the oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention for increasing tumor specific immune response in a subject.

[0026] The present invention provides a tool for treatment of cancers, some of which are refractory to current approaches. Also, restrictions regarding tumor types suitable for treatment remain few compared to many other treatments. In fact, all solid tumors may be treated with the proposed invention. Larger tumors by mass and more complex tumors can be treated by using the present invention. The treatment can be given intratumorally, intracavitary, intravenously and in a combination of these. The approach can give systemic efficacy despite local injection. The approach can also eradicate cells proposed as tumor initiating ("cancer stem cells").

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0027] 

Figure 1 illustrates the shuttle plasmid constructions for the shuttle plasmids for pTGX-01 (Grb), TGX-02 (PERF) and TGX-13 (CMV-PERF-IRES-GrB).

Figure 2 illustrates the cosmid constructions for TGX-01, TGX-02, TGX-13 and TGX-14 (CMV-GrB and RSV-PERF).

Figure 3 shows TGX-01 virus structure. GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 28,898 - 29,641bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,170 - 28,699) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 905-949bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 29,999 - 31,762bp).

Figure 4 shows TGX-02 virus structure. PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 28,898 - 30,565bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,170 - 28,699bp) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 905-949bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 30,923 - 32,686bp).

Figure 5 shows TGX-13 virus structure. PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 28,934 - 30,601bp) -IRES (30,602 - 31,173bp) -GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 31,207 - 31,950) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,206 - 28,735bp) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 907-951bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 32,308 - 34,071 bp).

Figure 6 shows TGX-14 virus structure. GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 28,934 - 29,677bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,206 - 28,735bp) inserted into E3 region. PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 32,092 33,759bp)- bGH pA expression under the control of RSV promoter (31,821 - 32,081bp) inserted between the L5 and E4 polyA signals. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 907-951bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 30,035 - 31,798bp).

Figure 7. Figure 7 a) shows the effects of tested oncolytic adenoviruses on viability of human melanoma cell line A375 at the concentration of 1000 VP/cell after 72 hours post infection. Absorbance of untreated cells is expressed as 100% and absorbance of treated cells is expressed as a percentage of absorbance of untreated cells. Results are expressed as mean +/- SEM. Figure 7 b) illustrates the effects of tested oncolytic adenoviruses on viability of human melanoma cell line SK-MEL-28 at the concentration of 1000 VP/cell after 72 hours post infection. Absorbance of untreated cells is expressed as 100% and absorbance of treated cells is expressed as a percentage of absorbance of untreated cells. Results are expressed as mean +/- SEM. Figure 7 c) shows the effects of tested oncolytic adenoviruses on viability of human melanoma cell line A2058 at the concentration of 1000 VP/cell after 72 hours post infection. Absorbance of untreated cells is expressed as 100% and absorbance of treated cells is expressed as a percentage of absorbance of untreated cells. Results are expressed as mean +/- SEM.


SEQUENCE LISTING



[0028] 

Sequence ID NO: 1. A nucleic acid sequence encoding an oncolytic adenoviral vector Ad5/3-D24-GrB-PERF (TGX-14). GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 28,934 - 29,677bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,206 - 28,735bp) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 907-951bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 30,035 - 31,798bp). PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 32,092 33,759bp)- bGH pA expression under the control of RSV promoter (31,821 - 32,081bp) inserted into E3 region. Nucleotide sequence enclosed in attachment (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 2. A nucleic acid sequence encoding an oncolytic adenoviral vector Ad5/3-D24-PERF-GrB (TGX-13). PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 28,934 - 30,601bp) -IRES (30,602 - 31,173bp) -GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 31,207 - 31,950) -SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,206 - 28,735bp) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 907-951bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 32,308 - 34,071bp).

Sequence ID NO: 3. A nucleic acid sequence encoding an oncolytic adenoviral vector Ad5/3-D24-Grb (TGX-01) virus structure. GrB (functional expression cassette, location: 28,898 - 29,641bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,170 - 28,699) inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 905-949bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 29,999 - 31,762bp).

Sequence ID NO: 4. A nucleic acid sequence encoding an oncolytic adenoviral vector Ad5/3-D24-PERF (TGX-02). PERF1 (functional expression cassette, location: 28,898 - 30,565bp) and SV40pA expression under the control of CMV promoter (28,170 - 28,699bp), inserted into E3 region. The virus contains the 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2 (E1A Conserved Region 2 (CR2) with a 24-bp deletion that removed the strongest of two binding sites in E1A for Rb protein (LTCHEAGF), location: 905-949bp), expresses the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber (location: 30,923 - 32,686bp).

Sequence ID NO: 5. A binding site for Rb protein in E1A.

Sequence ID NO: 6. Deleted sequence of CR2.

Sequence ID NO: 7. CR2-D24 (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 8. Ad5/3 fiber (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 9. CMV promoter/enhancer (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 10. CUO (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 11. CMV 5'UTR (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 12. GRB (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 13. SV40 poly(A) signal (TGX-01).

Sequence ID NO: 14. CR2-D24 (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 15. Ad5/3 fiber (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 16. CMV promoter/enhancer (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 17. CUO (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 18. CMV 5'UTR (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 19. PERF1 (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 20. SV40 poly(A) signal (TGX-02).

Sequence ID NO: 21. CR2-D24 (907-951bp) (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 22. Ad5/3 fiber (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 23. CMV promoter/enhancer (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 24. CUO (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 25. CMV 5' UTR (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 26. PERF1 (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 27. IRES (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 28. GRB (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 29. SV40 poly(A) signal (TGX-13).

Sequence ID NO: 30. CR2-D24 (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 31. Ad5/3 fiber (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 32. CMV promoter/enhancer (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 33. CUO (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 34. CMC 5'UTR (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 35. GRB (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 36. SV40 poly(A) signal (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 37. RSV promoter (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 38. PERF1 (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 39. bGH poly(A) signal (TGX-14).

Sequence ID NO: 40. Primer sequence 282-1.

Sequence ID NO: 41. Primer sequence 282-2.

Sequence ID NO: 42. Primer sequence 282-3.

Sequence ID NO: 43. Primer sequence 282-4.

Sequence ID NO: 44. Primer sequence 282-5.

Sequence ID NO: 45. Primer sequence 282-6.

Sequence ID NO: 46. Primer sequence 282-7.

Sequence ID NO: 47. Primer sequence 282-8.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE



[0029] The double transgene oncolytic adenoviral vector of the present invention is based on an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone with a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 (CR2) of adenoviral E1 and a nucleic acid sequence encoding a granzyme and perforin transgenes. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the adenoviral vector backbone is ONCOS-102 as disclosed in EP2379586B1, which comprises of granzyme and perforin transgenes that can be connected with IRES sequence in the place of GM-CSF/E3/between the L5 and E4 polyA signals.

