(19)
(11)EP 3 733 898 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
04.11.2020 Bulletin 2020/45

(21)Application number: 18896504.0

(22)Date of filing:  13.12.2018
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C22C 38/00(2006.01)
C22C 18/00(2006.01)
C22C 38/06(2006.01)
C21D 8/02(2006.01)
C22C 38/04(2006.01)
C21D 9/46(2006.01)
C22C 18/04(2006.01)
C22C 38/60(2006.01)
C22C 38/02(2006.01)
C23C 2/06(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2018/045968
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/131189 (04.07.2019 Gazette  2019/27)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 26.12.2017 JP 2017249124

(71)Applicant: JFE Steel Corporation
Tokyo 100-0011 (JP)

(72)Inventors:
  • TANAKA Takaaki
    Tokyo 100-0011 (JP)
  • TOJI Yuki
    Tokyo 100-0011 (JP)

(74)Representative: Hoffmann Eitle 
Patent- und Rechtsanwälte PartmbB Arabellastraße 30
81925 München
81925 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
  
      


    (54)HIGH-STRENGTH COLD ROLLED STEEL SHEET AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SAME


    (57) Provided are a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet that has a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more, excellent ductility, and a low failure rate in a hole expanding test, and a method for manufacturing the same. A high-strength cold rolled steel sheet comprises a predetermined composition, wherein a total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite is 20 % or more and 80 % or less, an area ratio of retained austenite is more than 10 % and 40 % or less, an area ratio of tempered martensite is more than 0 % and 50 % or less, a ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less to the retained austenite is 75 % or more in area ratio, a ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to the retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less is 50 % or more in area ratio, and an average KAM value of bcc phase is 1° or less.


    Description

    TECHNICAL FIELD



    [0001] The present disclosure relates to a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet and a method for manufacturing the same. The present disclosure specifically relates to a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet that has high strength, i.e. a tensile strength (TS) of 980 MPa or more, excellent ductility and stretch flangeability, and a low failure rate in a hole expanding test and is suitable for parts of transportation machines such as vehicles, and a method for manufacturing the same.

    BACKGROUND



    [0002] High-strength cold rolled steel sheets have been conventionally used in automotive body parts and the like (for example, see WO 2016/132680 A1 (PTL 1) and WO 2016/021193 A1 (PTL 2)). In recent years, there has been a demand to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles for global environment protection, and the use of high-strength cold rolled steel sheets having a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more has been promoted. There has also been a growing demand to improve the crashworthiness of automobiles. To ensure the safety of vehicle occupants at the time of crash, the use of high-strength cold rolled steel sheets having very high strength, i.e. a tensile strength of 1180 MPa or more, as structural parts such as framework parts of automotive bodies has been studied.

    CITATION LIST


    Patent Literatures



    [0003] 

    PTL 1: WO 2016/132680 A1

    PTL 2: WO 2016/021193 A1


    SUMMARY


    (Technical Problem)



    [0004] A steel sheet decreases in ductility with an increase in strength. A steel sheet having low ductility cracks in press forming. To work a high-strength steel sheet as automotive parts, the high-strength steel sheet needs to have not only high strength but also high ductility. Even when the steel sheet has a high average value of hole expansion ratios (average hole expansion ratio), as the number of tests increases, a value considerably lower than the average value is measured occasionally. The probability that a value considerably lower than the average value is measured is referred to as the failure rate in the hole expanding test. A steel sheet having a high failure rate in the hole expanding test has a high probability of being a failure in actual pressing. Such failures cannot be ignored when forming a large number of parts in mass production. To reduce the failure rate of press forming, a steel sheet having a low failure rate in the hole expanding test is needed.

    [0005] There is thus a need for a steel sheet that has high strength, i.e. a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more, excellent ductility, and a lower failure rate in the hole expanding test. Conventional cold rolled steel sheets are insufficient in any of these properties.

    [0006] It could therefore be helpful to provide a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet that has a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more, excellent ductility, and a low failure rate in a hole expanding test, and a method for manufacturing the same.

    (Solution to Problem)



    [0007] As a result of careful examination, we discovered that, in the case where a lot of massive retained austenite with a high aspect ratio contained in a steel sheet is exposed on a punched end surface during punching prior to a hole expanding test, end surface cracking is induced and the hole expansion ratio decreases considerably. We also discovered that, in the case where acicular retained austenite with a low aspect ratio exists in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more, the end surface cracking is suppressed.

    [0008] We further discovered that a steel sheet having a microstructure in which the fraction of acicular retained austenite with a low aspect ratio is high, acicular retained austenite with a low aspect ratio mainly exists in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more, and the average KAM value of bcc phase is 1° or less has excellent stretch flangeability and a markedly low failure rate in the hole expanding test.

    [0009] We further discovered that a steel sheet whose microstructure satisfies these conditions can be manufactured by subjecting a cold rolled steel sheet to annealing three times under specific conditions.

    [0010] The present disclosure is based on these discoveries and further studies.

    (Advantageous Effect)



    [0011] It is thus possible to provide a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet that has a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more, excellent ductility and stretch flangeability, and a low failure rate in a hole expanding test, and a method for manufacturing the same.

    [0012] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure is suitable for parts of transportation machines such as vehicles and structural steel materials such as construction steel materials. According to the present disclosure, applications of high-strength cold rolled steel sheets can be further expanded. This yields significantly advantageous effects in industrial terms.

    BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0013] In the accompanying drawings:
    FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating the influences that the ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less and the average KAM value of bcc phase have on the failure rate in the hole expanding test.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION


    <Composition>



    [0014] The composition (chemical composition) of the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure will be described below. While the unit of the content of each element in the chemical composition is "mass%", the content is expressed simply in "%" unless otherwise specified.

    C: more than 0.15 % and 0.45 % or less



    [0015] C is an element that stabilizes austenite, ensures the desired area ratio of retained austenite, and effectively contributes to improved ductility. Moreover, C increases the hardness of tempered martensite and contributes to higher strength. To sufficiently achieve the effects, the C content needs to be more than 0.15 %. The C content is therefore more than 0.15 %, preferably 0.18 % or more, and more preferably 0.20 % or more. If the C content is as high as more than 0.45 %, an excessive amount of tempered martensite forms, and ductility and stretch flangeability decrease. The C content is therefore 0.45 % or less, preferably 0.42 % or less, and more preferably 0.40 % or less.

    Si: 0.5 % or more and 2.5 % or less



    [0016] Si suppresses the formation of carbide (cementite) and facilitates the concentration of C in austenite to stabilize austenite, thus contributing to improved ductility of the steel sheet. Si dissolved in ferrite improves strain hardenability, and contributes to improved ductility of ferrite. To sufficiently achieve the effects, the Si content needs to be 0.5 % or more. The Si content is therefore 0.5 % or more, preferably 0.8 % or more, and more preferably 1.0 % or more. If the Si content is more than 2.5 %, not only the effect of suppressing the formation of carbide (cementite) and contributing to stable retained austenite is saturated, but also an excessive amount of Si dissolves in ferrite, which causes a decrease in ductility. The Si content is therefore 2.5 % or less, preferably 2.3 % or less, and more preferably 2.1 % or less.

    Mn: 1.5 % or more and 3.0 % or less



    [0017] Mn is an austenite-stabilizing element, and contributes to improved ductility by stabilizing austenite. To sufficiently achieve the effect, the Mn content needs to be 1.5 % or more. The Mn content is therefore 1.5 % or more, and preferably 1.8 % or more. If the Mn content is more than 3.0 %, martensite forms excessively, and as a result ductility and stretch flangeability decrease. The Mn content is therefore 3.0 % or less, and preferably 2.7 % or less.

    P: 0.05 % or less



    [0018] P is a harmful element that segregates to grain boundaries and decreases elongation to thus induce cracking during working and also cause a decrease in crashworthiness. The P content is therefore 0.05 % or less, and preferably 0.01 % or less. No lower limit is placed on the P content, and the P content may be 0 % or more. However, excessive dephosphorization leads to increases in refining time and cost, etc., and accordingly the P content is preferably 0.002 % or more.

    S: 0.01 % or less



    [0019] S exists in the steel as MnS and promotes void formation during punching, and also serves as an origin of void formation during working, thus decreasing stretch flangeability. Accordingly, the S content is preferably reduced as much as possible. The S content is 0.01 % or less, and preferably 0.005 % or less. No lower limit is placed on the S content, and the S content may be 0 % or more. However, excessive desulfurization leads to increases in refining time and cost, etc., and accordingly the S content is preferably 0.0002 % or more.

    Al: 0.01 % or more and 0.1 % or less



    [0020] Al is an element that acts as a deoxidizer. To achieve the effect, the Al content needs to be 0.01 % or more. The Al content is therefore 0.01 % or more. If the Al content is excessive, Al remains in the steel sheet as Al oxide, and the Al oxide tends to coagulate and coarsen, which causes a decrease in stretch flangeability. The Al content is therefore 0.1 % or less.

    N: 0.01 % or less



    [0021] N exists in the steel as AlN and promotes coarse void formation during punching, and also serves as an origin of coarse void formation during working, thus decreasing stretch flangeability. Accordingly, the N content is preferably reduced as much as possible. The N content is 0.01 % or less, and preferably 0.006 % or less. No lower limit is placed on the N content, and the N content may be 0 % or more. However, excessive denitrification leads to increases in refining time and cost, and accordingly the N content is preferably 0.0005 % or more.

    [0022] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to one of the disclosed embodiments can have a composition containing the above-described elements with the balance consisting of Fe and inevitable impurities.

    [0023] In another one of the disclosed embodiments, the composition may optionally further contain at least one selected from the following elements.

    Ti: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less



    [0024] Ti forms carbonitride, and increases the strength of the steel by the action of strengthening by precipitation. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Ti, the Ti content is 0.005 % or more. If the Ti content is excessive, precipitates form excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Ti content is therefore 0.035 % or less, and preferably 0.020 % or less.

    Nb: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less



    [0025] Nb forms carbonitride, and increases the strength of the steel by the action of strengthening by precipitation. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Nb, the Nb content is 0.005 % or more. If the Nb content is excessive, precipitates form excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Nb content is therefore 0.035 % or less, and preferably 0.030 % or less.

    V: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less



    [0026] V forms carbonitride, and increases the strength of the steel by the action of strengthening by precipitation. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding V, the V content is 0.005 % or more. If the V content is excessive, precipitates form excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The V content is therefore 0.035 % or less, and preferably 0.030 % or less.

    Mo: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less



    [0027] Mo forms carbonitride, and increases the strength of the steel by the action of strengthening by precipitation. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Mo, the Mo content is 0.005 % or more. If the Mo content is excessive, precipitates form excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Mo content is therefore 0.035 % or less, and preferably 0.030 % or less.

    B: 0.0003 % or more and 0.01 % or less



    [0028] B has an action of enhancing quench hardenability and facilitating the formation of tempered martensite, and thus is useful as a steel strengthening element. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding B, the B content is 0.0003 % or more. If the B content is excessive, tempered martensite forms excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The B content is therefore 0.01 % or less.

    Cr: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less



    [0029] Cr has an action of enhancing quench hardenability and facilitating the formation of tempered martensite, and thus is useful as a steel strengthening element. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Cr, the Cr content is 0.05 % or more. If the Cr content is excessive, tempered martensite forms excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Cr content is therefore 1.0 % or less.

    Ni: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less



    [0030] Ni has an action of enhancing quench hardenability and facilitating the formation of tempered martensite, and thus is useful as a steel strengthening element. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Ni, the Ni content is 0.05 % or more. If the Ni content is excessive, tempered martensite forms excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Ni content is therefore 1.0 % or less.

    Cu: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less



    [0031] Cu has an action of enhancing quench hardenability and facilitating the formation of tempered martensite, and thus is useful as a steel strengthening element. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Cu, the Cu content is 0.05 % or more. If the Cu content is excessive, tempered martensite forms excessively, which may cause a decrease in ductility. The Cu content is therefore 1.0 % or less.

    Sb: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less



    [0032] Sb has an action of suppressing the decarburization of the steel sheet surface layer (region of about several ten µm) caused by nitriding and oxidation of the steel sheet surface. Consequently, a decrease in the amount of austenite formed at the steel sheet surface can be prevented, and ductility can be further improved. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Sb, the Sb content is 0.002 % or more. If the Sb content is excessive, toughness may decrease. The Sb content is therefore 0.05 % or less.

    Sn: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less



    [0033] Sn has an action of suppressing the decarburization of the steel sheet surface layer (region of about several ten µm) caused by nitriding and oxidation of the steel sheet surface. Consequently, a decrease in the amount of austenite formed at the steel sheet surface can be prevented, and ductility can be further improved. To effectively exert the action, in the case of adding Sn, the Sn content is 0.002 % or more. If the Sn content is excessive, toughness may decrease. The Sn content is therefore 0.05 % or less.

    Ca: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less



    [0034] Ca has an action of controlling the form of sulfide inclusions, and is effective in suppressing a decrease in local ductility. To achieve the effect, in the case of adding Ca, the Ca content is preferably 0.0005 % or more. If the Ca content is excessive, the effect may be saturated. The Ca content is therefore preferably 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less.

    Mg: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less



    [0035] Mg has an action of controlling the form of sulfide inclusions, and is effective in suppressing a decrease in local ductility. To achieve the effect, in the case of adding Mg, the Mg content is 0.0005 % or more. If the Mg content is excessive, the effect may be saturated. The Mg content is therefore 0.005 % or less.

    REM: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less



    [0036] REM (rare earth metal) has an action of controlling the form of sulfide inclusions, and is effective in suppressing a decrease in local ductility. To achieve the effect, in the case of adding REM, the REM content is 0.0005 % or more. If the REM content is excessive, the effect may be saturated. The REM content is therefore 0.005 % or less.

    [0037] In other words, the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to one of the disclosed embodiments can have a composition that contains, in mass%,

    C: more than 0.15 % and 0.45 % or less,

    Si: 0.5 % or more and 2.5 % or less,

    Mn: 1.5 % or more and 3.0 % or less,

    P: 0.05 % or less,

    S: 0.01 % or less,

    Al: 0.01 % or more and 0.1 % or less,

    N: 0.01 % or less, and

    optionally at least one selected from the group consisting of

    Ti: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    Nb: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    V: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    Mo: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    B: 0.0003 % or more and 0.01 % or less,

    Cr: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Ni: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Cu: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Sb: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less,

    Sn: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less,

    Ca: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less,

    Mg: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less, and

    REM: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less,

    with the balance consisting of Fe and inevitable impurities.


    <Microstructure>



    [0038] The microstructure of the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure will be described below.

    F + BF: 20 % or more and 80 % or less



    [0039] Ferrite (F) and bainitic ferrite (BF) are soft steel microstructures, and contribute to improved ductility of the steel sheet. Since carbon hardly dissolves in these microstructures, as a result of discharging C in austenite, the stability of austenite is increased, thus contributing to improved ductility. To impart necessary ductility to the steel sheet, the total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite needs to be 20 % or more. The total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite is therefore 20 % or more, preferably 30 % or more, and more preferably 34 % or more. If the total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite is more than 80 %, it is difficult to ensure a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more. The total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite is therefore 80 % or less, and preferably 77 % or less.

    RA: more than 10 % and 40 % or less



    [0040] Retained austenite (RA) is a microstructure having high ductility, and also undergoes strain-induced transformation to further contribute to improved ductility. To achieve the effects, the area ratio of retained austenite needs to be more than 10 %. The area ratio of retained austenite is therefore more than 10 %, and preferably 12 % or more. If the area ratio of retained austenite is more than 40 %, the stability of retained austenite decreases and strain-induced transformation occurs early, as a result of which ductility decreases. The area ratio of retained austenite is therefore 40 % or less, and preferably 36 % or less. Herein, the volume fraction of retained austenite is calculated by the below-described method and taken to be the area ratio.

    TM: more than 0 % and 50 % or less



    [0041] Tempered martensite (TM) is a hard microstructure, and contributes to higher strength of the steel sheet. To strengthen the steel sheet, the area ratio of tempered martensite is more than 0 % (not including 0 %), preferably 3 % or more, and more preferably 8 % or more. If the area ratio of tempered martensite is more than 50 %, the desired ductility and stretch flangeability cannot be ensured. The area ratio of tempered martensite is therefore 50 % or less, preferably 40 % or less, more preferably 34 % or less, and further preferably 30 % or less.

    R1: 75 % or more



    [0042] Retained austenite improves the ductility of the steel sheet, but the contribution of retained austenite to improved ductility varies depending on the shape. Retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less is more stable in working and has a greater ductility improving effect than retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5. Retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5, which has low working stability, becomes hard martensite early during punching prior to a hole expanding test, and thus coarse voids tend to form around it. Particularly in the case where a lot of such retained austenite is exposed on the punched end surface, end surface cracking is induced. This causes hole expanding test failures, and increases the failure rate in the hole expanding test. On the other hand, retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less deforms along the flow of microstructure, and voids are unlikely to form around it. To ensure the desired ductility and sufficiently reduce the failure rate in the hole expanding test, the ratio (R1) of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less to retained austenite is 75 % or more, and preferably 80 % or more. No upper limit is placed on R1, and the upper limit may be 100 %. Herein, R1 = ((the area of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less)/(the area of all retained austenite)) × 100 (%).

    R2: 50 % or more



    [0043] Even in the case where retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 exists, if retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less exists in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more, punched end surface cracking caused by retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 is suppressed, and the failure rate in the hole expanding test is reduced considerably. Although the reason for this is not clear, we consider the reason as follows: As a result of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing so as to cover ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more where the orientation difference is large and stress tends to concentrate, stress concentrated due to deformation of retained austenite and deformation-induced martensite transformation can be relaxed. Consequently, stress concentration around retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 existing in the vicinity is reduced, and the formation of voids and cracks is suppressed. To sufficiently reduce the failure rate in the hole expanding test, the ratio (R2) of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less is 50 % or more, and preferably 65 % or more. No upper limit is placed on R2, and the upper limit may be 100 %. Herein, R2 = ((the area of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more)/(the area of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less)) × 100 (%).

    Average KAM value of bcc phase: 1° or less



    [0044] Even in the case where retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 exists, if the average KAM value of bcc phase is 1° or less, punched end surface cracking caused by retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 is suppressed, and the failure rate in the hole expanding test is reduced. Although the reason for this is not clear, we consider the reason as follows: Since bcc phase having a low KAM value has low GN dislocation density and accordingly deforms easily, stress concentration around retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 is reduced in punching, and the formation of voids and cracks is suppressed. To sufficiently reduce the failure rate in the hole expansion test, the average KAM value of bcc phase is 1° or less, and preferably 0.8° or less. No lower limit is placed on the average KAM value of bcc phase, and the lower limit may be 0°.

    <Tensile strength>



    [0045] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure has excellent strength, i.e. a tensile strength of 980 MPa or more, as described above. No upper limit is placed on the tensile strength, and the tensile strength may be 1320 MPa or less, and may be 1300 MPa or less.

    <Coated or plated layer>



    [0046] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure may further have a coated or plated layer at its surface, in terms of improving corrosion resistance and the like. The coated or plated layer is not limited, and any coated or plated layer may be used. For example, the coated or plated layer is preferably a zinc coated layer or a zinc alloy coated layer. The zinc alloy coated layer is preferably a zinc-based alloy coated layer. The method of forming the coated or plated layer is not limited, and any method may be used. For example, the coated or plated layer may be at least one selected from the group consisting of a hot-dip coated layer, an alloyed hot-dip coated layer, and an electroplated layer. The zinc alloy coated layer may be, for example, a zinc alloy coated layer containing at least one selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Al, Ni, Mn, Co, Sn, Pb, and Mo with the balance consisting of Zn and inevitable impurities.

    [0047] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet may have the coated or plated layer on one or both sides.

    [Method for manufacturing high-strength cold rolled steel sheet]



    [0048] A method for manufacturing the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure will be described below.

    [0049] The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure can be manufactured by subjecting a steel material having the foregoing composition to hot rolling, pickling, cold rolling, and annealing in sequence. The annealing includes three steps. By controlling the conditions in each annealing step, a high-strength cold rolled steel sheet having the microstructure described above can be obtained.

    <Steel material>



    [0050] The steel material having the foregoing composition is used as the starting material. The method of producing the steel material is not limited, and any method may be used. For example, the steel material may be produced by a known smelting method using a converter or an electric heating furnace. The shape of the steel material is not limited, but is preferably a slab. It is preferable to produce the slab (steel slab) as the steel material by continuous casting after smelting, in terms of productivity and the like. The steel slab may be produced by a known casting method such as ingot casting-blooming or thin slab continuous casting.

    <Hot rolling>



    [0051] The hot rolling is a process of hot rolling the steel material having the foregoing composition to obtain a hot rolled steel sheet. In the hot rolling, the steel material having the foregoing composition is heated and hot rolled. In the present disclosure, the microstructure is controlled by the below-described annealing, and accordingly the hot rolling is not limited and may be performed under any conditions. For example, commonly used hot rolling conditions may be used.

    [0052] For example, the steel material is heated to a heating temperature of 1100 °C or more and 1300 °C or less, and the heated steel material is hot rolled. The finisher delivery temperature in the hot rolling may be, for example, 850 °C or more and 950 °C or less. After the hot rolling ends, the steel material is cooled under any conditions. For example, the steel material is preferably cooled at an average cooling rate of 20 °C/sec or more and 100 °C/sec or less in a temperature range of 450 °C or more and 950 °C or less. After the cooling, for example, the steel material is coiled at a coiling temperature of 400 °C or more and 700 °C or less, to obtain the hot rolled steel sheet. These conditions are merely examples, and are not essential for the present disclosure.

    <Pickling>



    [0053] The pickling is a process of pickling the hot rolled steel sheet obtained as a result of the hot rolling. The pickling is not limited, and may be performed under any conditions. For example, commonly used pickling with hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, or the like may be used.

    <Cold rolling>



    [0054] The cold rolling is a process of cold rolling the hot rolled steel sheet after the pickling. In more detail, in the cold rolling, the hot rolled steel sheet that has been pickled is cold rolled at a rolling reduction of 30 % or more.

    <<Rolling reduction in cold rolling: 30 % or more>>



    [0055] The rolling reduction in the cold rolling is 30 % or more. If the rolling reduction is less than 30 %, the working amount is insufficient, and austenite nucleation sites decrease. Consequently, the austenite microstructure becomes coarse and non-uniform in the subsequent first annealing. Lower bainite transformation in the holding process in the first annealing is suppressed, and martensite forms excessively. This makes it impossible to obtain a microstructure mainly composed of lower bainite as the steel sheet microstructure after the first annealing. Martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. While the upper limit of the rolling reduction is determined based on the ability of the cold mill, an excessively high rolling reduction can increase the rolling load and decrease productivity. Accordingly, the rolling reduction is preferably 70 % or less. The number of rolling passes and the rolling reduction in each rolling pass are not limited.

    <Annealing>



    [0056] The annealing is a process of annealing the cold rolled steel sheet obtained as a result of the cold rolling. In more detail, the annealing includes the below-described first annealing, second annealing, and third annealing.

    <<First annealing>>



    [0057] The first annealing is a process of heating the cold rolled steel sheet obtained as a result of the cold rolling at an annealing temperature T1 of Ac3 point or more and 950 °C or less, cooling the cold rolled steel sheet from the annealing temperature T1 to a cooling stop temperature T2 of 250 °C or more and less than 350 °C at an average cooling rate of more than 10 °C/sec, and holding the cold rolled steel sheet at the cooling stop temperature T2 for 10 sec or more, to obtain a first cold rolled and annealed sheet. The purpose of this process is to cause the steel sheet microstructure at the completion of the first annealing to be a microstructure mainly composed of lower bainite. In particular, martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. Hence, in the case where martensite forms excessively in the first annealing, it is difficult to obtain the desired steel sheet microstructure. By limiting the manufacturing conditions to the foregoing ranges, the steel sheet whose microstructure is mainly composed of lower bainite is obtained, with it being possible to obtain the desired steel sheet microstructure after the second annealing.

    (Ac3 point)



    [0058] Ac3 point (°C) can be calculated according to the following Andrews' formula.



    [0059] Each bracketed symbol in the formula represents the content of the element in the brackets in the steel sheet (mass%). In the case where the element is not contained, the content is taken to be 0.

    (Annealing temperature T1: Ac3 point or more and 950 °C or less)



    [0060] If the annealing temperature T1 is less than Ac3 point, ferrite remains during the annealing, and, in the subsequent cooling, ferrite grows from such ferrite remaining during the annealing as a nucleus. C is thus distributed in austenite. Consequently, lower bainite transformation is suppressed in the subsequent holding, and martensite forms excessively. This makes it impossible to obtain a microstructure mainly composed of lower bainite as the steel sheet microstructure after the first annealing. The annealing temperature T1 is therefore Ac3 point or more. If the annealing temperature T1 is more than 950 °C, austenite grains coarsen excessively. Consequently, the formation of lower bainite in the holding after the cooling is suppressed, and martensite forms excessively. This makes it impossible to obtain a microstructure mainly composed of lower bainite as the steel sheet microstructure after the first annealing. Martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. The annealing temperature T1 is therefore 950 °C or less. The holding time at the annealing temperature T1 is not limited, and may be, for example, 10 sec or more and 1000 sec or less.

    (Average cooling rate from annealing temperature T1 to cooling stop temperature T2: more than 10 °C/sec)



    [0061] If the average cooling rate from the annealing temperature T1 to the cooling stop temperature T2 is 10 °C/sec or less, ferrite forms during the cooling. C is thus distributed in austenite. Consequently, lower bainite transformation is suppressed in the subsequent holding, and martensite forms excessively. This makes it impossible to obtain a microstructure mainly composed of lower bainite as the steel sheet microstructure after the first annealing. Martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. The average cooling rate from the annealing temperature T1 to the cooling stop temperature T2 is therefore more than 10 °C/sec, and preferably 15 °C/sec or more. No upper limit is placed on the average cooling rate, but the average cooling rate is preferably 50 °C/sec or less in terms of production technology, plant investment, etc., given that an excessively large cooling device is required to ensure an excessively high cooling rate. The cooling may be performed by any method. As the cooling method, at least one selected from the group consisting of gas cooling, furnace cooling, and mist cooling is preferable, and gas cooling is particularly preferable.

    (Cooling stop temperature T2: 250 °C or more and less than 350 °C)



    [0062] If the cooling stop temperature T2 is less than 250 °C, martensite forms excessively in the steel sheet microstructure. Martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. The cooling stop temperature T2 is therefore 250 °C or more, and preferably 270 °C or more. If the cooling stop temperature T2 is 350 °C or more, upper bainite forms instead of lower bainite. Since upper bainite has a much coarser microstructure size than lower bainite, upper bainite forms a lot of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less inside ferrite grains with an orientation difference of 40° or more after the subsequent second annealing, and thus the desired steel sheet microstructure after the second annealing cannot be obtained. The cooling stop temperature T2 is therefore less than 350 °C, and preferably 340 °C or less.

    (Holding time at cooling stop temperature T2: 10 sec or more)



    [0063] If the holding time at the cooling stop temperature T2 is less than 10 sec, lower bainite transformation does not complete adequately. Consequently, martensite forms excessively, and the desired microstructure cannot be obtained in the subsequent second annealing. Martensite portions after the first annealing tend to form retained austenite with an aspect ratio of more than 0.5 in the subsequent second annealing. The holding time at the cooling stop temperature T2 is therefore 10 sec or more, preferably 20 sec or more, and more preferably 30 sec or more. No upper limit is placed on the holding time at the cooling stop temperature T2, but the holding time is preferably 1800 sec or less, because holding for an excessively long time requires a long and large production line and results in a significant decrease in steel sheet productivity. After the holding at the cooling stop temperature T2, for example, the steel sheet may be cooled to the room temperature until the subsequent second annealing, or subjected to the second annealing without cooling.

    <<Second annealing>>



    [0064] The second annealing is a process of heating (reheating) the first cold rolled and annealed sheet obtained as a result of the first annealing at an annealing temperature T3 of 700 °C or more and 850 °C or less and cooling the first cold rolled and annealed sheet from the annealing temperature T3 to a cooling stop temperature T4 of 300 °C or more and 500 °C or less, to obtain a second cold rolled and annealed sheet.

    (Annealing temperature T3: 700 °C or more and 850 °C or less)



    [0065] If the annealing temperature T3 is less than 700 °C, a sufficient amount of austenite does not form in the annealing, so that the desired amount of retained austenite cannot be secured in the steel sheet microstructure after the second annealing, and ferrite becomes excessive. The annealing temperature T3 is therefore 700 °C or more, preferably 710 °C or more, and more preferably 740 °C or more. If the annealing temperature T3 is more than 850 °C, austenite forms excessively, and the effect of microstructure control before the second annealing is initialized. This makes it difficult to achieve the desired ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less and the desired ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less. The annealing temperature T3 is therefore 850 °C or less, preferably 830 °C or less, more preferably 800 °C or less, and further preferably 790 °C or less. The holding time at the annealing temperature T3 is not limited, and may be, for example, 10 sec or more and 1000 sec or less. The average cooling rate from the annealing temperature T3 to the cooling stop temperature T4 is not limited, and may be, for example, 5 °C/sec or more and 50 °C/sec or less.

    (Cooling stop temperature T4: 300 °C or more and 550 °C or less)



    [0066] If the cooling stop temperature T4 is less than 300 °C, the concentration of C in austenite is insufficient. Hence, the amount of retained austenite decreases, and a large amount of tempered martensite forms, so that the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The cooling stop temperature T4 is therefore 300 °C or more, and preferably 330 °C or more. If the cooling stop temperature T4 is more than 550 °C, ferrite and bainitic ferrite form in large amounts, and also pearlite forms from austenite. Hence, the amount of retained austenite decreases, and the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The cooling stop temperature T4 is therefore 550 °C or less, preferably 530 °C or less, and more preferably 500 °C or less.

    (Holding time at cooling stop temperature T4: 10 sec or more)



    [0067] If the holding time at the cooling stop temperature T4 is less than 10 sec, the concentration of C in austenite is insufficient. Hence, the amount of retained austenite decreases, and a large amount of tempered martensite forms, so that the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The holding time at the cooling stop temperature T4 is therefore 10 sec or more, preferably 20 sec or more, and more preferably 30 sec or more. No upper limit is placed on the holding time at the cooling stop temperature T4, and the holding time at the cooling stop temperature T4 may be, for example, 1800 sec or less.

    (Cooling to room temperature)



    [0068] After the holding at the cooling stop temperature T4, the first cold rolled and annealed sheet is cooled to the room temperature. By cooling the first cold rolled and annealed sheet to the room temperature, part of austenite transforms into martensite, and strain associated with such transformation causes the KAM value of bcc phase (martensite itself and adjacent ferrite, bainitic ferrite, etc.) to increase. The increased KAM value can be decreased by the below-described third annealing. In the case where the below-described third annealing is performed without cooling the first cold rolled and annealed sheet to the room temperature, part of austenite transforms into martensite after the completion of the third annealing, as a result of which the KAM value of bcc phase of the final microstructure increases and the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The cooling is not limited, and may be performed by any method such as allowing the steel sheet to naturally cool.

    <<Third annealing>>



    [0069] The third annealing is a process of heating (reheating) the second cold rolled and annealed sheet obtained as a result of the second annealing at an annealing temperature T5 of 100 °C or more and 550 °C or less to obtain a third cold rolled and annealed sheet.

    (Annealing temperature T5: 100 °C or more and 550 °C or less)



    [0070] If the annealing temperature T5 is more than 550 °C, pearlite forms from austenite. Hence, the amount of retained austenite decreases, and the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The annealing temperature T5 is therefore 550 °C or less, and preferably 530 °C or less. If the annealing temperature T5 is less than 100 °C, the effect of tempering is insufficient, and the average KAM value of bcc phase cannot be limited to 1° or less, so that the desired steel sheet microstructure cannot be obtained. The annealing temperature T5 is therefore 100 °C or more.

    [0071] The holding time at the annealing temperature T5 is not limited, and may be, for example, 10 sec or more and 86400 sec or less. In the case where the below-described coating or plating is not performed, the third cold rolled and annealed sheet obtained as a result of the third annealing is the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure.

    <Coating or plating>



    [0072] The method for manufacturing the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to one of the disclosed embodiments may further include coating or plating, i.e. a process of subjecting the second cold rolled and annealed sheet or the third cold rolled and annealed sheet to a coating or plating treatment. That is, the second cold rolled and annealed sheet may be subjected to the coating or plating treatment to form a coated or plated layer at its surface, at any point during the second annealing or after the completion of the second annealing as long as it is after the cooling to the cooling stop temperature T4 in the second annealing. In this case, the third cold rolled and annealed sheet obtained as a result of the third annealing being performed on the second cold rolled and annealed sheet having the coated or plated layer formed at its surface is the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure. Alternatively, the third cold rolled and annealed sheet obtained as a result of the third annealing may be further subjected to the coating or plating treatment to form a coated or plated layer at its surface. In this case, the third cold rolled and annealed sheet having the coated or plated layer formed at its surface is the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to the present disclosure.

    [0073] The coating or plating treatment is not limited, and may be performed by any method. For example, in the coating or plating, at least one selected from the group consisting of hot dip coating, alloyed hot dip coating, and electroplating may be used. For example, the coated or plated layer formed in the coating or plating is preferably a zinc coated layer or a zinc alloy coated layer. The zinc alloy coated layer is preferably a zinc-based alloy coated layer. The zinc alloy coated layer may be, for example, a zinc alloy coated layer containing at least one alloying element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Al, Ni, Mn, Co, Sn, Pb, and Mo with the balance consisting of Zn and inevitable impurities.

    [0074] Before the coating or plating treatment, a pretreatment such as degreasing and phosphate treatment may be optionally performed. For example, hot-dip galvanizing treatment is preferably a treatment of, using a commonly used continuous hot-dip galvanizing line, immersing the second cold rolled and annealed sheet in a hot-dip galvanizing bath to form a hot-dip galvanized layer of a predetermined weight at its surface. When immersing the second cold rolled and annealed sheet in the hot-dip galvanizing bath, it is preferable to adjust, by reheating or cooling, the temperature of the second cold rolled and annealed sheet to not less than the hot-dip galvanizing bath temperature - 50 °C and not more than the hot-dip galvanizing bath temperature + 60 °C. The temperature of the hot-dip galvanizing bath is preferably 440 °C or more and 500 °C or less. The hot-dip galvanizing bath may contain not only Zn but also the foregoing alloying element(s).

    [0075] The coating weight of the coated or plated layer is not limited, and may be any value. For example, the coating weight of the coated or plated layer is preferably 10 g/m2 or more per one side. The coating weight is preferably 100 g/m2 or less per one side.

    [0076] For example, in the case of forming the coated or plated layer by hot dip coating, the coating weight of the coated or plated layer can be controlled by a means such as gas wiping. The coating weight of the hot-dip coated layer is more preferably 30 g/m2 or more per one side. The coating weight of the hot-dip coated layer is more preferably 70 g/m2 or less per one side.

    [0077] The coated or plated layer (hot-dip coated layer) formed by the hot dip coating treatment may be optionally subjected to an alloying treatment to form an alloyed hot-dip coated layer. The temperature of the alloying treatment is not limited, but is preferably 460 °C or more and 600 °C or less. In the case of using a galvannealed layer as the coated or plated layer, a hot-dip galvanizing bath containing Al: 0.10 mass% or more and 0.22 mass% or less is preferably used, in terms of improving the appearance of the coated or plated layer.

    [0078] In the case of forming the coated or plated layer by electroplating, for example, the coating weight of the coated or plated layer can be controlled by adjusting the sheet passing speed and/or the current value. The coating weight of the electroplated layer is more preferably 20 g/m2 or more per one side. The coating weight of the electroplated layer is more preferably 40 g/m2 or less per one side.

    EXAMPLES



    [0079] The presently disclosed techniques will be described in detail below by way of examples, although the present disclosure is not limited to such.

    <Manufacture of cold rolled steel sheet>



    [0080] Molten steels of the compositions listed in Table 1 were each obtained by steelmaking by a commonly known technique, and continuously cast to form a slab (steel material) having a thickness of 300 mm. The obtained slab was hot rolled to obtain a hot rolled steel sheet. The obtained hot rolled steel sheet was pickled by a commonly known technique, and then cold rolled at the rolling reduction listed in Tables 2 and 3, to obtain a cold rolled steel sheet (sheet thickness: 1.4 mm).

    [0081] The obtained cold rolled steel sheet was subjected to annealing under the conditions listed in Tables 2 and 3, to obtain a third cold rolled and annealed sheet. The annealing was performed in three stages, namely, the first annealing, the second annealing, and the third annealing. In the first annealing, the holding time at the annealing temperature T1 was 100 sec. In the second annealing, the holding time at the annealing temperature T3 was 100 sec, and the average cooling rate from the annealing temperature T3 to the cooling stop temperature T4 was 20 °C/sec. In the third annealing, the holding time at the annealing temperature T5 was 21600 sec.

    [0082] For some second cold rolled and annealed sheets, after the cooling to the cooling stop temperature T4, a hot-dip galvanizing treatment was further performed to form a hot-dip galvanized layer at its surface, thus obtaining a hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. In the hot-dip galvanizing treatment, using a continuous hot-dip galvanizing line, the steel sheet after the cooling to the cooling stop temperature T4 was optionally reheated to a temperature of 430 °C or more and 480 °C or less, and then immersed in a hot-dip galvanizing bath (bath temperature: 470 °C) so that the coating weight of the coated or plated layer was 45 g/m2 per one side. The bath composition was Zn - 0.18 mass% Al.

    [0083] Here, for some hot-dip galvanized steel sheets, a bath composition of Zn - 0.14 mass% Al was used, and, after the coating or plating treatment, an alloying treatment was performed at 520 °C to form a galvannealed steel sheet. The Fe concentration in the coated or plated layer was 9 mass% or more and 12 mass% or less. For some other third cold rolled and annealed sheets, after the end of the annealing, an electrogalvanizing treatment was performed using an electrogalvanizing line so that the coating weight was 30 g/m2 per one side, to form an electrogalvanized steel sheet.

    [0084] In Tables 4 and 5, the types of the eventually obtained cold rolled steel sheets are indicated using the following symbols:
    CR:
    cold rolled steel sheet having no coated or plated layer
    GI:
    hot-dip galvanized steel sheet
    GA:
    galvannealed steel sheet
    EG:
    electrogalvanized steel sheet.

    <Evaluation>



    [0085] Test pieces were collected from the obtained cold rolled steel sheets, and microstructure observation, retained austenite fraction measurement, a tensile test, and a hole expanding test were conducted. The results are listed in Tables 4 and 5. The test methods are as follows.

    <<Microstructure observation>>



    [0086] First, a test piece for microstructure observation was collected from each cold rolled steel sheet. The collected test piece was then polished so that the observation plane was at the position corresponding to 1/4 of the sheet thickness in a cross section along the rolling direction (L-cross section). Next, after etching (1 vol% nital etching) the observation plane, the observation plane was observed for 10 observation fields using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, magnification: 3000 times), and SEM images were taken. Using the obtained SEM images, the area ratio of each microstructure was determined by image analysis. As the area ratio, the average value for 10 observation fields was used. In SEM images, ferrite and bainitic ferrite are gray, martensite and retained austenite are white, and substructure is revealed in tempered martensite. Accordingly, each microstructure was determined based on the tone of color and whether substructure is present. While ferrite and bainitic ferrite are not easily distinguishable from each other, the sum total of these microstructures is important here, and thus the total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite and the area ratio of tempered martensite were determined without distinguishing the microstructures.

    [0087] Further, each test piece was polished by colloidal silica vibrational polishing so that the observation plane was at the position corresponding to 1/4 of the sheet thickness in a cross section along the rolling direction (L-cross section). The observation plane was mirror finished. Next, after removing working transformation phase of the observation plane caused by polishing strain using ultra-low acceleration ion milling, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement was performed, and local crystal orientation data was obtained. In the measurement, the SEM magnification was 1500 times, the step size was 0.04 µm, the measurement region was 40 sq. µm, and the WD was 15 mm. The obtained local orientation data was analyzed using analytical software OIM Analysis 7. The analysis was performed for three observation fields, and the average value was used.

    [0088] Prior to the data analysis, clean-up processes by the grain dilation function (grain tolerance angle: 5, minimum grain size: 5, single iteration: ON), and the grain CI standardization function (grain tolerance angle: 5, minimum grain size: 5) of the analytical software were sequentially performed once. After this, only the measurement points of CI value > 0.1 were used in the analysis.

    [0089] For data of fcc phase, analysis was performed using "Grain Shape Aspect Ratio" chart with "Aspect Ratio". The ratio (R1) of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less to retained austenite was calculated. In the foregoing analysis, Method 2 was used as the grain shape calculation method.

    [0090] For data of bcc phase, after displaying ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more (boundaries between bcc phase with an orientation difference of 40° or more), the ratio (R2) of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more (including prior austenite grain boundaries) to the above-calculated retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less was calculated.

    [0091] Further, for data of bcc phase, a KAM value chart was displayed, and the average KAM value of bcc phase was calculated. This analysis was performed under the following conditions:

    Nearest neighbor: 1st

    Maximum misorientation: 5

    Perimeter only

    Set 0-point kernels to maximum misorientation: checked.


    <<Retained austenite fraction measurement>>



    [0092] A test piece for X-ray diffraction was collected from each cold rolled steel sheet, and ground and polished so that the measurement plane was at the position corresponding to 1/4 of the sheet thickness. The volume fraction of retained austenite was determined from the intensity of diffracted X rays by an X-ray diffraction method. CoKα rays were used as incident X rays. In the calculation of the volume fraction of retained austenite, the intensity ratio was calculated for all combinations of the peak integrated intensities of {111}, {200}, {220}, and {311} planes of fcc phase (retained austenite) and {110}, {200}, and {211} planes of bcc phase, and the average value of the intensity ratios was yielded to calculate the volume fraction of retained austenite. The volume fraction of austenite determined by X-ray diffraction was treated as being equal to the area ratio, and the volume fraction of austenite thus obtained was taken to be the area ratio.

    <<Tensile test>>



    [0093] A JIS No. 5 tensile test piece (JIS Z 2241: 2001) was collected from each cold rolled steel sheet so that the direction (C direction) orthogonal to the rolling direction was the tensile direction, and subjected to a tensile test in accordance with JIS Z 2241: 2001 to measure tensile strength (TS) and elongation (El).

    (Strength)



    [0094] The strength was evaluated as high in the case where TS was 980 MPa or more.

    (Ductility)



    [0095] The ductility was evaluated as high (favorable) in the case where El satisfied any of the following.
    • El: 25 % or more when TS was 980 MPa or more and less than 1180 MPa.
    • El: 18 % or more when TS was 1180 MPa or more.

    <<Hole expanding test>>



    [0096] A test piece (size: 100 mm × 100 mm) was collected from each cold rolled steel sheet, and a hole of 10 mmφ in initial diameter do was punched in the test piece (clearance: 12.5 % of the test piece sheet thickness). A hole expanding test was conducted using the resultant test piece. In detail, a conical punch with a vertex angle of 60° was inserted into the hole of 10 mmφ in initial diameter do from the punch side at the time of punching, to expand the hole. The diameter d (mm) of the hole when a crack ran through the steel sheet (test piece) was measured, and the hole expansion ratio λ (%) was calculated according to the following formula.



    [0097] The hole expanding test was performed 100 times for each steel sheet, and the average value was taken to be the average hole expansion ratio λ (%). The average hole expansion ratio λ is hereafter also referred to as "average λ". Moreover, the probability of the value of the hole expansion ratio λ being not greater than 60 % of the average hole expansion ratio λ was calculated, and taken to be the failure rate in the hole expanding test (%).

    (Stretch flangeability)



    [0098] The stretch flangeability was evaluated as favorable in the following cases.
    • Average λ: 25 % or more when TS was 980 MPa or more and less than 1180 MPa.
    • Average λ: 20 % or more when TS was 1180 MPa or more.

    (Failure rate in hole expanding test)



    [0099] The failure rate in the hole expanding test was evaluated as low in the case where the failure rate in the hole expanding test was 4 % or less.
    Table 1
    Steel sample IDChemical composition [mass%] *Ac3 point [°C]Remarks
    CSiMnPSNAlOthers
    A 0.27 1.81 2.50 0.020 0.0041 0.0038 0.028 - 824 Conforming steel
    B 0.29 1.11 2.35 0.006 0.0034 0.0027 0.054 - 805 Conforming steel
    C 0.27 1.03 2.33 0.013 0.0041 0.0032 0.016 - 788 Conforming steel
    D 0.39 1.43 1.82 0.007 0.0027 0.0034 0.037 - 810 Conforming steel
    E 0.17 1.26 2.43 0.013 0.0032 0.0049 0.034 Ti: 0.03 838 Conforming steel
    F 0.41 1.85 1.83 0.006 0.0032 0.0037 0.022 Nb: 0.01 819 Conforming steel
    G 0.23 0.93 2.69 0.005 0.0047 0.0030 0.025 V: 0.02 787 Conforming steel
    H 0.33 2.38 2.27 0.010 0.0041 0.0051 0.020 Mo: 0.03 843 Conforming steel
    I 0.21 1.03 1.64 0.014 0.0040 0.0043 0.031 B: 0.0025 828 Conforming steel
    J 0.24 1.14 2.92 0.010 0.0020 0.0057 0.027 Cr: 0.5 792 Conforming steel
    K 0.23 1.57 2.62 0.045 0.0021 0.0025 0.014 Ni: 0.8 799 Conforming steel
    L 0.28 1.22 2.63 0.010 0.0092 0.0030 0.032 Cu: 0.2 789 Conforming steel
    M 0.33 1.37 2.39 0.018 0.0029 0.0079 0.052 Sb: 0.018 807 Conforming steel
    N 0.31 1.61 2.48 0.018 0.0008 0.0037 0.086 Sn: 0.026 835 Conforming steel
    O 0.32 1.85 2.43 0.011 0.0020 0.0049 0.013 Ca: 0.0019 811 Conforming steel
    P 0.25 1.86 2.09 0.009 0.0045 0.0023 0.034 Mg: 0.0030 845 Conforming steel
    Q 0.39 2.06 1.92 0.015 0.0050 0.0036 0.012 REM: 0.004 824 Conforming steel
    R 0.12 1.98 2.56 0.018 0.0039 0.0058 0.059 - 879 Comparative steel
    s 0.49 1.02 2.41 0.004 0.0036 0.0036 0.027 - 754 Comparative steel
    T 0.31 0.31 2.40 0.015 0.0016 0.0030 0.045 - 760 Comparative steel
    U 0.26 2.76 2.38 0.005 0.0013 0.0058 0.023 - 870 Comparative steel
    V 0.22 1.39 1.35 0.017 0.0036 0.0035 0.019 - 846 Comparative steel
    W 0.35 2.08 3.41 0.013 0.0038 0.0045 0.022 - 791 Comparative steel
    * Balance consisting of Fe and inevitable impurities
    Table 2
    No.Steel sample IDCold rollingFirst annealingSecond annealingThird annealingRemarks
    Rolling reduction [%]Annealing temperature T1 [°C]Average cooling rate from T1 to T2 [°C/s]Cooling stop temperature T2 [°C]Holding time [s]Annealing temperature T3 [°C]Cooling stop temperature T4 [°C]Holding time [s]Cooling to room temperatureAnnealing temperature T5 [°C]
    1 A 60 880 40 310 340 770 500 80 Performed 220 Example
    2 B 65 810 30 340 110 770 480 60 Performed 230 Example
    3 C 65 870 35 290 130 750 410 690 Performed 170 Example
    4 D 30 840 20 290 310 750 400 90 Performed 430 Example
    5 E 30 860 25 300 70 770 460 100 Performed 370 Example
    6 F 50 900 25 300 280 790 470 120 Performed 170 Example
    7 G 70 860 40 340 230 750 530 30 Performed 110 Example
    8 H 70 870 25 270 50 790 400 130 Performed 380 Example
    9 I 35 860 15 330 270 790 500 40 Performed 190 Example
    10 J 40 860 15 280 130 740 490 30 Performed 180 Example
    11 K 55 820 25 320 40 790 450 300 Performed 330 Example
    12 L 60 840 25 340 50 740 440 200 Performed 220 Example
    13 M 55 850 35 320 90 750 350 690 Performed 320 Example
    14 N 50 860 30 320 120 770 470 350 Performed 100 Example
    15 O 60 890 30 300 50 760 470 90 Performed 180 Example
    16 P 50 930 30 270 390 780 480 420 Performed 230 Example
    17 Q 35 880 25 300 160 790 410 740 Performed 290 Example
    18 R 50 910 40 320 730 820 390 180 Performed 300 Comparative Example
    19 S 45 830 20 340 100 710 330 80 Performed 390 Comparative Example
    20 T 50 780 20 320 390 740 370 170 Performed 100 Comparative Example
    21 U 50 930 35 320 150 830 360 240 Performed 250 Comparative Example
    22 V 35 910 25 310 180 830 400 410 Performed 140 Comparative Example
    23 W 40 860 30 320 440 730 440 70 Performed 320 Comparative Example
    Table 3
    No.Steel sample IDCold rollingFirst annealingSecond annealingThird annealingRemarks
    Rolling reduction [%]Annealing temperature T1 [°C]Average cooling rate from T1 to T2 [°C/s]Cooling stop temperature T2 [°C]Holding time [s]Annealing temperature T3 [°C]Cooling stop temperature T4 [°C]Holding time [s]Cooling to room temperatureAnnealing temperature T5 [°C]
    24 A 20 870 30 290 290 770 340 40 Performed 330 Comparative Example
    25 A 50 805 30 270 290 760 310 60 Performed 300 Comparative Example
    26 A 50 970 30 290 70 790 530 30 Performed 340 Comparative Example
    27 A 70 880 5 300 640 780 340 270 Performed 390 Comparative Example
    28 A 55 860 15 220 160 760 320 320 Performed 240 Comparative Example
    29 A 40 890 25 410 100 800 500 130 Performed 390 Comparative Example
    30 A 60 850 35 340 5 810 410 20 Performed 240 Comparative Example
    31 A 50 890 15 300 270 680 470 340 Performed 430 Comparative Example
    32 B 50 860 15 300 140 870 540 200 Performed 310 Comparative Example
    33 B 35 860 25 300 90 770 280 20 Performed 260 Comparative Example
    34 B 35 880 25 320 50 770 560 110 Performed 330 Comparative Example
    35 B 45 860 25 300 200 750 350 5 Performed 110 Comparative Example
    36 B 65 840 20 340 360 760 330 20 No: cooled to 320°C 140 Comparative Example
    37 B 55 860 15 290 220 740 410 300 No: cooled to 210°C 290 Comparative Example
    38 B 30 820 30 340 290 780 370 160 Performed 50 Comparative Example
    39 B 50 810 30 280 550 760 350 160 Performed 610 Comparative Example
    40 B 45 890 20 340 170 750 360 90 Performed - Comparative Example
    41 A 65 910 35 270 100 760 530 210 Performed 200 Example
    42 A 65 890 25 320 20 790 330 170 Performed 440 Example
    43 A 70 890 15 290 1700 790 380 110 Performed 320 Example
    44 B 45 870 20 320 1350 760 360 1480 Performed 350 Example
    45 B 65 860 25 290 250 780 450 60 Performed 530 Example
    46 B 40 870 40 290 40 780 340 1280 Performed 100 Example
    Table 4
    No.Steel sheetMicrostructure *Evaluation resultsRemarks
    Steel sample IDTypeF+BFTMRAOthersR1R2Average KAM value of bcc phase [°]TS [MPa]El [%]Average λ [%]Failure rate in hole expanding test [%]
    Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]
    1 A CR 44 28 28 - 85 77 0.49 1216 25 26 0 Example
    2 B CR 55 23 22 - 82 83 0.23 1178 27 25 0 Example
    3 c EG 52 26 22 - 81 77 0.38 1208 25 24 0 Example
    4 D GA 72 12 16 - 91 83 0.78 992 37 31 0 Example
    5 E CR 40 34 26 - 94 80 0.46 1263 25 21 0 Example
    6 F GI 70 14 16 - 87 61 0.50 1031 34 28 2 Example
    7 G GA 38 30 32 - 80 68 0.69 1262 24 26 0 Example
    8 H EG 57 19 24 - 91 80 0.79 1122 28 25 0 Example
    9 I GA 72 10 18 - 94 77 0.43 1003 36 30 0 Example
    10 J CR 34 30 36 - 84 76 0.82 1298 24 24 0 Example
    11 K CR 49 26 25 - 86 54 0.73 1154 29 26 2 Example
    12 L GI 38 31 31 - 94 67 0.73 1302 23 25 0 Example
    13 M GA 48 25 27 - 99 77 0.77 1194 25 26 0 Example
    14 N GA 54 20 26 - 99 84 0.60 1131 28 25 0 Example
    15 0 GI 42 28 30 - 94 73 0.76 1245 26 27 0 Example
    16 P GA 60 19 21 - 93 85 0.55 1132 32 26 0 Example
    17 Q GA 77 8 15 - 87 77 0.58 995 38 30 0 Example
    18 R CR 85 6 9 - 88 68 0.86 763 28 50 0 Comparative Example
    19 S CR 23 53 24 - 92 80 0.62 1187 15 13 0 Comparative Example
    20 I CR 70 22 8 P 96 83 0.40 1155 16 24 0 Comparative Example
    21 U CR 55 23 22 - 86 65 0.49 1135 17 26 0 Comparative Example
    22 V CR 91 4 5 P 93 82 0.64 682 31 50 0 Comparative Example
    23 W CR 27 57 16 - 84 52 0.46 1413 18 13 2 Comparative Example
    * F: Ferrite, BF: Bainitic ferrite, TM: Tempered martensite, RA: Retained austenite, P: Pearlite
    Table 5
    No.Steel sheetMicrostructure *Evaluation resultsRemarks
    Steel sample IDTypeF+BFTMRAOthersR1R2Average KAM value of bcc phase [°]TS [MPa]El [%]Average λ [%]Failure rate in hole expanding test [%]
    Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]Area ratio [%]
    24 A CR 47 26 27 - 73 89 0.57 1262 16 21 5 Comparative Example
    25 A CR 61 18 21 - 59 62 0.26 1132 18 25 4 Comparative Example
    26 A CR 57 20 23 - 54 69 0.55 1112 19 31 6 Comparative Example
    27 A CR 42 29 29 - 69 77 0.68 1261 13 22 5 Comparative Example
    28 A CR 48 27 25 - 71 65 0.48 1238 15 22 8 Comparative Example
    29 A CR 50 24 26 - 92 43 0.36 1197 26 24 4 Comparative Example
    30 A CR 49 27 24 - 71 58 0.30 1223 17 24 6 Comparative Example
    31 A CR 93 0 7 - 84 92 0.72 865 19 38 0 Comparative Example
    32 B CR 63 13 24 - 63 38 0.56 1071 21 27 9 Comparative Example
    33 B CR 39 52 9 - 94 61 0.47 1073 21 16 1 Comparative Example
    34 B CR 91 3 6 P 81 73 0.44 793 24 46 0 Comparative Example
    35 B CR 38 55 7 - 93 81 0.55 1230 16 12 0 Comparative Example
    36 B CR 60 20 20 - 86 84 1.36 1073 31 27 6 Comparative Example
    37 B CR 48 26 26 - 93 84 1.18 1226 25 22 5 Comparative Example
    38 B CR 59 19 22 - 98 67 1.09 1160 27 24 6 Comparative Example
    39 B CR 71 21 8 - 85 63 0.89 1112 19 31 2 Comparative Example
    40 B CR 51 22 27 - 82 81 1.28 1191 27 23 5 Comparative Example
    41 A CR 45 25 30 - 76 66 0.45 1239 19 26 3 Example
    42 A CR 54 20 26 - 78 66 0.81 1126 26 26 3 Example
    43 A GI 48 28 24 - 85 80 0.51 1201 27 23 0 Example
    44 B GA 50 25 25 - 96 70 0.52 1194 27 24 0 Example
    45 B GA 61 27 12 - 94 56 0.68 1186 18 28 1 Example
    46 B CR 58 19 23 - 85 69 0.38 1180 28 27 0 Example
    * F: Ferrite, BF: Bainitic ferrite, TM: Tempered martensite, RA: Retained austenite, P: Pearlite


    [0100] FIG. 1 is a graph in which part of the results of Tables 4 and 5 is plotted. In more detail, FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating the influences that the ratio (R2) of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less and the average KAM value of bcc phase have on the failure rate in the hole expanding test. In FIG. 1, each circle mark indicates that the failure rate in the hole expanding test was 4 % or less, and each cross mark indicates that the failure rate in the hole expanding test was more than 4 %. The graph in FIG. 1 illustrates samples in which the ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less to retained austenite was 75 % or more.

    [0101] As illustrated in the graph in FIG. 1, a steel sheet having a low failure rate in the hole expanding test was obtained only in the case where R2 was 50 % or more and the average KAM value of bcc phase was 1° or less.

    [0102] As is clear from Tables 1 to 5 and FIG. 1, all cold rolled steel sheets satisfying the conditions according to the present disclosure had high strength, i.e. a tensile strength (TS) of 980 MPa or more, favorable ductility and stretch flangeability, and a low failure rate in the hole expanding test. On the other hand, the cold rolled steel sheets of comparative examples not satisfying the conditions according to the present disclosure were inferior in at least one of these properties.


    Claims

    1. A high-strength cold rolled steel sheet comprising:

    a composition containing, in mass%,

    C: more than 0.15 % and 0.45 % or less,

    Si: 0.5 % or more and 2.5 % or less,

    Mn: 1.5 % or more and 3.0 % or less,

    P: 0.05 % or less,

    S: 0.01 % or less,

    Al: 0.01 % or more and 0.1 % or less, and

    N: 0.01 % or less,

    with a balance consisting of Fe and inevitable impurities; and

    a microstructure in which:

    a total area ratio of ferrite and bainitic ferrite is 20 % or more and 80 % or less;

    an area ratio of retained austenite is more than 10 % and 40 % or less;

    an area ratio of tempered martensite is more than 0 % and 50 % or less;

    a ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less to the retained austenite is 75 % or more in area ratio;

    a ratio of retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less existing in ferrite grain boundaries with an orientation difference of 40° or more to the retained austenite with an aspect ratio of 0.5 or less is 50 % or more in area ratio; and

    an average KAM value of bcc phase is 1° or less.


     
    2. The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to claim 1, wherein the composition further contains, in mass%, at least one selected from the group consisting of

    Ti: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    Nb: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    V: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    Mo: 0.005 % or more and 0.035 % or less,

    B: 0.0003 % or more and 0.01 % or less,

    Cr: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Ni: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Cu: 0.05 % or more and 1.0 % or less,

    Sb: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less,

    Sn: 0.002 % or more and 0.05 % or less,

    Ca: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less,

    Mg: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less, and

    REM: 0.0005 % or more and 0.005 % or less.


     
    3. The high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to claim 1 or 2, comprising
    a coated or plated layer at a surface thereof.
     
    4. A method for manufacturing the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to any one of claims 1 to 3, the method comprising:

    hot rolling a steel material having the composition according to claim 1 or 2, to obtain a hot rolled steel sheet;

    pickling the hot rolled steel sheet;

    cold rolling the hot rolled steel sheet that has been pickled at a rolling reduction of 30 % or more, to obtain a cold rolled steel sheet;

    heating the cold rolled steel sheet at an annealing temperature T1 of Ac3 point or more and 950 °C or less, cooling the cold rolled steel sheet from the annealing temperature T1 to a cooling stop temperature T2 of 250 °C or more and less than 350 °C at an average cooling rate of more than 10 °C/sec, and holding the cold rolled steel sheet at the cooling stop temperature T2 for 10 sec or more, to obtain a first cold rolled and annealed sheet;

    heating the first cold rolled and annealed sheet at an annealing temperature T3 of 700 °C or more and 850 °C or less, cooling the first cold rolled and annealed sheet from the annealing temperature T3 to a cooling stop temperature T4 of 300 °C or more and 550 °C or less, holding the first cold rolled and annealed sheet at the cooling stop temperature T4 for 10 sec or more, and cooling the first cold rolled and annealed sheet to a room temperature, to obtain a second cold rolled and annealed sheet; and

    heating the second cold rolled and annealed sheet at an annealing temperature T5 of 100 °C or more and 550 °C or less, to obtain a third cold rolled and annealed sheet.


     
    5. The method for manufacturing the high-strength cold rolled steel sheet according to claim 4, further comprising
    subjecting the second cold rolled and annealed sheet or the third cold rolled and annealed sheet to a coating or plating treatment.
     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description