(19)
(11)EP 3 733 816 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 20171773.3

(22)Date of filing:  28.04.2020
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C09K 19/18(2006.01)
C09K 19/30(2006.01)
C09K 19/16(2006.01)
C09K 19/12(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 30.04.2019 EP 19171815

(71)Applicant: Merck Patent GmbH
64293 Darmstadt (DE)

(72)Inventors:
  • Brocke, Constanze
    64521 GROSS-GERAU (DE)
  • Ushakov, Dmitry
    64839 MUENSTER (DE)
  • Schneider, Beate
    64342 SEEHEIM-JUGENHEIM (DE)
  • Klass, Dagmar
    64291 DARMSTADT (DE)
  • Fritzsch, Carsten
    64293 DARMSTADT (DE)

  


(54)ISOTHIOCYANATO-TOLANES


(57) The present invention relates to liquid-crystalline media comprising one or more compounds of formula T

as defined in claim 1, and to high-frequency components comprising these media, especially microwave components for high-frequency devices, such as devices for shifting the phase of microwaves, tunable filters, tunable metamaterial structures, and electronic beam steering antennas, e.g. phased array antennas.


Description


[0001] The present invention relates to isothiocyanato tolane derivatives, liquid-crystalline media comprising isothiocyanato derivatives, and to high-frequency components comprising these media, especially microwave components for high-frequency devices, such as devices for shifting the phase of microwaves, tunable filters, tunable metamaterial structures, and electronic beam steering antennas (e.g. phased array antennas), and to devices comprising said components.

[0002] Liquid-crystalline media have a been used for many years in electro-optical displays (liquid crystal displays: LCDs) in order to display information. More recently, however, liquid-crystalline media have also been proposed for use in components for microwave technology, such as, for example, in DE 10 2004 029 429.1 A and in JP 2005-120208 (A).

[0003] A. Gaebler, F. Goelden, S. Müller, A. Penirschke and R. Jakoby "Direct Simulation of Material Permittivites using an Eigen-Susceptibility Formulation of the Vector Variational Approach", 12MTC 2009 - International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Singapore, 2009 (IEEE), pp. 463-467, describe the corresponding properties of the known liquid-crystal mixture E7 (Merck KGaA, Germany).

[0004] DE 10 2004 029 429 A describes the use of liquid-crystal media in microwave technology, inter alia in phase shifters. Therein, liquid-crystalline media with respect to their properties in the corresponding frequency range have been discussed and liquid-crystalline media based on mixtures of mostly aromatic nitriles and isothiocyanates have been shown.

[0005] In EP 2 982 730 A1, mixtures are described that completely consist of isothiocyanate compounds.

[0006] However, these compositions are all still afflicted with several disadvantages. It is required to improve these media with respect to their general physical properties, the shelf life and the stability under operation in a device. In view of the multitude of different parameters which have to be considered and improved for the development of liquid crystalline media for microwave application it is desirable to have a broader range of possible mixture components for the development of such liquid-crystalline media.

[0007] An object of the present invention is to provide a compound for the use in liquid crystalline media with improved properties relevant for the application in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

[0008] To solve the problem, a compound of formula T shown below is provided and a liquid crystalline medium comprising the compound.

[0009] The present invention relates to a compound of formula T

in which
RT
denotes halogen, CN, NCS, RF, RF-O- or RF-S-, wherein
RF denotes fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkenyl having up to 12 C atoms,

and
on each occurrence, independently of one another, denote



where one or both, preferably one of

alternatively denote

in which one or two H atoms, identically or differently, are optionally replaced by a radical L1;
L1 and L2
identically or differently, denote F, Cl or straight chain or branched or cyclic alkyl or alkenyl each having up to 12 C atoms;
ZT1, ZT2
identically or differently, denote -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -C≡C- or a single bond, wherein at least one of ZT1 and ZT2 denotes -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH- or -C≡C-, and
t
is 0 or 1.


[0010] The present invention further relates to a liquid-crystalline medium comprising a compound of formula T and to the use of a liquid-crystalline medium comprising a compound of formula T in a component for high-frequency technology.

[0011] According to another aspect of the present invention there is provided a component and a device comprising said component, both operable in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Preferred components are phase shifters, varactors, wireless and radio wave antenna arrays, matching circuits and adaptive filters.

[0012] Preferred embodiments of the present invention are subject-matter of the dependent claims or can be taken from the description.

[0013] Surprisingly, it has been found that it is possible to achieve liquid-crystalline media having excellent stability and at the same time a high dielectric anisotropy, suitably fast switching times, a suitable, nematic phase range, high tunability and low dielectric loss, by using compounds of formula T in liquid-crystalline media.

[0014] The media according to the present invention are distinguished by a high clearing temperature, a broad nematic phase range and excellent LTS. As a result, devices containing the media are operable under extreme temperature conditions.

[0015] The media are further distinguished by high values of the dielectric anisotropy and low rotational viscosities. As a result, the threshold voltage, i.e. the minimum voltage at which a device is switchable, is very low. A low operating voltage and low threshold voltage is desired in order to enable a device having improved switching characteristics and high energy efficiency. Low rotational viscosities enable fast switching of the devices according to the invention.

[0016] These properties as a whole make the media particularly suitable for use in components and devices for high-frequency technology and applications in the microwave range, in particular devices for shifting the phase of microwaves, tunable filters, tunable metamaterial structures, and electronic beam steering antennas (e.g. phased array antennas).

[0017] Herein, "high-frequency technology" means applications of electromagnetic radiation having frequencies in the range of from 1 MHz to 1 THz, preferably from 1 GHz to 500 GHz, more preferably 2 GHz to 300 GHz, particularly preferably from about 5 GHz to 150 GHz.

[0018] As used herein, halogen is F, Cl, Br or I, preferably F or Cl, particularly preferably F.

[0019] Herein, alkyl is straight-chain or branched and has 1 to 15 C atoms, is preferably straight-chain and has, unless indicated otherwise, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms and is accordingly preferably methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl or heptyl.

[0020] Herein, cycloalkyl is taken to mean a cyclic alkyl or alkenyl group having 1 to 5 ring atoms which is optionally substituted with halogen, or alkyl, alkenyl or alkoxy each having up to 5 C atoms, and preferably denotes cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclopentenyl, cyclopropylmethyl, cyclobutylmethyl, cyclopentylmethyl, cyclopentenylmethyl, methylcyclopropyl, methylcyclobutyl, methylcyclopentenyl or metylcyclopentyl.

[0021] Herein, an alkoxy radical is straight-chain or branched and contains 1 to 15 C atoms. It is preferably straight-chain and has, unless indicated otherwise, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms and is accordingly preferably methoxy, ethoxy, propoxy, butoxy, pentoxy, hexoxy or heptoxy.

[0022] Herein, an alkenyl radical is preferably an alkenyl radical having 2 to 15 C atoms, which is straight-chain or branched and contains at least one C-C double bond. It is preferably straight-chain and has 2 to 7 C atoms. Accordingly, it is preferably vinyl, prop-1- or -2-enyl, but-1-, -2- or -3-enyl, pent-1-, -2-, -3- or -4-enyl, hex-1-, -2-, -3-, -4- or -5-enyl, hept-1-, -2-, -3-, -4-, -5- or -6-enyl. If the two C atoms of the C-C double bond are substituted, the alkenyl radical can be in the form of E and/or Z isomer (trans/cis). In general, the respective E isomers are preferred. Of the alkenyl radicals, prop-2-enyl, but-2- and -3-enyl, and pent-3- and -4-enyl are particularly preferred.

[0023] Herein, alkynyl is taken to mean an alkynyl radical having 2 to 15 C atoms, which is straight-chain or branched and contains at least one C-C triple bond. 1- and 2-propynyl and 1-, 2- and 3-butynyl are preferred.

[0024] In case RF denotes a halogenated alkyl-, alkoxy-, alkenyl or alkenyloxy it can be branched or unbranched. Preferably it is unbranched, mono- poly or perfluorinated, preferably perfluorinated and has 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms, in case of alkenyl 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 C atoms.

[0025] RT preferably denotes CN, NCS, Cl, F, -(CH2)n-CH=CF2, -(CH2)n-CH=CHF, -(CH2)n-CH=Cl2, -CnF2n+1, -(CF2)n-CF2H, -(CH2)n-CF3, -(CH2)n-CHF2, -(CH2)nCH2F, -CH=CF2, -O(CH2)n-CH=CF2, -O(CH2)nCHCl2, -OCnF2n+1, -O(CF2)n-CF2H, -O(CH2)nCF3, -O(CH2)n-CHF2, -O(CF)nCH2F, -OCF=CF2, -SCnF2n+1, -S(CF)n-CF3, wherein n is an integer from 0 to 7.

[0026] The compounds of the general formula T are prepared by methods known per se, as described in the literature (for example in the standard works, such as Houben-Weyl, Methoden der organischen Chemie [Methods of Organic Chemistry], Georg-Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart), to be precise under reaction conditions which are known and are suitable for the said reactions. Use can be made here of variants which are known per se, but are not mentioned here in greater detail.

[0027] If desired, the starting materials can also be formed in situ by not isolating them from the reaction mixture, but instead immediately converting them further into the compounds of the general formula T.

[0028] Preferred synthetic pathways towards compounds according to the invention are exemplified in the scheme below, and are further illustrated by means of the working examples. Suitable syntheses are published for example in Juanli Li, Jian Li, Minggang Hu, Zhaoyi Che, Lingchao Mo, Xiaozhe Yang, Zhongwei An & Lu Zhang (2017) The effect of locations of triple bond at terphenyl skeleton on the properties of isothiocyanate liquid crystals, Liquid Crystals, 44:9, 1374-1383 and can be adapted to the particular desired compounds of the general formula T by choice of suitable starting materials.





[0029] In scheme 1, the groups have the meanings defined in claim 1, and X1 and X2 denote a leaving group. Examples of leaving groups are Cl, Br, I, and alkylsulfonate such as tosylate, mesylate, trifluoromethane sulfonate, nosylate, and the like. X1 and X2 can be the same or different, preferably different. Particularly preferably, X1 is more reactive than X2, in particular X1 denotes I and X2 denotes Br.
The boronic acid 1 is reacted by Suzuki cross coupling to the biaryl 3 which undergoes Sonogashira coupling with alkynes 4 to give aniline derivatives 5. Anilines 5 are transferred into isothiocyanates 6 using known reactions. Preferred reagents for the process according to the invention are carbon disulfide, thiophosgene, thiocarbonyl diimidazole, di-2-pyridyl thionocarbonate, bis(dimethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide, dimethylthiocarbamoyl chloride and phenyl chlorothionoformate.

[0030] In formula T the groups ZT1 and ZT2 preferably denote a single bond or -C≡C-, wherein at least one of ZT1 and ZT2 denotes -C≡C-.

[0031] Preferably, the compounds of formula T are selected from the compounds of the formulae T-1 to T-4 below, more preferably selected from the compounds of the formulae T-2, T-3 and T-4, and in particular selected from the compounds of the formulae T-2 and T-3







in which
L11 and L12
identically or differently, denote H, F, Cl, methyl or ethyl,
L13, L14 and L15
identically or differently, denote H, F, Cl, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclopentenyl,
RT
denotes halogen, CN, NCS, RF, RF-O- or RF-S-, wherein
RF denotes fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkenyl having up to 12 C atoms, preferably CF3 or CF3O, very preferably CF3O.


[0032] In the formulae T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4, very preferably L11 and L12 both denote F, very preferably one of L13 and L14 has one of the meanings given above, in particular methyl, ethyl or F, and the other of L13 and L14 denotes H, and in the formulae T-2, T-3 and T-4 L15 very preferably denotes H.

[0033] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae I, II and III,





in which
R1
denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



preferably unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
n
is 0, 1 or 2,

on each occurrence, independently of one another, denote





in which RL, on each occurrence, identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably H, methyl or ethyl, particularly preferably H,
and wherein

alternatively denotes

preferably

and in case n = 2, one of

preferably denotes

and the other preferably denotes



preferably

independently of one another, denote

more preferably

denotes



denotes



denotes

R2
denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



preferably unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
Z21
denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C=C-, preferably -C=C- or trans-CH=CH-, and

independently of one another, denote





in which RL, on each occurrence, identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably H, methyl or ethyl, particularly preferably H,
and wherein
preferably

independently of one another, denote





preferably denotes

or

and

preferably denotes



more preferably

R3
denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



preferably unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
one of Z31 and Z32, preferably Z32; denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C=C- and the other one, independently thereof, denotes -C=C-, trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or a single bond, preferably one of them, preferably Z32; denotes -C=C- or trans-CH=CH- and the other denotes a single bond, and

independently of one another, denote



or,

in which RL, on each occurrence, identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably H, methyl or ethyl, particularly preferably H,
and wherein

alternatively independently denotes

preferably

independently of one another, denote



or

more preferably

denotes



denotes

in particular



denotes

in particular



[0034] In the compounds of the formulae I, II and III, RL preferably denotes H.

[0035] In another preferred embodiment, in the compounds of formulae I, II and III, one or two groups RL, preferably one group RL is different from H.

[0036] Preferably, the medium according to the invention comprises one or more compounds of formula TA

in which the occurring groups have the meanings given above for formula T, and
t is 0 or 1.

[0037] In a preferred embodiment, the liquid crystalline media according to the invention comprise one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae TA-1 and TA-2,



in which

have the meanings given above for formula T, and
n
is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ,6 or 7, preferably 1, 2, 3 or 4, particularly preferably 1.


[0038] In a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention the media comprise one or more compounds of formula TA-1.

[0039] Preferred compounds of formula TA-1 are selected from the group of compounds of the following sub-formulae:











in which n is 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 1.

[0040] Very preferably, the medium according to the invention comprises one or more compounds of formula TA-1e.

[0041] In another particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention the media comprise one or more compounds of formula TA-2.

[0042] Preferred compounds of formula TA-2 are selected from the group of compounds of the following sub-formulae:











in which n is 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 1.

[0043] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the compounds of formula I are selected from the group of compounds of the formulae I-1 to I-5:









in which
L1, L2 and L3 on each occurrence, identically or differently, denote H or F, and the other groups have the respective meanings indicated above for formula I and preferably
R1
denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.


[0044] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula I-1, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae I-1a to I-1d, preferably of formula I-1b:







in which R1 has the meaning indicated above for formula I and preferably denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

[0045] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula I-2, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae I-2a to I-2e, preferably of formula I-2c:









in which R1 has the meaning indicated above for formula I and preferably denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

[0046] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula I-3, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae I-3a to I-3d, particularly preferably of formula I-3b:







in which R1 has the meaning indicated above for formula I and preferably denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

[0047] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula I-4, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae I-4a to I-4e, particularly preferably of formula I-4b:









in which R1 has the meaning indicated above for formula I and preferably denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

[0048] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula I-5, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae I-5a to I-5d, particularly preferably of formula I-5b:







in which R1 has the meaning indicated above for formula I and preferably denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms.

[0049] The media preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula II, which are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae II-1 to II-3, preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae II-1 and II-2:





in which the occurring groups have the meanings given under formula II above and preferably
R2
denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
and one of

denotes

and the other, independently denotes



or

preferably

most preferably

and preferably
R2
denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0050] The compounds of formula II-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae II-1a to II-1e:









in which
R2
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
n
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0051] The compounds of formula II-2 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae II-2a and II-2b:



in which
R2
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0052] The compounds of formula II-3 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the of formulae II-3a to II-3d:







in which
R2
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0053] The compounds of formula III are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae III-1 to III-6, more preferably of the formulae selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae III-1, III-2, III-3 and III-4, and particularly preferably of formula III-1:











in which
Z31 and Z32
independently of one another denote trans-CH=CH- or trans-CF=CF-, preferably trans-CH=CH-, and in formula III-6 alternatively one of Z31 and Z32 may denote -C=C- and the other groups have the meaning given above under formula III,
and preferably
R3
denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
and one of

preferably

denotes



preferably

and the others, independently of one another, denote



or

preferably

or

more preferably

where

alternatively denotes

and preferably
R3
denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0054] The compounds of formula III-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae III-1a to III-1k, more preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae III-1a, III-1b, III-1g and III-1h, particularly preferably of formula III-1b and/or III-1h:





















in which
R3
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0055] The compounds of formula III-2 are preferably compounds of formula III-2a to III-2l, very preferably III-2b and/or III-2j:























in which
R3
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0056] The compounds of formula III-5 are preferably selected from the compounds of formula III-5a:

R3
has the meaning indicated above for formula III-5 and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 7, preferably in the range from 1 to 5.


[0057] In a preferred embodiment, the media according to the invention comprise one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae IIA-1-1 to IIA-1-12, very preferably IIA-1-1 or IIA-1-2:























in which
R1
denotes alkyl or alkenyl having up to 7 C atoms, preferably ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl or n-pentyl, n-hexyl,
RL
on each occurrence, the same or differently, denotes alkyl or alkenyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, or cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl each having 3 to 6 C atoms,
preferably methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclopent-1-enyl, very preferably ethyl,
and from which the compounds of formula II-1 are excluded.

[0058] Additionally, the liquid-crystalline media according to the present invention in a certain embodiment, which may be the same or different from the previous preferred embodiments preferably comprise one or more compounds of formula IV,

in which

denotes



s
is 0 or 1, preferably 1, and
preferably

denotes







particularly preferably



L4
denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms, cycloalkyl having 3 to 6 C atoms or cycloalkenyl having 4 to 6 C atoms, preferably CH3, C2H5, n-C3H7, i-C3H7, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclohexyl, cyclopent-1-enyl or cyclohex-1-enyl, and particularly preferably CH3, C2H5, cyclopropyl or cyclobutyl,
X4
denotes H, alkyl having 1 to 3 C atoms or halogen, preferably H, F or CI, more preferably H or F and very particularly preferably F,
R41 to R44,
independently of one another, denote unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy, each having 1 to 15 C atoms, unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl, each having 2 to 15 C atoms, or cycloalkyl, alkylcycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, alkylcycloalkenyl, alkylcycloalkylalkyl or alkylcycloalkenylalkyl, each having up to 15 C atoms, and alternatively one of R43 and R44 or both also denote H,
preferably
R41 and R42,
independently of one another, denote unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy, each having 1 to 7 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl, each having 2 to 7 C atoms,
particularly preferably
R41
denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl, each having 2 to 7 C atoms, and
particularly preferably
R42
denotes unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy, each having 1 to 7 C atoms, and
preferably
R43 and R44
denote H, unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 5 C atoms, unfluorinated cycloalkyl or cycloalkenyl having 3 to 7 C atoms, unfluorinated alkylcyclohexyl or unfluorinated cyclohexylalkyl, each having 4 to 12 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkylcyclohexylalkyl having 5 to 15 C atoms, particularly preferably cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl or cyclohexyl, and very particularly preferably at least one of R43 and R44 denotes n-alkyl, particularly preferably methyl, ethyl or n-propyl, and the other denotes H or n-alkyl, particularly preferably H, methyl, ethyl or n-propyl.


[0059] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liquid-crystal medium additionally comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae V, VI, VII, VIII and IX:









in which
L51
denotes R51 or X51,
L52
denotes R52 or X52,
R51 and R52,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
X51 and X52,
independently of one another, denote H, F, Cl, -CN, SF5, fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or fluorinated alkenyl, fluorinated alkenyloxy or fluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 7 C atoms, preferably fluorinated alkoxy, fluorinated alkenyloxy, F or Cl, and

independently of one another, denote



or

preferably

or

L61
denotes R61 and, in the case where Z61 and/or Z62 denote trans-CH=CH- or trans-CF=CF-, alternatively also denotes X61,
L62
denotes R62 and, in the case where Z61 and/or Z62 denote trans-CH=CH- or trans-CF=CF-, alternatively also denotes X62,
R61 and R62,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
X61 and X62,
independently of one another, denote F or Cl, -CN, SF5, fluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or fluorinated alkenyl, alkenyloxy or alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
one of
Z61 and Z62
denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C=C- and the other, independently thereof, denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or a single bond, preferably one of them denotes -C≡C- or trans-CH=CH- and the other denotes a single bond, and

independently of one another, denote

preferably

and
x
denotes 0 or 1;
L71
denotes R71 or X71,
L72
denotes R72 or X72,
R71 and R72,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably alkyl or unfluorinated alkenyl,
X71 and X72,
independently of one another, denote H, F, CI, -CN, -NCS, -SF5, fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or fluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated or fluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated or fluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 7 C atoms, preferably fluorinated alkoxy, fluorinated alkenyloxy, F or Cl, and
Z71 to Z73,
independently of one another, denote trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF-, -C=C- or a single bond, preferably one or more of them denote a single bond, particularly preferably all denote a single bond and

independently of one another, denote



or

preferably



R81 and R82,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, alkenyloxy or alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably unfluorinated alkyl or alkenyl,
one of
Z81 and Z82
denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C≡C- and the other, independently thereof, denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or a single bond, preferably one of them denotes -C≡C- or trans-CH=CH- and the other denotes a single bond, and

denotes



independently of one another, denote



L91
denotes R91 or X91,
L92
denotes R92 or X92,
R91 and R92,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, alkenyloxy or alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably unfluorinated alkyl or alkenyl,
X91 and X92,
independently of one another, denote H, F, Cl, -CN, -NCS, -SF5, fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or fluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated or fluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated or fluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 7 C atoms, preferably fluorinated alkoxy, fluorinated alkenyloxy, F or Cl, and
Z91 to Z93,
independently of one another, denote trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF-, -C≡C- or a single bond, preferably one or more of them denotes a single bond, and particularly preferably all denote a single bond,

denotes

or



independently of one another, denote



or



[0060] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liquid-crystal medium comprises one or more compounds of the formula V, preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1 to V-3, preferably of the formulae V-1 and/or V-2 and/or V-3, preferably of the formulae V-1 and V-2:





in which the occurring groups have the respective meanings indicated above for formula V and preferably
R51
denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
R52
denotes unfluorinated alkyl having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms,
X51 and X52,
independently of one another, denote F, Cl, -OCF3, -CF3, -CN or -SF5, preferably F, Cl, -OCF3 or -CN.


[0061] The compounds of the formula V-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1a to V-1d, preferably V-1c and V-1d :







in which the parameters have the respective meanings indicated above for formula V-1 and in which
Y51 and Y52,
in each case independently of one another, denote H or F, and preferably
R51
denotes alkyl or alkenyl, and
X51
denotes F, Cl or -OCF3.


[0062] The compounds of the formula V-2 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-2a to V-2e and/or from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-2f and V-2g:













where in each case the compounds of the formula V-2a are excluded from the compounds of the formulae V-2b and V-2c, the compounds of the formula V-2b are excluded from the compounds of the formula V-2c and the compounds of the formula V-2f are excluded from the compounds of the formula V-2g, and
in which the parameters have the respective meanings indicated above for formula V-1 and in which
Y51 and Y52,
in each case independently of one another, denote H or F, and preferably
Y51 and Y52
denotes H and the other denotes H or F, preferably likewise denotes H.


[0063] The compounds of the formula V-3 are preferably compounds of the formula V-3a:

in which the parameters have the respective meanings indicated above for formula V-1 and in which preferably
X51
denotes F, Cl, preferably F,
X52
denotes F, Cl or -OCF3, preferably -OCF3.


[0064] The compounds of the formula V-1a are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1a-1 and V-1a-2:



in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 7, preferably in the range from 1 to 5 and particularly preferably 3 or 7.


[0065] The compounds of the formula V-1b are preferably compounds of the formula V-1 b-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5.


[0066] The compounds of the formula V-1c are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1c-1 to V-1c-4, particularly preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1c-1 and V-1c-2:







in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5.


[0067] The compounds of the formula V-1d are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-1d-1 and V-1d-2, particularly preferably the compound of the formula V-1d-2:



in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5.


[0068] The compounds of the formula V-2a are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae V-2a-1 and V-2a-2, particularly preferably the compounds of the formula V-2a-1:



in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0069] Preferred combinations of (R51 and R52), in particular in the case of formula
V-2a-1, are (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1), (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), (CH2=CH-(CH2)Z and CmH2m+1), (CH2=CH-(CH2)Z and O-CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and (CH2)Z-CH=CH2).

[0070] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2b are the compounds of the formula V-2b-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0071] The preferred combination of (R51 and R52) here is, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0072] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2c are the compounds of the formula V-2c-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0073] The preferred combination of (R51 and R52) here is, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0074] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2d are the compounds of the formula V-2d-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0075] The preferred combination of (R51 and R52) here is, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0076] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2e are the compounds of the formula V-2e-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0077] The preferred combination of (R51 and R52) here is, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0078] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2f are the compounds of the formula V-2f-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0079] The preferred combinations of (R51 and R52) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0080] Preferred compounds of the formula V-2g are the compounds of the formula V-2g-1:

in which
R51
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R52
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0081] The preferred combinations of (R51 and R52) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0082] The compounds of the formula VI are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VI-1 to VI-5:









in which
Z61 and Z62
denote -C≡C-, trans-CH=CH- or trans-CF=CF-, preferably
-C≡C- or trans-CH=CH-, and the other occurring groups and parameters have the meaning given above under formula VI,
and preferably
R61 and R62,
independently of one another, denote H, unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
X62
denotes F, Cl, -OCF3 or -CN,


[0083] The compounds of the formula VI-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VI-1a and VI-1b, more preferably selected from compounds of the formula VI-1a:



in which
R61
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R62
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0084] The preferred combinations of (R61 and R62) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), in the case of formula VI-1a particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and in the case of formula VI-1b particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0085] The compounds of the formula VI-3 are preferably selected from the compounds of the formula VI-3a to VI-3e:









in which the parameters have the meaning given above under formula VI-3 and preferably
R61
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 7, preferably in the range from 1 to 5, and
X62
denotes -F, -Cl, -OCF3, or -CN.


[0086] The compounds of the formula VI-4 are preferably selected from compounds of the formulae VI-4a to VI-4e:









in which the parameters have the meaning given above under formula VI-4 and preferably
R61
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 7, preferably in the range from 1 to 5, and
X62
denotes F, Cl, OCF3, or -CN.


[0087] The compounds of the formula VI-5 are preferably selected from the compounds of the formulae VI-5a to VI-5d, preferably VI-5b:







in which the parameters have the meaning given above under formula VI-5 and preferably
R61
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 7, preferably in the range from 1 to 5, and
X62
denotes -F, -Cl, -OCF3, or -CN, particularly preferably-OCF3.


[0088] The compounds of the formula VII are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-1 to VII-7:













where the compounds of the formula VII-5 are excluded from the compounds of the formula VII-6, and
in which the parameters have the respective meanings indicated above for formula VII,
Y71, Y72, Y73
independently from one another, denote H or F,
and preferably
R71
denotes unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy, each having 1 to 7 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
R72
denotes unfluorinated alkyl or alkoxy, each having 1 to 7 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl having 2 to 7 C atoms,
X72
denotes F, Cl; NCS or -OCF3, preferably F or NCS, and
particularly preferably
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0089] The compounds of the formula VII-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-1 a to VII-1d:







in which X72 has the meaning given above for formula VII-2 and
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, in which
n
denotes 1 to 7, preferably 2 to 6, particularly preferably 2, 3 or 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2, and
X72
preferably denotes F.


[0090] The compounds of the formula VII-2 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-2a and VII-2b, particularly preferably of the formula VII-2a:



in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0091] The preferred combinations of (R71 and R72) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0092] The compounds of the formula VII-3 are preferably compounds of the formula VII-3a:

in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0093] The preferred combinations of (R71 and R72) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0094] The compounds of the formula VII-4 are preferably compounds of the formula VII-4a:

in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0095] The preferred combinations of (R71 and R72) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0096] The compounds of the formula VII-5 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-5a and VII-5b, more preferably of the formula VII-5a:



in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0097] The preferred combinations of (R71 and R72) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0098] The compounds of the formula VII-6 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-6a and VII-6b:



in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R72
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0099] The preferred combinations of (R71 and R72) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0100] The compounds of the formula VII-7 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VII-7a to VII-7d:







in which
R71
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z,
X72
denotes F, -OCF3 or -NCS,
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and,
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0101] The compounds of the formula VIII are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VIII-1 to VIII-3, more preferably these compounds of the formula VIII predominantly consist, even more preferably essentially consist and very particularly preferably completely consist thereof:





in which
one of
Y81 and Y82
denotes H and the other denotes H or F, and
R81
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R82
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0102] The preferred combinations of (R81 and R82) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0103] The compounds of the formula VIII-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae VIII-1 a to VIII-1c:





in which
R81
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R82
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0104] The preferred combinations of (R81 and R82) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0105] The compounds of the formula VIII-2 are preferably compounds of the formula VIII-2a:

in which
R81
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R82
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0106] The preferred combinations of (R81 and R82) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1), (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1) and (CH2=CH-(CH2)Z and CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0107] The compounds of the formula VIII-3 are preferably compounds of the formula VIII-3a:

in which
R81
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R82
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0108] The preferred combinations of (R81 and R82) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0109] The compounds of the formula IX are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae IX-1 to IX-3:





in which the parameters have the respective meaning indicated above under formula IX and preferably
one of

denotes

and
in which
R91
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R92
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0110] The preferred combinations of (R91 and R92) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0111] The compounds of the formula IX-1 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae IX-1a to IX-1e:









in which the parameters have the meaning given above and preferably
R91
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1, and
n
denotes an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
X92
preferably denotes F or Cl.


[0112] The compounds of the formula IX-2 are preferably selected from the group of the compounds of the formulae IX-2a and IX-2b:



in which
R91
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R92
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0113] The preferred combination of (R91 and R92) here is, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1).

[0114] The compounds of the formula IX-3 are preferably compounds of the formulae IX-3a and IX-3b:



in which
R91
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CnH2n+1 or CH2=CH-(CH2)Z, and
R92
has the meaning indicated above and preferably denotes CmH2m+1 or O-CmH2m+1 or (CH2)Z-CH=CH2, and in which
n and m,
independently of one another, denote an integer in the range from 0 to 15, preferably in the range from 1 to 7 and particularly preferably 1 to 5, and
z
denotes 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4, preferably 0 or 2.


[0115] The preferred combinations of (R91 and R92) here are, in particular, (CnH2n+1 and CmH2m+1) and (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1), particularly preferably (CnH2n+1 and O-CmH2m+1).

[0116] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula X

in which
R101
denotes H, alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15, preferably 3 to 10, C atoms, preferably alkyl or alkenyl,
X101
denotes H, F, Cl, -CN, SF5, NCS, fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 7 C atoms or fluorinated alkenyl, fluorinated alkenyloxy or fluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 7 C atoms, preferably fluorinated alkoxy, fluorinated alkenyloxy, F, Cl or NCS, particularly preferably NCS,
Y101
denotes methyl, ethyl or Cl,
Y102
denotes H, methyl, ethyl, F or Cl, preferably H or F,
Z101, Z102
identically or differently, denote a single bond, -CH=CH-, -CF=CF- or -C≡C-,

and

independently of one another, denote



or

preferably

and where

alternatively denotes

and
n
is 0 or 1.


[0117] Preferably, the compounds of formula X are selected from the sub-formulae X-1 and X-2



in which the occurring groups and parameters have the meanings given above for formula X.

[0118] Particularly preferably, the media according to the invention comprise one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae X-1-1 to X-1-9



















[0119] In a preferred embodiment, the medium according to the invention comprises one or more compounds of formula XI

in which
RS
denotes H, alkyl or alkoxy having 1 to 12 C atoms, or alkenyl, alkenyloxy or alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 12 C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



and in which one or more H atoms may be replaced by F,

and

, on each occurrence, independently of one another, denote



or,

in which RL, on each occurrence identically or differently, denotes H, Cl or straight chain, branched or cyclic alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms,
LS1, LS2
identically or differently, denote H, Cl or F,
RS1, RS2,
identically or differently, denote H, alkyl or alkenyl, having up to 6 C atoms, or cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentenyl, or cyclopentyl,
RTh1, RTh2
identically or differently, denote H, alkyl or alkenyl or alkoxy, having up to 6 C atoms, or cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentenyl or cyclopentyl,
ZS1, ZS2, ZS3
identically or differently, denote -CH=CH-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -CF=CF-, -C≡C-, or a single bond,
a, b
identically or differently, are 0 or 1.


[0120] Preferably, the compounds of formula XI are selected from the group of compounds of the formulae XI-1 to XI-24:















































in which the occurring groups have the meanings given above for formula XI and preferably
RS
denotes alkyl or alkenyl having 2 to 6 C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



RS1 and RS2
identically or differently, denote H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms, preferably H,
RS3
denotes H, F or alkyl, having up to 6 C atoms, or cyclopropyl, preferably H, F or ethyl, very preferably H,
LS1 and LS2
identically or differently, denote H or F, preferably F.


[0121] The media according to the present invention comprise one or more chiral dopants. Preferably these chiral dopants have an absolute value of the helical twisting power (HTP) in the range of from 1 µm-1 to 150 µm-1, preferably in the range of from 10 µm-1 to 100 µm-1. In case the media comprise two or more chiral dopants, these may have opposite signs of their HTP-values. This condition is preferred for some specific embodiments, as it allows to compensate the chirality of the respective compounds to some degree and, thus, may be used to compensate various temperature dependent properties of the resulting media in the devices. Generally, however, it is preferred that most, preferably all of the chiral compounds present in the media according to the present invention have the same sign of their HTP-values.
Preferably the chiral dopants present in the media according to the instant application are mesogenic compounds and most preferably they exhibit a mesophase on their own.

[0122] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the medium comprises two or more chiral compounds which all have the same algebraic sign of the HTP.

[0123] The temperature dependence of the HTP of the individual compounds may be high or low. The temperature dependence of the pitch of the medium can be compensated by mixing compounds having different temperature dependencies of the HTP in corresponding ratios.

[0124] For the optically active component, a multitude of chiral dopants, some of which are commercially available, is available to the person skilled in the art, such as, for example, cholesteryl nonanoate, R- and S-811, R- and S-1011, R- and S-2011, R- and S-3011, R- and S-4011, or CB15 (all Merck KGaA, Darmstadt).

[0125] Particularly suitable dopants are compounds which contain one or more chiral groups and one or more mesogenic groups, or one or more aromatic or alicyclic groups which form a mesogenic group with the chiral group.

[0126] Suitable chiral groups are, for example, chiral branched hydrocarbon radicals, chiral ethane diols, binaphthols or dioxolanes, furthermore mono- or polyvalent chiral groups selected from the group consisting of sugar derivatives, sugar alcohols, sugar acids, lactic acids, chiral substituted glycols, steroid derivatives, terpene derivatives, amino acids or sequences of a few, preferably 1-5, amino acids.

[0127] Preferred chiral groups are sugar derivatives, such as glucose, mannose, galactose, fructose, arabinose and dextrose; sugar alcohols, such as, for example, sorbitol, mannitol, iditol, galactitol or anhydro derivatives thereof, in particular dianhydrohexitols, such as dianhydrosorbide (1,4:3,6-dianhydro-D-sorbide, isosorbide), dianhydromannitol (isosorbitol) or dianhydroiditol (isoiditol); sugar acids, such as, for example, gluconic acid, gulonic acid and ketogulonic acid; chiral substituted glycol radicals, such as, for example, mono- or oligoethylene or propylene glycols, in which one or more CH2 groups are substituted by alkyl or alkoxy; amino acids, such as, for example, alanine, valine, phenylglycine or phenylalanine, or sequences of from 1 to 5 of these amino acids; steroid derivatives, such as, for example, cholesteryl or cholic acid radicals; terpene derivatives, such as, for example, menthyl, neomenthyl, campheyl, pineyl, terpineyl, isolongifolyl, fenchyl, carreyl, myrthenyl, nopyl, geraniyl, linaloyl, neryl, citronellyl or dihydrocitronellyl.

[0128] The media according to the present invention preferably comprise chiral dopants which are selected from the group of known chiral dopants. Suitable chiral groups and mesogenic chiral compounds are described, for example, in DE 34 25 503, DE 35 34 777, DE 35 34 778, DE 35 34 779 and DE 35 34 780, DE 43 42 280, EP 01 038 941 and DE 195 41 820. Examples are also compounds listed in Table F below.

[0129] Chiral compounds preferably used according to the present invention are selected from the group consisting of the formulae shown below.

[0130] Particular preference is given to chiral dopants selected from the group consisting of compounds of the following formulae A-I to A-III and A-Ch:







in which
Ra11, Ra12 and Rb12,
independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to 15 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -C(Rz)=C(Rz)-, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO- or -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may each be replaced by F, Cl, Br, I or CN, preferably alkyl, more preferably n-alkyl, with the proviso that Ra12 is different from Rb12
Ra21 and Ra22,
independently of one another, denote alkyl having 1 to 15 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -C(Rz)=C(Rz)-, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO- or-O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, Cl, Br, I or CN, preferably both are alkyl, more preferably n-alkyl,
Ra31, Ra32 and Rb32,
independently of one another, denote straight-chain or branched alkyl having 1 to 15 C atoms, in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -C(Rz)=C(Rz)-, -C≡C-, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -CO-O-, -O-CO- or -O-CO-O- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more H atoms may be replaced by F, Cl, Br, I or CN, preferably alkyl, more preferably n-alkyl, with the proviso that Ra32 is different from Rb32;
Rz
denotes H, CH3, F, Cl, or CN, preferably H or F,
R8
has one of the meanings of Ra11 given above, preferably alkyl, more preferably n-alkyl having 1 to 15 C atoms,
Z8
denotes- C(O)O-, CH2O, CF2O or a single bond, preferably -C(O)O-,
A11
is defined as A12 below, or alternatively denotes





A12
denotes

preferably

or

in which
L12 on each occurrence, independently of one another, denotes halogen, CN, or alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxy or alkenyloxy having up to 12 C atoms and in which one or more H atoms are optionally replaced with halogen, preferably methyl, ethyl, Cl or F, particularly preferably F,
A21
denotes





A22
has the meanings given for A12
A31
has the meanings given for A11,
or alternatively denotes

A32
has the meanings given for A12.
n2
on each occurrence, identically or differently, is 0, 1 or 2, and
n3
is 1, 2 or 3, and
r
is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4.


[0131] Particular preference is given to dopants selected from the group consisting of the compounds of the following formulae:





















in which
m
is, on each occurrence, identically or differently, an integer from 1 to 9 and
n
is, on each occurrence, identically or differently, an integer from 2 to 9.


[0132] Particularly preferred compounds of formula A are compounds of formula A-III.

[0133] Further preferred dopants are derivatives of the isosorbide, isomannitol or isoiditol of the following formula A-IV:

in which the group

is



or

preferably dianhydrosorbitol,
and chiral ethane diols, such as, for example, diphenylethanediol (hydrobenzoin), in particular mesogenic hydrobenzoin derivatives of the following formula A-V:

including the (S,S) enantiomers, which are not shown,
in which

and

are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, which may also be mono-, di- or trisubstituted by L, or 1,4-cyclohexylene,
L
is H, F, Cl, CN or optionally halogenated alkyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1-7 carbon atoms,
c
is 0 or 1,
X
is CH2 or -C(O)-,
Z0
is -COO-, -OCO-, -CH2CH2- or a single bond, and
R0
is alkyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or alkylcarbonyloxy having 1-12 carbon atoms.


[0134] Examples of compounds of formula IV are:

















[0135] The compounds of the formula A-IV are described in WO 98/00428. The compounds of the formula A-V are described in GB-A-2,328,207.

[0136] Very particularly preferred dopants are chiral binaphthyl derivatives, as described in WO 02/94805, chiral binaphthol acetal derivatives, as described in WO 02/34739, chiral TADDOL derivatives, as described in WO 02/06265, and chiral dopants having at least one fluorinated bridging group and a terminal or central chiral group, as described in WO 02/06196 and WO 02/06195.

[0137] Particular preference is given to chiral compounds of the formula A-VI

in which
X1, X2, Y1 and Y2 are each, independently of one another, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, SCN, SF5, straight-chain or branched alkyl having from 1 to 25 carbon atoms, which is unsubstituted or monosubstituted or polysubstituted by F, Cl, Br, I or CN and in which, in addition, one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each, independently of one another, be replaced by -O-, -S-, -NH-, NRx-, -CO-, -COO-, -OCO-, -OCOO-, -S-CO-, -CO-S-, -CH=CH- or -C≡C- in such a way that O and/or S atoms are not bonded directly to one another, a polymerisable group or cycloalkyl or aryl having up to 20 carbon atoms, which may optionally be monosubstituted or polysubstituted by halogen, preferably F, or by a polymerisable group,
x1 and x2 are each, independently of one another, 0, 1 or 2,
y1 and y2 are each, independently of one another, 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4,
B1 and B2 are each, independently of one another, an aromatic or partially or fully saturated aliphatic six-membered ring in which one or more CH groups may each be replaced by N and one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced by O or S,
W1 and W2 are each, independently of one another, -Z1-A1-(Z2-A2)m-R, and one of the two is alternatively R1 or A3, but both are not simultaneously H, or


is

or


U1 and U2 are each, independently of one another, CH2, O, S, CO or CS,
V1 and V2 are each, independently of one another, (CH2)n, in which from one to four non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced by O or S, and one of V1 and V2 and, in the case where


is

both are a single bond,
n is 1,2 or 3
Z1 and Z2 are each, independently of one another, -O-, -S-, -CO-, -COO-, -OCO-, -O-COO-, -CO-NRx-, -NRx-CO-, -O-CH2-, -CH2-O-, -S-CH2-, -CH2-S-, -CF2-O-, -O-CF2-, -CF2-S-, -S-CF2-, -CH2-CH2-, -CF2-CH2-, -CH2-CF2-, -CF2-CF2-, -CH=N-, -N=CH-, -N=N-, -CH=CH-, -CF=CH-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CF-, -C≡C-, a combination of two of these groups, where no two O and/or S and/or N atoms are bonded directly to one another, preferably -CH=CH-COO-, or -COO-CH=CH-, or a single bond,
Rx denotes alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms,
A1, A2 and A3 are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, in which one or two non-adjacent CH groups may each be replaced by N, 1,4-cyclohexylene, in which one or two non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced by O or S, 1,3-dioxolane-4,5-diyl, 1,4-cyclohexenylene, 1,4-bicyclo[2.2.2]octylene, piperidine-1,4-diyl, naphthalene-2,6-diyl, decahydronaphthalene-2,6-diyl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2,6-diyl, where each of these groups may be monosubstituted or polysubstituted by L, and in addition A1 can be a single bond,
L is a halogen atom, preferably F, CN, NO2, alkyl, alkoxy, alkylcarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl or alkoxycarbonyloxy having 1-7 carbon atoms, in which one or more H atoms may each be replaced by F or Cl,
m is in each case, independently, 0, 1, 2 or 3, and
R and R1 are each, independently of one another, H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, SCN, SF5, straight-chain or branched alkyl having from 1 or 3 to 25 carbon atoms respectively, which may optionally be mono-substituted or polysubstituted by F, Cl, Br, I or CN, and in which one or more non-adjacent CH2 groups may each be replaced by -O-, -S-, -NH-, -NR0-, -CO-, -COO-, -OCO-, -O-COO-, -S-CO-, -CO-S-, -CH=CH- or -C≡C-, where no two O and/or S atoms are bonded directly to one another, or a polymerisable group.