[0030] The double transgene viruses according to the invention showed surprising effects. The double transgene viruse coding for GrB and PERF1 (TGX-14) showed anti-cancer superiority over singe transgene viruses TGX-01 (coding for GrB) and TGX-02 (coding for PERF1) in vitro against A375 cell line (Figure 7a). Double transgene vector (TGX-14) showed also anti-cancer superiority over single transgene vectors (TGX-01 and TGX-02) in SK-MEL-28 cell lines (Figure 7b). Improved oncolytic properties of TGX-14 were also observed in A2058 cell line (Figure 7c).

[0031] Compared to a wild type adenovirus genome, the adenoviral vector of the invention lacks 24 base pairs from CR2 in E1 region, specifically in E1A region, and has a 2,7 kbp deletion in E3 region and/or modification between the L5 and E4 polyA signals. 24 base pair deletion (D24) of E1 affects CR2 domain, which is responsible for binding the Rb tumor suppressor/cell cycle regulator protein and thus, allows the induction of the synthesis (S) phase i.e. DNA synthesis or replication phase. pRb and E1A interaction requires eight amino acids 121 to 127 of the E1A protein conserved region, which are deleted in the present invention. Viruses with the D24 are known to have a reduced ability to overcome the G1-S checkpoint and replicate efficiently in cells where this interaction is not necessary, e.g. in tumor cells defective in the Rb-p16 pathway.

[0032] The E3 region is nonessential for viral replication in vitro, but the E3 proteins have an important role in the regulation of host immune response i.e. in the inhibition of both innate and specific immune responses. The deletion in E3 refers to a deletion of 2.7kbp base pairs from the adenoviral E3A region. In a resulting adenoviral construct, both gp19k and 6.7K genes are deleted. The gp19k gene product is known to bind and sequester major histocompatibility complex I (MHC1) molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to prevent the recognition of infected cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Since many tumors are deficient in MHC1, deletion of gp19k increases tumor selectivity of viruses (virus is cleared faster than wild type virus from normal cells but there is no difference in tumor cells). 6.7K proteins are expressed on cellular surfaces and they take part in downregulating TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor 2.

[0033] Proteins from the E4 genes can modulate transcription, the cell-cycle, cell signalling and DNA repair. the early region E4 has been shown to affect transgene persistence, vector toxicity and immunogenicity. In addition, some of these proteins also cause oncogenic transformation. E4 region

[0034] The fiber polypeptide is a late product and is encoded in transcription unit L5 of the adenovirus genome. L5 is the last of five cassettes of transcripts (L1-L5) in a large mRNA transcript with a tripartite leader sequence, processed into five individual mRNA families via alternative splicing and usage of different poly(A) signals.

[0035] An internal ribosome entry site, abbreviated IRES, is an RNA element that allows for translation initiation in a cap-independent manner, as part of the greater process of protein synthesis. In eukaryotic translation, initiation typically occurs at the 5' end of mRNA molecules, since 5' cap recognition is required for the assembly of the initiation complex.

[0036] Mammalian expression plasmids are primarily used to create mRNA and the commonly used mammalian terminators (like SV40, BGH/BGHP,) include the sequence motif which promotes both polyadenylation and termination.

[0037] Preferably, Perforin is Perforin1. More preferably, Perforin 1 is human Perforin1. Granzyme can be Granzyme A, B, H or M or tryptase-2. Preferably, granzyme is Granzyme B. More preferably, Granzyme B is human Granzyme B.

[0038] In the present invention, the granzyme, perforin and IRES can be placed into 2.7kbp deletion in E3 or between the L5 and E4 polyA signals be under the E3 promoter (for E3 region). Granzyme, can be for example under CMV(Cuo) promoter and perforin for example under RSV promoter. This restricts transgene expression to tumor cells that allow replication of the virus and subsequent activation of the E3 promoter. E3 promoter may be any exogenous or endogenous promoter known in the art, preferably endogenous promoter. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and perforin are under the control of the viral E3 promoter, CMV or RSV promoter. CMV(CuO) promoter contains a copy of the cumate operator (CuO). In "regular" 293 cells and other cell lines, the CuO operator is inactive and transcription takes place from the CMV promoter. In 293-CymR cells, which express the CymR repressor, the CymR repressor binds onto the CuO operator, thereby preventing the transcription of the transgene.

[0039] The vectors of the invention may also comprise other modifications than partial deletions of CR2 and E3 and insertion of granzyme and perforin sequences as mentioned above. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, all the other regions of the Ad5 vector are of a wild type. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the E4 region is of a wild type. In still another embodiment a transgene is inserted into E4 region. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a wild type region is located upstream of the E1 region. "Upstream" refers to immediately before the E1 region in the direction of expression. E1 B region may also be modified in the vector of the invention.

[0040] As used herein, "Ad5/3 chimerism" of the capsid refers to a chimerism, wherein the knob part of the fiber is from Ad serotype 3, and the rest of the fiber is from Ad serotype 5.

[0041] Expression cassettes are used for expressing transgenes in a target, such as a cell, by utilizing vectors. As used herein, the expression "expression cassette" refers to a DNA vector or a part thereof comprising nucleotide sequences, which encode cDNAs or genes, and nucleotide sequences, which control and/or regulate the expression of said cDNAs or genes. Similar or different expression cassettes may be inserted to one vector or to several different vectors. Ad5 vectors of the present invention may comprise either several or one expression cassettes. However, only one expression cassette is adequate. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprises at least one expression cassette. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprises only one expression cassette.

[0042] A cell comprising the adenoviral vector of the invention may be any cell such as a eukaryotic ceil, bacterial cell, animal cell, human cell, mouse cell etc. A cell may be an in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo cell. For example, the cell may be used for producing the adenoviral vector in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo, or the cell may be a target, such as a tumor cell, which has been infected with the adenoviral vector.

[0043] In a method of producing granzyme and perforin transgenes in a cell, a vehicle comprising the vector of the invention is carried into a cell and furthermore, granzyme and perforin transgenes are expressed, and the protein is translated and secreted in a paracrine manner. "A vehicle" may be any viral vector, plasmid or other tool, such as a particle, which is able to deliver the vector of the invention to a target cell. Any conventional method known in the art can be used for delivering the vector to the cell.

[0044] Tumor specific immune response may be increased in a subject by the present invention. Cytotoxic T cells and/or natural killer cells are stimulated, produced and targeted as a consequence of the construct properties.

[0045] The recombinant Ad5 vectors of the invention have been constructed for replication competence in cells, which have defects in the Rb-pathway, specifically Rb-p16 pathway. These defective cells include all tumor cells in animals and humans. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the vector is capable of selectively replicating in cells having defects in the Rb-pathway. As used herein "defects in the Rb-pathway" refers to mutations and/or epigenetic changes in any genes or proteins of the pathway. Due to these defects, tumor cells overexpress E2F and thus, binding of Rb by E1A CR2, that is normally needed for effective replication, is unnecessary.

[0046] Any cancers or tumors, including both malignant and benign tumors as well as primary tumors and metastasis may be targets of gene therapies. In a specific embodiment of the invention the cancer is any solid tumor. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cancer is selected from a group consisting of nasopharyngeal cancer, synovial cancer, hepatocellular cancer, renal cancer, cancer of connective tissues, melanoma, lung cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma, gastrinoma, pheochromocytoma, prolactinoma, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, neuroma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, adrenal cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, ureter cancer, brain cancer, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, meningioma, spinal cord tumor, bone cancer, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, cancer of unknown primary site, carcinoid, carcinoid of gastrointestinal tract, fibrosarcoma, breast cancer, Paget's disease, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gall bladder cancer, head cancer, eye cancer, neck cancer, kidney cancer, Wilms' tumor, liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral cancer, skin cancer, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, glucagonoma, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penis cancer, pituitary cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, small intestine cancer, stomach cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic cancer, hydatidiform mole, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, vagina cancer, vulva cancer, acoustic neuroma, mycosis fungoides, insulinoma, carcinoid syndrome, somatostatinoma, gum cancer, heart cancer, Hp cancer, meninges cancer, mouth cancer, nerve cancer, palate cancer, parotid gland cancer, peritoneum cancer, pharynx cancer, pleural cancer, salivary gland cancer, tongue cancer and tonsil cancer.

[0047] A pharmaceutical composition of the invention comprises at least one type of the vectors of the invention. Furthermore, the composition may comprise at least two or three different vectors of the invention. In addition to the vector of the invention, a pharmaceutical composition may also comprise any other vectors, such as other adenoviral vectors, other therapeutically effective agents, any other agents such as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, buffers, excipients, adjuvants, antiseptics, filling, stabilising or thickening agents, and/or any components normally found in corresponding products.

[0048] The pharmaceutical composition may be in any form, such as solid, semisolid or liquid form, suitable for administration. A formulation can be selected from a group consisting of, but not limited to, solutions, emulsions, suspensions, tablets, pellets and capsules.

[0049] The effective dose of vectors depends on at least the subject in need of the treatment, tumor type, location of the tumor and stage of the tumor. The dose may vary for example from about 10e8 viral particles (VP) to about 10e14 VP, preferably from about 5x10e9 VP to about 10e13 VP and more preferably from about 8x10e9 VP to about 10e12 VP. In one specific embodiment of the invention the dose is in the range of about 5x10e10 - 5x10e11 VP.

[0050] The vector or pharmaceutical composition of the invention may be administered to any eukaryotic subject selected from a group consisting of plants, animals and human beings, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the subject is a human or an animal. An animal may be selected from a group consisting of pets, domestic animals and production animals.

[0051] Any conventional method may be used for administration of the vector or composition to a subject. The route of administration depends on the formulation or form of the composition, the disease, location of tumors, the patient, comorbidities and other factors. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the administration is conducted through an intratumoral, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intravenous, intrapleural, intravesicular, intracavitary or peritoneal injection, or an oral administration.

[0052] Only one administration of oncolytic adenoviral vectors of the invention may have therapeutic effects. However, in a preferred embodiment of the invention, oncolytic adenoviral vectors or pharmaceutical compositions are administered several times during the treatment period. Oncolytic adenoviral vectors or pharmaceutical compositions may be administered for example from 1 to 10 times in the first 2 weeks, 4 weeks, monthly or during the treatment period. In one embodiment of the invention, administration is done three to seven times in the first 2 weeks, then at 4 weeks and then monthly. In a specific embodiment of the invention, administration is done four times in the first 2 weeks, then at 4 weeks and then monthly. The length of the treatment period may vary, and for example may last from two to 12 months or more.

[0053] The gene therapy of the invention is effective alone, but combination of adenoviral gene therapy with any other therapies, such as traditional therapy, may be more effective than either one alone. For example, each agent of the combination therapy may work independently in the tumor tissue, the adenoviral vectors may sensitize cells to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and/or chemotherapeutic agents may enhance the level of virus replication or effect the receptor status of the target cells. The agents of combination therapy may be administered simultaneously or sequentially.

[0054] As used herein, the term "immune checkpoint inhibitor" or "checkpoint inhibitor" refers to molecules that totally or partially reduce, inhibit, interfere with or modulate one or more checkpoint proteins. Checkpoint proteins regulate T-cell activation or function. Central to the immune checkpoint process are the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathways. The CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways are thought to operate at different stages of an immune response. CTLA-4 is considered the "leader" of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, as it stops potentially autoreactive T cells at the initial stage of naive T-cell activation, typically in lymph nodes. The PD-1 pathway regulates previously activated T cells at the later stages of an immune response, primarily in peripheral tissues.

[0055] Inhibition of the immune checkpoint pathways has led to the approval of several new drugs: ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4; Yervoy®), pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1; Keytruda®), and nivolumab (anti-PD-1; Opdivo®). Also, PD-L1 inhibitors, such as Atezolizumab (MPDL3280), Avelumab (MSB0010718C) and Durvalumab (MEDI4736), are available. These antagonistic antibodies have been associated with objective clinical responses in cancer patients. Antibodies targeting CTLA-4 are already marketed (e.g. Ipilimumab, Yervoy, Bristol-Myers Squibb, BMS) for metastatic melanoma. Antibody therapies with anti PD-L1 (e.g. MPDL3280A, Roche), anti PD-1 (e.g. Nivolumab, BMS) are also ongoing.

[0056] Other immune-checkpoint inhibitors include lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) inhibitors, such as IMP321, a soluble Ig fusion protein. Other immunecheckpoint inhibitors include B7 inhibitors, such as B7-H3 and B7-H4 inhibitors. In particular, the anti-B7-H3 antibody MGA271. Also included are TIM3 (T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3) inhibitors. In certain embodiments the PD-1 blockers include anti-PD-L1 antibodies. In certain other embodiments the PD-1 blockers include anti-PD-1 antibodies and similar binding proteins such as nivolumab (MDX 1106, BMS 936558, ONO 4538), a fully human IgG4 antibody 30 that binds to and blocks the activation of PD-1 by its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2; lambrolizumab (MK-3475 or SCH 900475), a humanized monoclonal IgG4 antibody against PD-1 ; CT-011 a humanized antibody that binds PD-1 ; AMP-224 is a fusion protein of B7-DC; an antibody Fc portion; BMS-936559 (MDX- 1105-01) for PD-L1 (B7-H1) blockade. Further examples of PD-L1 inhibitors that can be used in certain embodiments are Atezolizumab (MPDL3280), Avelumab (MSB0010718C) and Durvalumab.

[0057] Preferably, anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab (Keytruda), and nivolumab (Opdivo) are used in the invention. Also, PD-L1 inhibitors, such as durvalumab can be used in combination with anti-PD-1-antibodies. The preferred checkpoint inhibitors of the present invention are thus those for PD-1 and PD-L1.

[0058] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of concurrent radiotherapy to a subject. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of concurrent chemotherapy to a subject. As used herein "concurrent" refers to a therapy, which has been administered before, after or simultaneously with the gene therapy of the invention. The period for a concurrent therapy may vary from minutes to several weeks. Preferably the concurrent therapy lasts for some hours.

[0059] Agents suitable for combination therapy include but are not limited to All-trans retinoic acid, Azacitidine, Azathioprine, Bleomycin, Carboplatin, Capecitabine, Cisplatin, Chlorambucil, Cyclophosphamide, Cytarabine, Daunorubicin, Docetaxel, Doxifluridine, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Epothilone, Etoposide, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Hydroxyurea, Idarubicin, Imattnib, Mechlorethamine, Mercaptopurine, Methotrexate, Mitoxantrone, Oxaliplatin, Paclitaxel, Pemetrexed, Temozolomide, Teniposide, Tioguanine, Valrubicin, Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vindesine and Vinorelbine.

[0060] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of verapamil or another calcium channel blocker to a subject. "Calcium channel blocker" refers to a class of drugs and natural substances which disrupt the conduction of calcium channels, and it may be selected from a group consisting of verapamil, dihydropyridines, gallopamil, diltiazem, mibefradil, bepridil, fluspirilene and fendiline.

[0061] In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of autophagy inducing agents to a subject. Autophagy refers to a catabolic process involving the degradation of a cell's own components through the lysosomal machinery. "Autophagy inducing agents" refer to agents capable of inducing autophagy and may be selected from a group consisting of, but not limited to, mTOR inhibitors, P13K inhibitors, lithium, tamoxifen, chloroquine, bafilomycin, temsirolimus, sirolimus and temozolomide. In a specific embodiment of the invention, the method further comprises administration of temozolomide to a subject. Temozolomide may be either oral or intravenous temozolomide.

[0062] In one embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy or other approaches for blocking of neutralizing antibodies. "Anti-CD20 therapy" refers to agents capable of killing CD20 positive cells and may be selected from a group consisting of rituximab and other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. "Approaches for blocking of neutralizing antibodies" refers to agents capable of inhibiting the generation of anti-viral antibodies that normally result from infection and may be selected from a group consisting of different chemotherapeutics, immunomodulatory substances, corticoids and other drugs. These substances may be selected from a group consisting of, but not limited to, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, azathioprine, methylprenisolone, etoposide, CD40L, CTLA4Ig4, FK506 (tacrolismus), IL-12, IFN-gamma, interleukin 10, anti-CD8, anti-CD4 antibodies, myeloablation and oral adenoviral proteins.

[0063] The oncolytic adenoviral vector of the invention induces virion mediated oncolysis of tumor cells and activates human immune response against tumor cells. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the method or use further comprises administration of substances capable to downregulating regulatory T-cells in a subject. "Substances capable to down- regulating regulatory T-cells" refers to agents that reduce the number of cells identified as T-suppressor or Regulatory T-cells. These cells have been identified as consisting one or many of the following immunophenotypic markers: CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+, CD127- and GITR+. Such agents reducing T- suppressor or Regulatory T-cells may be selected from a group consisting of anti-CD25 antibodies or chemotherapeutics.

[0064] An object of the invention is an oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising an oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone, a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 of E1, a nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and a nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin. Another object of the invention is the oncolytic adenoviral vector, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme is located at the E3 region and the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin between the L5 and E4 polyA signals. More specifically, the transgenes are located between the L5 and E4 polyA signals and/or in E3, with 2.7 kb deletion in E3. Still another object of the invention is the oncolytic adenoviral vector, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme is under CMV promoter. Still another object of the invention is the oncolytic adenoviral vector, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme is under CMV(CuO) promoter. In one aspect of the invention the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin is under RSV promoter. According to another aspect of the invention, the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin are connected with IRES and in the E3 and/or between the L5 and E4 polyA signals region. According to one preferred object of the invention, the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin and the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme are under E3 promoter. According to a preferred embodiment the granzyme is Granzyme B and perforin is Perforin1. In one preferred embodiment the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprises a native E1 A promoter.

[0065] One object of the invention is the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising at least one expression cassette. In another object of the invention, the oncolytic adenoviral vector is capable of selectively replicating in cells having defects in the Rb-pathway.

[0066] Also, a cell comprising the adenoviral vector is one aspect of the invention.

[0067] Another aspect of the invention is a pharmaceutical composition comprising the adenoviral vector of the invention. The adenoviral vector for use in the treatment of cancer or in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer in a subject is also an aspect of the invention. The cancer can be selected selected from a group consisting of nasopharyngeal cancer, synovial cancer, hepatocellular cancer, renal cancer, cancer of connective tissues, melanoma, lung cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma, gastrinoma, pheochromocytoma, prolactinoma, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, neuroma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, adrenal cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, ureter cancer, brain cancer, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, meningioma, spinal cord tumor, bone cancer, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, cancer of unknown primary site, carcinoid, carcinoid of gastrointestinal tract, fibrosarcoma, breast cancer, Paget's disease, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gall bladder cancer, head cancer, eye cancer, neck cancer, kidney cancer, Wilms' tumor, liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral cancer, skin cancer, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, glucagonoma, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penis cancer, pituitary cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, small intestine cancer, stomach cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic cancer, hydatidiform mole, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, vagina cancer, vulva cancer, acoustic neuroma, mycosis fungoides, insulinoma, carcinoid syndrome, somatostatinoma, gum cancer, heart cancer, lip cancer, meninges cancer, mouth cancer, nerve cancer, palate cancer, parotid gland cancer, peritoneum cancer, pharynx cancer, pleural cancer, salivary gland cancer, tongue cancer and tonsil cancer.

[0068] The subject of the treatment can be a human or an animal.

[0069] The treatment of cancer with adenoviral vector in a subject can be conducted through an intratumoral, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intravenous, intrapleural, intravesicular, intracavitary or peritoneal injection, or an oral administration. The injection or the administration can be conducted several times during the treatment period. Also, an oncolytic adenoviral vector having a different fiber knob of the capsid compared to the vector of the earlier treatment can be used. The treatment of cancer in a subject can further comprise an administration of concurrent radiotherapy and/or concurrent chemotherapy to a subject. The treatment of cancer in a subject can further comprise an administration of checkpoint inhibitors, verapamil or another calcium channel blocker, autophagy inducing agents, temozolomide, chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy or other approaches for blocking of neutralizing antibodies, and/or substances capable to downregulating regulatory T-cells in a subject.

[0070] A method of producing perforin and granzyme in a cell in vitro, wherein the method comprises:
  1. a) carrying a vehicle comprising an oncolytic adenoviral vector to a cell, and
  2. b) expressing perforin and granzyme of said vector in the cell,
is an aspect of the present invention.

[0071] Also, a use of the oncolytic adenoviral vector for producing perforin and granzyme in a cell in vitro is an aspect of the invention.

[0072] The nucleotide sequences of vectors show at least 66%, preferably at least 70%, more preferably at least 75%, even more preferably at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3 or SEQ ID NO:4. Still more preferably the nucleotide sequences show at least 85% or at least 90% or 95%, more preferably at least 98%, most preferably 99% identity to the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3 or SEQ ID NO:4.

[0073] A further object of the invention is a method of treating cancer in a human subject in need thereof, wherein a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical formulation comprising an oncolytic adenovirus comprising nucleotide sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO:2 and a diluent or carrier is administered. In the most preferred embodiment the nucleotide sequence is SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 2. Another object of the invention is a method, wherein a therapeutically effective amount of a pharmaceutical formulation comprising a combination of oncolytic adenovirus comprising a nucleotide sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID NO: 3 and oncolytic adenovirus comprising a nucleotide sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID NO: 4 is administered. In the most preferred embodiment, the combination of adenoviruses has nucleotide sequences according to SEQ ID NO: 3 and SEQ ID NO:4. Said methods can further comprise administering an effective amount of an oncolytic adenoviral vector or a pharmaceutical composition comprising the oncolytic adenoviral vector to the subject through intratumoral injection, wherein the oncolytic adenoviral vector comprises the adenovirus according to the invention. In said methods the effective amount of the oncolytic adenoviral vector contains between 5X10e10 - 5X10e11 viral particles. They also induce a specific antitumor immune response, including activation of CD8+ T cells, in tumors expressing the perforin and granzyme from the oncolytic adenoviral vector. In said methods for treatment, the oncolytic adenoviral vector can be administered three to seven times in the first two weeks of treatment.

[0074] In said treatment methods cancer can be selected from a group consisting of nasopharyngeal cancer, synovial cancer, hepatocellular cancer, renal cancer, cancer of connective tissues, melanoma, lung cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma, gastrinoma, pheochromocytoma, prolactinoma, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, neuroma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, adrenal cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, ureter cancer, brain cancer, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, meningioma, spinal cord tumor, bone cancer, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, cancer of unknown primary site, carcinoid, carcinoid of gastrointestinal tract, fibrosarcoma, breast cancer, Paget's disease, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gall bladder cancer, head cancer, eye cancer, neck cancer, kidney cancer, Wilms' tumor, liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral cancer, skin cancer, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, glucagonoma, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penis cancer, pituitary cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, small intestine cancer, stomach cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic cancer, hydatidiform mole, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, vagina cancer, vulva cancer, acoustic neuroma, mycosis fungoides, insulinoma, carcinoid syndrome, somatostatinoma, gum cancer, heart cancer, lip cancer, meninges cancer, mouth cancer, nerve cancer, palate cancer, parotid gland cancer, peritoneum cancer, pharynx cancer, pleural cancer, salivary gland cancer, tongue cancer and tonsil cancer.

[0075] According to one embodiment, the administration of the adenoviral vector or vectors or pharmaceutical composition can be conducted through an intratumoral, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intravenous, intrapleural, intravesicular, intracavitary or peritoneal injection, or an oral administration. According to another embodiment, the adenoviral vector or vectors or pharmaceutical composition can be administered several times during a treatment period. According to a preferred embodiment, concurrent radiotherapy can be administered to the subject. According to a more preferred embodiment, concurrent chemotherapy can be administered to the subject. According to a still more preferred embodiment verapamil or another calcium channel blocker can be administered to the subject.

[0076] In one preferred object of the invention, is a method for treatment with the adenoviral vector or vectors further comprising administering substances capable to downregulating regulatory T-cells in the subject.

[0077] Any method or use of the invention may be either in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro method or use.

[0078] The present invention is illustrated by the following examples, which are not intended to be limiting in any way.

EXAMPLES


Cloning of oncolytic viruses



[0079] Oncolytic viruses were constructed using genetic engineering tools. The construction of oncolytic vectors included the following steps:

1. Shuttle Plasmid Constructions:



[0080] Shuttle plasmid constructions for the viruses TGX-01/02/13: Insertion of the human Granzyme B (GrB), human Perforin (PERF1) and PERF1-IRES-GrB coding sequences into shuttle plasmid pAd1129-27. Shuttle plasmid construction for TGX-14: insertion of the sequence: GrB expression under the CMV promoter into E3 region (utilizing shuttle plasmid for derivatives for E3 genes). PERF1 expression under the control of RSV promoter and bGH A signal, inserted between the fiber and the E4 genes (utilizing shuttle plasmid for derivatives for E4 genes, pAd1130). Plasmid DNA purification, and confirmation of their identity by restriction analysis and sequencing.

[0081] pAd1129-27 contains the Ad5 E3 region and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber gene. A 2.7 kb BglII fragment is deleted from the E3 region and is replaced with a multiple cloning site. At first, an empty CMV-CuO-IRES-SV40pA cassette will be inserted into the MCS. The CMV(CuO) promoter contains a copy of the cumate operator (CuO) (Mullick et al., 2006). In "regular" 293 cells and other cell lines, the CuO operator is inactive and transcription takes place from the CMV promoter. In 293-CymR cells, which express the CymR repressor, the CymR repressor binds onto the CuO operator, thereby preventing the transcription of the transgene. In a second step the sequences encoding GrB, PERF1, PERF1 -IRES-GrB will be inserted into the pAd1129-27 derivative accordingly for the TGX, to generate the expression cassettes depicted in the figure below (Figure 1).

2. Cosmid Construction



[0082] The entire genomes of the recombinant adenoviruses were reconstituted in cosmids (Figure 2). Transfection-grade cosmid DNAs were purified and their identity was confirmed by restriction analysis.

Virus rescue and characterization



[0083] Excision of the adenovirus genome from the cosmids and transfection into 293 or 293-Cymr or A549 cells. Three virus plaques per construct were harvested and amplified in small scale. Their identity will be verified by restriction analysis of their genome using 3 enzymes (Hirt supernatant).

Western Blot



[0084] Expression of the various transgenes from the viruses were assessed by infecting a reporter cell line with the various virus clones, lysing the cells post-infection, separating the total protein content by PAGE, and performing western blottings (WB), anti-GrB, and anti-PERF1 antibodies to detect the various transgene products by chemiluminescence. These experiments will enable us to select virus clones for amplification and purification.

Small-scale amplification



[0085] Small-scale amplification of the viral clones, purification on two CsCI gradients, dialysis against an isotonic buffer (GTS buffer: 2.5% glycerol, 25 mM NaCl, 20 mM Tris-HCI, pH 8.0), filtration through a low-protein binding 0.22 µm filter, and virus particle (VP) concentration determination by ultraviolet absorbance (Abs260-SDS method) was carried out.

Confirmation of virus identity by sequencing



[0086] The identity of the purified recombinant adenoviruses was confirmed by sequencing regions of the virus genomes specific for these recombinant viruses, including the 24-bp deletion in the E1A CDS, the entire mono- or dicistronic cassettes inserted into the E3 region, the Ad5/3 hybrid fiber, E4 region and the junctions between the DNA fragments ligated to each other during the cosmid construction. Experimental sequences were assembled into contigs and aligned with the expected sequences of the viruses.

