(19)
(11)EP 3 747 650 B1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT SPECIFICATION

(45)Mention of the grant of the patent:
27.07.2022 Bulletin 2022/30

(21)Application number: 20188142.2

(22)Date of filing:  14.03.2014
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B32B 27/10(2006.01)
D21J 1/08(2006.01)
B05D 1/26(2006.01)
B32B 27/20(2006.01)
C08J 5/04(2006.01)
D21F 11/12(2006.01)
B32B 27/12(2006.01)
B32B 19/02(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
D21F 11/12; B32B 27/12; B32B 19/02; B32B 27/20; B32B 2260/025; B32B 2260/046; B32B 2264/10; B32B 2307/702; B32B 2307/72; B32B 2307/7246; B32B 2439/00; B05D 1/265; B05D 2252/00; Y10T 428/258; Y10T 428/259; Y10T 428/24967; Y10T 428/264; D21J 1/08; B32B 27/10; B29B 17/0412; B29B 2017/0224; B29B 2017/0251; B29B 17/02; B29L 2031/7166; B29L 2009/00; Y02W 30/52; Y02W 30/62

(54)

REPULPABLE AND RECYCLABLE COMPOSITE PACKAGING ARTICLES AND RELATED METHODS

REPULPIERBARE UND WIEDERVERWENDBARE VERBUNDVERPACKUNGSARTIKEL UND ENTSPRECHENDE VERFAHREN

ARTICLES D'EMBALLAGE COMPOSITE RECYCLABLES ET POUVANT ÊTRE REMIS SOUS FORME DE PULPE ET PROCÉDÉS ASSOCIÉS


(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 14.03.2013 US 201361782291 P
19.09.2013 US 201361879888 P

(43)Date of publication of application:
09.12.2020 Bulletin 2020/50

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
18175733.7 / 3415312
14769674.4 / 2969560

(73)Proprietor: Smart Planet Technologies, Inc.
Newport Beach, CA 92663 (US)

(72)Inventor:
  • TILTON, Christopher R.
    Dana Point, CA 92639 (US)

(74)Representative: Wichmann, Hendrik 
Wuesthoff & Wuesthoff Patentanwälte PartG mbB Schweigerstraße 2
81541 München
81541 München (DE)


(56)References cited: : 
US-A1- 2009 142 528
  
  • F.A. RUIZ: "Achieving LDPE coating adhesion to clay-coated board using calcium carbonate addition", POLYMERS, LAMINATES & COATINGS CONFERENCE, 1 January 1997 (1997-01-01), pages 555-558, XP055654352,
  
Note: Within nine months from the publication of the mention of the grant of the European patent, any person may give notice to the European Patent Office of opposition to the European patent granted. Notice of opposition shall be filed in a written reasoned statement. It shall not be deemed to have been filed until the opposition fee has been paid. (Art. 99(1) European Patent Convention).


Description

Technical Field



[0001] The present invention generally relates to recyclable composite packaging structures including a fiber-containing layer and a mineral-containing barrier layer.

Background



[0002] Packages and packaging materials for retail and shipping purposes are typically designed to be sufficiently durable to allow reliable use of the materials and protection of packaged goods. For environmental and economic reasons, pulping and recycling characteristics are critical considerations in the development of such packages and materials. Other important considerations include barrier performance, heat seal during fabrication, surface energy, and efficiency in manufacturing.

[0003] F.A. RUIZ ("Achieving LDPE coating adhesion to clay-coated board using calcium carbonate addition", POLYMERS, LAMINATES & COATINGS CONFERENCE, 1 January 1997, pages 555-558) discloses LDPE-based pelleted calcium carbonate concentrates for addition to LDPE homopolymers to provide a coating onto a clay-coated board.

[0004] US 2009/47511 discloses a composite structure by weight containing less than 20% polymer and containing at least 5% natural mineral content, wherein the composite structure comprises a fiber-containing layer formed of a non-impregnated rolled or sheet natural fibers.

SUMMARY



[0005] The present embodiments have several features, no single one of which is solely responsible for their desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of the present embodiments as expressed by the claims that follow, their more prominent features now will be discussed briefly. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled "Detailed Description," one will understand how the features of the present embodiments provide the advantages described herein.

[0006] Any or all of the below listed aspects may be a part of the present embodiments:

[0007] Mineral particle densities within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may be from about 2.4 g/cm3 to about 4.9 g/cm3.

[0008] Mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may comprise the cube and block class.

[0009] Calcium carbonate particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have about 18-80% particle diameters finer than 6 µm and about 33-96% particle diameters less than 10 µm.

[0010] A hardness of mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may be from about 2.0 to 4.0 Mohs.

[0011] Mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have 0.05 to 0.5 maximum % on 44 µm nominal sieve opening (0.044 mm (325 mesh)) per ASTM D1199.

[0012] Mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have a pH from about 8.5 to about 10.5.

[0013] The polymer bonding agent(s) within the mineral-containing layer may have densities from about 0.908 g/cm3 to about 1.60 g/cm3.

[0014] The polymer bonding agent(s) within the mineral-containing layer may have a physical melt flow index from about 4 g/10 min to about 16 g/10 min.

[0015] Minerals may be fully dispersed within the polymer bonding agent matrix.

[0016] The polymer bonding agent(s) within the mineral-containing layer may have a molecular weight (Mz) from about 150,000 to about 300,000.

[0017] The polymer content weight of the mineral-containing layer may be from about 5.7 g/m2 (3.5 lbs/3 msf) to about 81.37 g/m2 (50 lbs/3msf).

[0018] The mineral-containing layer may have a modulus from about 1.8 GPa to about 4.5 GPa.

[0019] About 40-60% of the mineral-containing layer may have a coefficient of thermal expansion from about 1 × 10-6 cm/cm (in/in) to about 8 × 10-6 cm/cm (in/in).

[0020] The mineral-containing layer may be applied to the fiber-containing layer in coat weights from about 3 g/m2 to about 20 g/m2.

[0021] Surfaces of the mineral-containing layer may have a coefficient of static friction from about 0.18 to about 0.59.

[0022] The mineral-containing layer may include a mixture of crystalline, semi-crystalline, and amorphous structures.

[0023] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may have a crystallinity from about 60% to about 85%.

[0024] The mineral-containing layer may contain coupling agents from about 0.05% to about 15% by weight.

[0025] The mineral-containing layer may contain from about 0.5% to about 10% plastomers and elastomers with densities from about 0.86 g/cm3 to about 0.89 g/cm3 per ASTM D 792.

[0026] The mineral-containing layer may have differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) melting peaks from about 59 °C to about 110 °C.

[0027] The mineral-containing layer molecular weight ranges (Mw) may be from about 10,000 to about 100,000.

[0028] About 10% to about 70% of the mineral-containing layer may have a branching index (g') of about 0.99 or less as measured at the Z-average molecular weight (Mz) of the bonding agent.

[0029] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may have an isotactic run length from about 1 to about 40.

[0030] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may have a physical shear rate from about 1 to about 10,000 at temperatures from about 180 °C to about 410 °C.

[0031] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may have from about 20% to about 60% amorphous structure and from about 20% to about 55% crystalline structure.

[0032] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may comprise polyethylene having an amorphous fraction from about 40% to about 85%.

[0033] The mineral-containing layer may have a copolymer isotacticity index from about 20% to about 50% as measured by the DSC method.

[0034] Mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have an average surface area from about 1.0-1.3 m2/g to about 1.8-2.3 m2/g.

[0035] Mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have a Green Hunter reflectance range from about 91% to about 97%, and a Blue Hunter reflectance range from about 89% to about 96%.

[0036] The fiber-containing layer may contain inorganic mineral coatings and fillers, including without limitation, kaolin clay, mica, silica, TiO2, and other pigments.

[0037] The fiber-containing layer may contain vinyl and polymeric fillers.

[0038] A surface smoothness of the fiber-containing layer may be in the range of about 150 to about 200 Bekk seconds.

[0039] The fiber-containing layer may have an ash content from about 1% to about 40%.

[0040] The fiber-containing layer may have any or all the characteristics presented in the following table:
Fiber Aspect Ratio (Average) 5-100
Fiber Thickness (Softwood) 1.5-30 mm
Fiber Thickness (Hardwood) 0.5-30 mm
Filled Fiber Content 1% to 30%
Fiber Density 0.3-0.7 g/cm2
Fiber Diameter 16-42 microns
Fiber Coarseness 16-42 mg/100m
Fiber Pulp Types (Single- to Triple-Layered)Mechanical, Thermo-Mechanical, Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical, and Chemical
Permeability 0.1-110 m2 × 1015
Hydrogen Ion Concentration 4.5-10
Tear Strength (Tappi 496, 402) 56-250
Tear Resistance (Tappi 414) m49-250
Moisture Content 2%-18% by Weight


[0041] The fiber-containing layer may have any or all the characteristics presented in the following table:
Fiber Weight g/m2 (lbs/3msf)g/m2Tear Resistance (Mn)Surface RoughnessBurst Strength (kPa)
65.1-122.06 (40-75) 60-110 400-700 2.0-5.5 µm 140-300
122.06 (75) 110-130 650-750 2.0-3.5 µm 175-400
187.16 (115) 180-190 1400-1900 100-2500 mls/min 175-475
211.57 (130) 205-215 1600-2200 100-2500 mls/min 250-675
325.5 (200) 315-330 1900-3200 100-2500 mls/min 500-950
488.24 (300) 460-195 500-4000 100-2500 mls/min 700-1850


[0042] The mineral-containing layer may comprise a multilayer coextrusion, such as up to six layers, with each layer having from about 0% to about 70% by weight mineral content with a polymer bonding agent.

[0043] A weight of the overall composite may be from about 4.07 g/m2 (2.5 lbs/3msf) to about 244.12 g/m2 (150 lbs/3msf).

[0044] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may comprise linear, branched, and/or highly branched polymers.

[0045] The polymer bonding agent(s) of the mineral-containing layer may comprise polyolefin(s) having a number average molecular weight distributions (Mn) from about 5,500 to about 13,000, a weight average molecular weight (Mz) from about 170,000 to about 490,000, and/or a Z-average molecular weight (Mz) from about 170,000 to about 450,000.

[0046] The mineral-containing layer may have a Mw/Mn ratio from about 6.50 to about 9.50.

[0047] The mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may be surface treated at levels from about 1.6 to about 3.5 mg surface agent/m2 of the particle.

[0048] The mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may have a particle top cut from about d98 of 4-15 microns and a surface area from about 3.3 m2/g to about 10 m2/g.

[0049] The mineral particles within the polymer matrix of the mineral-containing layer may comprise CaCO3 coated with fatty acids having from about 8 to about 24 carbon atoms, with a surface treatment level from about 0.6% to about 1.5% by weight of the treatment, or from about 90% to about 99% by weight of the CaCO3.

[0050] The mineral-containing layer may be from about 12.7 µm (0.5 mil) thick to about 127 µm (5 mil thick).

[0051] Examples of non-fiber content in the fiber-containing layer include, but are not limited to, about 50-95% of #1 clay or #1 fine clay, about 3-20% by part calcined clay, about 3-40% by part TiO2, about 2-45% vinyl acrylic, and from about 1% to about 35% protein binders, co-binders, or tri-binders.

[0052] The mineral-containing layer may contain incremental quartz-silica content.

[0053] A process for recycling the present composite structure may have reject rates from about 10% to about 25% by weight of the starting composite, and screen plate efficiencies from about 60% to about 100%, with screen plates having the option of using hole, slotted, and contoured screens with one screen behind the other with an A plate having the smallest perforations, an intermediary B plate, and a C plate having the largest perforations, using processes including high density, forward, and through flow cleaners having a diameter from about 70 mm to about 400 mm and particle process out of fibers having reject rates of about 0.1% to about 30% and a particle removal efficiency from about 50% to 90% by mass, and particle sizes from about 150 microns to 0.05 microns.

[0054] A process for recycling the present composite structure may have feed-accept pressures in the range of about 2 kPa to about 12 kPa on smooth contoured and heavily contoured screens.

[0055] The present composite materials may have a pulper consistency from about 3% to about 30%, pulping temperatures from about 311 K (100 °F) to about 366.48 K (200 °F), pulping times from about 10 min. to about 60 min., with pulping pH from about 6 to about 9.5 ±0.5, and screen holes from about 1.27 mm (0.050") to about 1.90 mm (0.075") and slots from about 0.15 mm (0.006") to about 0.51 mm (0.020"), drum pulping having an RPM from about 9 to about 20, having 4 mm to about 8 mm holes, with hole-type screens with holes from about 0.8 mm to about 1.5 mm in size, coarse to fine screen holes and slots from about 0.150 mm to about 2.8 mm, and screen rotor circumference speeds from about 10 m/s to about 30 m/s.

[0056] The present invention refers to a recyclable composite packaging structure as defined in the claims. The recyclable composite packaging structure may comprise about 1% to about 40% inorganic matter. The recyclable composite packaging structure may comprise a total repulping recovery up to 98%. The mineral particles may comprise diatomaceous earth with ultrafine nanoparticles having densities from about 2.4 g/cm3 to about 4.9 g/cm3 and particle sizes from about 100 nm to about 10 µm. The polyolefin bonding agent may have molecular weights from about Mw 10,000 to about Mw 100,000 and a branching index (g') from about 0.99 to about 0.65 as measured at the Z-average molecular weight (Mz) of the polymer. The polyolefin bonding agent may have an isotactic run length from about 1 to about 40. The polyolefin bonding agent may have a shear rate from about 1 to about 10,000 at temperatures from about 180 °C to about 410 °C. The mineral particles may be cube or block particles. The mineral particles may have an average surface area from about 1-1.3 m2/g to about 1.8-2.3 m2/g. The mineral particles may comprise calcium carbonate particles having from about 18%-80% particle diameters finer than 6 µm and from about 33%-96% particle diameters less than 10 µm and top cut from about d98 of 4-15 µm and a surface area from about 3.3 m2/g to about 10 m2/g, a surface treatment level from about 0.6% to about 1.5% by weight of treatment agent or about 99% by weight of the calcium carbonate. The fiber-containing layer may comprise nano-cellulose having a crystalline content from about 40% to about 70%, including nano-fibrils, micro-fibrils, and non-fibril bundles having lateral dimensions from about 4 nm to about 30 nm and highly crystalline nano-whiskers from about 100 nm to about 1,000 nm, with fiber widths from about 3 nm to about 15 nm, having charge densities from about 0.5 meq/g to about 1.5 meq/g, and the nano-cellulose having a stiffness from about 140 GPa to about 220 GPa and a tensile strength from about 400 MPa to about 600 MPa. Some of the mineral particles may contain fatty acid and stearate coatings having a Hunter reflectance (green) from about 91% to about 97%, a Hunter reflectance (blue) from about 89% to about 96%, a Mohs hardness from about 2.75 to about 4.0, a particle pH in water, 5% slurry, at 23 °C, from about 8.5 to about 10.5, a particle resistance in water, at 23 °C, from about 5,000 ohms to about 25,000 ohms, an ASTM D1199 maximum percentage on a 44 µm nominal sieve opening (0.044 mm (325 mesh)) from about 0.05 to about 0.5, a volume resistivity at 20 °C of 109 to about 1011 ohms, a standard heat of formation from its elements at 25 °C from about 288.45 to about 288.49 kg-cal/mole, a standard free energy of formation from its elements from about 269.53 to about 269.78 kg-cal/mole, a specific heat 1g 1°C (between 0 °C and 100 °C) from about 0.200 to about 0.214, a heat conductivity of about 0.0071 g-ca/sec/cm2/1 cm thick at 20 °C, a coefficient of linear expansion C=9 × 10-6 at 25 °C to 100 °C and C=11.7 × 10 at 25 °C to 100 °C. The fiber-containing layer may comprise vinyl and inorganic mineral coatings and fillers. The fiber-containing layer may have a surface smoothness from about 1.50 to about 3.15, a smoothness from about 150 to about 200 Bekk-seconds, an ash content from about 1% to about 40% by weight, a static friction coefficient µs from about 0.02 to about 0.50, and a cellulose content having thermal conductivity from about 0.034 to about 0.05 W/mk. Some virgin and recycled fiber types within the fiber-containing layer may include mechanical, thermo-mechanical, chemo-thermo-mechanical, and chemical having an average aspect ratio from about 5 to about 100, a softwood fiber thickness from about 1.5 mm to about 30 mm, a hardwood fiber thickness from about 0.5 mm to about 30 mm, a filled fiber content from about 1% to about 30%, a density from about 0.3 g/cm3 to about 0.7 g/cm3, fiber diameters from about 16 µm to about 42 µm, a fiber coarseness from about 16 mg/100m to about 42 mg/100m, a permeability from about 0.1 × 1015 m2 to about 110 × 1015 m2, a hydrogen ion concentration from about 4.5 to about 10, a Tappi 496, 402 tear strength from about 56 to about 250, a Tappi 414 tear resistance from about m49 to about m250, and a moisture content from about 2% to about 18% by weight. The fiber-containing layer may comprise a combination of recycled fiber, virgin fiber, thermo-mechanical pulp "TMP," virgin kraft fiber, clay coated craft fiber, clay coated unbleached kraft fiber, and solid bleached sulfate fiber. The barrier layer has Tappi T410 weights from 5.5 g/m2 to 52.2 g/m2.

[0057] The invention also refers to a method of making a recyclable composite packaging structure including a fiber-containing layer and a mineral-containing layer as defined in the claims. The method comprises extrusion coating the mineral-containing layer onto the fiber-containing layer using a mineral-containing resin having mineral particles interspersed within a polyolefin bonding agent. The extrusion process is carried out under the following conditions: the resin having a melt flow index from about 4 g/10 min. to about 16 g/10 min.; a melt temperature from about 500 K (440 °F) to about 611 K (640 °F); an extruder screw or tube barrel pressure from about 8,274 kPa (1,200 psi) to about 17,237 kPa (2,500 psi); an air gap from about 10.16 cm (4") to about 40.64 cm (16"); a die gap from about 0.51 mm (0.020") to about 1.27 mm (0.050"); barrel and die zone temperatures from about 478 K (400 °F) to about 611 K (640 °F); an extrusion line speed from about 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) to about 17,78 m/s (3,500 FPM); or an extrusion lamination line speed from about 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) to about 17,78 m/s (3,500 FPM). The mineral-containing resin comprises between 20% and 70% mineral content by weight. The mineral-containing resin may comprise pellets. The mineral-containing layer may be applied to the fiber-containing layer in coat weights from about 6.51 g/m2 (4lbs/3msf) to about 48.82 g/m2 (30 lbs/3msf). The recyclable composite packaging structure may not contain water-based dispersions, aqueous dispersions, aqueous coatings, emulsions, emulsion-containing coatings, water-containing dispersions, press-line applications, or off-line mixing processes. The mineral-containing layer, weighing from about 15 g/m2 to about 50 g/m2, may be coextruded in line on an extrusion coating machine and bonded by extrusion to the fiber-containing layer. The mineral-containing layer has a density from about 1.22 g/cm3 to about 1.41 g/cm3. The mineral-containing layer may be from about 25% to about 75% amorphous and have a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) under tropical conditions from about 5 gm/m2 per day to about 22 g/m2 per day.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0058] The present embodiments now will be discussed in detail with an emphasis on highlighting the advantageous features. These embodiments depict the recyclable composite packaging structures shown in the accompanying drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only. These drawings include the following figures, in which like numerals indicate like parts:

Figure 1 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of a multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure according to the present embodiments;

Figure 1A is a detail view of the portion of Figure 1 indicated by the circle 1A-1A;

Figure 2 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure according to the present embodiments;

Figure 3 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of a repulpable mineral-containing composite packaging structure according to the present embodiments;

Figure 4 is a schematic detail view of a pellet of a mineral-containing resin with mineral particles interspersed within a bonding agent;

Figure 5 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure according to the present embodiments; and

Figure 6 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure according to the present embodiments;

Figure 7 is a container formed from a composite material according to the present embodiments;

Figure 8 is a container liner formed from a composite material according to the present embodiments;

Figure 9 is an envelope formed from a composite material according to the present embodiments; and

Figure 10 is a display tray formed from a composite material according to the present embodiments.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0059] The present embodiments relate to repulpable and recyclable consumer packaging composite structures for containing, for example and without limitation, food products, dry goods, detergents, etc. More particularly, the present embodiments include using mineral-containing layer(s), minerals bonded by thermoplastic polymers and subsequently adhered to fiber-containing layer(s) using extrusion coating, extrusion lamination, or lamination adhering the mineral-containing layer continuously and substantially to the surface or surfaces of natural fiber-containing layers such that the finished package can be effectively repulped and recycled using both pre-consumer and post-consumer collection methods. The present embodiments provide reusable pulp, thus offering reusability and reprocess ability into valuable recycled paper-containing packaging products. The present packaging composites can be used to form one or more layers of all types of single-layer and multilayer packaging structures, e.g. folding cartons, including single-wall or multi-wall corrugated structures using the composite packaging material as one or more inner or outer liner(s) and/or corrugated medium(s).

[0060] It is current practice, for example, to add a film of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyester, wax, or polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) on paper substrates to provide a moisture barrier. Also, various types of emulsion and aqueous coatings are applied to paper substrates for the same reason. However, it is believed that there are no repulpable and recyclable solutions that offer the efficiencies of high speed thermoplastic extrusion coating of mineral-containing pellets forming a layer. The present embodiments provide finished composite packaging structures having high barrier performance, heat sealability, high performance adhesion to fiber, strength, repulpability, and low cost of manufacture. Further, other resins may be used to give packaging materials barrier performance, such as polyacrylates, and polyvinyl acetates. However, these materials are more expensive than wax, polyethylene and PVDC. Predominantly, barrier alternatives are considered by recycling (repulping) mills to be non-repulpable, mainly because they introduce quality problems in the fiber recovery process, either by upsetting the process, e.g. by plugging filter screens, or by contaminating the finished product. Approximately 20% of known paperboards are laminated with the materials listed above, or similar materials, resulting in products that are incompatible within the recycling industry.

[0061] A major drawback to polyolefin and other polymer coatings, such as wax, acrylic, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) dispersions, and PVDC barrier layers, is that they are either difficult to reprocess or recycle and usually discarded, or they can only be processed at a recycling mill with specialized equipment, or, if processible, provide inferior barrier and heat seal performance for packaging articles such as cups or heat sealed folding cartons. For environmental and cost reasons, the disposal of moisture barrier packaging materials has become an important issue for paper mills and their customers. Repulping these materials poses special problems for the industry. The moisture barrier layer manifests problems in recovering the useful fiber from the package. Presently, nearly all of these packages are ultimately discarded into landfills or incinerated, which raises issues with respect to the environment and public health, particularly for PVDC. Reprocessing packaging to recover wood fibers is an important source of wood fibers, and helps avoid waste of high quality and costly fibers.

[0062] When forming packaging that contains food products and dry goods, heat sealability is often important for closures. Also, the packaging structure preferably provides a barrier for moisture, oxygen, oils, and fatty acids. Other desirable characteristics include mechanical performance, aesthetics, cosmetics, resistance to chemicals, recyclability, heat sealability, surface energy, ink adhesion, ink wet-ability, film adhesion to fibers, improved surface for glue and adhesive application, and barrier performance (against oxygen, water, moisture, etc.). Therefore, extrusion coating fiber surfaces using polymers, (polyolefins being the most common) and bio-polymers is common practice.

[0063] Two methods are commonly used for reprocessing wood fibers. The first method breaks up the source of wood fibers, such as packaging materials, by repulping, while other materials are filtered out. The second method breaks up the packaging materials such that any non-fibrous material breaks up into tiny pieces (generally smaller than 1.6 mm), which then pass through the filter screen(s) with the wood fibers to constitute a pulp. This second method is frequently carried out with chemical additives and/or additional equipment, making it expensive and therefore undesirable.

[0064] However, no known resins, with our without wax, used in high-performance barrier layers, can be reprocessed without additional manufacturing steps. Recycling these materials is therefore difficult if not impossible. Additionally, the presence of wax in resins frequently results in a lower quantity of usable pulp, and therefore increases the amount of waste. In the repulping process, waste materials may break up into very tiny particles, often smaller than 0.7 mm. These particles pass through the filter screen(s) and contaminate pulp that is sent to the paper machine. Problems repulping wax include clogging the felts, gumming up the can dryer causing web breaks, sticky related unacceptable paper surface cosmetics, and yield reduction.

[0065] The repulping of PE and PP barrier layers (as with most polymers) is very difficult. During reprocessing, while polyolefin is in the pulper, it separates from the fiber and the polyolefin breaks into large pieces with estimated widths from about 0.3 cm to 3.0 cm, or larger pieces and particles having densities in a range from about 0.875 g/cm3 to about 0.995 g/cm3 and higher. These pieces cause screen plugging, requiring expensive downtime to clean, and generate solid waste. However, mineralized layers when repulped break down into a preponderance of from about 35% to about 99% of much smaller and more dense fragments in sizes of from about 0.0005 mm2 to about 2 mm2 or larger, having densities from about 1.10 g/cm3 to about 4.75 g/cm3. These unique particles provide improved repulping and recycling processing benefits. Therefore, the mineral-containing layers can be applied successfully to fiber-containing layers with improved re-pulpability vs. polymer layers with mineral-containing layers applied in coat weights in the range of from about 19.53 g/m2 (4 lbs/msf) (pounds per thousand square feet) to about 122.06 g/m2 (25 lbs/msf). The processing of the mineralized layer composite material can be accomplished using industry standard repulping and recycling equipment, much of which is further described in this specification.

[0066] Also, for normal processing it is important for the recycler to use a standard pulper equipped with a steam line, using typical screens of various sizes and an operating centrifuge. PVDC coating also has generally the same processing issues as PE. Further, other options such as emulsion and aqueous coating with vinyl content cannot provide comparable barrier performance or high performance heat sealability at low cost. Also, mixing at the point of manufacture is often required and single or multiple layers of vinyl plus separate layers for minerals, for example, may be required. Also, unlike polyolefins, barrier failure is quite common using these types of layers at points of package stress or fracture during converting or subsequent use. Finally, PVDC and related coatings provide major environmental toxic hazards and are therefore a poor option as a barrier layer.

[0067] During repulping, non-fibrous barrier layers must be structurally brittle enough to break into small enough pieces to ensure the fibers efficiently release from the barrier layer and pass through the screen(s). Also, the pulped barrier layer fragments must not be too small to pass through the screen(s) and create process difficulties in the paper making machine. Finally, the pulped barrier layer pieces cannot be so large as to clog the screen(s) and foul the filtering process.

[0068] By introducing mineral content into a thermoplastic barrier layer using proper particle specifications and proper amounts of minerals added, the mineral-containing polyolefin layer obtains structural attributes providing for efficient, clean, and proper processing during the pulping process. Also, a 20%-70% mineralized layer easily releases fiber content through the screen(s), resulting in high fiber yields. Further, by using an extrusion coated thermoplastic, high speed, efficient production applying the barrier layer to the fiber can be enjoyed using common processes such as extrusion coating. Without the need for water based or other dispersions, press line applications, emulsions, or use of single or multiple layers containing vinyl, adjunct or additional layers of similar materials or minerals, the thermoplastic content acts as a bonding agent for the particles, bonding the mineral particles together, fixing them in position in a compounded thermoplastic and mineral-containing resin pellet, heated at temperatures above 478 K (400 °F), and extrusion coated in-line on a single piece of equipment and extrusion laminated on a single piece of equipment at high speeds from about 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) (feet per minute) up to about 17,78 m/s (3,500 FPM) on paper rolls up to and over from about 76.2 cm (30") to about 3.56 m (140") wide. The mineral-containing layer resin is extruded as a pre-mixed or master batch pellet, and as such the layer maintains its original integrity after extrusion. Therefore, unlike aqueous or emulsion coatings, no mixing is required prior to coating, and drying is not required during production at the point of printing and converting. The mineralized polyolefin or polymer layer provides additional benefits, such as high speed heat sealing and improved barrier performance. Additional benefits may include an excellent surface for the application of room temperature and hot melt adhesives when forming a package and high levels of moisture, oil, and fatty acid barrier performance.

[0069] The fiber component of the repulpable composite may comprise softwood fibers, hardwood fibers, or a mixture thereof. For example, the paper substrate may comprise from about 5% to about 95% (such as from about 25% to about 90%) softwood fibers and from about 5% to about 95% (such as from about 25% to about 90%) hardwood fibers. Paper substrates may also have, for example, a basis weight of from about 48.82 to about 325.5 g/m2 (30 to about 200 lbs/3000 sq. ft) and a caliper (thickness) of from about 0.15 mm (0.006") to about 1.22 mm (0.048").

[0070] During paper repulping and processing, the fibers are subjected to a cleansing and filtering process provided by one or more screens, thus removing unwanted materials from the re-pulped fiber. Screen plates are commonly designed to be either hole, slotted, or contoured screens. The amount and type of rejected and removed material can have an impact on screen cleanliness. If the screens become clogged, they fail to function and must be cleaned, creating expensive downtime during processing. The plates are normally found one behind another with an A plate having the smallest perforations, an intermediary B plate, and often a C plate having the largest perforations. Because of the size and conformation of plastic coating fragments generated during repulping, the plastic rejects clog and dirty the screening system, creating downtime and general inability to process efficiently. However, mineral-containing layers create dense particles from about 5 mm2 to about 0.01 mm2. Therefore, based upon reject rates from about 10% to about 25% by weight of the starting paper, the screen cleanliness efficiency achieved can be from about 60% to about 100%, including pressure screen devices. Further, the pressure drop, expressed as Feed-Accept pressure, can range from about 2 kPa to about 12 kPa on smooth, contoured, or heavily contoured screens.

[0071] Post screen processing includes centrifugal cleaning of the screen accepts. This pulp cleaning process uses fluid pressure to create rotational fluid motion in a tapered cylinder, causing denser particles to move outside faster than lighter particles. During cleaning, good fiber yields are carried inward and upward to the accepted stock inlet. Impurities such as dirt, metals, inks, sand, and any impurities are held in the downward current and removed from the bottom of the cleaner. Mineral-containing layer impurities found in fiber accepts and rejects have a density of from about 1.01 g/cm3 to about 4.25 g/cm3. Because the particles have large density differences from water, and size characteristics, the particles are effectively removed and cleaned from the accepts during cleaning. The mineral-containing impurities process out of the fiber accepts efficiently in High Density, Forward, and Through Flow cleaners, the cleaners having a diameter of from about 70 mm to about 400 mm. Further, these particles process out of fibers having reject rates on or about 0.1-1% to about 5-30%. Additionally, because some particles are typically some what spherical in shape (CwAp) they separate more efficiently during centrifugal cleaning. Finally, because the particles are smaller in size and generally dense, they can often achieve a removal efficiency of from about 50% to about 95% by mass, particle sizes of from about 150 microns to about 0.05 microns using singularly or in combination, specific gravity activated centrifugal cleaners, flotation washers, and ultra-dispersion washing, the repulpable and recyclable composite material having a pulper consistency of from about 3% to about 30%, pulping temperatures of from about 311 K (100 °F) to about 366.48 K (200 °F), and pulping times of from about 10 minutes to about 60 minutes, with pulping pH from about 6 to about 9.5 ±0.5. Process pressure screens can have holes from about 1.27 mm (0.050") to about 1.90 mm (0.075") with slots from about 0.15 mm (0.006") to about 0.51 mm (0.020").

[0072] Table 1, below, illustrates estimated repulpability ranges of a composite containing paper layer(s) combined with mineralized layer(s). The chart is also applicable when using paper layer(s) fiber fine content from about 0.5% to 60% by weight of the paper. This data is congruent using various pulping batch and continuous pulping methods including low consistency continuous, rotor de-trashing, drum pulping having 9-20 RPM, high consistency drum pulping, and drum pulping containing 4 mm to 8 mm holes, pulping consistency from about 3% to about 20%, also, using disk, pressure, and cylindrical screen types with hole type screen openings from about 0.8 mm to about 1.5 mm and slot and contoured type openings from about 0.1 mm to about 0.4 mm, further including coarse to fine screen holes and slots from about 0.150 mm to about 2.8 mm, and screen rotor circumference speeds from about 10 meters/second (m/s) to about 30 m/s.
Table 1 - Composite Repulpability
Caliper mm (in.)g/m2 (lbs/3msf)Mineral Content of Barrier Layer(s)Thermoplastic Bonding AgentScreen Yield (Accepts)Inorganic MatterTotal Overall Recovery
0.25 mm (0.010) 221.32 (136) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-95%
0.30 mm (0.012) 255.50 (157) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.36 mm (0.014) 279.91 (172) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.41 mm (0.016) 309.20 (190) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.46 mm (0.018) 338.50 (208) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.51 mm (0.020) 358.03 (220) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.56 mm (0.022) 392.21 (241) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.61 mm (0.024) 421.50 (259) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.66 mm (0.026) 436.15 (268) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.71 mm (0.028) 449.18 (276) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%
0.76 mm (0.030) 465.46 (286) 30%-65% 30%-70% 60%-90% 1%-40% 70%-98%


[0073] Note: Percentages are "by weight" of the total composition. MSF is "thousand square feet." % of inorganic matter is based upon industry standard ash tests. Repulpability data per Tappi and Fibre Box Association industry standard testing and Georgia Tech IPST reporting.

[0074] Various diatomaceous earth mineral fillers and pigments are available for use within the repulpable mineral-containing layer within the composite structure including mica, silica, clay, kaolin, calcium carbonate, dolomite, and titanium dioxide to name a few. The fillers offer improved performance for barrier, opacity, increased stiffness, thermal conductivity, and strength. Fillers are normally less expensive than polymers and are therefore a very economical component of the polymer layer. The most commonly used mineral fillers have densities in the range of 2.4 g/cm3 to 4.9 g/cm3. Most polymers have densities in the range of 0.8 g/cm3 to 1.85 g/cm3 and many can be used as thermoplastic bonding agents.

[0075] Filler particles can vary in size and shape. Size can vary from 0.1 micron to 10.0 micron mean particle size. An example of very fine mineral particles include nano-precipitated calcium carbonate which are less than 100 nanometers in size. Ultrafine nanoparticles can range from 0.06 microns to 0.15 microns. These ultrafine particles are useful for controlling rheological properties such as viscosity, sag, and slump. Mineral filler particles can have various shapes including e.g. spheres, rods, cubes, blocks, flakes, platelets, and irregular shapes of various proportions. The relationship between the particles' largest and smallest dimensions is known as aspect ratio. Together, aspect ratio and shape significantly impact the particles' effect in a composite polymer matrix. In yet other examples, particle hardness relates to coarseness, color to layer cosmetics and opacity. Particle morphology suited for the present embodiments are primarily, but not limited to, the cube and block shapes of salt and calcite having the characteristics shown in Table 2, below. Examples of cubic structures include calcite and feldspar. Examples of block structures include calcite, feldspar, silica, barite, and nephelite.
Table 2 - Mineral Physical Properties
PARTICLE CLASSCUBEBLOCK
TypeCubic, Prismatic, RhombohedralTabular, Prismatic, Pinacoid, Irregular
Aspect/Shape Ratios:    
Length ~1 1.4-4
Width ~1 1
Thickness ~1 1-<1
Sedimentation esd esd
Surface Area Equivalence 1.24 1.26-1.5


[0076] Mineral particles also often have higher specific gravity than polymers. Therefore, the density increases cost through elevated weight. Many particles are surface treated with fatty acids or other organic materials, such as stearic acid and other materials to improve polymer dispersion during compounding. Surface treatments also affect dry flow properties, reduce surface absorption, and alter processing characteristics. The specific gravity range potential of the minerals used in the present embodiments including pigments are from about 1.8 to about 4.85 g/cm3.

[0077] It is advantageous to disperse fillers and pigments (which provide opacity and whiteness to the polymer composite) effectively in order to obtain good performance. For fillers, impact strength, gloss, and other properties are improved by good dispersion. For pigments, streaking indicates uneven dispersion, whereas a loss in tinting strength may be observed if the pigment is not fully de-agglomerated. Agglomerates act as flaws that can initiate crack formation and thus lower impact strength. In the present embodiments, agglomerates are preferably less than about 30 microns to preferably less than about 10 microns in size.

[0078] Resin and composite extrudate sensitivity to heat becomes important during extrusion coating and extrusion lamination production. Small alterations during processing have an outsized impact upon pre- and post-extrusion results. Table 3 is a sample, but not limited to, extrusion coating production ranges for identified mineral-filled resins. In Table 3, the melt index measurements were stated under the guidelines of ASTM method D1238-04, and the density measured under the guidelines of ASTM standard method D 1501-03.
Table 3 - Operating Parameters, Mineralized Composite Resins, Monolayer, Coextrusion, and Multilayer Mineral-Containing Composites, to Fiber-Containing Layers
ROLL

 
Extruder #1 MonolayerExtruder #2 - #6 (coextrusion) or separate downstream unitsMaximum ranges Plus & Minus as a % of stated value or stated valueComments below do not represent limitations
RESIN Earth Coating Earth Coating    
SUPPLIER Standridge Color Standridge Color    
GRADE NUMBER TBD TBD    
MELT FLOW - Carrier Resin(s)/bonding agent EST: 16 g / 10 min. EST: 16 g / 10 min. 4 g 10/min to 16 g/10 min Interspersed and non-interspersed
COMPOUND DENSITY 1.25 g/cm3 1.25 g/cm3 1.01- 4.90 g/cm3 Molecular weight from (Mz 150,00 to 300,000)
MINERAL CONTENT 40% 40% General mineral content 15-60% by weight Interspersed and non-interspersed
MELT TEMPERATURE 590 °F (307 °C) TBD ±20%  
DESIRED BARREL PRESS. 11,032 - 15,168 kPa (1,600-2,200 psi) TBD 8,274 - 17,237 kPa (1,200-2,500 psi) From 1 to 6 extruders
Composite Melt Flow 2-12g/10 min 2-12 g/10 min 2 g/10 min - 14 g/10 min Interspersed and Non-Interspersed
Air Gap 20.32 cm (8") 10.16 cm-30.48 cm (4"-12") 10.16 cm-38.1 cm (4"-16")  
Die Gap 0.6 mm-0.76 mm (0.025"-0.030") 0.6 mm-1.02 mm (0.025"-0.040") 0.51 mm-1.27 mm (0.020"-0.050") From 1 to 6 Coextrusion
Monolayer and Coextrusion or separate downstream #2 - #6 Co-layers TEMPERATURE SETTINGSInitial Settings Barrel Zones Maximum Adjustment Barrel ZonesSettings Die ZoneMaximum Adjustment Die Zone
Melt Temperature 583 K (590 °F)   Up to ±25%    
BARREL ZONE #1 480 K (405 °F)   Up to ±35% Die Zone 1 580 K (585 °F) ±25%
BARREL ZONE #2 555 K (540 °F)   Up to ±35% Die Zones 2-10 (as applicable to equipment) 586 K (595 °F) ±25%
BARREL ZONE #3 575 K (575 °F)   Up to ±35% Die Zone 11 (as applicable to equipment) 580 K (585 °F) ±35%
BARREL ZONE #4 583 K (590 °F)   Up to ±35%    
BARREL ZONE #5 583 K (590 °F)   Up to ±35%    
Other barrel Zones, if applicable on specific equipment 583 (590 °F)   Up to ±35% Other die zones if applicable Up to ±35%


[0079] