(19)
(11)EP 3 733 170 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 20179413.8

(22)Date of filing:  07.03.2013
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
A61K 31/167(2006.01)
A61P 35/00(2006.01)
A61P 19/10(2006.01)
A61K 31/325(2006.01)
A61P 35/04(2006.01)
A01N 37/34(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 13.07.2012 US 201261671366 P
14.11.2012 US 201261726274 P

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
13817231.7 / 2872482

(71)Applicant: Oncternal Therapeutics, Inc.
San Diego CA 92130 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • DALTON, James T.
    Ann Arbor, MI Michigan 48103 (US)
  • STEINER, Mitchell S.
    Germantown, TN Tennessee 38139 (US)
  • NARAYANAN, Ramesh
    Cordova, TN Tennessee 38018 (US)
  • AHN, Sunjoo
    Daejeon (KR)

(74)Representative: Pearl Cohen Zedek Latzer Baratz UK LLP 
The Gridiron Building One Pancras Square
London N1C 4AG
London N1C 4AG (GB)

 
Remarks:
This application was filed on 11.06.2020 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
 


(54)A METHOD OF TREATING ANDROGEN RECEPTOR (AR) -POSITIVE BREAST CANCERS WITH SELECTIVE ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATOR (SARMS)


(57) This invention relates to a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

for use in the treatment of a subject suffering from breast cancer, for use in the treatment of a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer, or for use in the treatment, prevention, suppression, or inhibition of a skeletal-related event in a subject having breast cancer.




Description

FIELD OF INVENTION



[0001] This invention relates to the treatment of androgen receptor-positive breast cancer in a subject, for example a female subject. Accordingly, this invention provides methods of: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and/or Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2); i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor (AI), trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



[0002] Breast cancer is a disease that kills over 45,000 women each year in the United States alone. Over 180,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually, and it is estimated that one in eight women will develop breast cancer. These numbers indicate that breast cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases facing women today. Cancer research has been unable to determine the cause of breast cancer, and has not found a suitable method of therapy or prevention.

[0003] The standard of care currently includes screening the tumor for the expression levels of the hormone receptors, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) kinase. Currently, a woman diagnosed with breast cancer may be treated preliminarily with surgery, chemotherapy (optional in some cases), and radiation before targeted therapy is initiated. Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are susceptible to hormone therapies with selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs (e.g., tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitors (e.g., anastrozole), or selective estrogen receptor degraders or SERDs (e.g., fulvestrant). Hormone therapies such as aromatase inhibitors (AI) block production of estrogens in the body (typically used in post-menopausal women), whereas SERMs and SERDs block the proliferative action of estrogens on the breast cancer cells. HER2 positive breast cancers are susceptible to HER2 kinase inhibitors (e.g., trastuzumab and lapatinib) and are generally used in metastatic disease. Anti-angiogenic therapy (bevacizumab) is also approved in metastatic disease. Despite these multiple tiers of targeted treatments, patients often have or develop refractory forms of breast cancer. Examples of refractory breast cancer include primary tumors which are triple-negative (ER, PR, HER2), hormone resistant (SERM-, SERD-, or AI-resistant), or kinase inhibitor resistant, or metastatic breast cancer tumors. Once the targeted therapies fail or tumors metastasize, radiation and high dose chemotherapy are required to ablate the refractory breast cancer tumors. Current chemotherapies available for the treatment of refractory breast cancer include anthracyclines, taxanes, and epothilones, which are toxic, dangerous, costly, and often are ineffective, especially in the treatment of metastatic disease.

[0004] Abundant clinical evidence suggests that androgens normally inhibit breast growth. For instance, women with androgen deficits have an increased risk for developing breast cancer. Androgen signaling plays a crucial role in breast homeostasis, negating the proliferative effects of estrogen signaling in the breast. However, when androgens transform into estrogens (aromatase pathway), they increase cell proliferation and mammary carcinogenesis risk. Historically, the steroidal androgen receptor agonists testosterone, fluoxymesterone, and calusterone were used in advanced breast cancer. These agents suffered from side effects such as excessive virilization, cross-reactivity with the estrogen receptor, and aromatization to estrogens. The use of steroidal androgens in advanced breast cancer pre-dates the screening of breast cancers for hormone and kinase receptors. Recently, it was found that the AR is expressed in 50-90% of breast tumors, providing a mechanism to use androgens as targeted therapy for AR-positive breast cancers.

[0005] Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are compounds which demonstrate AR-mediated tissue selective activity. Unlike their steroidal precursors, SARMs are non-aromatizable, generally demonstrate no activity at other steroidal receptors including ER and PR, and are non-virilizing. Further, SARMs may be beneficial in refractory breast cancer patients due to their hypermyoanabolic effects that should improve their tolerance of high-dose chemotherapy.

[0006] New innovative approaches are urgently needed at both the basic science and clinical levels to develop compounds which are useful for: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; and/or h) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



[0007] In one embodiment, this invention relates to the treatment of androgen receptor-positive breast cancer in a subject, for example a female subject. Accordingly, this invention provides methods for: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin),bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; comprising administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a compound of formula I:

X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

G is O or S;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

n is an integer of 1-4; and

m is an integer of 1-3;

and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, as described herein. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0008] The subject matter regarded as the invention is particularly pointed out and distinctly claimed in the concluding portion of the specification. The invention, however, both as to organization and method of operation, together with objects, features, and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following detailed description when read with the accompanying drawings in which:

Figure 1 illustrates that DHT and a compound of Formula IX inhibit MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cell growth. Figure 1A shows MDA-MB-231 cell expression of AR following transfection. Figure 1B shows the IC50 in AR positive MDA-MB-231 cells. Figures 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F, 1G, 1H, 1I and 1J show the effects of DHT, Formula IX, bicalutamide and the (R) enantiomer of Formula IX on cell survival percent (%). (Figures 1C, 1E, 1G and 1I cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS. Figures 1D, 1F, 1H and 1J cells were treated in full serum). ● MDA-MB-231 with lacZ; ∘ MDA-MB-231 with AR 200 µL; ▲ MDA-MB-231 with AR 500 µL.

Figure 2 illustrates that DHT and Formula IX inhibit HCC-38 triple negative breast cancer cell growth. Figure 2A shows HCC-38 cell expression of AR following transfection. Fig. 2B shows the IC50 in AR positive HCC-38 cells. Figures 2C, 2D, 2E, 2F, 2G and 2H show the effects of DHT, Formula IX and Bicalutamide on percent (%) cell survival. (Figures 2C, 2E and 2G cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS. Figures 2D, 2F and 2H cells were treated in full serum). ● HCC-38 with lacZ; ∘ HCC-38 with AR 200 µL; ▲ HCC-38 with AR 500 µL.

Figure 3 illustrates that the effect of DHT and Formula IX on MDA-MB-231 cells was reversed by bicalutamide. Figures 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D show the effects of DHT or Formula IX in the presence or absence of bicalutamide, on percent (%) cell survival. (Figures 3A and 3C cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS. Figures 3B and 3D cells were treated in full serum). ● lacZ and with 10 µM bicalutamide; ∘ lacZ; ▲ AR with 10 µM bicalutamide; Δ AR. Figure 3E shows IC50 values in AR positive cells in the presence or absence of pretreatment with bicalutamide.

Figure 4 illustrates that AR agonists inhibit triple negative breast cancer cell growth. Figures 4A, 4B, 4E, 4F, 4G, 4H, 4K, 4L, 4M, 4N, 4O and 4P show effect of AR agonists on percent (%) cell survival. Figures 4C and 4D show the effect of AR antagonist on percent (%) cell survival. Figure 4I and 4J show the effect of AR non-binder on percent (%) cell survival. Figures 4A, 4C, 4E, 4G, 4I, 4M and 4O cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS. Figures 4B, 4D, 4F, 4H, 4J, 4L, 4N and 4P cells were treated in full serum. Figure 4Q shows EC50 and IC50 values in AR positive cells.

Figure 5 illustrates that growth inhibitory ligands are AR agonists in MDA-MB-231 cells.

Figure 6 illustrates that growth inhibitory effects in MDA-MB-231 cells are selective to AR. Figures 6A and 6B show the expression of ERα or ERP in MDA-MB-231 cells following transfection, respectively. Figures 6C, 6D and 6E show the effects of estradiol (E2) or ICI 182,780 (ICI) on percent (%) cell survival. (Figure 6C cells were treated in charcoal stripped serum. Figures 6D and 6E cells were treated in full serum).

Figure 7 shows DHT alters the morphology of MDA-MB-231 cells.

Figure 8 illustrates the effect of Formula VIII on steroid receptor transactivation (agonist mode).

Figure 9 depicts a dose response curve of PR activity (antagonist mode) for compound of formula VIII, formula IX, R-enantiomer of formula IX and RU486. The closed circles (●) correspond to formula VIII data points (IC50 = 17.05 nM); open circles (∘) correspond to formula IX (IC50 = 162.9 nM); closed triangles (▼) correspond to R-enantiomer of formula IX (IC50 = 1689 nM); and open triangles (Δ) correspond to RU486 (IC50 = 0.048 nM).

Figure 10 demonstrates that SARM (formula VIII) inhibits MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth. Body weight (A) and tumor size (B) were measured for 35 days in intact female nude mice having 150-200 mm3 tumors from MDA-MB-231-AR triple negative breast cancer cells and then orally administered vehicle (

) or 30 mg/kg of formula VIII (●).

Figure 11 demonstrates that SARM (formula VIII) inhibits MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth. Tumor size in mm3 (A) and % change in tumor size (B), as well as tumor weight (C) were measured after 35 days in intact female nude mice having 150-200 mm3 tumors from MDA-MB-231-AR triple negative breast cancer cells and then receiving oral administration of vehicle or 30 mg/kg of formula VIII.

Figure 12 demonstrates the morphology of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stably transfected with AR (MDA-MB-231-AR cells). The results indicate that AR agonists, DHT, formula IX, and formula VIII altered the morphology into a more anchored phenotype compared to vehicle, bicalutamide or an inactive isomer of formula IX. This may be indicative of a less metastatic breast cancer phenotype.

Figure 13 demonstrates binding and transactivation of the indicated ligands to HEK-293 (A) or MDA-MB-231 (B & C) cells. DHT, formula IX and formula VIII are agonists of AR in breast cancer cells. (Example 16)

Figure 14 demonstrates anti-proliferative activity of DHT and SARMs in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells stably transfected with AR. MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with AR using lentivirus were treated with the indicated ligands for 6 days and the number of cells counted using coulter counter. DHT and SARMs, but not the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells stably transfected with AR.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION



[0009] In one embodiment, this invention relates to the treatment of androgen receptor-positive breast cancer in a subject. Accordingly, this invention provides methods of: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, as described herein. In one embodiment, the subject is a male. In one embodiment, the subject is a female.

[0010] In one embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0011] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0012] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0013] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0014] In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER, PR and HER2 positive. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER, PR and HER2 negative. In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER positive, and PR and HER2 negative. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and PR positive, and HER2 negative. In yet another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and HER2 positive, and PR negative. In still another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER negative, and PR and HER2 positive. In a further embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and PR negative, and HER2 positive. In still a further embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and HER2 negative, and PR positive. In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER-positive.

[0015] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0016] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0017] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0018] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat ER-positive breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0019] In one embodiment, the ER-positive breast cancer is AR-positive. In another embodiment, the ER-positive breast cancer is AR-negative.

[0020] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat triple negative breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0021] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat advanced breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0022] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed (SERM) (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0023] As used herein, in one embodiment the term "treating" may refer to treating, preventing, delaying the progression, preventing the recurrence or treating the recurrence. In one embodiment, the term "treating" refers to a reduction in morbidity, mortality, or a combination thereof, in association with breast cancer.

[0024] As used herein, the term "breast cancer" may refer to breast cancer; advanced breast cancer; metastatic breast cancer; AR-positive breast cancer; ER-positive breast cancer; AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR and/or HER2; AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER; ER-positive breast cancer with or without expression of AR; AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; refractory breast cancer; AR-positive refractory breast cancer; ER-positive refractory breast cancer; AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; ER-positive metastatic breast cancer; breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments; or triple negative breast cancer; or any combination thereof.

[0025] In one embodiment, the term "breast cancer" refers to a condition characterized by anomalous rapid proliferation of abnormal cells in one or both breasts of a subject. The abnormal cells often are referred to as "neoplastic cells," which refers to, in some embodiments, transformed cells that can form a solid tumor. The term "tumor", in some embodiments, refers to an abnormal mass or population of cells (i.e. two or more cells) that result from excessive or abnormal cell division, whether malignant or benign, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cells. Malignant tumors are distinguished from benign growths or tumors in that, in addition to uncontrolled cellular proliferation, they can invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize.

[0026] In breast cancer, neoplastic cells may be identified in one or both breasts only and not in another tissue or organ, in one or both breasts and one or more adjacent tissues or organs (e.g. lymph node), or in a breast and one or more non-adjacent tissues or organs to which the breast cancer cells have metastasized.

[0027] The term "metastasis", in some embodiments, refers to a process in which cancer cells travel from one organ or tissue to another non-adjacent organ or tissue. Cancer cells in the breast(s) can spread to tissues and organs of a subject, and conversely, cancer cells from other organs or tissue can invade or metastasize to a breast. Cancerous cells from the breast(s) may invade or metastasize to any other organ or tissue of the body. Breast cancer cells often invade lymph node cells and/or metastasize to the liver, brain and/or bone and spread cancer in these tissues and organs. The term "invasion", in some embodiments, refers to the spread of cancerous cells to adjacent surrounding tissues.

[0028] As used herein, the term "advanced breast cancer" refers to cancer that has spread to other places in the body and usually cannot be cured or controlled with current treatment.

[0029] As used herein, the term "AR-positive breast cancer" may refer to breast cancer wherein at least a portion of the cancer cells express at least the androgen receptor (AR).

[0030] As used herein, the term "ER-positive breast cancer" may refer to breast cancer wherein at last a portion of the cancer cells express at least the estrogen receptor (ER).

[0031] As used herein, the term "triple negative breast cancer" may refer to breast cancer cells that do not have estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or large amounts of HER2/neu protein. "Triple negative breast cancer" may also be referred to herein as "ER-negative PR-negative HER2/neu-negative breast cancer".

[0032] As used herein, the term "refractory" may refer to breast cancer that does not respond to treatment. The breast cancer may be resistant at the beginning of treatment or it may become resistant during treatment. "Refractory breast cancer" may also be referred to herein as "resistant cancer".

[0033] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat, prevent, suppress or inhibit metastasis in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0034] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for prolonging the survival of a subject with breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to prolong the survival of a subject with breast cancer. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0035] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to slow the progression of breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0036] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to prolong the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0037] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for lowering biomarker levels in a subject with breast cancer comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to lower the biomarker level in said subject. In another embodiment, the method comprises administering a compound of formulae I-XIV of this invention.

[0038] As used herein, the term "biomarker" may refer to a substance used as an indicator of a process, event, or condition. A biomarker can be a biomolecule such as a nucleic acid molecule (e.g. microRNA, genomic DNA, etc.), a protein, a polysaccharide, and the like. Biomarkers include tumor antigens and tumor markers. In one embodiment, a biomarker indicates the presence of cancer, e.g., breast cancer. In one embodiment, a biomarker may be used to determine the efficacy of treatment. In one embodiment, a biomarker may be used to determine the progression of a condition, e.g., breast cancer.

[0039] The MUC-1 associated antigen, or CA 27.29, is a cancer antigen highly associated with breast cancer. As used herein, the term "CA27.29 biomarker" refers to a biomarker for breast cancer. In one embodiment, CA27.29 is a biomarker for advanced breast cancer.

[0040] "PSA (prostate-specific antigen) biomarker" is used as a biomarker for prostate cancer, however PSA was also found in the blood of women with breast cancer at higher levels compared to women without breast cancer. PSA is useful also as a biomarker for breast cancer.

[0041] "CTX biomarker" and "NTX biomarker" are the C-telopeptide and N-telopeptide of collagen type I, respectively, which are used as biomarkers of bone turnover. NTX and CTX biomarkers may be sensitive indicators of the presence of bone metastases in breast cancer patients.

[0042] In one embodiment, a method of this invention lowers CA27.29 biomarker is a subject. In one embodiment, a method of this invention lowers PSA in a subject. In one embodiment, a method of this invention lowers CTX biomarker in a subject. In one embodiment of this invention, a method of this invention lowers NTX biomarker in a subject. In another embodiment, a method of this invention maintains the level of CA27.29 in a subject. In another embodiment, a method of this invention maintains the level of PSA in a subject. In another embodiment, a method of this invention maintains the level of CTX biomarker in a subject. In another embodiment, a method of this invention maintains the level of NTX biomarker. In one embodiment, the subject has breast cancer. In one embodiment, the subject has advanced breast cancer. In another embodiment, the subject has refractory breast cancer. In yet another embodiment, the subject has AR-positive breast cancer. In still another embodiment, the subject has ER-positive breast cancer.

[0043] In one embodiment, the compound of this invention is an antagonist. In another embodiment, the compound of this invention is an agonist. In yet another embodiment, the compound of this invention is a partial agonist/partial antagonist. In one embodiment, a compound of this invention is an AR agonist. In another embodiment, a compound is an AR antagonist. In yet another embodiment, a compound is a partial AR agonist and AR antagonist. In one embodiment, a compound of this invention is a PR agonist. In another embodiment, a compound is a PR antagonist. In yet another embodiment, a compound is a partial PR agonist and PR antagonist.

[0044] In one embodiment, a compound of this invention is an AR agonist and a PR antagonist.

[0045] The SARM compounds of this invention may be useful, in some embodiments, for: a) treatment, prevention, delaying onset of, increasing time to first skeletal related event (SRE), suppression or inhibition of, or the reduction of the risk of developing a skeletal-related event (SRE), such as pathological bone fractures, surgery of the bone, radiation of the bone, spinal cord compression, new bone metastasis, and/or bone loss in a subject; b) treatment, prevention, suppression or inhibition of, or the reduction of the risk of developing a variety of hormone-related conditions in a subject, for example for increasing libido; and/or for c) improving quality of life in a subject.

[0046] Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In the U.S., the condition affects more than 25 million people and causes more than 1.3 million fractures each year, including 500,000 spine, 250,000 hip and 240,000 wrist fractures annually. Hip fractures are the most serious consequence of osteoporosis, with 5-20% of patients dying within one year, and over 50% of survivors being incapacitated. The elderly are at greatest risk of osteoporosis, and the problem is therefore predicted to increase significantly with the aging of the population. Worldwide fracture incidence is forecasted to increase three-fold over the next 60 years, and one study estimated that there will be 4.5 million hip fractures worldwide in 2050.

[0047] Women are at greater risk of osteoporosis than men. Women experience a sharp acceleration of bone loss during the five years following menopause. Other factors that increase the risk include smoking, alcohol abuse, a sedentary lifestyle and low calcium intake. However, osteoporosis also occurs frequently in males. It is well established that the bone mineral density of males decreases with age. Decreased amounts of bone mineral content and density correlates with decreased bone strength, and predisposes to fracture. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic effects of sex-hormones in non-reproductive tissues are only beginning to be understood, but it is clear that physiologic concentrations of androgens and estrogens play an important role in maintaining bone homeostasis throughout the life-cycle. Consequently, when androgen or estrogen deprivation occurs there is a resultant increase in the rate of bone remodeling that tilts the balance of resorption and formation to the favor of resorption that contributes to the overall loss of bone mass. In males, the natural decline in sex-hormones at maturity (direct decline in androgens as well as lower levels of estrogens derived from peripheral aromatization of androgens) is associated with the frailty of bones. This effect is also observed in males who have been castrated.

[0048] In one embodiment, this invention provides for the use of a compound as herein described, or its prodrug, analog, isomer, metabolite, derivative, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, polymorph, crystal, impurity, N-oxide, hydrate or any combination thereof, for: a) treating a bone related disorder; b) preventing a bone related disorder; c) suppressing a bone related disorder; d) inhibiting a bone related disorder; e) increasing a strength of a bone of a subject; f) increasing a bone mass in a subject; g) use for osteoclastogenesis inhibition.

[0049] In one embodiment, this invention provides for the use of a compound as herein described, or its prodrug, analog, isomer, metabolite, derivative, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, polymorph, crystal, impurity, N-oxide, hydrate or any combination thereof, for: a) accelerating bone repair; b) treating bone disorders; c) treating bone density loss; d) treating low bone mineral density (BMD); e) treating reduced bone mass; f) treating metabolic bone disease; g) promoting bone growth or regrowth; h) promoting bone restoration; i) promoting bone fracture repair; j) promoting bone remodeling; k) treating bone damage following reconstructive surgery including of the face, hip, or joints; 1) enhancing of bone strength and function; m) increasing cortical bone mass; n) increasing trabecular connectivity.

[0050] In one embodiment, the bone related disorder is a genetic disorder, or in another embodiment, is induced as a result of a treatment regimen for a given disease. For example, and in one embodiment, the compounds as herein described are useful in treating a bone-related disorder that arises as a result of cancer metastasis to bone, or in another embodiment, as a result of androgen-deprivation therapy, for example, given in response to prostate carcinogenesis in the subject.

[0051] As used herein, "Estrogen-deprivation therapy" may refer to therapy which is given in response to breast cancer in a subject. Known treatments include treatment with SERMs, SERDs, or aromatase inhibitors (AI). For example, and in one embodiment, the compounds as herein described are useful in treating a bone-related disorder that arises as a result of cancer metastasis to bone, or in another embodiment, as a result of estrogen-deprivation therapy, for example, given in response to breast cancer in the subject.

[0052] In one embodiment, the bone-related disorder is a loss of bone mineral density (BMD). In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is osteopenia. In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is increased bone resorption. In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is bone fracture. In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is bone frailty. In another embodiment, the bone-related disorder is any combination of osteoporosis, osteopenia, increased bone resorption, bone fracture, bone frailty and loss of BMD. Each disorder represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[0053] "Osteoporosis" refers, in one embodiment, to a thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. In another embodiment, osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease, characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In osteoporotic patients, bone strength is abnormal, in one embodiment, with a resulting increase in the risk of fracture. In another embodiment, osteoporosis depletes both the calcium and the protein collagen normally found in the bone, in one embodiment, resulting in either abnormal bone quality or decreased bone density. In another embodiment, bones that are affected by osteoporosis can fracture with only a minor fall or injury that normally would not cause a bone fracture. The fracture can be, in one embodiment, either in the form of cracking (as in a hip fracture) or collapsing (as in a compression fracture of the spine). The spine, hips, and wrists are common areas of osteoporosis-induced bone fractures, although fractures can also occur in other skeletal areas. Unchecked osteoporosis can lead, in another embodiment, to changes in posture, physical abnormality, and decreased mobility.

[0054] In one embodiment, the osteoporosis results from androgen deprivation. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis follows androgen deprivation. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis results from estrogen-deprivation therapy. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis follows estrogen-deprivation therapy. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is primary osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is secondary osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is postmenopausal osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is juvenile osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is idiopathic osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the osteoporosis is senile osteoporosis.

[0055] In another embodiment, the primary osteoporosis is Type I primary osteoporosis. In another embodiment, the primary osteoporosis is Type II primary osteoporosis. Each type of osteoporosis represents a separate embodiment of the present invention.

[0056] According to this aspect of the invention and in one embodiment, the bone-related disorder is treated with a compound as herein described, or a combination thereof. In another embodiment, other bone-stimulating compounds can be provided to the subject, prior to, concurrent with or following administration of a compound or compounds as herein described. In one embodiment, such a bone stimulating compound may comprise natural or synthetic materials.

[0057] In one embodiment, the bone stimulating compound may comprise a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), a growth factor, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), a fibroblast growth factor (FGF), a transforming growth factor (TGF, an insulin growth factor (IGF), a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) hedgehog proteins such as sonic, indian and desert hedgehog, a hormone such as follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone related peptide, activins, inhibins, follistatin, frizzled, frzb or frazzled proteins, BMP binding proteins such as chordin and fetuin, a cytokine such as IL-3, IL-7, GM-CSF, a chemokine, such as eotaxin, a collagen, osteocalcin, osteonectin and others, as will be appreciated by one skilled in the art.

[0058] In another embodiment, the compositions for use in treating a bone disorder of this invention may comprise a compound or compounds as herein described, an additional bone stimulating compound, or compounds, and osteogenic cells. In one embodiment, an osteogenic cell may be a stem cell or progenitor cell, which may be induced to differentiate into an osteoblast. In another embodiment, the cell may be an osteoblast. In another embodiment, nucleic acids which encode bone-stimulating compounds may be administered to the subject, which is to be considered as part of this invention.

[0059] In one embodiment, this invention provides for the treatment, prevention, suppression or inhibition of, or the reduction of the risk of developing a skeletal-related event (SRE), such as bone fractures, surgery of the bone, radiation of the bone, spinal cord compression, new bone metastasis, bone loss, or a combination thereof in a subject with cancer, comprising administering a compound as herein described and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, or any combination thereof. The invention relates, inter alia, to treatment of an SRE with the compound of this invention: (a) in a subject with prostate cancer undergoing or having undergone androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); or (b) in a subject with breast cancer undergoing or having undergone estrogen-deprivation therapy.

[0060] In one embodiment, the skeletal-related events treated using the methods provided herein and/or utilizing the compositions provided herein, are fractures, which in one embodiment, are pathological fractures, non-traumatic fractures, vertebral fracture, non-vertebral fractures, morphometric fractures, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, fractures may be simple, compound, transverse, greenstick, or comminuted fractures. In one embodiment, fractures may be to any bone in the body, which in one embodiment, is a fracture in any one or more bones of the arm, wrist, hand, finger, leg, ankle, foot, toe, hip, collar bone, or a combination thereof.

[0061] In another embodiment, the methods and/or compositions provided herein, are effective in treatment, prevention, suppression, inhibition or reduction of the risk of skeletal-related events such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia, bone-related pain, or their combination.

[0062] In another embodiment, the skeletal-related events sought to be treated using the methods provided herein and/or utilizing the compositions provided herein, comprise the necessity for bone surgery and/or bone radiation, which in some embodiments, is for the treatment of pain resulting in one embodiment from bone damage, or nerve compression. In another embodiment, the skeletal-related events sought to be treated using the methods provided herein and/or utilizing the compositions provided herein, comprise spinal cord compression, or the necessity for changes in antineoplastic therapy, including changes in hormonal therapy, in a subject. In some embodiments, skeletal-related events sought to be treated using the methods provided herein and/or utilizing the compositions provided herein, comprise treating, suppressing, preventing, reducing the incidence of, or delaying progression or severity of bone metastases, or bone loss. In one embodiment, bone loss may comprise osteoporosis, osteopenia, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, skeletal-related events may comprise any combination of the embodiments listed herein.

[0063] In one embodiment, the methods provided herein and/or utilizing the compositions provided herein, are effective in reducing metastases to the bone, such as in terms of number of foci, the size of foci, or a combination thereof. According to this aspect of the invention and in one embodiment, provided herein is a method of preventing or inhibiting cancer metastasis to bone in a subject, comprising the step of administering to the subject a composition comprising toremifene, raloxifene, tamoxifen or an analogue, functional derivative, metabolite or a combination thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, such metabolites may comprise ospemifene, fispemifene or their combination. In one embodiment, the cancer is prostate cancer. In one embodiment, the cancer is breast cancer.

[0064] In one embodiment, the skeletal-related events are a result of cancer therapy. In one embodiment, the skeletal-related events are a result of hormone deprivation therapy, while in another embodiment, they are a product of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), and in another embodiment they are a product of estrogen-deprivation therapy

[0065] As used herein, the term "libido", may refer to sexual desire, or as defined in Example 9.

[0066] As used herein, the term "quality of life" may refer to the focuses on the health and life of a subject suffering from a condition or disease, for example suffering from breast cancer, post treatment until the end of life. It covers the physical, psychosocial, and economic issues faced by the subject, beyond the diagnosis and treatment phases. The term "quality of life" may also be referred to herein as "survivorship". In one embodiment, survivorship includes issues related to the ability to get health care and follow-up treatment, late effects of treatment, second cancers, and quality of life. Family members, friends, and caregivers are also considered part of the survivorship experience.

[0067] In one embodiment, the methods of this invention are useful to a subject, which is a human. In one embodiment, the subject is male. In another embodiment, the subject is female. In some embodiments, while the methods as described herein may be useful for treating either males or females, females may respond more advantageously to administration of certain compounds, for certain methods. In other embodiments, while the methods as described herein may be useful for treating either males or females, males may respond more advantageously to administration of certain compounds, for certain methods.

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Compounds



[0068] In one embodiment, the compound of this invention which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula I, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:

X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

G is O or S;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

n is an integer of 1-4; and

m is an integer of 1-3.



[0069] In one embodiment, G in formula I is O. In another embodiment, X in formula I is O. In another embodiment, T in formula I is OH. In another embodiment, R1 in formula I is CH3. In another embodiment, Z in formula I is NO2. In another embodiment, Z in formula I is CN. In another embodiment, Y in formula I is CF3. In another embodiment, Y in formula I is Cl. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is CN. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is halogen. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is F. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is Cl. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is NHCOCH3. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is CN and R2 is F. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is Cl and R2 is F. In another embodiment, Q in formula I is in the para position. In another embodiment, Z in formula I is in the para position. In another embodiment, Y in formula I is in the meta position.

[0070] The substituents Z, Y and R3 can be in any position of the ring carrying these substituents (hereinafter "A ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring and substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring.

[0071] The substituents Q and R2 can be in any position of the ring carrying these substituents (hereinafter "B ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Q is in the para position of the B ring. In another embodiment, the substituent R2 is in the meta position of the B ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Q is CN and is in the para position of the B ring.

[0072] As contemplated herein, when the integers m and n are greater than one, the substituents R2 and R3 are not limited to one particular substituent, and can be any combination of the substituents listed above.

[0073] In another embodiment, the compound of this invention which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a compound of formula II, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:

wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

G is O or S;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

represented by structure A, B or C:

R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.



[0074] In one embodiment, G in formula II is O. In another embodiment, X in formula II is O. In another embodiment, T in formula II is OH. In another embodiment, R1 in formula II is CH3. In another embodiment, Z in formula II is NO2. In another embodiment, Z in formula II is CN. In another embodiment, Y in formula II is CF3. In another embodiment, Y in formula II is halogen. In another embodiment, Y in formula II is Cl. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is CN. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is halogen. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is Cl. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is F. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is NHCOCH3. In another embodiment, Q in formula II is in the para position. In another embodiment, Z in formula II is in the para position. In another embodiment, Y in formula II is in the meta position. In another embodiment, G in formula II is O, T is OH, R1 is CH3, X is O, Z is CN, Y is CF3 or halogen and Q is CN or F. In another embodiment, G in formula II is O, T is OH, R1 is CH3, X is O, Z is NO2, Y is CF3 and Q is NHCOCH3, F or Cl.

[0075] The substituents Z and Y can be in any position of the ring carrying these substituents (hereinafter "A ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring and substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring.

[0076] The substituent Q can be in any position of the ring carrying this substituent (hereinafter "B ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Qis in the para position of the B ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Q is CN and is in the para position of the B ring.

[0077] In another embodiment, the compound of this invention which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula III, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:

wherein

Z is NO2, CN, COOH, COR, NHCOR or CONHR;

Y is CF3, F, I, Br, Cl, CN, C(R)3 or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH.



[0078] In one embodiment, Z in formula III is NO2. In another embodiment, Z in formula III is CN. In another embodiment, Y in formula III is CF3. In another embodiment, Y in formula III is Cl. In another embodiment, Y in formula III is halogen. In another embodiment, Q in formula III is CN. In another embodiment, Q in formula III is halogen. In another embodiment, Q in formula III is F. In another embodiment, Q in formula III is Cl. In another embodiment, Q in formula III is NHCOCH3. In another embodiment, Z is CN, Y is CF3 or halogen, and Q is CN or F. In another embodiment, Z is NO2, Y is CF3, and Q is NHCOCH3, F or Cl.

[0079] In another embodiment, the compound of this invention which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast and cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula IV, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:

wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

G is O or S;

R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

A is a ring selected from:



B is a ring selected from:



wherein A and B cannot simultaneously be a benzene ring;

Z is NO2, CN, COOH, COR, NHCOR or CONHR;

Y is CF3, F, I, Br, Cl, CN, C(R)3 or Sn(R)3;

Q1 and Q2 are independently hydrogen, alkyl, halogen, CF3, CN, C(R)3, Sn(R)3, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R, SR,

Q3 and Q4 are independently of each other a hydrogen, alkyl, halogen, CF3, CN, C(R)3, Sn(R)3, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

W1 is O, NH, NR, NO or S; and

W2 is N or NO.



[0080] In one embodiment, G in formula IV is O. In another embodiment, X in formula IV is O. In another embodiment, T in formula IV is OH. In another embodiment, R1 in formula IV is CH3. In another embodiment, Z in formula IV is NO2. In another embodiment, Z in formula IV is CN. In another embodiment, Y in formula IV is CF3. In another embodiment, Y in formula IV is halogen. In another embodiment, Y in formula IV is Cl. In another embodiment, Q1 in formula II is CN. In another embodiment, Q1 in formula IV is F. In another embodiment, Q1 in formula IV is Cl. In another embodiment, Q1 in formula II is NHCOCH3. In another embodiment, Q1 in Formula IV is in the para position. In another embodiment, Z in formula IV is in the para position. In another embodiment, Y in formula IV is in the meta position. In another embodiment, G in formula IV is O, T is OH, R1 is CH3, X is O, Z is NO2 or CN, Y is CF3 or halogen and Q1 is CN, F, Cl, or NHCOCH3.

[0081] The substituents Z and Y can be in any position of the ring carrying these substituents (hereinafter "A ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring. In another embodiment, the substituent Z is in the para position of the A ring and substituent Y is in the meta position of the A ring.

[0082] The substituents Q1 and Q2 can be in any position of the ring carrying these substituents (hereinafter "B ring"). In one embodiment, the substituent Q1 is in the para position of the B ring. In another embodiment, the substituent is Q2 is H. In another embodiment, the substituent Q1 is in the para position of the B ring and the substituent is Q2 is H. In another embodiment, the substituent Q1 is CN and is in the para position of the B ring, and the substituent is Q2 is H.

[0083] As contemplated herein, other specific embodiments of compounds included within the scope of the present invention, and which are useful in: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; are formulas V or VI. It is understood that included within the scope of the present invention are analogs, derivatives, metabolites, isomers, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, pharmaceutical products, hydrates, N-oxides, polymorphs, crystals, prodrugs or combinations thereof of these compounds:

or

wherein Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

and

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH.



[0084] In one embodiment, Q in formula Vor VI is CN. In one embodiment, Q in Formula V or VI is halogen. In one embodiment, Q in formula V or VI is F. In one embodiment, Q in formula V or VI is Cl. In one embodiment, Q in formula V or VI is NHCOCH3.

[0085] In another embodiment, the compound of this invention which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula VII, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



wherein Z is Cl or CF3.

[0086] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula VIII, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0087] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula IX, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0088] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula X, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0089] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula XI, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0090] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula XII, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0091] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a compound of formula XIII, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0092] In another embodiment, the compound which is effective at: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; is a compound represented by a structure of formula XIV, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof:



[0093] In one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering an analog of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a derivative of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering an isomer of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a metabolite of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a pharmaceutical product of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a hydrate of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering an N-oxide of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a polymorph of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a crystal of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a prodrug of the compound of formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a combination of any of an analog, derivative, metabolite, isomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, polymorph, crystal or prodrug of the compound of formula I-XIV.

[0094] In one embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula I-XIV. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula I. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula II. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula III. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula IV. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula V. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula VI. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula VII. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula VIII. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula IX. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula X. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula XI. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula XII. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula XIII. In another embodiment, the methods of this invention comprise administering a compound of Formula XIV.

[0095] The compounds of the present invention, either alone or as a pharmaceutical composition, are useful for: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer.

[0096] The compounds of the present invention offer a significant advance over steroidal androgen treatment since treatment of breast cancer with these compounds will not be accompanied by serious side effects, inconvenient modes of administration, or high costs and still have the advantages of oral bioavailability, lack of cross-reactivity with other steroid receptors, and long biological half-lives.

[0097] In one embodiment, this invention relates to the treatment of androgen receptor-positive breast cancer in a subject. Accordingly, this invention provides methods of: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatment; L) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer; by administering to the subject a therapeutically effective amount of a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention, and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, as described herein.

[0098] As defined herein, the term "isomer" includes, but is not limited to, optical isomers and analogs, structural isomers and analogs, conformational isomers and analogs, and the like. As used herein, the term "isomer" may also be referred to herein as an "enantiomer" having all of the qualities and properties of an "isomer".

[0099] In one embodiment, this invention encompasses the use of various optical isomers of the selective androgen receptor modulator. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the selective androgen receptor modulators of the present invention contain at least one chiral center. Accordingly, the selective androgen receptor modulators used in the methods of the present invention may exist in, and be isolated in, optically-active or racemic forms. Some compounds may also exhibit polymorphism. It is to be understood that the present invention encompasses any racemic, optically-active, polymorphic, or stereoisomeric form, or any combination thereof, which form possesses properties useful in the treatment of androgen-related conditions described herein. In one embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators are the pure (R)-isomers. In another embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators are the pure (S)-isomers. In another embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators are a mixture of the (R) and the (S) isomers. In another embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators are a racemic mixture comprising an equal amount of the (R) and the (S) isomers. It is well known in the art how to prepare optically-active forms (for example, by resolution of the racemic form by recrystallization techniques, by synthesis from optically-active starting materials, by chiral synthesis, or by chromatographic separation using a chiral stationary phase).

[0100] The invention includes "pharmaceutically acceptable salts" of the compounds of this invention, which may be produced, by reaction of a compound of this invention with an acid or base.

[0101] The invention includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts of amino-substituted compounds with organic and inorganic acids, for example, citric acid and hydrochloric acid. The invention also includes N-oxides of the amino substituents of the compounds described herein. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts can also be prepared from the phenolic compounds by treatment with inorganic bases, for example, sodium hydroxide. Also, esters of the phenolic compounds can be made with aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids, for example, acetic acid and benzoic acid esters.

[0102] Suitable pharmaceutically-acceptable salts of the compounds of Formula I-XIV may be prepared from an inorganic acid or from an organic acid. In one embodiment, examples of inorganic salts of the compounds of this invention are bisulfates, borates, bromides, chlorides, hemisulfates, hydrobromates, hydrochlorates, 2-hydroxyethylsulfonates (hydroxyethanesulfonates), iodates, iodides, isothionates, nitrates, persulfates, phosphate, sulfates, sulfamates, sulfanilates, sulfonic acids (alkylsulfonates, arylsulfonates, halogen substituted alkylsulfonates, halogen substituted arylsulfonates), sulfonates and thiocyanates.

[0103] In one embodiment, examples of organic salts of the compounds of this invention may be selected from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, araliphatic, heterocyclic, carboxylic and sulfonic classes of organic acids, examples of which are acetates, arginines, aspartates, ascorbates, adipates, anthranilates, algenates, alkane carboxylates, substituted alkane carboxylates, alginates, benzenesulfonates, benzoates, bisulfates, butyrates, bicarbonates, bitartrates, citrates, camphorates, camphorsulfonates, cyclohexylsulfamates, cyclopentanepropionates, calcium edetates, camsylates, carbonates, clavulanates, cinnamates, dicarboxylates, digluconates, dodecylsulfonates, dihydrochlorides, decanoates, enanthuates, ethanesulfonates, edetates, edisylates, estolates, esylates, fumarates, formates, fluorides, galacturonates gluconates, glutamates, glycolates, glucorate, glucoheptanoates, glycerophosphates, gluceptates, glycollylarsanilates, glutarates, glutamate, heptanoates, hexanoates, hydroxymaleates, hydroxycarboxlic acids, hexylresorcinates, hydroxybenzoates, hydroxynaphthoate, hydrofluorate, lactates, lactobionates, laurates, malates, maleates, methylenebis(beta-oxynaphthoate), malonates, mandelates, mesylates, methane sulfonates, methylbromides, methylnitrates, methylsulfonates, monopotassium maleates, mucates, monocarboxylates, mitrates, naphthalenesulfonates, 2-naphthalenesulfonates, nicotinates, napsylates, N-methylglucamines, oxalates, octanoates, oleates, pamoates, phenylacetates, picrates, phenylbenzoates, pivalates, propionates, phthalates, phenylacetate, pectinates, phenylpropionates, palmitates, pantothenates, polygalacturates, pyruvates, quinates, salicylates, succinates, stearates, sulfanilate, subacetates, tartrates, theophyllineacetates, p-toluenesulfonates (tosylates), trifluoroacetates, terephthalates, tannates, teoclates, trihaloacetates, triethiodide, tricarboxylates, undecanoates and valerates.

[0104] In one embodiment, the salts may be formed by conventional means, such as by reacting the free base or free acid form of the product with one or more equivalents of the appropriate acid or base in a solvent or medium in which the salt is insoluble or in a solvent such as water, which is removed in vacuo or by freeze drying or by exchanging the ions of a existing salt for another ion or suitable ion-exchange resin.

[0105] This invention further includes derivatives of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "derivatives" includes but is not limited to ether derivatives, acid derivatives, amide derivatives, ester derivatives and the like. In addition, this invention further includes hydrates of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "hydrate" includes but is not limited to hemihydrate, monohydrate, dihydrate, trihydrate and the like.

[0106] This invention further includes metabolites of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "metabolite" means any substance produced from another substance by metabolism or a metabolic process.

[0107] This invention further includes pharmaceutical products of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "pharmaceutical product" means a composition suitable for pharmaceutical use (pharmaceutical composition), as defined herein.

[0108] This invention further includes prodrugs of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "prodrug" means a substance which can be converted in vivo into a biologically active agent by such reactions as hydrolysis, esterification, de-esterification, activation, salt formation and the like.

[0109] This invention further includes crystals of the selective androgen receptor modulators. Furthermore, this invention provides polymorphs of the selective androgen receptor modulators. The term "crystal" means a substance in a crystalline state. The term "polymorph" refers to a particular crystalline state of a substance, having particular physical properties such as X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, melting point, and the like.

[0110] In one embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a compound of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0111] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0112] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0113] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0114] In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER, PR and HER2 positive. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER, PR and HER2 negative. In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER positive, and PR and HER2 negative. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and PR positive, and HER2 negative. In yet another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and HER2 positive, and PR negative. In still another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER negative, and PR and HER2 positive. In a further embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and PR negative, and HER2 positive. In still a further embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER and HER2 negative, and PR positive. In one embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative. In another embodiment, the AR-positive breast cancer is ER-positive.

[0115] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0116] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0117] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat ER-positive breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0118] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0119] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from ER-positive refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat ER-positive refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0120] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from ER-positive metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat ER-positive metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0121] In one embodiment, an ER-positive breast cancer is AR-positive. In another embodiment, an ER-positive breast cancer is AR-negative.

[0122] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat advanced breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0123] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive and ER-positive refractory breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0124] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-negative breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat AR-positive and ER-negative metastatic breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0125] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat triple negative breast cancer in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0126] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0127] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat, prevent, suppress or inhibit metastasis in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0128] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating and/or preventing skeletal related events in a subject suffering, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat and/or prevent skeletal related events in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0129] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for improving libido in a subject, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to improve libido in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0130] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for improving quality of life in a subject, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to quality of life in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0131] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided for treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to the subject a selective androgen receptor modulator of formulas I-XIV of this invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, crystal, polymorph, prodrug or any combination thereof, in an amount effective to treat, prevent, suppress or inhibit metastasis in the subject. In one embodiment, the subject is a female subject. In another embodiment, the subject is a male subject.

[0132] The substituent R is defined herein as an alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3; aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl, or hydroxyl (OH).

[0133] An "alkyl" group refers to a saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon, including straight-chain, branched-chain and cyclic alkyl groups. In one embodiment, the alkyl group has 1-12 carbons. In another embodiment, the alkyl group has 1-7 carbons. In another embodiment, the alkyl group has 1-6 carbons. In another embodiment, the alkyl group has 1-4 carbons. The alkyl group may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more groups selected from halogen, hydroxy, alkoxy carbonyl, amido, alkylamido, dialkylamido, nitro, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, carboxyl, thio and thioalkyl.

[0134] A "haloalkyl" group refers to an alkyl group as defined above, which is substituted by one or more halogen atoms, e.g. by F, Cl, Br or I.

[0135] An "aryl" group refers to an aromatic group having at least one carbocyclic aromatic group or heterocyclic aromatic group, which may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more groups selected from halogen, haloalkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy carbonyl, amido, alkylamido, dialkylamido, nitro, amino, alkylamino, dialkylamino, carboxy or thio or thioalkyl. Nonlimiting examples of aryl rings are phenyl, naphthyl, pyranyl, pyrrolyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, furanyl, thiophenyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, isoxazolyl, and the like.

[0136] A "hydroxyl" group refers to an OH group. An "alkenyl" group refers to a group having at least one carbon to carbon double bond. A halo group refers to F, Cl, Br or I.

[0137] An "arylalkyl" group refers to an alkyl bound to an aryl, wherein alkyl and aryl are as defined above. An example of an aralkyl group is a benzyl group.

Biological Activity of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators



[0138] The selective androgen receptor modulators provided herein are a new class of compounds, which suppress growth of AR-positive breast cancers. The compounds of this invention have a tissue-selective myoanabolic activity profile of a nonsteroidal ligand for the androgen receptor. Furthermore compounds of the present invention are non-aromatizable, non-virilizing, and are not commonly cross-reactive with ER and PR. In addition, in one embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) of the present invention are beneficial to refractory breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy due to anabolism.

[0139] As contemplated herein, the appropriately substituted selective androgen receptor modulators of the present invention are useful for: a) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer; b) treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer; c) treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer; d) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; e) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive refractory breast cancer; f) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; g) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer; h) treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer with or without expression of ER, PR, and/or HER2; i) treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer; j) treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer; k) treating a subject suffering from breast cancer that has failed SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments; 1) treating a subject suffering from ER positive breast cancer; m) treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer; n) prolonging survival of a subject with breast cancer; o) slowing the progression of breast cancer in a subject; and/or p) prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject with breast cancer.

[0140] In one embodiment, a "refractory breast cancer" is a breast cancer that has not responded to treatment. In another embodiment, a "refractory breast cancer" is a breast cancer resistant to treatment. In one embodiment, refractory breast cancer is refractory metastatic breast cancer. In one embodiment, refractory breast cancer has not responded to treatment with anthracyclines, taxanes, capecitabine, ixabepilone, SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), fulvestrant or any combination thereof.

[0141] In one embodiment, a "triple negative breast cancer" is defined by lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone, and ErbB2 (also known as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)) receptors. This subgroup accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer. This subtype of breast cancer is clinically characterized as more aggressive and less responsive to standard treatment and associated with poorer overall patient prognosis.

[0142] In one embodiment, the methods of this invention are directed to treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer, regardless of grade, stage or prior treatments.

[0143] In one embodiment, the methods of this invention are first, second, third, or fourth line therapies for breast cancer. A first line therapy refers to a medical therapy recommended for the initial treatment of a disease, sign or symptom. A second line therapy therapy is given when initial treatment (first-line therapy) does not work, or stops working. Third line therapy is given when both initial treatment (first-line therapy) and subsequent treatment (second-line therapy) does not work, or stop working, etc.

[0144] As used herein, "kinases" are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor, such as ADP or ATP, to an acceptor. In one embodiment, phosphorylation results in a functional change of the target protein (substrate) by changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or association with other proteins kinases. Kinases regulate the majority of cellular pathways, especially those involved in signal transduction. In one embodiment, deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease, in particular cancer, wherein kinases regulate many aspects that control cell growth, movement and death. In one embodiment, drugs that inhibit specific kinases are used to treat kinase-related diseases, including cancer. In one embodiment, HER2 positive breast cancers are susceptible to HER2 kinase inhibitors (e.g., trastuzumab and lapatinib) and are generally used in metastatic disease. However, some breast cancers are refractory to HER2 kinase inhibitor treatment.

[0145] As used herein, receptors for extracellular signaling molecules are collectively referred to as "cell signaling receptors". Many cell signaling receptors are transmembrane proteins on a cell surface; when they bind an extracellular signaling molecule (i.e., a ligand), they become activated so as to generate a cascade of intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the cell. In contrast, in some cases, the receptors are inside the cell and the signaling ligand has to enter the cell to activate them; these signaling molecules therefore must be sufficiently small and hydrophobic to diffuse across the plasma membrane of the cell.

[0146] Steroid hormones are one example of small hydrophobic molecules that diffuse directly across the plasma membrane of target cells and bind to intracellular cell signaling receptors. These receptors are structurally related and constitute the intracellular receptor superfamily (or steroid-hormone receptor superfamily). Steroid hormone receptors include but are not limited to progesterone receptors, estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, and mineralocorticoid receptors. In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to androgen receptors. In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to androgen receptor agonists. In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to progesterone receptors. In one embodiment, the present invention is directed to progesterone receptor antagonists.

[0147] In addition to ligand binding to the receptors, the receptors can be blocked to prevent ligand binding. When a substance binds to a receptor, the three-dimensional structure of the substance fits into a space created by the three-dimensional structure of the receptor in a ball and socket configuration. The better the ball fits into the socket, the more tightly it is held. This phenomenon is called affinity. If the affinity of a substance is greater than the original hormone, it will compete with the hormone and bind the binding site more frequently. Once bound, signals may be sent through the receptor into the cells, causing the cell to respond in some fashion. This is called activation. On activation, the activated receptor then directly regulates the transcription of specific genes. But the substance and the receptor may have certain attributes, other than affinity, in order to activate the cell. Chemical bonds between atoms of the substance and the atoms of the receptors may form. In some cases, this leads to a change in the configuration of the receptor, which is enough to begin the activation process (called signal transduction).

[0148] In one embodiment, the compounds of this invention inhibit the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through their actions on the AR. In one embodiment, a compound of this invention inhibits intratumoral expression of Mucl, SLUG, VCAM1, SPARC or MMP2, or any combination thereof. In another embodiment, Compound VIII inhibits gene expression that promotes breast cancer.

[0149] In one embodiment, a receptor antagonist is a substance which binds receptors and inactivates them. In one embodiment, a selective androgen receptor modulator is a molecule that exhibits in vivo tissue selectivity, activating signaling activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in anabolic (muscle, bone, etc.) tissues to a greater extent than in the androgenic tissues. Thus, in one embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators of the present invention are useful in binding to and activating steroidal hormone receptors. In one embodiment, the SARM compound of the present invention is an agonist which binds the androgen receptor. In another embodiment, the compound has high affinity for the androgen receptor.

[0150] Assays to determine whether the compounds of the present invention are AR agonists or antagonists are well known to a person skilled in the art. For example, AR agonistic activity can be determined by monitoring the ability of the selective androgen receptor modulators to maintain and/or stimulate the growth of AR containing androgenic tissue such as prostate and seminal vesicles, as measured by weight, in castrated animals. AR antagonistic activity can be determined by monitoring the ability of the selective androgen receptor modulators to inhibit the growth of AR containing tissue in intact animals or counter the effects of testosterone in castrated animals.

[0151] An androgen receptor (AR) is an androgen receptor of any species, for example a mammal. In one embodiment, the androgen receptor is an androgen receptor of a human. Thus, in another embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators bind reversibly to an androgen receptor of a human. In another embodiment, the selective androgen receptor modulators bind reversibly to an androgen receptor of a mammal.

[0152] As contemplated herein, the term "selective androgen receptor modulator" (SARM) refers to, in one embodiment, a molecule that exhibits in vivo tissue selectivity, activating signaling activity of the Androgen Receptor in anabolic (muscle, bone, etc.) tissues to a greater extent than in the androgenic tissues. In another embodiment, a selective androgen receptor modulator selectively binds the androgen receptor. In another embodiment, a selective androgen receptor modulator selectively affects signaling through the androgen receptor. In one embodiment, the SARM is a partial agonist. In one embodiment, the SARM is a tissue-selective agonist, or in some embodiments, a tissue-selective antagonist.

[0153] In one embodiment, a SARM of this invention exerts its effects on the androgen receptor in a tissue-dependent manner. In one embodiment, a SARM of this invention will have an IC50 or EC50 with respect to AR, as determined using AR transactivation assays, as known in the art, or, in other embodiments, as described herein.

[0154] The term "IC50" refers, in some embodiments, to a concentration of the SARM which reduces the activity of a target (e.g., AR) to half-maximal level.

[0155] The term "EC50" refers, in some embodiments, to a concentration of the SARM that produces a half-maximal effect.

[0156] For example, utilizing transactivation assays, Figure 5 shows that compounds of this invention exhibit AR agonist activity in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with AR.

[0157] As defined herein, "contacting" means that the selective androgen receptor modulators of the present invention are introduced into a sample containing the enzyme in a test tube, flask, tissue culture, chip, array, plate, microplate, capillary, or the like, and incubated at a temperature and time sufficient to permit binding of the selective androgen receptor modulators to the receptor. Methods for contacting the samples with the selective androgen receptor modulators or other specific binding components are known to those skilled in the art and may be selected depending on the type of assay protocol to be run. Incubation methods are also standard and are known to those skilled in the art.

[0158] In another embodiment, the term "contacting" means that the selective androgen receptor modulators of the present invention are introduced into a subject receiving treatment, and the selective androgen receptor modulator is allowed to come in contact with the androgen receptor in vivo.

[0159] As used herein, the term "treating" includes preventative as well as disorder remitative treatment. As used herein, the terms "reducing", "suppressing" and "inhibiting" have their commonly understood meaning of lessening or decreasing. As used herein, the term "progression" means increasing in scope or severity, advancing, growing or becoming worse. As used herein, the term "recurrence" means the return of a disease after a remission. As used herein, the term "delaying" means stopping, hindering, slowing down, postponing, holding up or setting back. As used herein, the term "metastasis" refers to the transfer of a disease from one organ or part thereof to another not directly connected with it. Metastasis can occur for example as a result of transfer of malignant cells from one organ (for example breast) to other organs.

[0160] In one embodiment, "treating" refers to reducing tumor growth by 75%, as demonstrated in Example 8. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by at least 75%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by at least 50%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by at least 25%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by 50-100%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by 70-80%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by 25-125%.

[0161] In another embodiment, "treating" refers to reducing tumor weight by 50%, as demonstrated in Example 8. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor weight by at least 50%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor weight by at least 40%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor weight by at least 30%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor weight by at least 20%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by 25-75%. In another embodiment, treating refers to reducing tumor growth by 25-100%.

[0162] As used herein, the term "administering" refers to bringing a subject in contact with a compound of the present invention. As used herein, administration can be accomplished in vitro, i.e. in a test tube, or in vivo, i.e. in cells or tissues of living organisms, for example humans. In one embodiment, the present invention encompasses administering the compounds of the present invention to a subject.

[0163] In one embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject once a week. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject twice a week. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject three times a week. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject four times a week. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject five times a week. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject daily. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject weekly. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject bi-weekly. In another embodiment, a compound of the present invention is administered to a subject monthly.

[0164] In one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator as the sole active ingredient. However, also encompassed within the scope of the present invention are methods for hormone therapy, for treating breast cancer, for delaying the progression of breast cancer, and for preventing and treating the recurrence of breast cancer and/or breast cancer metastasis, which comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulators in combination with one or more therapeutic agents. These agents include, but are not limited to: selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), selective estrogen receptor degraders (fulvestrant), HER2 inhibitors (lapatinib, trastuzumab), bevacizumab, chemotherapeutic agents, taxanes, anthracyclines, epothilones, LHRH analogs, reversible antiandrogens, antiestrogens, anticancer drugs, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, aromatase inhibitors (exemestane, anastrozole, letrozole, vorozole, formestane, fadrozole), progestins, agents acting through other nuclear hormone receptors such as progesterone and estrogen receptors, estrogens, progestins, PDE5 inhibitors, apomorphine, bisphosphonate, growth factor inhibitors (such as those that inhibit VEGF, IGF and the like), or one or more additional selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

[0165] Additional therapeutic agents that may be administered in combination with a selective androgen receptor modulator compound of this invention include, but are not limited to: Abitrexate (R)(methotrexate), Abraxane (paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation), ado-trastuzumab emtansine, adriamycin PFS (doxorubicin hydrochloride), adriamycin RDF (doxorubicin hydrochloride), Adrucil (fluorouracil), Afinitor (everolimus), anastrozole, Arimidex (anastrozole), Aromasin (exemestane), capecitabine, Clafen (cyclophosphamide), cyclophosphamide, Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide), docetaxel, doxorubicin hydrochloride, Efudex (fluorouracil), Ellence (epirubicin hydrochloride), epirubicin hydrochloride, everolimus, exemestane, Fareston (toremifene), Faslodex (fulvestrant), Femara (letrozole), Fluoroplex (fluorouracil), fluorouracil, Folex (methotrexate), Folex PFS (methotrexate), fulvestrant, gemcitabine hydrochloride, Gemzar (gemcitabine hydrochloride), Herceptin (trastuzumab), ixabepilone, Ixempra (ixabepilone), lapatinib ditosylate, letrozole, methotrexate, methotrexate LPF (methotrexate), Mexate (methotrexate), Mexate-AQ (methotrexate), Neosar (cyclophosphamide), Nolvadex (tamoxifen citrate), paclitaxel, paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation, Perjeta (pertuzumab), pertuzumab, yamoxifen citrate, Taxol (paclitaxel), Taxotere (docetaxel), trastuzumab, toremifene, Tykerb (lapatinib ditosylate), Xeloda (capecitabine).

[0166] Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a selective estrogen receptor degrader (fluvestrant). Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a HER2 inhibitor (lapatinib, trastuzumab). Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a VEGF-A inhibitor (bevacizumab). Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent. In one embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is a taxane. In another embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is an anthracycline. In one embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is an epothilone (ixabepilone). Thus, in one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering the selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with an LHRH analog. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a reversible antiandrogen. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with an antiestrogen. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with an anticancer drug. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with an aromatase inhibitor. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a progestin. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with an agent acting through other nuclear hormone receptors. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a progestin or anti-progestin. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator, in combination with an estrogen. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a PDE5 inhibitor. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with apomorphine. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a bisphosphonate. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with a growth factor inhibitor. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with one or more additional selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

[0167] In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Abitrexate (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Abraxane (paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with ado-trastuzumab emtansine. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Adriamycin PFS (doxorubicin hydrochloride). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Adriamycin RDF (doxorubicin hydrochloride). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Adrucil (fluorouracil). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Afinitor (everolimus). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with anastrozole. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Arimidex (anastrozole). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Aromasin (exemestane). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with capecitabine. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Clafen (cyclophosphamide). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with cyclophosphamide. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Cytoxan (cyclophosphamide). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with docetaxel. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with doxorubicin hydrochloride. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Efudex (fluorouracil). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Ellence (epirubicin hydrochloride). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with epirubicin hydrochloride. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with everolimus. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with exemestane. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Fareston (toremifene). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Faslodex (fulvestrant). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Femara (letrozole). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Fluoroplex (fluorouracil). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with fluorouracil. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Folex (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Folex PFS (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with fulvestrant. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with gemcitabine hydrochloride. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Gemzar (gemcitabine hydrochloride). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Herceptin (trastuzumab). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with ixabepilone. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Ixempra (ixabepilone). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with lapatinib ditosylate. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with letrozole. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with methotrexate. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with methotrexate LPF (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Mexate (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Mexate-AQ (methotrexate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Neosar (cyclophosphamide). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Nolvadex (tamoxifen citrate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with paclitaxel. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Perjeta (pertuzumab). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with pertuzumab. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with tamoxifen citrate. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Taxol (paclitaxel). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Taxotere (docetaxel). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with trastuzumab. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with oremifene. In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Tykerb (lapatinib ditosylate). In another embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a selective androgen receptor modulator of this invention, in combination with Xeloda (capecitabine).

[0168] In one embodiment, the methods of the present invention comprise administering a pharmaceutical composition (or pharmaceutical preparation, used herein interchangeably) comprising the selective androgen receptor modulator of the present invention and/or its analog, derivative, isomer, metabolite, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, polymorph, crystal, prodrug or any combination thereof; and a suitable carrier or diluent.

Pharmaceutical Compositions:



[0169] As used herein, "pharmaceutical composition" means therapeutically effective amounts of the selective androgen receptor modulator together with suitable diluents, preservatives, solubilizers, emulsifiers, adjuvant and/or carriers. A "therapeutically effective amount" as used herein refers to that amount which provides a therapeutic effect for a given condition and administration regimen. Such compositions are liquids or lyophilized or otherwise dried formulations and include diluents of various buffer content (e.g., Tris-HCI., acetate, phosphate), pH and ionic strength, additives such as albumin or gelatin to prevent absorption to surfaces, detergents (e.g., Tween 20, Tween 80, Pluronic F68, bile acid salts), solubilizing agents (e.g., glycerol, polyethylene glycerol), antioxidants (e.g., ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulfite), preservatives (e.g., Thimerosal, benzyl alcohol, parabens), bulking substances or tonicity modifiers (e.g., lactose, mannitol), covalent attachment of polymers such as polyethylene glycol to the protein, complexation with metal ions, or incorporation of the material into or onto particulate preparations of polymeric compounds such as polylactic acid, polglycolic acid, hydrogels, etc, or onto liposomes, microemulsions, micelles, unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles, erythrocyte ghosts, or spheroplasts). Such compositions will influence the physical state, solubility, stability, rate of in vivo release, and rate of in vivo clearance. Controlled or sustained release compositions include formulation in lipophilic depots (e.g., fatty acids, waxes, oils).

[0170] Also comprehended by the invention are particulate compositions coated with polymers (e.g., poloxamers or poloxamines). Other embodiments of the compositions of the invention incorporate particulate forms protective coatings, protease inhibitors or permeation enhancers for various routes of administration, including parenteral, pulmonary, nasal and oral. In one embodiment the pharmaceutical composition is administered parenterally, paracancerally, transmucosally, transdermally, intramuscularly, intravenously, intradermally, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally, intraventricularly, intravaginally, intracranially and intratumorally.

[0171] Further, as used herein "pharmaceutically acceptable carriers" are well known to those skilled in the art and include, but are not limited to, 0.01-0.1 M and preferably 0.05 M phosphate buffer or about 0.8% saline. Additionally, such pharmaceutically acceptable carriers may be aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. Examples of non-aqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Aqueous carriers include water, alcoholic/aqueous solutions, emulsions or suspensions, including saline and buffered media.

[0172] Parenteral vehicles include sodium chloride solution, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's and fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers such as those based on Ringer's dextrose, and the like. Preservatives and other additives may also be present, such as, for example, antimicrobials, antioxidants, collating agents, inert gases and the like.

[0173] Controlled or sustained release compositions include formulation in lipophilic depots (e.g. fatty acids, waxes, oils). Also comprehended by the invention are particulate compositions coated with polymers (e.g. poloxamers or poloxamines) and the compound coupled to antibodies directed against tissue-specific receptors, ligands or antigens or coupled to ligands of tissue-specific receptors.

[0174] Other embodiments of the compositions of the invention incorporate particulate forms, protective coatings, protease inhibitors or permeation enhancers for various routes of administration, including parenteral, pulmonary, nasal and oral.

[0175] Compounds modified by the covalent attachment of water-soluble polymers such as polyethylene glycol, copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol, carboxymethyl cellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone or polyproline are known to exhibit substantially longer half-lives in blood following intravenous injection than do the corresponding unmodified compounds (Abuchowski et al., 1981; Newmark et al., 1982; and Katre et al., 1987). Such modifications may also increase the compound's solubility in aqueous solution, eliminate aggregation, enhance the physical and chemical stability of the compound, and greatly reduce the immunogenicity and reactivity of the compound. As a result, the desired in vivo biological activity may be achieved by the administration of such polymer-compound abducts less frequently or in lower doses than with the unmodified compound.

[0176] In yet another embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition can be delivered in a controlled release system. For example, the agent may be administered using intravenous infusion, an implantable osmotic pump, a transdermal patch, liposomes, or other modes of administration. In one embodiment, a pump may be used (see Langer, supra; Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1987); Buchwald et al., Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 321:574 (1989). In another embodiment, polymeric materials can be used. In yet another embodiment, a controlled release system can be placed in proximity to the therapeutic target, i.e., the brain, thus requiring only a fraction of the systemic dose (see, e.g., Goodson, in Medical Applications of Controlled Release, supra, vol. 2, pp. 115-138 (1984). Other controlled release systems are discussed in the review by Langer (Science 249:1527-1533 (1990).

[0177] The pharmaceutical preparation can comprise the selective androgen receptor modulator alone, or can further include a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and can be in solid or liquid form such as tablets, powders, capsules, pellets, solutions, suspensions, elixirs, emulsions, gels, creams, or suppositories, including rectal and urethral suppositories. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include gums, starches, sugars, cellulosic materials, and mixtures thereof. The pharmaceutical preparation containing the selective androgen receptor modulator can be administered to a subject by, for example, subcutaneous implantation of a pellet; in a further embodiment, the pellet provides for controlled release of selective androgen receptor modulator over a period of time. The preparation can also be administered by intravenous, intraarterial, or intramuscular injection of a liquid preparation, oral administration of a liquid or solid preparation, or by topical application. Administration can also be accomplished by use of a rectal suppository or a urethral suppository.

[0178] The pharmaceutical preparations of the invention can be prepared by known dissolving, mixing, granulating, or tablet-forming processes. For oral administration, the selective androgen receptor modulators or their physiologically tolerated derivatives such as salts, esters, N-oxides, and the like are mixed with additives customary for this purpose, such as vehicles, stabilizers, or inert diluents, and converted by customary methods into suitable forms for administration, such as tablets, coated tablets, hard or soft gelatin capsules, aqueous, alcoholic or oily solutions. Examples of suitable inert vehicles are conventional tablet bases such as lactose, sucrose, or cornstarch in combination with binders such as acacia, cornstarch, gelatin, with disintegrating agents such as cornstarch, potato starch, alginic acid, or with a lubricant such as stearic acid or magnesium stearate.

[0179] Examples of suitable oily vehicles or solvents are vegetable or animal oils such as sunflower oil or fish-liver oil. Preparations can be effected both as dry and as wet granules. For parenteral administration (subcutaneous, intravenous, intraarterial, or intramuscular injection), the selective androgen receptor modulators or their physiologically tolerated derivatives such as salts, esters, N-oxides, and the like are converted into a solution, suspension, or emulsion, if desired with the substances customary and suitable for this purpose, for example, solubilizers or other auxiliaries. Examples are sterile liquids such as water and oils, with or without the addition of a surfactant and other pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvants. Illustrative oils are those of petroleum, animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin, for example, peanut oil, soybean oil, or mineral oil. In general, water, saline, aqueous dextrose and related sugar solutions, and glycols such as propylene glycols or polyethylene glycol are preferred liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions.

[0180] The preparation of pharmaceutical compositions which contain an active component is well understood in the art. Such compositions can be prepared as aerosols of the active component delivered to the nasopharynx or as injectables, either as liquid solutions or suspensions; however, solid forms suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid prior to injection can also be prepared. The preparation can also be emulsified. The active therapeutic ingredient is often mixed with excipients which are pharmaceutically acceptable and compatible with the active ingredient. Suitable excipients are, for example, water, saline, dextrose, glycerol, ethanol, or the like or any combination thereof.

[0181] In addition, the composition can contain minor amounts of auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents, pH buffering agents which enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredient.

[0182] An active component can be formulated into the composition as neutralized pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the acid addition salts (formed with the free amino groups of the polypeptide or antibody molecule), which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed from the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, and the like.

[0183] For topical administration to body surfaces using, for example, creams, gels, drops, and the like, the selective androgen receptor modulators or their physiologically tolerated derivatives such as salts, esters, N-oxides, and the like are prepared and applied as solutions, suspensions, or emulsions in a physiologically acceptable diluent with or without a pharmaceutical carrier.

[0184] In another embodiment, the active compound can be delivered in a vesicle, in particular a liposome (see Langer, Science 249:1527-1533 (1990); Treat et al., in Liposomes in the Therapy of Infectious Disease and Cancer, Lopez- Berestein and Fidler (eds.), Liss, New York, pp. 353-365 (1989); Lopez-Berestein, ibid., pp. 317-327; see generally ibid).

[0185] For use in medicine, the salts of the selective androgen receptor modulator will be pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Other salts may, however, be useful in the preparation of the compounds of the invention or of their pharmaceutically acceptable salts. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable salts of the compounds of this invention include acid addition salts which may, for example, be formed by mixing a solution of the compound of the invention with a solution of a pharmaceutically acceptable acid such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, methanesulphonic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, benzoic: acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, carbonic acid or phosphoric acid.

[0186] In one embodiment, the term "about", refers to a deviance of between 0.0001-5% from the indicated number or range of numbers. In one embodiment, the term "about", refers to a deviance of between 1 -10% from the indicated number or range of numbers. In one embodiment, the term "about", refers to a deviance of up to 25% from the indicated number or range of numbers.

[0187] In some embodiments, the term "comprise" or grammatical forms thereof, refers to the inclusion of the indicated active agent, such as the compound of this invention, as well as inclusion of other active agents, and pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, excipients, emollients, stabilizers, etc., as are known in the pharmaceutical industry. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of' refers to a composition, whose only active ingredient is the indicated active ingredient, however, other compounds may be included which are for stabilizing, preserving, etc. the formulation, but are not involved directly in the therapeutic effect of the indicated active ingredient. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of' may refer to components, which exert a therapeutic effect via a mechanism distinct from that of the indicated active ingredient. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of' may refer to components, which exert a therapeutic effect and belong to a class of compounds distinct from that of the indicated active ingredient. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of' may refer to components, which exert a therapeutic effect and belong to a class of compounds distinct from that of the indicated active ingredient, by acting via a different mechanism of action, for example, and representing an embodiment of this invention, polypeptides comprising T cell epitopes present in a composition may be specifically combined with polypeptides comprising B cell epitopes. In some embodiments, the term "consisting essentially of' may refer to components which facilitate the release of the active ingredient. In some embodiments, the term "consisting" refers to a composition, which contains the active ingredient and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or excipient.

[0188] Further, as used herein, the term "comprising" is intended to mean that the system includes the recited elements, but not excluding others which may be optional. By the phrase "consisting essentially of' it is meant a method that includes the recited elements but exclude other elements that may have an essential significant effect on the performance of the method. "Consisting of' shall thus mean excluding more than traces of other elements. Embodiments defined by each of these transition terms are within the scope of this invention.

[0189] In one embodiment, the present invention provides combined preparations. In one embodiment, the term "a combined preparation" defines especially a "kit of parts" in the sense that the combination partners as defined above can be dosed independently or by use of different fixed combinations with distinguished amounts of the combination partners i.e., simultaneously, concurrently, separately or sequentially. In some embodiments, the parts of the kit of parts can then, e.g., be administered simultaneously or chronologically staggered, that is at different time points and with equal or different time intervals for any part of the kit of parts. The ratio of the total amounts of the combination partners, in some embodiments, can be administered in the combined preparation. In one embodiment, the combined preparation can be varied, e.g., in order to cope with the needs of a patient subpopulation to be treated or the needs of the single patient which different needs can be due to a particular disease, severity of a disease, age, sex, or body weight as can be readily made by a person skilled in the art.

[0190] In one embodiment, the term "a" or "one" or "an" refers to at least one. In one embodiment the phrase "two or more" may be of any denomination, which will suit a particular purpose. In one embodiment, "about" may comprise a deviance from the indicated term of + 1 %, or in some embodiments, - 1 %, or in some embodiments, ± 2.5 %, or in some embodiments, ± 5 %, or in some embodiments, ± 7.5 %, or in some embodiments, ± 10 %, or in some embodiments, ± 15 %, or in some embodiments, ± 20 %, or in some embodiments, ± 25 %.

[0191] The following examples are presented in order to more fully illustrate the preferred embodiments of the invention. They should in no way be construed, however, as limiting the broad scope of the invention.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS SECTION


General Experimental Methods


Cell Growth Conditions



[0192] HCC 1937, HCC 1954, HCC 38, T47D-Kbluc, MDA-MB-453, and MDA-MB-231 were grown in RPMI-1640 medium containing 2 mM L-glutamine supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Cells were maintained in a 5% CO2/95% air humidified atmosphere at 37°C.

Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay



[0193] The SRB Assay was used to determine cell number during cytotoxocity experiments. The following protocol was used:
  1. 1. Cells were detached with 0.25% trypsin.
  2. 2. Experimental cultures were cultured in 96-well microtiter plates (200 uL growth medium per well; 1,000-200,000 cells per well).
  3. 3. Cultures were fixed with 50 uL 50% TCA (4 °C). (see cell fixation protocol for details).
  4. 4. Fixed cells were stained with 50 uL 0.4% (wt/vol) SRB in 1% acetic acid for 10 minutes.
  5. 5. SRB was removed and the cultures were quickly* rinsed 5 times with 1% acetic acid to remove unbound dye.**
  6. 6. Cultures were air-dried overnight until there was no visible moisture.
  7. 7. The cellular protein-bound SRB was dissolved with 200 uL unbuffered Tris base (10 mM, pH 10.5) for 30 minutes on a rocking platform shaker.
  8. 8. Absorbance was read at 540 nm.
* quickly performing rinsing process was to prevent desorption of protein-bound SRB
** completely removed residual wash solution by sharply flicking plates over sink.

Fixation of cells attached to the plastic substratum



[0194] The following protocol was used for fixing cells:
  1. a. 50 uL of 50% TCA (4 °C) was gently layered on the top of growth medium in each well to make a final TCA concentration of 10%.
  2. b. Cultures were incubated at 4 °C for 1 hour.
  3. c. Cultures were washed 5 times with tap water to remove TCA, growth medium, low-molecular-weight metabolites, and serum protein.
  4. d. Plates were air-dried until there was no visible moisture.

EXAMPLE 1


EFFECT OF FORMULA IX ON GROWTH IN DIFFERENT BREAST CANCERS CELL LINES EXPRESSING ANDROGEN RECEPTOR


Materials and Methods:



[0195] MDA-MB-231 and HCC-38 triple negative breast cancer cells were used to analyze growth effects of various compounds.

[0196] MDA-MB-231 and HCC-38 triple negative breast cancer cells were infected with 200 µL or 500 µL adenovirus containing LacZ (negative control) or AR, and were treated with various AR ligands (agonists: DHT and Formula IX, and antagonist: bicalutamide) or a non-AR binder that is structurally similar to Formula IX, R-enantiomer of Formula IX. Cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS (Figures 1C, 1E, 1G and 1I; 2C, 2E and 2G) or full serum (Figures 1D, 1F, 1H and 1J; 2D, 2F and 2H) for 3 days, fixed and stained with sulforhodamine blue (SRB) to measure cell viability. IC50 values were calculated

Results:



[0197] Expression of AR in cells infected with AR or LacZ was evaluated using Western blotting (Figure 1A and Figure 2A).

[0198] Only the AR agonists, DHT and Formula IX, inhibited MDA-MB-231 and HCC-38 triple negative breast cancer cell growth (Figures 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F and Figure 2C, 2D, 2E and 2F). This inhibition was observed only in the presence of AR (compare w/lacZ and w/AR). IC50 values in AR positive cells for DHT and Formula IX are presented in Figure 1B and Figure 2B.

EXAMPLE 2


REVERSAL OF EFFECT OF FORMULA IX ON GROWTH


Materials and Methods:



[0199] To determine if the growth inhibition observed with DHT and Formula IX in AR positive cells is AR dependent, MDA-MB-231 cells were infected with adenovirus containing LacZ (negative control) or AR and were treated with AR agonists, DHT or Formula IX, in the presence or absence of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide. Cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS (Figures 3A and 3C) or full serum (Figure 3B and 3D) for 3 days, fixed and stained with sulforhodamine blue (SRB) to measure cell viability. IC50 values were calculated.

Results:



[0200] Both DHT and Formula IX required AR to inhibit MDA-MB-231 cell growth, as demonstrated by the weakened growth inhibitory effects in the presence of bicalutamide (Figure 3A, 3B, 3C, 3D). IC50 values for DHT and Formula IX in AR positive cells pretreated with or without bicalutamide are presented in Figure 3E.

EXAMPLE 3


EFFECT OF AR LIGANDS ON BREAST CANCER CELL GROWTH


Materials and Methods:



[0201] To determine if all AR ligands inhibit the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 cells were infected with adenovirus containing LacZ or AR and were treated with various AR ligands (agonists: DHT, Formula VIII, Formula IX, Formula X, Formula XIII, Formula XIV; antagonist: bicalutamide) and a non-AR-binder: R-enantiomer of Formula IX. Cells were treated in charcoal stripped FBS (Figures 4A, 4C, 4E, 4G, 4I, 4K, 4M and 4O) or full serum (4B, 4D, 4F, 4H, 4J, 4L, 4N and 4P) for 3 days, fixed and stained with sulforhodamine blue (SRB) to measure cell viability. Anti-proliferative IC50 values were calculated in breast cancer cells and compared to transactivation values, i.e., EC50 (agonists) and IC50 (antagonists) values, generated in HEK-293 cells. The growth regulatory properties in breast cancer cells of these molecules in breast cancer cells are comparable to the transactivation values obtained in HEK-293 cells.

Results:



[0202] Only AR agonists inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells (Figure 4A-4B, 4E-4H, and 4K-4P) and the growth inhibitory potential of these ligands rank order with their agonistic activity observed in HEK-293 cells (Figure 4Q).

[0203] Example 14 demonstrates as well that AR agonists inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with AR.

EXAMPLE 4


AR TRANSACTIVATION ASSAYS IN BREAST CANCER CELLS


Materials and Methods:



[0204] To ensure that the ligands that elicited growth inhibitory properties are agonists in MDA-MB-231 cells, AR transactivation assays were performed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Though AR transactivation assay was performed in HEK-293 cells, the ability of ligands to function as agonists or antagonists depends on cellular microenvironment. Hence, MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected using lipofectamine with AR, GRE-LUC and CMV-LUC as normalization control. The cells were treated 24 h after transfection and luciferase assay performed 48 h after transfection.

Results:



[0205] Figure 5 shows that all AR ligands that elicited anti-proliferative activity are agonists in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with AR and their agonist and growth inhibitory properties compare well. In other words, growth inhibitory ligands are AR agonists in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with AR.

EXAMPLE 5


ANALYSIS OF GROWTH INHIBITORY EFFECTS IN BREAST CANCER CELLS EXPRESSING ESTROGEN RECEPTOR


Materials and Methods:



[0206] To ensure that growth inhibitory effects in MDA-MB-231 cells are selective to AR, and to determine if the ligand dependent-growth-inhibitory effects are exclusive to AR and also to ensure that the effects are not artifacts of adenoviral infection, MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells were infected with ER-α or ER-β adenovirus constructs and were treated with ER agonist: estradiol (E2) or ER antagonist: ICI 182,780 (ICI) in charcoal stripped serum (Figure 6C) or full serum (Figures 6D and 6E) for 3 days. Cells were fixed and stained with sulforhodamine blue (SRB) to measure cell viability. Expression of ER in infected cells was evaluated using Western blotting.

Results:



[0207] Figures 6A-6B show the presence or absence of ERα or ERβ in MDA-MB-231 cells following transfection.

[0208] Figures 6C-6E show that over-expression of ER-α or ER-β in MDA-MB-231 cells failed to promote growth inhibition either in the presence of ER agonists or antagonists. Thus, the observed growth inhibitory effects in MDA-MB-231 cells are selective to the presence of the AR and AR agonists.

EXAMPLE 6


EFFECT OF AR AGONIST ON MORPHOLOGY OF BREAST CANCER CELLS


Materials and Methods:



[0209] MDA-MB-231 cells were stably transfected with AR using lentivirus. Following transfection, cells were treated for 3 days with the indicated concentrations of DHT or bicalutamide. Live cells were visualized using a light-microscope and photographed. The cells were imaged at the same magnification and under the same microscopic conditions.

Results:



[0210] Figure 7 shows that DHT altered the morphology of MDA-MB-231 cells into more anchorage dependent and differentiated cells, indicating that agonist-bound AR expressing breast cancer cells will have less invasive and migratory properties (e.g., less likely to metastasize).

[0211] DHT and SARMs alter the morphology of AR-positive MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231 cells were stably transfected with AR using lentivirus and were treated with vehicle or AR agonists at the indicated concentrations. At the end of 3 days of incubation, the cells were imaged under a microscope (40X).

[0212] DHT and SARMs, but not the AR antagonist, bicalutamide (data not shown), or the inactive isomer of formula IX, altered the morphology of the cells into a more anchorage-dependent phenotype. (Figure 12).

EXAMPLE 7


CROSS-REACTIVITY OF FORMULA VIII WITH OTHER NUCLEAR HORMONE RECEPTORS



[0213] In order to determine whether compounds of this invention affected other nuclear hormone receptor signaling, the ability of a compound represented by formula VIII to stimulate (agonist) or inhibit (antagonist) ERα-, EPβ-, GR-, PR-, or MR-mediated transcriptional activation, was analyzed.

Materials and Methods:


Transient Transfection



[0214] Rat GR, MR, PR, ER-α and ER-β were individually cloned into a pCR3.1 vector backbone. Sequencing was performed to verify the absence of any mutations. HEK-293 cells were plated at 90,000 cells per well of a 24 well plate in Dulbecco's Minimal Essential Media supplemented with 5% charcoal-stripped FBS. The cells were transfected using Lipofectamine (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) with 0.25 µg GRE-LUC for GR, MR and PR and ERE-LUC for ER-α and ER-β, 0.5 ng CMV-LUC (renilla luciferase) and 12.5-25 ng of the respective expression vector for each receptor. The cells were treated 24 h after transfection with formula VIII in the absence (agonist mode) and presence (antagonist mode) of known agonists (estradiol for ER; dexamethasone for GR; aldosterone for MR; progesterone for PR) as controls. Luciferase assays were performed 48 h after transfection. Transcriptional activation values are represented as firefly luciferase normalized to renilla luciferase.

Results:



[0215] The agonist effects of formula VIII on ER-β, ER-α, GR, PR and MR were tested and compared to the activities of the known ligands, as well (Figure 8). A compound of formula VIII failed to activate ER-β or ER-α even at the highest tested concentration (1 µM) whereas 1 nM estradiol induced ERα- and ERβ-mediated transactivation by 3- and 5-fold, respectively. A compound of formula VIII failed to activate GR- or MR-mediated transactivation. A compound of formula VIII at all the tested concentrations did not induce GR- or MR-mediated transactivation, whereas the known ligands (dexamethasone and aldosterone) induced the activities of GR or MR by 70- and 60-fold, respectively, at a concentration of 1 nM. However, a compound of formula VIII increased the transactivation of PR at 1 µM and 10 µM by 3 and 8 fold, respectively. Progesterone activated PR by 23 fold at a 1 nM concentration, indicating that a compound of formula VIII is greater than 10,000-fold weaker than the endogenous agonist for PR.

[0216] The ability of a compound of formula VIII to inhibit the effects of a known agonist for each of the above mentioned receptors was tested as well.

[0217] Co-incubation of HEK 293 cells with the indicated concentrations of formula VIII failed to alter the estradiol-induced ER-β or ER-α activity, dexamethasone-induced GR-mediated transactivation or aldosterone-induced MR-mediated transactivation.

[0218] A dose response curve for a compound of formula VIII in antagonist mode potently partially inhibited PR activity (Figure 9). In comparison to formula IX, formula VIII is was 10-times more potent, and 100-times more potent than R-enantiomer of formula IX. In comparison to RU486, formula VIII was about 1,000 fold weaker as a PR antagonist, than RU486.

[0219] Compounds of formula VIII and IX are specific for the AR and do not stimulate or inhibit receptor-mediated transactivation of ERα, ERβ, GR, or MR. Unexpectedly, formula VIII exhibited moderate potency partial agonist activity for PR, and potent PR partial antagonism (see Figure 9). Combined AR-agonism and PR-antagonism will be beneficial in certain breast cancers (e.g., PR-positive breast cancers).

EXAMPLE 8


FORMULA VIII INHIBITS TRIPLE NEGATIVE BREAST CANCER CELL TUMOR GROWTH IN MICE


Materials and Methods:



[0220] MDA-MB-231-AR triple negative breast cancer cells (2 million cells/mouse; MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with AR using lentivirus) were mixed with matrigel (1:1) and injected subcutaneously into the flanks of intact female nude mice (n=5/group). When the tumors reached 150-200 mm3, the animals were separated into two groups, one receiving vehicle and the other receiving 30 mg/kg formula VIII orally. Tumor volume was measured thrice weekly and % tumor growth inhibition (TGI) was calculated. At the end of 35 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed, tumors excised, weighed, and collected for various analyses. Blood was collected and serum separated for drug concentration measurement.

Results:



[0221] Formula VIII significantly reduced the tumor growth with TGI of -75% (Figure 10B). Tumor weights were also reduced by more than 50% by Formula VIII treatment (Figure 11C) as were tumor size (Figures 11A-B). Formula VIII elicited these results without any associated toxicity or changes in body weight (Figure 10A). Uterus weight also increased in response to formula VIII treatment (not shown), indicative of in vivo androgenic response.

[0222] In summary, the formula VIII SARM is extremely effective in regressing the growth of AR expressing triple negative breast cancer xenografts in mice, and is likely to be effective in a wide variety of AR-positive breast cancers in humans, as described supra and infra.

EXAMPLE 9


EFFECT OF FORMULA IX IN WOMEN WITH METASTATIC OR ER AND/OR AR POSITIVE REFRACTORY BREAST CANCER



[0223] This clinical trial will assess the safety and efficacy of a compound represented by the structure of Formula IX (Formula IX) in human female subjects who have estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) positive metastatic breast cancer, and who have responded previously to hormone therapy. The goal of this study is to determine the importance of the AR status as a therapeutic target in women with ER positive metastatic breast cancer that have previously responded to hormone therapy.

Materials and Methods:


Subject Population



[0224] Female subjects with ER positive metastatic breast cancer who have previously been treated with up to 3 prior hormonal therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Subjects must have been treated with and responded to previous adjuvant therapy for ≥ 3 years or hormonal therapy for metastatic disease for ≥ 6 months prior to progression. Details of subject selection criteria are presented below:

[0225] To be eligible for participation in this study, subjects must meet all of the following criteria, including give voluntary, signed informed consent in accordance with institutional policies; be a woman that has been diagnosed with ER positive metastatic breast cancer; and be clinically confirmed as postmenopausal. Subjects must have undergone the onset of spontaneous, medical or surgical menopause prior to the start of this study. (Spontaneous menopause is defined as the natural cessation of ovarian function as indicated by being amenorrheic for at least 12 months. If the subject has been amenorrheic for ≥ 6 months but < 12 months they must have a serum FSH concentration of ≥ 50 mIU/mL and an estradiol concentration of ≤ 25 pg/mL; medical menopause is defined as treatment with a luteinizing hormone receptor hormone agonist; and surgical menopause is defined as bilateral oophorectomy).

[0226] Additional requirement that subjects must meet include that they have been treated and responded to previous adjuvant hormonal therapy for ≥ 3 years or previous hormonal therapy for metastatic disease for ≥ 6 months prior to disease progression; that they have not had radiation therapy for breast cancer within 2 weeks of randomization in this study and are not planned to have radiation therapy during participation in this study. Subjects must be willing to provide tissue sample from a biopsy of a metastatic tumor lesion(s) for determination of AR and ER status. Tissue samples from a biopsy of a primary tumor lesion will also be provided if available. Further subjects must have ECOG score ≤ 2 and be age ≥ 18 years.

[0227] Subjects with any of the following exclusion criteria will NOT be eligible for enrollment in this study: have triple negative breast cancer; have, in the judgment of the Investigator, a clinically significant concurrent illness or psychological, familial, sociological, geographical or other concomitant condition that would not permit adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol; have uncontrolled hypertension, congestive heart failure or angina; have Stage 4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); have positive screen for Hepatitis B consisting of HBsAg (Hepatitis B Surface Antigen), unless subject was diagnosed > 10 years prior to enrollment and no evidence of active liver disease; have ALT/SGOT or AST/SGPT above 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN); have positive screen for hepatitis A antibody IgM or HIV; have received chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer within the 3 months prior to enrollment in the study or be expected to receive chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer during the study; be currently taking testosterone, methyltestosterone, oxandrolone (Oxandrin®), oxymetholone, danazol, fluoxymesterone (Halotestin®), testosterone-like agents (such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and other androgenic compounds, including herbals), or antiandrogens; previous therapy with testosterone and testosterone-like agents is acceptable with a 30-day washout (if previous testosterone therapy was long term depot within the past 6 months, the site should contact the medical monitor for this study to determine appropriate washout period); have untreated or uncontrolled brain metastasis; have been diagnosed with or treated for cancer within the previous two years, other than breast cancer or non-melanoma carcinoma of the skin

[0228] Androgen receptor (AR) status will be assessed in all subjects from primary and/or metastatic lesions after enrollment. It is expected that the majority (70-95%) of subjects with ER positive breast cancer also will express AR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in their primary tumor samples (Niemeier LA, et.al. Androgen receptor in breast cancer: expression in estrogen receptor-positive tumors and in estrogen-negative tumors with apocrine differentiation. Modern Pathology 23:205-212, 2010; Narita D, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen in breast cancer. Folia Histochemica Et Cytobiologica 44:165-172, 2006). High percentages (72-84%) of metastatic lesions obtained from women with advanced breast cancer have also been found to be AR positive (Lea OA. et al. Improved measurement of androgen receptors in human breast cancer. Cancer Research 49:7162-7167, 1989).

[0229] As 70% or greater of the women with ER positive breast cancer are expected to have tumors that are AR positive, the study is designed to enroll approximately 27 subjects with AR positive breast cancer in each dose arm, enabling assessment of the primary endpoint in AR positive subjects, as well as the secondary and tertiary endpoints in subsets based on AR status (i.e., all subjects, AR positive subjects, and AR negative subjects).

Treatment



[0230] Subjects will receive either a 3 mg daily dose or 9 mg daily dose of Formula IX in a staggered dose design, with baseline and regular on study assessments of safety and efficacy.

[0231] Forty (40) subjects will receive Formula IX 3 mg and 40 subjects will receive Formula IX 9 mg. Enrollment into this study will be staggered such that the first 40 subjects will be enrolled into the 3 mg Formula IX dose arm. These subjects will be evaluated for efficacy and safety. When the last subject in the 3 mg Formula IX dose arm has been enrolled in this dose arm and there is acceptable safety based on a review of adverse events and clinical benefit by the sponsor, enrollment for the remaining 40 subjects will commence in the 9 mg Formula IX dose arm.
Table 1.
Dose ArmDoseNCapsules Administered
Dose Arm 1 3 mg QD 40 1 x 3 mg soft gel capsule
Dose Arm 2 9 mg QD 40 3 x 3 mg soft gel capsule


[0232] Measurable and non-measurable lesions (primary and/or metastatic) will be identified and assessed by a modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) classification over the course of this study (described in detail below).

Study Duration



[0233] Each subject enrolled into this study will receive study intervention until a progression free survival (PFS) endpoint has been reached (tumor progression or death). Subjects will be followed after treatment has been discontinued for vital status only.

Efficacy Endpoints



[0234] The primary efficacy analysis will be the clinical benefit in subjects with AR positive breast cancer at 6 months as measured by a modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) classification. Key secondary endpoints of clinical benefit in all subjects and AR negative subjects, as well as objective response rate, progression free survival, time to progression, duration of response, incidence of SREs, and time to first SRE in subsets based on AR status (i.e., all subjects, AR positive subjects, and AR negative subjects) will also be assessed. Effects on CA 27-29, PSA, bone turnover markers, QOL, and libido will be assessed as tertiary endpoints.

Primary Endpoint



[0235] Clinical benefit in a subject is defined as a complete response [CR], a partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD] as measured by modified RECIST 1.1, which is described in detail below. (Eisenhauer EA et al. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumors: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). European Journal of Cancer 45:228-247, 2009).

[0236] For subjects with non-measurable (non-target) disease only at baseline, SD will be defined as those with non-CR/non-PD combined response. The primary endpoint of the study will be to assess the proportion of subjects with clinical benefit (PCB) at 6 months (CR+PR+SD) in subjects with AR positive breast cancer.

Secondary Endpoints



[0237] The secondary efficacy endpoints include:
  • To assess the clinical benefit in all subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX. The clinical benefit is defined as the proportion of subjects with complete response [CR] + partial response [PR] + stable disease [SD] as measured by modified RECIST 1.1 (Eisenhauer EA et al. New response evaluation criteria in solid tumors: revised RECIST guideline (Version 1.1). European Journal of Cancer 45:228-247, 2009).
  • For subjects with non-measurable (non-target) disease only at baseline, SD will be defined as those with non-CR/non-PD combined response.
  • To assess objective response rate (ORR) in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX. Objective response rate is defined as the proportion of subjects with a CR or PR at 6 months as measured by modified RECIST 1.1. For subjects with non-measurable (non-target) disease only at baseline, ORR is defined as the proportion of subjects with a CR at 6 months as measured by modified RECIST 1.1.
  • To assess progression free survival (PFS) in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX. PFS is defined as the time elapsed between treatment initiation and tumor progression as measured by modified RECIST 1.1 OR death.
  • To assess time to progression (TTP) in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX. Time to tumor progression is defined as the time elapsed between treatment initiation and tumor progression as measured by modified RECIST 1.1.
  • To assess duration of response in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX.
  • To assess incidence of skeletal related events (SREs) in subjects treated with Formula IX.
  • To assess time to first skeletal related event (SRE) in subjects treated with Formula IX.

Tertiary Endpoints



[0238] 
  • To assess serum CA 27-29 changes in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX.
  • To assess serum PSA changes in subjects with breast cancer treated with Formula IX
  • To assess changes in bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin, serum collagen type I cross linked C-telopeptide [CTX], serum collagen type I cross linked N-telopeptide [NTX], serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase, and urinary NTX in subjects treated with Formula IX.
  • To assess the effect of Formula IX on quality of life (QOL) as measured by FACIT-F questionnaire in subjects treated with Formula IX.
  • To assess the effect of Formula IX on libido as measured by female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire in subjects treated with Formula IX.
  • To explore the relationship of various levels of AR expression as determined by immunohistochemistry with primary, secondary and tertiary objectives

Modified RECIST 1.1



[0239] The modified RECIST 1.1 definitions described below will be applied:

Measurable Lesions



[0240] A measurable lesion is defined as one lesion whose longest diameter (LD) can be accurately measured as ≥ 10 mm CT or MRI technique by using a 5 mm contiguous reconstruction algorithm.

[0241] Measurable lesions must be at least 2 times the slice thickness or at least two times the size of the CT scan interval cut.

[0242] Lesions seen on chest x-ray but not confirmed by CT or MRI scan are not acceptable as measurable lesions for this study.

[0243] To be considered pathologically enlarged and measurable, a lymph node must be > 15 mm in short axis when assessed by CT scan (CT scan slice thickness recommended to be no greater than 5 mm). At baseline and in follow-up, only the short axis will be measured and followed.

[0244] Measurable disease is defined as the presence of at least one measurable lesion.

[0245] All measurements will be taken and recorded in millimeters using an electronic measurement method.

Non-Measurable Lesions



[0246] Non-measurable lesions are defined as any lesion(s) that are smaller than the criteria for measurable lesions stated above (non-nodal lesions with longest diameter < 10mm or pathological lymph nodes with ≥ 10 mm to < 15 mm in short axis) or truly non measurable lesions (or sites of disease). Lesions considered to be truly non-measurable are bone lesions (lytic lesions or mixed lytic-blastic lesions without identifiable soft tissue components, and blastic lesions), leptomeningeal disease, ascites, pleural/pericardial effusions, lymphangitis cutis/pulmonis, inflammatory breast disease, abdominal masses not confirmed by imaging techniques, and cystic lesions.

Target Lesions



[0247] Target lesions must be measurable lesions.

[0248] All target lesions up to a maximum of two lesions per organ and five lesions in total, representative of all involved organs, will be selected/confirmed as target lesions, recorded and measured at baseline.

[0249] Target lesions should be selected on the basis of their size (lesions with the longest diameter) and their suitability for accurate repetitive measurements by CT/MRI imaging techniques and be most representative of the subject's tumor burden.

[0250] Target lesions will be measured in one dimension by the size estimation of their diameter. A sum of the diameters (longest for non-nodal lesions and shortest for nodal lesions) for all target lesions will be calculated and reported for each time point. The baseline sum of diameters will be used as reference to further characterize the objective tumor response of the measurable dimension of the disease.

Non-Target Lesions



[0251] All other lesions (or sites of disease) and any measurable lesions that were not selected as target lesions) should be identified as non-target lesions and indicated as present at baseline.

[0252] Measurements of the non-target lesions may be performed, however the continued presence or absence as well as the disappearance or progression status of these lesions will be noted throughout follow-up assessments.

New Lesions



[0253] New lesions will be called at follow-up visits regardless of whether they occur in anatomic regions that were routinely subjected to follow-up, or in regions without disease at baseline and for which a follow-up scan is performed for clinical suspicion of new disease. New lymph nodes need to have a minimum size of 10 mm in their shortest axis. New non-nodal lesions need not to be measurable or to have a minimum size. Measurements of new lesions may be performed.

Response Criteria Definitions



[0254] The following response criteria will be applied for target and non-target lesions:

Target Lesion Response Criteria



[0255] Complete Response (CR): Disappearance of all target lesions. Target lymph node lesions that become < 10 mm in their shortest diameter will be considered to be normal (non-pathologic) and their actual measurement will be recorded. Thus, it follows that if all target node lesions have become < 10 mm, and all other non-nodal lesions have disappeared (whether target or non-target type), the overall response will be considered to be a CR.

[0256] Partial Response (PR): At least a 30% decrease in the sum of diameters of target lesions, taking as reference the baseline sum of the diameters.

[0257] Stable Disease (SD): Neither sufficient shrinkage to qualify for PR nor sufficient increase to qualify for PD taking as reference the smallest sum of diameters (nadir).

[0258] Progressive Disease (PD): At least a 20% increase in the sum of the diameters of target lesions taking as reference the smallest sum of diameters (nadir) recorded since the treatment started. In addition to the relative increase of 20%, the sum of diameters must also demonstrate an absolute increase of at least 5 mm.

[0259] Not evaluable (NE): NE can be applied if repeated measurements cannot be assessed for reasons such as inadequate or missing imaging.

Non-Target Lesion Response Criteria



[0260] Complete Response (CR): Disappearance of all non-target lesions. All lymph nodes must be non-pathological in size (< 10 mm short axis). Disappearance of bone lesions identified on bone scintigraphy.

[0261] Non-CR/Non-PD: Persistence of one or more non-target lesions. Stability, decrease, or mild increase in uptake of bone lesions on bone scintigraphy.

[0262] Progressive Disease (PD): Unequivocal progression of existing non-target lesions. A perceived increase in bone disease in a preexisting area will not be considered progression. For bone scintigraphy, at least two new lesions are required to conclude to a definite presence of new lesions unless one or more of these lesions are confirmed by radiography, CT or MRI.

[0263] Not Evaluable (NE): NE can be applied if repeated evaluations cannot be assessed for reasons such as inadequate or missing imaging.

Definitions of Combined Response at Each Time Point



[0264] Determination of an overall response for each time point is based on the combination of responses for target, non-target, and the presence or absence of new lesions using the algorithm outlined on tables C1 and C2 below.
Table C1: Summary of Definitions of Response for Patients with Measurable (Target) Disease at Baseline
Response of Combined Lesion Types
Target LesionsNon-Target LesionsNew LesionsCombined Response
CR CR No CR
CR Non-CR/non-PD or NE No PR
PR CR, non-CR/non-PD, or NE No PR
SD CR, non-CR/non-PD, or NE No SD
PD Any Yes or No PD
Any PD Yes or No PD
Any Any Yes PD
NE Non-PD No NE
Non-PD Non-PD NE NE
Table C2: Summary of Definitions of Response for Patients with Non-Measurable (Non-Target) Disease only at Baseline
Response of Combined Lesion Types
Non-Target LesionsNew LesionsCombined Response
CR No CR
Non-CR/non-PD No Non-CR/non-PD
NE No NE
PD Yes or No PD
Any Yes PD

EXAMPLE 10


SYNTHESIS OF (S) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA VIII



[0265] 



[0266] (2R)-1-Methacryloylpyrrolidin-2-carboxylic Acid. D-Proline, 14.93 g, 0.13 mol) was dissolved in 71 mL of 2 N NaOH and cooled in an ice bath; the resulting alkaline solution was diluted with acetone (71 mL). An acetone solution (71 mL) of methacryloyl chloride (13.56 g, 0.13 mol) and 2 N NaOH solution (71 mL) were simultaneously added over 40 min to the aqueous solution of D-proline in an ice bath. The pH of the mixture was kept at 10-11°C during the addition of the methacryloyl chloride. After stirring (3 h, room temperature), the mixture was evaporated in vacuo at a temperature at 35-45 °C to remove acetone. The resulting solution was washed with ethyl ether and was acidified to pH 2 with concentrated HCl. The acidic mixture was saturated with NaCl and was extracted with EtOAc (100 mL × 3). The combined extracts were dried over Na2SO4, filtered through Celite, and evaporated in vacuo to give the crude product as a colorless oil. Recrystallization of the oil from ethyl ether and hexanes afforded 16.2 g (68%) of the desired compound as colorless crystals: mp 102-103 °C; the NMR spectrum of this compound demonstrated the existence of two rotamers of the title compound. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 5.28 (s) and 5.15 (s) for the first rotamer, 5.15 (s) and 5.03 (s) for the second rotamer (totally 2H for both rotamers, vinyl CH2), 4.48-4.44 for the first rotamer, 4.24-4.20 (m) for the second rotamer (totally 1H for both rotamers, CH at the chiral canter), 3.57-3.38 (m, 2H, CH2), 2.27-2.12 (1H, CH), 1.97-1.72 (m, 6H, CH2, CH, Me); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ for major rotamer 173.3, 169.1, 140.9, 116.4, 58.3, 48.7, 28.9, 24.7, 19.5: for minor rotamer 174.0, 170.0, 141.6, 115.2, 60.3, 45.9, 31.0, 22.3, 19.7; IR (KBr) 3437 (OH), 1737 (C=O), 1647 (CO, COOH), 1584, 1508, 1459, 1369, 1348, 1178 cm-1; [α]D26 +80.8° (c = 1, MeOH); Anal. Calcd. for C9H13NO3: C 59.00, H 7.15, N 7.65. Found: C 59.13, H 7.19, N 7.61.



[0267] (3R,8aR)-3-Bromomethyl-3-methyl-tetrahydro-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-1,4-dione. A solution of NBS (23.5 g, 0.132 mol) in 100 mL of DMF was added dropwise to a stirred solution of the (methyl-acryloyl)-pyrrolidine (16.1g, 88 mmol) in 70 mL of DMF under argon at room temperature, and the resulting mixture was stirred 3 days. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and a yellow solid was precipitated. The solid was suspended in water, stirred overnight at room temperature, filtered, and dried to give 18.6 g (81%) (smaller weight when dried ∼ 34%) of the title compound as a yellow solid: mp 152-154 °C; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 4.69 (dd, J = 9.6 Hz, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H, CH at the chiral center), 4.02 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H, CHHa), 3.86 (d, J = 11.4 Hz, 1H, CHHb), 3.53-3.24 (m, 4H, CH2), 2.30-2.20 (m, 1H, CH), 2.04-1.72 (m, 3H, CH2 and CH), 1.56 (s, 2H, Me); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 167.3, 163.1, 83.9, 57.2, 45.4, 37.8, 29.0, 22.9, 21.6; IR (KBr) 3474, 1745 (C=O), 1687 (C=O), 1448, 1377, 1360, 1308, 1227, 1159, 1062cm-1; [α]D26 +124.5 ° (c = 1.3, chloroform); Anal. Calcd. for C9H12BrNO3: C 41.24, H 4.61, N 5.34. Found: C 41.46, H 4.64, N 5.32.



[0268] (2R)-3-Bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic Acid. A mixture of bromolactone (18.5 g, 71 mmol) in 300 mL of 24% HBr was heated at reflux for 1 h. The resulting solution was diluted with brine (200 mL), and was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL x 4). The combined extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 (100 mL x 4). The aqueous solution was acidified with concentrated HCl to pH = 1, which, in turn, was extracted with ethyl acetate (100 mL × 4). The combined organic solution was dried over Na2SO4, filtered through Celite, and evaporated in vacuo to dryness. Recrystallization from toluene afforded 10.2 g (86%) of the desired compound as colorless crystals: mp 107-109 °C; 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 3.63 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H, CHHa), 3.52 (d, J = 10.1 Hz, 1H, CHHb), 1.35 (s, 3H, Me); IR (KBr) 3434 (OH), 3300-2500 (COOH), 1730 (C=O), 1449, 1421, 1380, 1292, 1193, 1085 cm-1; [α]D26 +10.5° (c = 2.6, MeOH); Anal. Calcd. for C4H7BrO3: C 26.25, H 3.86. Found: C 26.28, H 3.75.



[0269] Synthesis of (2R)-3-bromo-N-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. Thionyl chloride (7.8 g, 65.5 mmol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 °C) of (R)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid (9.0 g, 49.2 mol) in 50 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (6.6 g, 65.5 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 4-amino-2-chlorobenzonitrile (5.0 g, 32.8 mmol) and 100 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 100 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 × 150 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 × 100 mL) and brine (300 mL), successively. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid which was purified from column chromatography using EtOAc/hexane (50:50) to give 7.7 g (49.4%) of target compound as a brown solid.

[0270] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.7 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.0 (s, 1H, OH), 3.7 (d, 1H, CH), 4.0 (d, 1H, CH), 7.5 (d, 1H, ArH), 7.7 (d, 1H, ArH), 8.0 (s, 1H, ArH), 8.8 (s, 1H, NH). MS:342.1 (M+23). Mp 129°C.



[0271] Synthesis of (S)-N-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. A mixture of bromoamide (2.0 g, 6.3 mmol), anhydrous K2CO3 (2.6 g, 18.9 mmol) in 50 mL of acetone was heated to reflux for 2h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting solid was treated with 4-cyanophenol (1.1 g, 9.5 mmol) and anhydrous K2CO3 (1.7 g, 12.6 mmol) in 50 mL of 2-propanol was heated to reflux for 3 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The residue was treated with 100 mL of H2O and then extracted with EtOAc (2 ×100 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with 10% NaOH (4 × 100 mL) and brine, successively. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was purified by column chromatography using EtOAc/hexane (50:50) to give a solid. The solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 1.4 g (61.6 %) of (S)-N-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide as a colorless solid.

[0272] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.61 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.25 (s, 1H,OH), 4.06 (d, J = 9.15 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.50 (d, J = 9.15 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.97 - 6.99 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.53-7.59 (m, 4H, ArH), 7.97 (d, J = 2.01 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.96 (s, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 355.1, [M+Na]+ 378.0. Mp: 103-105 °C.

EXAMPLE 11


SYNTHESIS OF (S) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA IX



[0273] 





[0274] Synthesis of (2R)-3- Bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. Thionyl chloride (46.02 g, 0.39 mol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 °C) of (R)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid (51.13 g, 0.28 mol) in 300 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. (R)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid was prepared as described in Example 10. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (39.14 g, 0.39 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 5-amino-2-cyanobenzotrifluoride (40.0 g, 0.21 mol), 400 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 300 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 × 400 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 × 300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid which was purified from column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 55.8 g (73.9%) of (2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide as a light-yellow solid.

[0275] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.66 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.11 (s, 1H, OH), 3.63 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 4.05 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 7.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.1, 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.04 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 349.99, [M-H]- 349.0. M.p.: 124-126 °C.



[0276] Synthesis of (S)-N-(4-Cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. A mixture of bromoamide ((2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide, 50 g, 0.14 mol), anhydrous K2CO3 (59.04 g, 0.43 mol), 4-cyanophenol (25.44 g, 0.21 mol) in 500 mL of 2-propanol was heated to reflux for 3 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting residue was treated with 500 mL of H2O and then extracted with EtOAc (2 × 300 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with 10% NaOH (4 × 200 mL) and brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was treated with 300 mL of ethanol and an activated carbon. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 1 h and then the hot mixture was filtered through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil. This oil was purified by column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give an oil which was crystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 33.2 g (59.9%) of (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide as a colorless solid (a cotton type).

[0277] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.63 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.35 (s, 1H,OH), 4.07 (d, J = 9.04 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.51 (d, J = 9.04 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.97 - 6.99 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.57-7.60 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.81 (d, J = 8.55 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.97 (dd, J = 1.95, 8.55 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 1.95 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.13 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 389.10, [M-H]- 388.1. Mp: 92-94 °C.

EXAMPLE 12


SYNTHESIS OF (R) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA IX



[0278] 



[0279] Synthesis of (2S)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (precursor to R-enantiomer of formula IX). Thionyl chloride (46.02 g, 0.39 mol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 °C) of (S)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid (51.13 g, 0.28 mol) in 300 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (39.14 g, 0.39 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 5-amino-2-cyanobenzotrifluoride (40.0 g, 0.21 mol), 400 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 300 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 X 400 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 X 300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid which was purified from column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from EtOAc/hexane to give 55.8 g (73.9%) of target compound as a light-yellow solid.

[0280] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.66 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.11 (s, 1H, OH), 3.63 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 4.05 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 7.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.1, 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.04 (bs, 1H, NH).
Calculated Mass: 349.99, [M-H]- 349.0. Mp: 124-126 °C.



[0281] Synthesis of (R)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (R-enantiomer of formula IX). A mixture of bromoamide (50.0 g, 0.14 mol), anhydrous K2CO3 (59.04 g, 0.43 mol), 4-cyanophenol (25.44 g, 0.21 mol) in 500 mL of 2-propanol was heated to reflux for 3 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting residue was treated with 500 mL of H2O and then extracted with EtOAc (2 X 300 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with 10% NaOH (4 X 200 mL) and brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was treated with 300 mL of ethanol and an activated carbon. The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 1 h and then the hot mixture was filtered through Celite. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil. This oil was purified by column chromatography using hexane/EtOAc (20:80) to give an oil which was crystallized from EtOAc/hexane to give 33.2 g (59.9%) of (R)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (R-isomer of formula IX) as a colorless solid.

[0282] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.63 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.44 (s, 1H,OH), 4.07 (d, J = 9.16 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.51 (d, J = 9.16 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.97 - 6.99 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.57-7.59 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.81 (d, J = 8.54 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.97 (dd, J = 2.07, 8.54 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.07 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.15 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 389.10, [M-H]- 388.1. Mp: 92-94 °C

EXAMPLE 13


SYNTHESIS OF (S) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA X



[0283] 



[0284] Synthesis of (2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. Thionyl chloride (46.02 g, 0.39 mol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 oC) of R-131 (51.13 g, 0.28 mol) in 300 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (39.14 g, 0.39 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 5-amino-2-cyanobenzotrifluoride (40.0 g, 0.21 mol), 400 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature.The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 300 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 X 400 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 X 300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid which was purified by column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give a target compound (55.8 g, 73.9%) as a light-yellow solid.

[0285] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.66 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.11 (s, 1H, OH), 3.63 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 4.05 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 7.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.1, 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.04 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 349.99, [M-H]- 349.0. Mp: 124-126 oC.



[0286] Synthesis of (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (Formula X). A mixture of bromoamide (10.0 g, 28.5 mmol), anhydrous K2CO3 (11.8 g, 85.4 mmol) in 150 mL of acetone was heated to reflux for 1 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting residue was treated with 4-fluorophenol (4.8 g, 42.7 mmol), anhydrous K2CO3 (7.9 g, 57.0 mmol), 150 mL of 2-propanol and then heated to reflux for 2 h. The resulting mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. This solid was treated with 300 mL of H2O and extracted with EtOAc (2 X 250 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with a saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 X 250 mL) and brine. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was purified by column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2 /hexane to give (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (Formula X, 10.04 g, 92.2%) as a colorless solid.

[0287] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.59 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.36 (s, 1H,OH), 3.95 (d, J = 9.00 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.43 (d, J = 9.00 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.87-6.88 (m, 2H, ArH), 6.96-7.02 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.81 (d, J = 8.45 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.94-7.98 (m, 1H, ArH), 8.10 (d, J = 1.79 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.11 (s, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 382.31, [M-H]- 380.9. Mp: 139-141 °C.

EXAMPLE 14


SYNTHESIS OF (S) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA XIII



[0288] 



[0289] Synthesis of (2R)-3-Bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. Thionyl chloride (46.02 g, 0.39 mol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 °C) of R-18 (51.13 g, 0.28 mol) in 300 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. R-18 is (R)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid was prepared as described in Example 10. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (39.14 g, 0.39 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 5-amino-2-cyanobenzotrifluoride (40.0 g, 0.21 mol), 400 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature.The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 300 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 × 400 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 × 300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid which was purified from column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 55.8 g (73.9%) of (2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (R-19) as a light-yellow solid.

[0290] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.66 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.11 (s, 1H, OH), 3.63 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 4.05 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 7.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.1, 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.04 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 349.99, [M-H]- 349.0. M.p.: 124-126 °C.



[0291] Synthesis of (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyano-3-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (Formula XIII). A mixture of bromoamide ((2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide, R-19 (2.0 g, 5.70 mmol), anhydrous K2CO3 (2.4 g, 17.1 mmol) in 50 mL of acetone was heated to reflux for 2 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting solid was treated with 2-fluoro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (1.2 g, 8.5 mmol) and anhydrous K2CO3 (1.6 g, 11.4 mmol) in 50 mL of 2-propanol was heated to reflux for 3 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The residue was treated with 100 mL of H2O and then extracted with EtOAc (2 × 100 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with 10% NaOH (4 × 100 mL) and brine, successively. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was crystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 0.5 g (23%) of (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-(4-cyano-3-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide as a colorless solid.

[0292] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.63 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.34 (bs, 1H,OH), 4.08 (d, J = 9.17 Hz, 1H, CH), 4.50 (d, J = 9.17 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.74 - 6.82 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.50-7.55 (m, 1H, ArH), 7.81 (d, J = 8.50 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.97 (q, J = 2.03, 8.50 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.11 (d, J = 2.03 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.12 (s, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 407.1, [M+Na]+ 430.0. Mp: 124-125 °C.

EXAMPLE 15


SYNTHESIS OF (S) ENANTIOMER OF FORMULA XIV



[0293] 



[0294] Synthesis of (2R)-3-Bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide. Thionyl chloride (46.02 g, 0.39 mol) was added dropwise to a cooled solution (less than 4 °C) of R-18 (51.13 g, 0.28 mol) in 300 mL of THF under an argon atmosphere. R-18 is (R)-3-bromo-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid was prepared as described in Example 10. The resulting mixture was stirred for 3 h under the same condition. To this was added Et3N (39.14 g, 0.39 mol) and stirred for 20 min under the same condition. After 20 min, 5-amino-2-cyanobenzotrifluoride (40.0 g, 0.21 mol), 400 mL of THF were added and then the mixture was allowed to stir overnight at room temperature. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure to give a solid which was treated with 300 mL of H2O, extracted with EtOAc (2 X 400 mL). The combined organic extracts were washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (2 X 300 mL) and brine (300 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid, which was purified from column chromatography using CH2Cl2/EtOAc (80:20) to give a solid. This solid was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 55.8 g (73.9%) of (2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (R-19) as a light-yellow solid.

[0295] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.66 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.11 (s, 1H, OH), 3.63 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 4.05 (d, J = 10.8 Hz, 1H, CH2), 7.85 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.99 (dd, J = 2.1, 8.4 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.12 (d, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.04 (bs, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: 349.99, [M-H]- 349.0. M.p.: 124-126 oC.



[0296] Synthesis of (S)-3-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide (Formula XIV). A mixture of bromoamide ((2R)-3-bromo-N-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide, (R-19) 2.0 g, 5.70 mmol), anhydrous K2CO3 (2.4 g, 17.1 mmol) was heated to reflux for 2 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The resulting solid was treated with 4-chloro-3-fluorophenol (1.3 g, 8.5 mmol) and anhydrous K2CO3 (1.6 g, 11.4 mmol) in 50 mL of 2-propanol was heated to reflux for 3 h and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give a solid. The residue was treated with 100 mL of H2O and then extracted with EtOAc (2 X 100 mL). The combined EtOAc extracts were washed with 10% NaOH (4 X 100 mL) and brine, successively. The organic layer was dried over MgSO4 and then concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil which was purified by column chromatography using EtOAc/hexane (50:50) to give a solid which was recrystallized from CH2Cl2/hexane to give 1.7 g (70.5%) of (S)-3-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy)-N-(4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanamide as a colorless solid.

[0297] 1H NMR (CDCl3/TMS) δ 1.60 (s, 3H, CH3), 3.28 (s, 1H, OH), 3.98 (d, J = 9.05 Hz, 1H, CH), 6.64 - 6.76 (m, 2H, ArH), 7.30 (d, J = 8.67 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.81 (d, J = 8.52 Hz, 1H, ArH), 7.96 (q, J = 2.07, 8.52 Hz, 1H, ArH), 8.10 (d, J = 2.07 Hz, 1H, ArH), 9.10 (s, 1H, NH). Calculated Mass: [M-H]- 414.9. Mp: 132-134 °C.

EXAMPLE 16


BINDING AND TRANSACTIVATION OF SARMS IN BREAST CANCER CELLS



[0298] In order to determine whether compounds of this invention are agonists in breast cancer cells, HEK-293 or MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with 0.25 µg GRE-LUC, 10 ng CMV-renilla LUC, and 25 ng CMV-hAR using lipofectamine. Twenty four hours after transfection, the cells were treated with DHT, compound of formula VIII and compound of formula IX and luciferase assay performed 48 hrs after transfection. Competitive binding of DHT, compound of formula VIII and compound of formula IX were measured using an in vitro competitive radioligand binding assay with [17α-methyl-3H]-Mibolerone ([3H]MIB), a known steroidal and high affinity AR ligand, and purified AR-LBD protein.

Results:



[0299] DHT, compound of formula VIII and formula IX are agonists of AR in breast cancer cells as presented in Figure 13. The relative binding affinities (RBAs) for AR of DHT, formula IX, formula VIII, and bicalutamide were 1.0, 0.330, 0.314, and 0.016, respectively, demonstrating high affinity AR binding for the SARM compounds of this invention.

EXAMPLE 17


INHIBITION OF INTRATUMORAL GENE EXPRESSION.



[0300] AR agonists differentially regulate genes in AR-positive and AR-negative breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells infected with AR or GFP containing adenovirus were maintained in charcoal stripped serum containing medium for 3 days and were treated with DHT or Compound VIII. After overnight treatment, the cells were harvested, RNA isolated and real-time PCR for the indicated genes were performed. The expression of various genes in response to either DHT or Compound VIII were measured and normalized to GAPDH, and are presented as composite data (same effects for DHT and Compound VIII) in Table 2.



[0301] While certain features of the invention have been illustrated and described herein, many modifications, substitutions, changes, and equivalents will now occur to those of ordinary skill in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the invention.

[0302] Embodiments of the invention corresponding to the original claims of PCT/US2013/029667, published as WO 2014/011220, include the following:
  1. 1. A method of treating a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  2. 2. The method of embodiment 1, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  3. 3. The method of embodiment 1, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4

    haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  4. 4. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  5. 5. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  6. 6. The method of embodiment 3, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:



  7. 7. The method of embodiments 1 or 3, wherein said breast cancer is a breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), pertuzumab (Perjeta), exemestance (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments.
  8. 8. A method of treating a subject suffering from metastatic breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  9. 9. The method of embodiment 8, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:



    or formula XIV:

  10. 10. The method of embodiment 8, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  11. 11. The method of embodiment 10, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  12. 12. The method of embodiment 10, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  13. 13. The method of embodiment 10, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  14. 14. The method of embodiment 8, wherein said metastatic breast cancer is AR-positive metastatic breast cancer.
  15. 15. A method of treating a subject suffering from refractory breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  16. 16. The method of embodiment 15, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  17. 17. The method of embodiment 15, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  18. 18. The method of embodiment 17, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  19. 19. The method of embodiment 17, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  20. 20. The method of embodiment 17, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  21. 21. The method of embodiment 15, wherein said refractory breast cancer is AR-positive refractory breast cancer.
  22. 22. A method of treating a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  23. 23. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  24. 24. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  25. 25. The method of embodiment 24, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  26. 26. The method of embodiment 24, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  27. 27. The method of embodiment 24, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  28. 28. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is AR-positive refractory breast cancer.
  29. 29. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is AR-positive metastatic breast cancer.
  30. 30. A method of treating a subject suffering from triple negative breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  31. 31. The method of embodiment 30, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:



    or formula XIV:

  32. 32. The method of embodiment 30, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  33. 33. The method of embodiment 32, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  34. 34. The method of embodiment 32, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  35. 35. The method of embodiment 32, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  36. 36. A method of treating a subject suffering from advanced breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:



    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  37. 37. The method of embodiment 36, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  38. 38. The method of embodiment 36, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  39. 39. The method of embodiment 38, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  40. 40. The method of embodiment 38, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  41. 41. The method of embodiment 38, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  42. 42. A method of treating, preventing, suppressing or inhibiting metastasis in a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  43. 43. The method of embodiment 42, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  44. 44. The method of embodiment 42, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  45. 45. The method of embodiment 44, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  46. 46. The method of embodiment 44, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  47. 47. The method of embodiment 44, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  48. 48. The method of embodiment 42, wherein said breast cancer is metastatic breast cancer; refractory breast cancer; AR-positive breast cancer; AR-positive refractory breast cancer; AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; advanced breast cancer; and/or breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments.
  49. 49. A method of prolonging survival of a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  50. 50. The method of embodiment 49, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:



    or formula XIV:

  51. 51. The method of embodiment 49, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  52. 52. The method of embodiment 51, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  53. 53. The method of embodiment 51, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  54. 54. The method of embodiment 51, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  55. 55. The method of embodiment 49, wherein said breast cancer is metastatic breast cancer; refractory breast cancer; AR-positive breast cancer; AR-positive refractory breast cancer; AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; advanced breast cancer; and/or breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments.
  56. 56. A method of prolonging the progression-free survival of a subject suffering from breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  57. 57. The method of embodiment 56, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  58. 58. The method of embodiment 56, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  59. 59. The method of embodiment 58, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  60. 60. The method of embodiment 58, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  61. 61. The method of embodiment 58, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  62. 62. The method of embodiment 56, wherein said breast cancer is metastatic breast cancer; refractory breast cancer; AR-positive breast cancer; AR-positive refractory breast cancer; AR-positive metastatic breast cancer; triple negative breast cancer; advanced breast cancer; and/or breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator SERM (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor, trastuzumab (Herceptin, ado-trastuzumab emtansine), pertuzumab (Perjeta), lapatinib, exemestane (Aromasin), bevacizumab (Avastin), and/or fulvestrant treatments.
  63. 63. A method of treating a subject suffering from ER-positive breast cancer, comprising the step of administering to said subject a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

    X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

    R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

    R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, SR;

    R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

    Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

    n is an integer of 1-4; and

    m is an integer of 1-3.

  64. 64. The method of embodiment 63, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula XIII:

    or formula XIV:

  65. 65. The method of embodiment 63, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

    wherein X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

    G is O or S;

    T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

    Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

    Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

    Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

    or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system

    represented by structure A, B or C:

    R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

    R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.

  66. 66. The method of embodiment 65, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula IX:

  67. 67. The method of embodiment 65, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula X:

    or formula XI:

    or formula XII:

  68. 68. The method of embodiment 65, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII:

  69. 69. The method of embodiment 65, wherein said ER-positive breast cancer is AR-positive.
  70. 70. The method of embodiment 65, wherein said ER-positive breast cancer is AR-negative
  71. 71. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative.
  72. 72. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative, PR-negative and HER2 negative.
  73. 73. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative, PR-negative and HER2 positive.
  74. 74. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative, PR-positive and HER2 negative.
  75. 75. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-positive, PR-negative and HER2 negative.
  76. 76. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-positive, PR-positive and HER2 negative.
  77. 77. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-positive, PR-negative and HER2 positive.
  78. 78. The method of embodiment 22, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative, PR-positive and HER2 positive.
  79. 79. The method of any one of embodiments 1, 8, 15, 22, 30, 36, 42, 49, 56 and 63, comprising administering an isomer, a racemic mixture containing a SARM compound, a metabolite, pharmaceutically acceptable salt, pharmaceutical product, hydrate, N-oxide, or crystal of said selective androgen receptor modulator, or any combination thereof.
  80. 80. The method of embodiment 79, wherein said administering comprises intravenously, intraarterially, or intramuscularly injecting to said subject said pharmaceutical product in liquid form; subcutaneously implanting in said subject a pellet containing said pharmaceutical product; orally administering to said subject said pharmaceutical product in a liquid or solid form; or topically applying to the skin surface of said subject said pharmaceutical product.
  81. 81. The method of embodiment 80, wherein said pharmaceutical product is a pellet, a tablet, a capsule, a solution, a suspension, an emulsion, an elixir, a gel, a cream, a suppository or a parenteral formulation.



Claims

1. A selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) compound represented by a structure of formula I:

wherein

X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, S, Se, PR, NO or NR;

G is O or S;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

R is alkyl, haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, trihaloalkyl, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CF2CF3, aryl, phenyl, halogen, alkenyl or OH;

R1 is CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3;

R2 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3, CF3, OH, CN, NO2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, alkyl, arylalkyl, OR, NH2, NHR, N(R)2, or SR;

R3 is H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, NO2, COR, COOH, CONHR, CF3, Sn(R)3, or R3 together with the benzene ring to which it is attached forms a fused ring system represented by the structure:

Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH, or CONHR;

Y is CF3, F, Br, Cl, I, CN, or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR, NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

n is an integer of 1-4; and

m is an integer of 1-3;

for use in the treatment of a subject suffering from breast cancer; or for use in the treatment of a subject suffering from AR-positive breast cancer; or for use in the treatment, prevention, suppression, or inhibition of a skeletal-related event (SRE) in a subject having breast cancer.
 
2. The SARM compound for use according to claim 1, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula II:

wherein

X is a bond, O, CH2, NH, Se, PR, or NR;

G is O or S;

T is OH, OR, -NHCOCH3, or NHCOR;

Z is NO2, CN, COR, COOH or CONHR;

Y is I, CF3, Br, Cl, or Sn(R)3;

Q is CN, alkyl, halogen, N(R)2, NHCOCH3, NHCOCF3, NHCOR, NHCONHR, NHCOOR, OCONHR, CONHR, NHCSCH3, NHCSCF3, NHCSR, NHSO2CH3, NHSO2R, OR, COR, OCOR, OSO2R, SO2R or SR;

or Q together with the benzene ring to which it is attached is a fused ring system represented by structure A, B or C:

R is a C1-C4 alkyl, aryl, phenyl, alkenyl, hydroxyl, a C1-C4 haloalkyl, halogen, or haloalkenyl; and

R1 is CH3, CF3, CH2CH3, or CF2CF3.


 
3. The SARM compound for use according to claim 1, wherein said SARM compound is represented by a structure of formula VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, or XIV:











or


 
4. The SARM compound for use according to any of claims 1-3, wherein said breast cancer is an AR-positive breast cancer, ER-positive breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer, HER2-positive breast cancer, advanced breast cancer, refractory breast cancer, metastatic breast cancer, or breast cancer that has failed selective estrogen receptor modulator (tamoxifen, toremifene), aromatase inhibitor (exemestane, anastrozole, letrozole), trastuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, pertuzumab, lapatinib, bevacizumab, and/or fulvestrant treatments.
 
5. The SARM compound for use according to claim 4, wherein said breast cancer is AR-positive metastatic breast cancer.
 
6. The SARM compound for use according to claim 4, wherein said breast cancer is AR-positive refractory breast cancer.
 
7. The SARM compound for use according to claim 4, wherein said ER-positive breast cancer is AR-positive and ER-positive breast cancer, or AR-negative and ER-positive breast cancer
 
8. The SARM compound for use according to claim 4, wherein said AR-positive breast cancer is ER-negative; ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-negative; ER-negative, PR-negative, and HER2-positive; ER-negative, PR-positive, and HER2-negative; ER-negative, PR-positive, and HER2-positive; ER-positive, PR-negative, and HER2-negative; ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-negative; ER-positive, PR-negative, and HER2-positive; or ER-positive, PR-positive, and HER2-positive.
 
9. The SARM compound for use according to claim 1, wherein said compound further prolongs the survival of the subject suffering from breast cancer or prolongs the progression-free survival of the subject suffering from breast cancer.
 
10. The SARM compound for use according to claim 1, wherein said skeletal-related event (SRE) is bone fractures, spinal cord compression, bone metastasis, bone loss, hypercalcemia, or bone-related pain, or a combination thereof.
 
11. The SARM compound for use according to claim 10, wherein said bone loss comprises osteoporosis, osteopenia, or a combination thereof.
 
12. The SARM compound for use in the treatment, prevention, suppression, or inhibition of a skeletal-related event (SRE) in a subject having breast cancer according to claim 1, wherein said subject is undergoing or has undergone estrogen-deprivation therapy.
 
13. The SARM compound for use in the treatment, prevention, suppression, or inhibition of a skeletal-related event (SRE) in a subject having breast cancer according to claim 1, wherein said SARM compound is administered in combination with a bisphosphonate.
 
14. The SARM compound for use according to any of claims 1-3, wherein said compound is an optical isomer, a racemic mixture, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, a pharmaceutical product, a hydrate, an N-oxide, or a crystal of said selective androgen receptor modulator, or any combination thereof.
 
15. The SARM compound for use according to any of claims 1-3, wherein said compound is in the form of a pellet, a tablet, a capsule, a solution, a suspension, an emulsion, an elixir, a gel, a cream, a suppository or a parenteral formulation.
 




Drawing




















































Search report





















Search report




Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description