[0087] Viral genomic DNAs were extracted from CsCI-purified virus particles using proteinase K and resuspended into 30 µL TE pH 7.5. Their quality was assessed by spectrophotometry (Abs260/280/320 nm) and agarose gel electrophoresis. TGX viruses' DNAs were sent to a third party for shotgun library making and sequencing. Libraries were generated using a Nextera XT kit (Illumina, Inc). They were pooled, quantified by qPCR, and sequenced on a 2x300 MiSeq run (Illumina, Inc)..fastq files were processed using the program "BWA Aligner". The software Geneious v11.1.5 (Biomatters Ltd) was used to visualize the .bam files and calculate the consensus sequences. The consensus sequences were aligned to the predicted sequences of the virus genomes using the software SnapGene v4.2.6.

Titration of the viral suspension



[0088] Titration of the viral suspension: determination of the concentration of infectious units per mL virus suspension was performed by TCID50 assay.

Cloning of TGX-01 (Ad5/3-D24-GrB) in more detail



[0089] To construct, amplify, purify, titrate and characterize an oncolytic adenovirus vector characterized by the following features:
  • 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2
  • a CMV-GrB-SV40pA cassette inserted in place of the E3 region
  • a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber


[0090] Recombinant adenovirus TGX01 was constructed by reconstituting its entire genome in a cosmid (pTGX01). The following 5 DNA fragments were ligated to each other:
  1. 1. The 27 kb Pacl-Spel fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  2. 2. The 813 bp Spel-Csi fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  3. 3. The 3024 bp CsiI-PflMI fragment from pAd1129-GrB-F
  4. 4. The 4036 bp PflMI-PacI fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  5. 5. The 8 kb-long Pacl fragment from pAd5dSfi


[0091] Where:
  • pAd5/3-d24-WTE3 (pAd5/3-d24-GMCSF)
  • pAd1129-GrB-F is a shuttle plasmid that contains a CMV-GrB-SV40pA cassette inserted in place of the Ad5 E3 region, and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber
  • pAd5dSfil is a cosmid that contains the entire Ad5 genome. The 8 kb Pacl fragment provides the cosmid backbone for pTGX01
    pAd1129-GrB-F was constructed by inserting the following 3 DNA fragments into the Spel site of pAd1129-27:
    1. 1. The 753 bp Spel-Bsal PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the CMV-CuO promoter using pAd1127-17 as template and primers 282-1 and 282-2
    2. 2. The 783 bp Bsal PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the GrB coding sequence using pAd1127-GrB as template and primers 282-3 and 282-4
    3. 3. The 147 bp Bsal-Spel PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the SV40pA signal using pAd1127-WT-eGFP-F as template and primers 282-5 and 282-6
  • pAd1129-27 is a shuttle plasmid that contains the Ad5 E3 region with a multiple cloning site in place of a 2.7 kb BglII deletion and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber
  • pAd1127-17 is a shuttle plasmid that contains a copy of the inducible CMV-CuO promoter
  • pAd1127-GrB is a shuttle plasmid that contains a copy of the human Granzyme B (GenBank NM_004131).
  • pAd1127-WT-eGFP-F is a plasmid that contains a copy of the SV40pA signal pAd1127-GrB was constructed by inserting a synthetic dsDNA fragment containing the Granzyme B coding sequence between the Dralll sites of pAd1127-16R.


[0092] Where:
pAd1127-16R is an E1/plX shuttle plasmid containing an empty CMV expression cassette.

[0093] Primers:

282-1: TTGACATTGATTATTGACTAGTT

282-2: GCTCATGGTCTCTCGGCCCGCGGAGGCTGGATCGGTCC

282-3: ATGATCGGTCTCAGCCGCCACCATGCAACCAATCC

282-4: CGTGACGGTCTCTAGTTTTAGTGGCGTTTCATGGTTTTC

282-5: AGTGACGGTCTCAAACTTGTTTATTGCAGCTTATAATGG

282-6: GCTCATACTAGTTAAGATACATTGATGAGTTTGGACAAAC


Cloning of TGX-02 (Ad5/3-D24-PERF) in more detail



[0094] To construct, amplify, purify, titrate and characterize an oncolytic adenovirus vector characterized by the following features:
  • 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2
  • a CMV-PERF1-SV40pA cassette inserted in place of the E3 region
  • a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber


[0095] Recombinant adenovirus TGX02 was constructed by reconstituting its entire genome in a cosmid (pTGX02). The following 5 DNA fragments were ligated to each other:
  1. 1. The 27 kb Pacl-Spel fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  2. 2. The 813 bp Spel-Csi fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  3. 3. The 3948 bp CsiI-PflMI fragment from pAd1129-PERF1 -F
  4. 4. The 4036 bp PflMI-PacI fragment from pAd5/3-d24-WTE3
  5. 5. The 8 kb-long Pacl fragment from pAd5dSfi


[0096] Where:
  • pAd5/3-d24-WTE3 (pAd5/3-d24-GMCSF)
  • pAd1129-PERF1-F is a shuttle plasmid that contains a CMV-PERF1-SV40pA cassette inserted in place of the Ad5 E3 region, and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber
  • pAd5dSfil is a cosmid that contains the entire Ad5 genome. The 8 kb Pacl fragment provides the cosmid backbone for pTGX02
pAd1129-PERF1-F was constructed by inserting the following 3 DNA fragments into the Spel site of pAd1129-27:
  1. 1. The 753 bp Spel-Bsal PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the CMV-CuO promoter using pAd1127-17 as template and primers 282-1 and 282-2.
  2. 2. The 1707 bp BsmBI PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the PERF1 coding sequence using pCMV6-PERF1 as template and primers 282-7 and 282-8.
  3. 3. The 147 bp Bsal-Spel PCR fragment obtained by amplifying the SV40pA signal using pAd1127-WT-eGFP-F as template and primers 282-5 and 282-6.


[0097] Where:
  • pAd1129-27 is a shuttle plasmid that contains the Ad5 E3 region with a multiple cloning site in place of a 2.7 kb BglII deletion and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber
  • pAd1127-17 is a shuttle plasmid that contains a copy of the inducible CMV-CuO promoter
  • pCMV6-PERF1 is a plasmid that contains a copy of the human Perforin1 gene (GenBank NM_005041).
  • pAd1127-WT-eGFP-F is a plasmid that contains a copy of the SV40pA signal


[0098] Primers:

282-1: TTGACATTGATTATTGACTAGTT

282-2: GCTCATGGTCTCTCGGCCCGCGGAGGCTGGATCGGTCC

282-5: AGTGACGGTCTCAAACTTGTTTATTGCAGCTTATAATGG

282-6: GCTCATACTAGTTAAGATACATTGATGAGTTTGGACAAAC

282-7: ATGATCCGTCTCAGCCGCCACCATGGCAGCCCGTCTGCTC

282-8: CGTGACCGTCTCTAGTTTCACCACACGGCCCCACTCCGG.


Cloning of TGX-13 (Ad5/3-D24-PERF-GrB) in more detail



[0099] To construct, amplify, purify, titrate and characterize an oncolytic adenovirus vector characterized by the following features:
  • 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2
  • a dicistronic cassette expressing PERF1 and GrB in place into the E3 region (2.7 kb BglII deletion)
  • a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber


[0100] TGX13 was constructed using the AdenoQuick2.0 method. The following plasmids were combined to reconstitute in cosmid pTGX13 the entire genome of the virus:
  • pAd1127-18 is a E1-plX shuttle plasmid that contains the Ad5 left ITR, packaging signal, and the E1A E1B and pIX genes. The plasmid is characterized by the presence of a 24-bp deletion in the E1A region, which deletes amino acids "L T C H E A G F" (121-128) from the conserved region CR2
  • pAd1128 is a 25 kb-long plasmid that contains the Ad5 E2 region and most of the late genes
  • pTGX112 is a pAd1129 plasmid derivative that contains a CMV-PERF1 -IRES-GrB-pA expression cassette inserted in place of the E3 region
  • pAd1130 contains the sequence encompassing psn 32796-right end in the Ad5 genome, including the right ITR and the entire E4 region
pTGX112 was constructed by ligating the following 6 DNA fragments to each other:
  1. 1. the 2756 bp Earl-Sfil fragment from pAd1129-GrB-F
  2. 2. the 1823 bp SfiI fragment from pAd1129-GrB-F
  3. 3. the 2430 bp SfiI-DralII fragment from pAd1129-PERF1-F
  4. 4. a 353 bp PCR fragment encompassing the 3'end of the PERF1 coding sequence, obtained using pAd1129-PERF1-F as template and primers 288-26 and 288-27
  5. 5. a 605 bp fragment encompassing an IRES element, obtained by digesting plasmid pAd1129-IRES-att with SalI
  6. 6. a 176 bp PCR fragment encompassing the 5'end of the GrB coding sequence, obtained using pAd1129-GrB-F as template and primers 288-28 and 288-29


[0101] Where:
  • pAd1129-GrB-F and pAd1129-PERF1-F were made for the construction of TGX01 and TGX02, respectively.
  • pAd1129-IRES-att is a plasmid that contains an attenuated version of the EMCV Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES).


[0102] Primers:

288-26: CAGGAGCTGAGGACGAGCACCGTGTGGGACAATAACAACC

288-27: AGGGGGGGGAGGGAGAGGGGTCACCACACGGCCCCACTCC

288-28: CGGGATCCTCTAGAGTCGACATGCAACCAATCCTGCTTCT

288-29: GAAGCCACCGCACCTCTTCAGAGACTTCTGATCCCAGATC.


Cloning of TGX-14 (Ad5/3-D24-GrB-PERF) in more detail



[0103] To construct, amplify, purify, titrate and characterize an oncolytic adenovirus vector characterized by the following features:
  • 24-bp deletion in E1A CR2
  • a CMV-GrB-SV40pA expression cassette inserted in place of the E3 region (2.7 kb BglII deletion)
  • A RSV-PERF1-bGHpA expression cassette inserted between the L5 and E4 polyA signal.
  • a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber


[0104] TGX14 was constructed using the AdenoQuick2.0 method. The following plasmids were combined to reconstitute in a cosmid the entire sequence of TGX14:
  1. 1) pAd1127-18 is a E1-plX shuttle plasmid that contains the Ad5 left ITR, packaging signal, and the E1A E1B and pIX genes. The plasmid is characterized by the presence of a 24-bp deletion in the E1A region, which deletes amino acids "L T C H E A G F" (121-128) from the conserved region CR2
  2. 2) pAd1128 is a 25 kb-long plasmid that contains the Ad5 E2 region and most of the late genes
  3. 3) pTGX113b is a pAd1129 plasmid derivative that contains a CMV-GrB-pA expression cassette inserted in place of the E3 region, and an RSV-PERF1-pA expression cassette inserted between the L5 and E4 polyA signals.
  4. 4) pAd1130 contains the sequence encompassing psn 32796-right end in the Ad5 genome, including the right ITR and the entire E4 region.


[0105] Where:
  • pTGX113b was constructed by inserting the PflMI-SfiI fragment from pTGX113a into plasmid pAd1129-GrB-F
  • pAd1129-GrB-F is a E3/fiber shuttle plasmid characterized by a CMV-GrB-SV40pA cassette inserted in place of the Ad5 E3 region (2.7 kb BglII deletion), and a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber. pAd1129-GrB-F had been used to construct pTGX01
  • pTGX113a is a pAd1129 derivative that includes a hybrid Ad5/3 fiber and a RSV-PERF1-bGHpA expression cassette inserted between the L5 and E4 polyA signals. pTGX113a was constructed by inserting PCR-amplified RSV promoter, PERF1 coding sequence and bGH polyA signal into the unique Spel site of pAd1129-32.

Preclinical testing


Cell lines



[0106] Melanoma cell lines, A2058 (ATCC® CRL-1147™), A375 (ATCC® CRL-1619™) and SK-Mel-28 (ATCC® HTB-72™), were cultured in DMEM high glucose medium supplemented with 10% FCS and penicillin/streptomycin. Trypsin-EDTA was used to detach and subculture cells at 80% confluence for in vitro assays.

In vitro - cell viability assay (MTS)



[0107] Cell viability was evaluated by using the MTS Cell Proliferation Assay kit (Abcam) according to the manufacturer's instructions with the following modifications. MTS assay kit is a colorimetric method for the sensitive quantification of viable cells. It can be used to assess cell proliferation, cell viability and cytotoxicity. The MTS assay is based on the reduction of the MTS tetrazolium compound by viable mammalian cells to generate a colored formazan dye that is soluble in cell culture media. This conversion is thought to be carried out by NAD(P)H-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes in metabolically active cells. The formazan dye is quantified by measuring the absorbance at 490 nm. Cells were seeded in 96 well plate at a concentration of 3000 and 5000 cells/well. Treatment was initiated in a final volume of 200µL. 72 hours later, MTS assay was performed according to manufacturer protocol. Cells were incubated with and without 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 viral particles (VP) of tested virus. The plates were shaken briefly on a shaker and absorbance measured at 490 nm. Absorbance values for untreated cells were set to correspond to 100% viability, and viability of treated cells was expressed as a percentage of the untreated control absorbance value.

Data analyses



[0108] All parameters were analysed using GraphPad Prism software (version 7). Statistical analyses have been performed using RM-one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey post-test or T test (Mann Whitney Test).

EXAMPLE 1 In vitro - cell viability assay (MTS)



[0109] Double transgene viruses coding for GrB and PERF1 (TGX-13 and TGX-14) have shown anti-cancer superiority when administered at the concentration of 1000VP/cell (respectively 35,05 and 30,33% of untreated cells) over singe transgene viruses TGX-01 (coding for GrB, 64,90% of untreated cells) and TGX-02 (coding for PERF1, 50,14% of untreated cells) in vitro against A375 cell line (Figure 7a).

[0110] Double transgene vector showed also anti-cancer superiority (TGX-14) over single transgene vectors (TGX-01 and TGX-02) in SK-MEL-28 cell lines when tested at the concentration of 100VP/cell (respectively 59; 64,97; 95,39 and 76,89 % of untreated cells), (Figure 7b).

[0111] Improved oncolytic properties of TGX-14 has been observed in A2058 cell line, infected with 1000VP/cell (TGX-14 was superior over TGX-01 and 02 respectively: 56,55; 72,05 and 62,77 % of untreated cells) (Figure 7c).

REFERENCES



[0112] 

Hlongwane, P., Mungra, N., Madheswaran, S., Akinrinmade, O., Chetty, S. & Barth, S. 2018. Human Granzyme B Based Targeted Cytolytic Fusion Proteins. Biomedicines, 6.

Krzewski, K. & Coligan, J. E. 2012. Human NK Cell Lytic Granules and Regulation of Their Exocytosis. Front Immunol, 3, 335.

Kuryk, L., Haavisto, E., Garofalo, M., Capasso, C., Hirvinen, M., Pesonen, S., Ranki, T., Vassilev, L. & Cerullo, V. 2016. Synergistic Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Immunogenic Adenovirus Oncos-102 (Ad5/3-D24-Gm-Csf) And Standard of Care Chemotherapy in Preclinical Mesothelioma Model. Int J Cancer, 139, 1883-93.

Kuryk, L., Møller, A.-S. W. & Jaderberg, M. 2018. Combination of Immunogenic Oncolytic Adenovirus Oncos-102 With Anti-Pd-1 Pembrolizumab Exhibits Synergistic Antitumor Effect in Humanized A2058 Melanoma Hunog Mouse Model. Oncoimmunology, 8, 1-11.

Mullick, A., Xu, Y., Warren, R., Koutroumanis, M., Guilbault, C., Broussau, S., Malenfant, F., Bourget, L., Lamoureux, L., Lo, R., Caron, A. W., Pilotte, A. & Massie, B. 2006. The Cumate Gene-Switch: A System for Regulated Expression in Mammalian Cells. Bmc Biotechnol, 6, 43.

Osinska, I., Popko, K. & Demkow, U. 2014. Perforin: An Important Player in Immune Response. Cent Eur J Immunol, 39, 109-15.

Rousalova, I. & Krepela, E. 2010. Granzyme B-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and its Regulation (Review). International Journal of Oncology, 37.

Voskoboinik, I., Whisstock, J. C. & Trapani, J. A. 2015. Perforin and Granzymes: Function, Dysfunction and Human Pathology. Nat Rev Immunol, 15, 388-400.




































































































































































































Claims

1. An oncolytic adenoviral vector comprising an adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) nucleic acid backbone, a 24 bp deletion (D24) in the Rb binding constant region 2 of E1, a nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and a nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin.
 
2. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to claim 1, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme is located at the E3 region and the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin is located between the L5 and E4 polyA signals.
 
3. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme is under CMV promoter.
 
4. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-3, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin is under RSV promoter.
 
5. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-4, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme and the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin are connected with IRES.
 
6. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1, 2 or 5, wherein the nucleic acid sequence encoding perforin and the nucleic acid sequence encoding granzyme are under E3 promoter.
 
7. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-6, wherein granzyme is Granzyme B is and perforin is Perforin1.
 
8. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-7 comprising a native E1 A promoter.
 
9. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-8 further comprising an Ad5/3 chimerism as a capsid modification.
 
10. The oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-4 or 6-9 comprising a nucleotide sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID NO: 1 or according to any one of claims 1-9 comprising a nucleotide sequence having at least 70% identity to SEQ ID NO:2.
 
11. A cell comprising the adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-10.
 
12. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-10.
 
13. The adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-10 for use in the treatment of cancer or in the manufacture of a medicament for treating cancer in a subject.
 
14. The adenoviral vector for use according to claim 13, wherein the cancer is selected from a group consisting of nasopharyngeal cancer, synovial cancer, hepatocellular cancer, renal cancer, cancer of connective tissues, melanoma, lung cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer, throat cancer, oral cancer, liver cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, choriocarcinoma, gastrinoma, pheochromocytoma, prolactinoma, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, neuroma, von Hippel-Lindau disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, adrenal cancer, anal cancer, bile duct cancer, bladder cancer, ureter cancer, brain cancer, oligodendroglioma, neuroblastoma, meningioma, spinal cord tumor, bone cancer, osteochondroma, chondrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, cancer of unknown primary site, carcinoid, carcinoid of gastrointestinal tract, fibrosarcoma, breast cancer, Paget's disease, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, esophagus cancer, gall bladder cancer, head cancer, eye cancer, neck cancer, kidney cancer, Wilms' tumor, liver cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, testicular cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, oral cancer, skin cancer, mesothelioma, multiple myeloma, ovarian cancer, endocrine pancreatic cancer, glucagonoma, pancreatic cancer, parathyroid cancer, penis cancer, pituitary cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, retinoblastoma, small intestine cancer, stomach cancer, thymus cancer, thyroid cancer, trophoblastic cancer, hydatidiform mole, uterine cancer, endometrial cancer, vagina cancer, vulva cancer, acoustic neuroma, mycosis fungoides, insulinoma, carcinoid syndrome, somatostatinoma, gum cancer, heart cancer, lip cancer, meninges cancer, mouth cancer, nerve cancer, palate cancer, parotid gland cancer, peritoneum cancer, pharynx cancer, pleural cancer, salivary gland cancer, tongue cancer and tonsil cancer.
 
15. The adenoviral vector for use according to claim 13 or 14, wherein the treatment of cancer in a subject is conducted through an intratumoral, intramuscular, intra-arterial, intravenous, intrapleural, intravesicular, intracavitary or peritoneal injection, or an oral administration.
 
16. The adenoviral vector for use according to claim 15, wherein the injection or the administration is conducted several times during the treatment period, or wherein an oncolytic adenoviral vector having a different fiber knob of the capsid compared to the vector of the earlier treatment is used.
 
17. The adenoviral vector for use according to any one of claims 13-16, wherein the treatment of cancer in a subject further comprises an administration of a checkpoint inhibitor, verapamil or another calcium channel blocker, autophagy inducing agents, temozolomide, chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy or other approaches for blocking of neutralizing antibodies, substances capable to downregulating regulatory T-cells in a subject.
 
18. A method of producing granzyme and perforin in a cell in vitro, wherein the method comprises:

i. carrying a vehicle comprising an oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-10 to a cell, and

ii. expressing granzyme and perforin of said vector in the cell.


 
19. A use of the oncolytic adenoviral vector according to any one of claims 1-10 for producing granzyme and perforin in a cell in vitro.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description