[0138] Particular preference is given to chiral binaphthyl derivatives of the formula A-VI-1

in which ring B, R0 and Z0 are as defined for the formulae A-IV and A-V, and b is 0, 1, or 2,

[0139] in particular those selected from the following formulae A-VI-1a to A-VI-1c:





in which ring B, R0, and Z0 are as defined for the formula A-VI-1, and
R0
as defined for formula A-IV or H or alkyl having from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, and
b
is 0, 1 or 2,
and Z0 is, in particular, -OC(O)- or a single bond.
The concentration of the one or more chiral dopant(s), in the LC medium is preferably in the range from 0.001 % to 20 %, preferably from 0.05 % to 5 %, more preferably from 0.1 % to 2 %, and, most preferably from 0.5 % to 1.5 %. These preferred concentration ranges apply in particular to the chiral dopant S-4011 or R-4011 (both from Merck KGaA) and for chiral dopants having the same or a similar HTP. For Chiral dopants having either a higher or a lower absolute value of the HTP compared to S-4011 these preferred concentrations have to be decreased, respectively increased proportionally according to the ratio of their HTP values relatively to that of S-4011.

[0140] The pitch p of the LC media or host mixtures according to the invention is preferably in the range of from 5 to 50 µm, more preferably from 8 to 30 µm and particularly preferably from 10 to 20 µm.

[0141] Preferably, the media according to the invention, comprise a stabiliser selected from the group of compounds of the formulae ST-1 to ST-18.



































in which
RST
denotes H, an alkyl or alkoxy radical having 1 to 15 C atoms, where, in addition, one or more CH2 groups in these radicals may each be replaced, independently of one another, by -C≡C-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH=CH-, -O-, H -CO-O-, -O-CO- in such a way that O atoms are not linked directly to one another, and in which, in addition, one or more atoms may be replaced by halogen,

denotes



























ZST
each, independently of one another, denote -CO-O-, -O-CO-, -CF2O-, -OCF2-, -CH2O-, -OCH2-, -CH2-, -CH2CH2-, -(CH2)4-, -CH=CH-CH2O-, -C2F4-, -CH2CF2-, -CF2CH2-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -CH=CH-, -C≡C- or a single bond,
L1 and L2
each, independently of one another, denote F, Cl, CF3 or CHF2,
p
denotes 1 or 2,
q
denotes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10.


[0142] Of the compounds of the formula ST, special preference is given to the compounds of the formulae



in which n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, preferably n = 1 or 7

in which n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, preferably n = 3

in which n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7, preferably n = 3













[0143] In the compounds of the formulae ST-3a and ST-3b, n preferably denotes 3. In the compounds of the formula ST-2a, n preferably denotes 7.

[0144] Very particularly preferred mixtures according to the invention comprise one or more stabilisers from the group of the compounds of the formulae ST-2a-1, ST-3a-1, ST-3b-1, ST-8-1, ST-9-1 and ST-12:













[0145] The compounds of the formulae ST-1 to ST-18 are preferably each present in the liquid-crystal mixtures according to the invention in amounts of 0.005 - 0.5%, based on the mixture.

[0146] If the mixtures according to the invention comprise two or more compounds from the group of the compounds of the formulae ST-1 to ST-18, the concentration correspondingly increases to 0.01 - 1% in the case of two compounds, based on the mixtures.

[0147] However, the total proportion of the compounds of the formulae ST-1 to ST-18, based on the mixture according to the invention, should not exceed 2%.

[0148] The compounds according to the present invention can be synthesized by or in analogy to known methods described in the literature (for example in the standard works such as Houben-Weyl, Methoden der Organischen Chemie [Methods of Organic Chemistry], Georg-Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart), under reaction conditions which are known and suitable for said reactions. Use may also be made here of variants which are known per se, but are not mentioned here. In particular, they can be prepared as described in or in analogy to the following reaction schemes. Further methods for preparing the inventive compounds can be taken from the examples.

[0149] Other mesogenic compounds which are not explicitly mentioned above can optionally and advantageously also be used in the media in accordance with the present invention. Such compounds are known to the person skilled in the art.

[0150] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the total concentration of compounds of formula T in the liquid-crystalline medium is 5 % or more, preferably 10 % or more, and particularly preferably 12 % or more.

[0151] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liquid-crystalline media preferably comprise in total 3 % to 35 %, preferably 4 % to 30 % and particularly preferably 5 % to 25 % of compounds of formula T.

[0152] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liquid-crystalline media comprise in total 4 % to 35 %, preferably 5 % to 30 % and particularly preferably 6 % to 25 % of compounds of formula TA.

[0153] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the liquid-crystalline media comprise in total 5 % to 50 %, preferably 10 % to 45 % and particularly preferably 15 % to 40 % of compounds of formulae T and TA.

[0154] In a preferred embodiment, the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula I, preferably of formula I-2 in a total concentration in the range of from 1 % to 25 %, more preferably from 2 % to 20 %, and particularly preferably from 5 % to 15 %.

[0155] In a preferred embodiment, the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula I-3 in a total concentration in the range of from 1 % to 20 %, more preferably from 2 % to 15 %, and particularly preferably from 3 % to 10%.

[0156] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula II in a total concentration of 5 % to 35 %, more preferably 10 % to 30 %, particularly preferably 15 % to 25 %.

[0157] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula II-1 in a total concentration of 5 % to 25 %, more preferably 10 % to 25 %, particularly preferably 15 % to 20 %.

[0158] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula II-1 in an total concentration of 30% or less, more preferably 25% or less, particularly preferably 20% or less.

[0159] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula III, preferably III-1, in a total concentration of 2 % to 25 %, more preferably 5 % to 20 %, particularly preferably 8% to 16%.

[0160] Further preferred embodiments of the present invention, taken alone or in combination with one another, are as follows, wherein some compounds are abbreviated using the acronyms given in Table C below:
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T-2;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T-3;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T-2 and TA-1;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T-3 and TA-1;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T-2 and/or T-3 and/or T4 and one or more compounds of formula I and/or II and/or III;
  • The medium comprises one, two, three, four or more compounds of formula III-1, preferably selected from the compounds of the formulae III-1b, III-1f and III-1h; more preferably of III-1b and III-1h;
  • The medium comprises a compound of formula III-1h, preferably in a total concentration in the range of from 2% to 30%, more preferably 5% to 25%, in particular 10% to 20%;
  • The medium comprises the compound PPU-TO-S and PPTU-TO-S and/or PTPU-TO-S;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula T and one or more compounds of formula II-1, preferably in a total concentration in the range of from 15 % to 60%, more preferably from 17 % to 50%, particularly preferably from 20 % to 45%;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula I-3b, preferably the compounds CPU-2-S and/or CPU-4-S;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula I-3b and formula II-1b, preferably the compounds CPU-2-S and/or CPU-4-S and PTU-3-S and/or PTU-4-S and/or PTU-5-S;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula I-2d and formula II-1b, preferably the compounds PGU-3-S and/or PGU-4-S and PTU-3-S and/or PTU-4-S and/or PTU-5-S;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula PPTU-n-S and/or PTPU-n-S in an total concentration in the range of from 10 to 20 %;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula PPTU-n-S and/or PTPU-n-S and PGTU-n-S in a total concentration in the range of from 15 to 30 %;
  • The medium comprises one or more compounds of formula ST-3, preferably ST-3a and/or ST-3b, particularly preferably ST-3b-1, in a total concentration in the range of from 0.01 to 1%, preferably from 0.05 to 0.5%, particularly from 0.10 to 0.15%.


[0161] The liquid-crystal media in accordance with the present invention preferably have a clearing point of 90°C or more, more preferably 100°C or more, more preferably 110°C or more, more preferably 120°C or more, more preferably 130°C or more, particularly preferably 140°C or more and very particularly preferably 150°C or more.

[0162] The liquid-crystal media in accordance with the present invention preferably have a clearing point of 160°C or less, more preferably 140°C or less, particularly preferably 120°C or less, and very particularly preferably 100°C or less.

[0163] The nematic phase of the media according to the invention preferably extends at least from 0°C or less to 90°C or more. It is advantageous for the media according to the invention to exhibit even broader nematic phase ranges, preferably at least from -10°C or less to 120°C or more, very preferably at least from -20°C or less to 140°C or more and in particular at least from -30°C or less to 150°C or more, very particularly preferably at least from -40°C or less to 170°C or more.

[0164] The Δε of the liquid-crystal medium according to the present invention, at 1 kHz and 20°C, is preferably 1 or more, more preferably 2 or more and very preferably 3 or more.

[0165] The birefringence (Δn) of the liquid-crystal media according to the present invention, at 589 nm (NaD) and 20°C, is preferably 0.280 or more, more preferably 0.300 or more, even more preferably 0.320 or more, very preferably 0.330 or more and in particular 0.350 or more.

[0166] The Δn of the liquid-crystal media according to the present invention, at 589 nm (NaD) and 20°C, is preferably in the range from 0.200 to 0.900, more preferably in the range from 0.250 to 0.800, even more preferably in the range from 0.300 to 0.700 and very particularly preferably in the range from 0.350 to 0.600.

[0167] In a preferred embodiment of the present application, the Δn of the liquid-crystal media in accordance with the present invention is preferably 0.50 or more, more preferably 0.55 or more.

[0168] The compounds of the formulae I to III in each case include dielectrically positive compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of greater than 3, dielectrically neutral compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of less than 3 and greater than -1.5 and dielectrically negative compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of -1.5 or less.

[0169] The compounds of the formulae I, II and III are preferably dielectrically positive.

[0170] In the present application, the expression dielectrically positive describes compounds or components where Δε > 3.0, dielectrically neutral describes those where -1.5 ≤ Δε ≤ 3.0 and dielectrically negative describes those where Δε < -1.5. Δε is determined at a frequency of 1 kHz and at 20°C. The dielectric anisotropy of the respective compound is determined from the results of a solution of 10 % of the respective individual compound in a nematic host mixture. If the solubility of the respective compound in the host mixture is less than 10 %, the concentration is reduced to 5 %. The capacitances of the test mixtures are determined both in a cell having homeotropic alignment and in a cell having homogeneous alignment. The cell thickness of both types of cells is approximately 20 µm. The voltage applied is a rectangular wave having a frequency of 1 kHz and an effective value of typically 0.5 V to 1.0 V, but it is always selected to be below the capacitive threshold of the respective test mixture.

[0171] Δε is defined as (ε|| - ε), while εave. is (ε|| + 2 ε)/3.

[0172] The host mixture used for the determination of physical constants of pure compounds by extrapolation is ZLI-4792 from Merck KGaA, Germany. The absolute values of the dielectric constants, the birefringence (Δn) and the rotational viscosity (γ1) of the compounds are determined from the change in the respective values of the host mixture on addition of the compounds. The concentration in the host is 10 % or in case of insufficient solubility 5 %. The values are extrapolated to a concentration of 100 % of the added compounds.

[0173] Components having a nematic phase at the measurement temperature of 20°C are measured as such, all others are treated like compounds.

[0174] The expression threshold voltage in the present application refers to the optical threshold and is quoted for 10 % relative contrast (V10), and the expression saturation voltage refers to the optical saturation and is quoted for 90 % relative contrast (V90), in both cases unless expressly stated otherwise. The capacitive threshold voltage (V0), also called the Freedericks threshold (VFr), is only used if expressly mentioned.

[0175] The parameter ranges indicated in this application all include the limit values, unless expressly stated otherwise.

[0176] The different upper and lower limit values indicated for various ranges of properties in combination with one another give rise to additional preferred ranges.

[0177] Throughout this application, the following conditions and definitions apply, unless expressly stated otherwise. All concentrations are quoted in per cent by weight and relate to the respective mixture as a whole, all temperatures are quoted in degrees Celsius and all temperature differences are quoted in differential degrees. All physical properties are determined in accordance with "Merck Liquid Crystals, Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals", Status Nov. 1997, Merck KGaA, Germany, and are quoted for a temperature of 20°C, unless expressly stated otherwise. The optical anisotropy (Δn) is determined at a wavelength of 589.3 nm. The dielectric anisotropy (Δε) is determined at a frequency of 1 kHz. The threshold voltages, as well as all other electro-optical properties, are determined using test cells produced at Merck KGaA, Germany. The test cells for the determination of Δε have a cell thickness of approximately 20 µm. The electrode is a circular ITO electrode having an area of 1.13 cm2 and a guard ring. The orientation layers are SE-1211 from Nissan Chemicals, Japan, for homeotropic orientation (ε||) and polyimide AL-1054 from Japan Synthetic Rubber, Japan, for homogeneous orientation (ε). The capacitances are determined using a Solatron 1260 frequency response analyser using a sine wave with a voltage of 0.3 Vrms. The light used in the electro-optical measurements is white light. A set-up using a commercially available DMS instrument from Autronic-Melchers, Germany, is used here. The characteristic voltages have been determined under perpendicular observation. The threshold (V10), mid-grey (V50) and saturation (V90) voltages have been determined for 10 %, 50 % and 90 % relative contrast, respectively.

[0178] The liquid-crystalline media are investigated with respect to their properties in the microwave frequency range as described in A. Penirschke et al. "Cavity Perturbation Method for Characterization of Liquid Crystals up to 35 GHz", 34th European Microwave Conference - Amsterdam, pp. 545-548. Compare in this respect also A. Gaebler et al. "Direct Simulation of Material Permittivities ...", 12MTC 2009 - International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Singapore, 2009 (IEEE), pp. 463-467, and DE 10 2004 029 429 A, in which a measurement method is likewise described in detail.

[0179] The liquid crystal is introduced into a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or quartz capillary. The capillary has an inner diameter of 0.5mm and an outer diameter of 0.78mm. The effective length is 2.0 cm. The filled capillary is introduced into the centre of the cylindrical cavity with a resonance frequency of 19 GHz. This cavity has a length of 11.5 mm and a radius of 6 mm. The input signal (source) is then applied, and the frequency depending response of the cavity is recorded using a commercial vector network analyser (N5227A PNA Microwave Network Analyzer, Keysight Technologies Inc. USA. For other frequencies, the dimensions of the cavity are adapted correspondingly.

[0180] The change in the resonance frequency and the Q factor between the measurement with the capillary filled with the liquid crystal and the measurement without the capillary filled with the liquid crystal is used to determine the dielectric constant and the loss angle at the corresponding target frequency by means of equations 10 and 11 in the above-mentioned publication A. Penirschke et al., 34th European Microwave Conference - Amsterdam, pp. 545-548, as described therein.

[0181] The values for the components of the properties perpendicular and parallel to the director of the liquid crystal are obtained by alignment of the liquid crystal in a magnetic field. To this end, the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is used. The strength of the magnetic field is 0.35 tesla.

[0182] Preferred components are phase shifters, varactors, wireless and radio wave antenna arrays, matching circuit adaptive filters and others.

[0183] In the present application, the term compounds is taken to mean both one compound and a plurality of compounds, unless expressly stated otherwise.

[0184] The liquid-crystal media according to the invention preferably have nematic phases in preferred ranges given above. The expression have a nematic phase here means on the one hand that no smectic phase and no crystallisation are observed at low temperatures at the corresponding temperature and on the other hand that no clearing occurs on heating from the nematic phase. At high temperatures, the clearing point is measured in capillaries by conventional methods. The investigation at low temperatures is carried out in a flow viscometer at the corresponding temperature and checked by storage of bulk samples: The storage stability in the bulk (LTS) of the media according to the invention at a given temperature T is determined by visual inspection. 2 g of the media of interest are filled into a closed glass vessel (bottle) of appropriate size placed in a refrigerator at a predetermined temperature. The bottles are checked at defined time intervals for the occurrence of smectic phases or crystallisation. For every material and at each temperature two bottles are stored. If crystallisation or the appearance of a smectic phase is observed in at least one of the two correspondent bottles the test is terminated and the time of the last inspection before the one at which the occurrence of a higher ordered phase is observed is recorded as the respective storage stability. The test is finally terminated after 1000 h, i.e an LTS value of 1000 h means that the mixture is stable at the given temperature for at least 1000 h.

[0185] The liquid crystals employed preferably have a positive dielectric anisotropy. This is preferably 2 or more, preferably 4 or more, particularly preferably 6 or more and very particularly preferably 10 or more.

[0186] Furthermore, the liquid-crystal media according to the invention are characterised by high anisotropy values in the microwave range. The birefringence at about 19 GHz is, for example, preferably 0.14 or more, particularly preferably 0.15 or more, particularly preferably 0.20 or more, particularly preferably 0.25 or more and very particularly preferably 0.30 or more. In addition, the birefringence is preferably 0.80 or less.

[0187] The dielectric anisotropy in the microwave range is defined as



[0188] The tunability (τ) is defined as



[0189] The material quality (η) is defined as

where the maximum dielectric loss is



[0190] The tunability τ of the medium according to the invention, measured at 20°C and 19 GHz is 0.250 or more, preferably 0.300 or more, 0.310 or more, 0.320 or more, 0.330 or more, or 0.340 or more, very preferably 0.345 or more and in particular 0.350 or more.

[0191] The material quality (η) of the preferred liquid-crystal materials is 6 or more, preferably 8 or more, preferably 10 or more, preferably 15 or more, preferably 17 or more, preferably 20 or more, particularly preferably 25 or more and very particularly preferably 30 or more.

[0192] In the corresponding components, the preferred liquid-crystal materials have phase shifter qualities of 15°/dB or more, preferably 20°/dB or more, preferably 30°/dB or more, preferably 40°/dB or more, preferably 50°/dB or more, particularly preferably 80°/dB or more and very particularly preferably 100°/dB or more.

[0193] In some embodiments, however, liquid crystals having a negative value of the dielectric anisotropy can also advantageously be used.

[0194] The liquid crystals employed are either individual substances or mixtures. They preferably have a nematic phase.

[0195] The liquid-crystal media in accordance with the present invention may comprise further additives and chiral dopants in the usual concentrations. The total concentration of these further constituents is in the range from 0 % to 10 %, preferably 0.1 % to 6 %, based on the mixture as a whole. The concentrations of the individual compounds used are each preferably in the range from 0.1 % to 3 %. The concentration of these and similar additives is not taken into consideration when quoting the values and concentration ranges of the liquid-crystal components and liquid-crystal compounds of the liquid-crystal media in this application.

[0196] Preferably the media according to the present invention comprise one or more chiral compounds as chiral dopants in order to adjust their cholesteric pitch. Their total concentration in the media according to the instant invention is preferably in the range 0.05 % to 15 %, more preferably from 1 % to 10 % and most preferably from 2 % to 6 %.

[0197] Optionally the media according to the present invention may comprise further liquid crystal compounds in order to adjust the physical properties. Such compounds are known to the expert. Their concentration in the media according to the instant invention is preferably 0 % to 30 %, more preferably 0.1 % to 20 % and most preferably 1 % to 15 %.

[0198] The response times are given as rise time (τοn) for the time for the change of the relative tuning, respectively of the relative contrast for the electro-optical response, from 0 % to 90 % (t90 - t0), i.e. including the delay time (t10 - t0), as decay time (τoff) for the time for the change of the relative tuning, respectively of the relative contrast for the electro-optical response, from 100 % back to 10 % (t100 - t10) and as the total response time (τtotal = τοn + τoff), respectively.

[0199] The liquid-crystal media according to the invention consist of a plurality of compounds, preferably 3 to 30, more preferably 4 to 20 and very preferably 4 to 16 compounds. These compounds are mixed in a conventional manner. In general, the desired amount of the compound used in the smaller amount is dissolved in the compound used in the larger amount. If the temperature is above the clearing point of the compound used in the higher concentration, it is particularly easy to observe completion of the dissolution process. It is, however, also possible to prepare the media in other conventional ways, for example using so-called pre-mixes, which can be, for example, homologous or eutectic mixtures of compounds, or using so-called "multibottle" systems, the constituents of which are themselves ready-to-use mixtures.

[0200] All temperatures, such as, for example, the melting point T(C,N) or T(C,S), the transition from the smectic (S) to the nematic (N) phase T(S,N) and the clearing point T(N,I) of the liquid crystals, are quoted in degrees Celsius. All temperature differences are quoted in differential degrees.

[0201] In the present invention and especially in the following examples, the structures of the mesogenic compounds are indicated by means of abbreviations, also referred to as acronyms. In these acronyms, the chemical formulae are abbreviated as follows using Tables A to D below. All groups CnH2n+1, CmH2m+1 and ClH2l+1 or CnH2n-1, CmH2m-1 and ClH2i-1 denote straight-chain alkyl or alkenyl, preferably 1-E-alkenyl, respectively, in each case having n, m or I C atoms. Table A lists the codes used for the ring elements of the core structures of the compounds, while Table B shows the linking groups. Table C gives the meanings of the codes for the left-hand or right-hand end groups. Table D shows illustrative structures of compounds with their respective abbreviations.
Table A: Ring elements
C

   
D

DI

A

AI

G

GI

U

UI

Y

   
M

MI

N

NI

Np

   
N3f

N3fI

tH

tHI

tH2f

tH2fI

dH

   
K

KI

L

LI

F

FI

P

P(n,m)

P(o)

PI(o)

P(i3)

PI(ic3)

P(t4)   PI(t4)

P(c3)

PI(c3)

P(c4)

PI(c4)

P(c5)

PI(c5)

P(e5)

PI(e5)

P(c6)

PI(c6)

P(e6)

PI(e6)

GI(o)

G(o)

in which o = 1,2,3,4,5 or 6 in which o = 1,2,3,4,5 or 6
GI(i3)

G(i3)

GI(t4)

G(t4)

GI(c3)

G(c3)

GI(c4)

G(c4)

GI(c5)

G(c5)

GI(e5)

G(e5)

GI(c6)

G(c6)

GI(e6)

G(e6)

Np(1,4)

Th

Table B: Linking groups
E -CH2CH2- Z -CO-O-
V -CH=CH- ZI -O-CO-
X -CF=CH- O -CH2-O-
XI -CH=CF- OI -O-CH2-
B -CF=CF- Q -CF2-O-
T -C≡C- QI -O-CF2-
W -CF2CF2-    
Table B: End groups
Left-hand sideRight-hand side
 Used alone
-n- CnH2n+1- -n -CnH2n+1
-nO- CnH2n+1-O- -On -O-CnH2n+1
-V- CH2=CH- -V -CH=CH2
-nV- CnH2n+1-CH=CH- -nV -CnH2n-CH=CH2
-Vn- CH2=CH- CnH2n+1- -Vn -CH=CH-CnH2n+1
-nVm- CnH2n+1-CH=CH-CmH2m- -nVm -CnH2n-CH=CH-CmH2m+1
-N- N≡C- -N -C≡N
-S- S=C=N- -S -N=C=S
-F- F- -F -F
-CL- Cl- -CL -Cl
-M- CFH2- -M -CFH2
-D- CF2H- -D -CF2H
-T- CF3- -T -CF3
-MO- CFH2O- -OM -OCFH2
-DO- CF2HO- -OD -OCF2H
-TO- CF3O- -OT -OCF3
-FXO- CF2=CH-O- -OXF -O-CH=CF2
-A- H-C≡C- -A -C≡C-H
-nA- CnH2n+1-C≡C- -An -C≡C-CnH2n+1
-NA- N≡C-C≡C- -AN -C≡C-C≡N
 Used in combination with others
-...A...- -C≡C- -...A... -C≡C-
-...V...- -CH=CH- -...V... -CH=CH-
-...Z...- -CO-O- -...Z... -CO-O-
-...ZI...- -O-CO- -...ZI... -O-CO-
-...K...- -CO- -...K... -CO-
-...W...- -CF=CF- -...W... -CF=CF-
in which n and m each denote integers, and the three dots "..." are place-holders for other abbreviations from this table.

[0202] The following table shows illustrative structures together with their respective abbreviations. These are shown in order to illustrate the meaning of the rules for the abbreviations. They furthermore represent compounds which are preferably used.























in which m and n, identically or differnetly, are 1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7.

[0203] Preferably, the medium according to the invention comrises one or more compounds selected from the compounds of Table C.

[0204] The following table, Table D, shows illustrative compounds which can be used as alternative stabilisers in the mesogenic media in accordance with the present invention. The total concentration of these and similar compounds in the media is preferably 5 % or less.





[0205] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the mesogenic media comprise one or more compounds selected from the group of the compounds from Table D.

[0206] The following table, Table E, shows illustrative compounds which can preferably be used as chiral dopants in the mesogenic media in accordance with the present invention.







[0207] In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the mesogenic media comprise one or more compounds selected from the group of the compounds of Table E.

[0208] The mesogenic media in accordance with the present application preferably comprise two or more, preferably four or more, compounds selected from the group consisting of the compounds from the above tables.

Examples



[0209] The following examples illustrate the present invention without limiting it in any way.

[0210] It is clear to the person skilled in the art from the physical properties what properties can be achieved and in what ranges they can be modified. In particular, the combination of the various properties which can preferably be achieved is thus well defined for the person skilled in the art.

Synthesis Examples


Synthesis Example 1: 1,3-difluoro-2-isothiocyanato-5-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]benzene


Step 1: 1-Bromo-2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene



[0211] 



[0212] Tetrakis-(triphenylphosphin)-palladium-(0) (2.0 g; 1.7 mmol) is added to a mixture of 1-bromo-4-iodo-2-methyl-benzene (50.5 g, 170 mmol) and sodium carbonate (43.2 g, 408 mmol) in toluene (250 mL) and water (150 mL) at 80°C, followed by dropwise addition of a solution of [4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]boronic acid (35.0 g, 170 mmol) in ethanol (40 mL). The reaction mixture is heated at reflux temperature overnight. Then it is quenched with water and MTB-ether. The aqueous phase is separated and extracted with MTB-ether, and the combined organic phases are washed with water, dried (sodium sulphate) and concentrated i. vac. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (heptane) to give 1-bromo-2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene as a colourless oil.

Step 2: 2,6-Difluoro-4-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-phenylethynyl]aniline



[0213] 



[0214] 1-Bromo-2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]benzene (52.2 g, 158 mmol), 4-ethynyl-2,6-difluoro-aniline (23.0 g, 150 mmol) and diisopropylamine (360 mL) are dissolved in THF (400 mL) and heated to 70°C under nitrogen. XPhos PD G2 (236 mg, 0.30 mmol), XPhos (143 mg, 0.30 mmol) and copper(I)-iodide (29 mg, 0.15 mmol) are added, and the reaction mixture is stirred at 70°C overnight. It is filtered, and the filtrate is concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (heptane/MTB-ether 5/1) to give 2,6-difluoro-4-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoro-methoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]aniline, which is crystallized (heptane/ethanol 3/1) to give the pure product as beige crystals.

Step 3: 1,3-Difluoro-2-isothiocyanato-5-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]benzene



[0215] 



[0216] Alternative 1: A solution of 2,6-difluoro-4-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]aniline (3.2 g, 8 mmol) in dichloromethane (35 mL) and DMF (1.2 mL,16 mmol) is treated with 1,1-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (3.0 g, 16 mmol) at room temperature. The reaction mixture is stirred overnight at 28°C, then a second portion of 1,1-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (1.5 g, 8 mmol) is added, and the reaction mixture is stirred overnight. It is concentrated i. vac. and purified by flash chromatography (heptane/MTB 5/1) followed by crystallization from heptane to give 1,3-difluoro-2-isothiocyanato-5-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)-phenyl]phenylethynyl]benzene.

Alternative 2:



[0217] To a mixture of 2,6-difluoro-4-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]aniline (48.0 g, 119 mmol) and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (33.4 g, 298 mmol) in dichloromethane (450 mL) thiophosgene (10.3 mL, 131 mmol) is added dropwise at 0°C. The reaction mixture is stirred for 1 h at room temperature. It is hydrolyzed with saturated NaCl-solution. The aqueous phase is separated and extracted with dichloromethane, and the combined organic phases are washed with water, dried (sodium sulphate) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue is purified by flash chromatography (heptane) to give 1,3-difluoro-2-isothiocyanato-5-[2-methyl-4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]phenylethynyl]benzene as a yellow solid. Final crystallization (heptane) gives colourless crystals.

[0218] Phase sequence K 79 N 185 I

Δε = 3.60

Δn = 0.4300

γ1 = 862 mPa s



[0219] In analogy to Synthesis Example 1 the following compounds are obtained:
No.Compound
2

  Phase sequence K 72 I
  Δε = 2.67
  Δn = 0.3021
  γ1 = 50 mPa s
3

  Phase sequence K 82 I
  Δε = 1.35
  Δn = 0.3179
4

  Phase sequence K 62 I
  Δε = 2.51
  Δn = 0.2584
  γ1 = 62 mPa s
5

6

7

8

9

  Phase sequence K 102 N 217 I
  Δε = 4.10
  Δn = 0.4390
  γ1 = 749 mPa s
10

11

12

13

14

  Phase sequence K 99 N 168 I
  Δε = 1.72
  Δn = 0.4209
  γ1 = 593 mPa s
15

  Phase sequence K 130 N 168 I
  Δε = 1.52
  Δn = 0.4249
  γ1 = 978 mPa s
16

17

18

19

  Phase sequence K 102 N 217 I
  Δε = 4.10
  Δn = 0.4390
  γ1 = 749 mPa s
20

  Phase sequence K 84 I
  Δε = 2.10
  Δn = 0.3270
  γ1 = 437 mPa s
21

  Phase sequence K 85 N 130 I
  Δε = 4.70
  Δn = 0.3890
  γ1 = 1070 mPa s
22

  Phase sequence K 118 N (114) I
  Δε = 4.70
  Δn = 0.3890
  γ1 = 1070 mPa s
23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

  Phase sequence K 97 N 212 I
  Δε = 2.50
  Δn = 0.4250
  γ1 = 454 mPa s
32

  Phase sequence K 106 N 176 I
  Δε = 3.52
  Δn = 0.4049
  γ1 = 832 mPa s
33

34

35

  Phase sequence K 65 N 172 I
  Δε = 3.09
  Δn = 0.4086
  γ1 = 623 mPa s
36

  Phase sequence K 143 I
  Δε = 2.12
  Δn = 0.3589
37

  Phase sequence K 140 N 297 (decomp.)
  Δε = 4.52
  Δn = 0.4889
  γ1 = 2133 mPa s

Mixture Examples



[0220] Liquid-crystal mixtures N1 to N51 having the compositions and properties as indicated in the following tables are prepared and characterized with respect to their general physical properties and their applicability in microwave components at 19 GHz and 20°C. The mixture components are given as acronyms according to Tables A to C above. The individual proportions are % by weight.
Mixture N1
PTU-3-S 9.0 T(N,I) [°C]: 161.5
PTU-5-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.347
PPTU-4-S 8.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7237
PPTU-5-S 8.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4320
PGTU-4-S 8.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0058
PGU-3-S 6.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0105
PPU-TO-S 15.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.0
CPTU-4-S 8.0    
CPTU-5-S 12.0    
PPTU-TO-S 7.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N2
PTU-3-S 9.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 155
PTU-5-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.342
PPTU-4-S 8.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7961
PPTU-5-S 8.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4997
PGTU-4-S 8.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0059
PGU-3-S 6.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0107
PPU-TO-S 15.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 32.0
CPTU-4-S .0    
CPTU-5-S 12.0    
PPTU-TO-S 7.0    
ThTU-5-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N3
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 158.5
PTU-5-S 10.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.346
PPTU-4-S 8.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7593
PPTU-5-S 11.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4601
PGTU-4-S 8.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0061
PGU-3-S 10.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0113
PPU-TO-S 20.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 30.6
CPTU-5-S 13.0    
PPTU-TO-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N4
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N,I) [°C]: 162.5
PTU-5-S 10.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.343
PPTU-4-S 8.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7299
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4499
PGTU-4-S 6.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0060
PPU-TO-S 24.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
CPTU-4-S 8.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.0
CPTU-5-S 14.0    
PPTU-TO-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N5
PTU-3-S 10.0
PTU-5-S 10.0
PPTU-4-S 6.0
PPTU-5-S 12.0
PGU-3-S 14.0
PPU-TO-S 20.0
CPTU-4-S 20.0
PPTU-TO-S 8.0
100.0
Mixture N6
PTU-3-S 10.0
PTU-5-S 10.0
PPTU-4-S 6.0
PPTU-5-S 12.0
PGU-3-S 14.0
PPU-TO-S 24.0
CPTU-4-S 12.0
PGTU-4-S 6.0
PPTU-TO-S 6.0
100.0
Mixture N7
PTU-3-S 10.0
PTU-5-S 10.0
PPTU-4-S 6.0
PPTU-5-S 12.0
PGU-3-S 14.0
PPU-TO-S 20.0
PGTU-4-S 5.0
PGTU-5-S 5.0
PPTU-TO-S 5.0
PTPU-4-S 13.0
100.0
Mixture N8
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 157
PTU-5-S 10.0 LTS bulk [h, -30°C]: 816
PPTU-4-S 6.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.342
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7408
PGU-3-S 14.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4605
PPU-TO-S 22.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0061
CPTU-4-S 8.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0110
CPTU-5-S 12.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 31.1
PPTU-TO-S 8.0    
100.0    
Mixture N9
PTU-3-S 8.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 159
PTU-5-S 8.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.346
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7178
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4300
PGTU-4-S 6.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0057
PGU-3-S 8.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0102
PPU-TO-S 15.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.9
CPTU-4-S 8.0    
CPTU-5-S 15.0    
ThTU-5-S 10.0    
PPTU-TO-S 6.0    
100.0    
Mixture N10
PTU-3-S 9.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 162
PTU-5-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.347
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7249
PPTU-5-S 12.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4309
PGTU-4-S 7.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0058
PGU-3-S 6.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
PPU-TO-S 15.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.4
CPTU-4-S 8.0    
CPTU-5-S 12.0    
PPTU-TO-S 6.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N11
PTU-3-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.350
PTU-5-S 9.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7285
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4236
PPTU-5-S 12.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0058
PGTU-4-S 7.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
PGU-3-S 6.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.7
PPU-TO-S 15.0    
CPTU-4-S 9.0    
CPTU-5-S 9.0    
PPTU-TO-S 6.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 12.0    
100.0    
Mixture N12
PTU-3-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.351
PTU-5-S 9.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7247
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4157
PPTU-5-S 12.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0058
PGTU-4-S 7.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
PGU-3-S 6.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.8
PPU-TO-S 15.0    
CPTU-4-S 8.0    
CPTU-5-S 8.0    
PPTU-TO-S 6.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 14.0    
100.0    
Mixture N13
PTU-3-S 9.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 160
PTU-5-S 9.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.348
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7894
PPTU-5-S 12.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4700
PGTU-4-S 7.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0059
PGU-3-S 6.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0108
PPU-TO-S 15.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 32.2
CPTU-4-S 7.0    
CPTU-5-S 7.0    
PPTU-TO-S 6.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 16.0    
100.0    
Mixture N14
PTU-3-S 9.0
PTU-5-S 9.0
PPTU-4-S 6.0
PPTU-5-S 12.0
PGTU-4-S 7.0
PGU-3-S 6.0
PPU-TO-S 11.0
CPTU-4-S 8.0
CPTU-5-S 12.0
PPTU-TO-S 8.0
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 12.0
100.0
Mixture N15
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N,I) [°C]: 160.6
PTU-5-S 10.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.346
PPTU-4-S 8.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7603
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4585
PGTU-4-S 10.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0057
PPU-TO-S 10.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
CPTU-4-S 8.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.3
CPTU-5-S 12.0    
PPTU-TO-S 10.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 12.0    
100.0    
Mixture N16
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 161
PTU-5-S 10.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.350
PPTU-4-S 10.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7728
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4528
PGTU-4-S 10.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0057
PPU-TO-S 10.0 tan δεr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0104
CPTU-4-S 10.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 33.7
CPTU-5-S 10.0    
PPTU-TO-S 10.0    
PP(1 )TU-TO-S 10.0    
100.0    
Mixture N17
PTU-3-S 10.0 T(N, I) [°C]: 153
PTU-5-S 10.0 τ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.340
PPTU-4-S 6.0 εr,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 3.7400
PPTU-5-S 10.0 εr,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 2.4679
PGU-3-S 6.0 tan δε r,|| [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0060
PPU-TO-S 22.0 tan δε r,⊥ [20°C, 19 GHz]: 0.0106
CPTU-4-S 8.0 η [20°C, 19 GHz]: 32.1
CPTU-5-S 12.0    
PPTU-TO-S 8.0    
PP(2)TU-TO-S 8.0    
100.0    


[0221] The liquid-crystalline media according to the invention exhibit high clearing temperatures in combination with very good LTS and excellent microwave-application relevant properties.

[0222] In a preferred embodiment the media according to the present invention comprise a stabiliser.

[0223] The following Mixtures N18 to N34 are obtained from the mixtures N1 to N17 using the stabiliser ST-3b-1 in the amounts given in Table 2.

Table 2.
Mixture ExampleHost Mixturec(ST-3b-1) [%]
N18 N1 0.12
N19 N2 0.90
N20 N3 0.10
N21 N4 0.11
N22 N5 0.12
N23 N6 0.13
N24 N7 0.12
N25 N8 0.12
N26 N9 0.12
N27 N10 0.12
N28 N11 0.13
N29 N12 0.14
N30 N13 0.15
N31 N14 0.17
N32 N15 0.10
N33 N16 0.10
N34 N17 0.10


[0224] The following Mixtures N35 to N51 are obtained from the mixtures N1 to N17 using the stabiliser ST-3a-1 in the amounts given in Table 3.

Table 3.
Mixture ExampleHost Mixturec(ST-3a-1) [%]
N35 N1 0.12
N36 N2 0.90
N37 N3 0.10
N38 N4 0.11
N39 N5 0.12
N40 N6 0.13
N41 N7 0.12
N42 N8 0.12
N43 N9 0.12
N44 N10 0.12
N45 N11 0.13
N46 N12 0.14
N47 N13 0.15
N48 N14 0.17
N49 N15 0.12
N50 N16 0.12
N51 N17 0.12



Claims

1. A compound of formula T

in which

RT denotes halogen, CN, NCS, RF, RF-O- or RF-S-, wherein
RF denotes fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkenyl having up to 12 C atoms,



and

on each occurrence, independently of one another, denote



where

alternatively denote

in which one or two H atoms, identically or differently, are optionally replaced by a radical L1;

L1 and L2 identically or differently, denote F, Cl or straight chain or branched or cyclic alkyl or alkenyl each having up to 12 C atoms;

ZT1, ZT2 identically or differently, denote -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH-, -C≡C- or a single bond, wherein at least one of ZT1 and ZT2 denotes -CH=CH-, -CF=CF-, -CH=CF-, -CF=CH- or -C≡C-, and

t is 0 or 1.


 
2. The compound according to claim 1, wherein ZT1 and ZT2 denote a single bond or -C≡C- and wherein at least one of ZT1 and ZT2 denotes -C≡C-.
 
3. The compound according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the compound is selected from the compounds of the formulae T-1 to T-4







in which

L11 and L12 identically or differently, denote H, F, Cl, methyl or ethyl,

L13, L14 and L15 identically or differently, denote H, F, Cl, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl or cyclopentenyl,

RT denotes halogen, CN, NCS, RF, RF-O- or RF-S-, wherein RF denotes fluorinated alkyl or fluorinated alkenyl having up to 12 C atoms.


 
4. The compound according to one or more of claims 1 to 3, wherein RT denotes CF3 or CF3O.
 
5. A Liquid crystal medium comprising one or more compounds of formula T according to one or more of claims 1 to 4.
 
6. The liquid crystal medium according to claim 5, wherein the medium comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae I, II and III,





in which

R1 denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15 C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



n is 0, 1 or 2,

on each occurrence, independently of one another, denote



or,

in which RL, on each occurrence identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms,
and wherein

alternatively denotes



R2 denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15 C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



Z21 denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C≡C-, and

independently of one another, denote



or,

in which RL, on each occurrence identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms;

R3 denotes H, unfluorinated alkyl or unfluorinated alkoxy having 1 to 17 C atoms, or unfluorinated alkenyl, unfluorinated alkenyloxy or unfluorinated alkoxyalkyl having 2 to 15 C atoms, in which one or more CH2-groups may be replaced by



one of Z31 and Z32, denotes trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or -C≡C- and the other one, independently thereof, denotes -C≡C-, trans-CH=CH-, trans-CF=CF- or a single bond, and

independently of one another, denote



or,

in which RL, on each occurrence identically or differently, denotes H or alkyl having 1 to 6 C atoms,
and wherein

alternatively denotes


 
7. The liquid-crystal medium according to claim 5 or 6, wherein the medium comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae I-1 to I-5









in which

L1, L2 and L3 on each occurrence, identically or differently, denote H or F, and

R1

have the meanings given for formula I in claim 6.


 
8. The liquid-crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 7, wherein the medium comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae II-1 to II-3





in which
R2,

have the meanings given in claim 6 for formula II.
 
9. The liquid-crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 8, wherein the medium comprises one or more compounds selected from the group of compounds of the formulae III-1 to III-6











in which

R3,

have the meanings given in claim 6 for formula III, and

Z31 and Z32 independently of one another, denote trans-CH=CH- or trans-CF=CF-, and in formula III-6 alternatively one of Z31 and Z32 may denote -C≡C-.


 
10. The liquid-crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 9, wherein the medium comprises one or more compounds of formula TA

in which the occurring groups have the meanings given in claim 1 for formula T, and

t is 0 or 1.


 
11. The liquid-crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 10, wherein the medium comprises one or more chiral compounds.
 
12. The liquid-crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 11, wherein the clearing temperature of the medium is 90°C or more.
 
13. A component for high-frequency technology, characterised in that it comprises the liquid crystal medium according to one or more of claims 5 to 12.
 
14. The component according to claim 13, wherein the component is a liquid-crystal based antenna element, a phase shifter, a tunable filter, a tunable metamaterial structure, a matching network or a varactor.
 
15. A microwave antenna array, characterised in that it comprises one or more components according to one or more of claims 13 or 14.
 





Search report









Search report




Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description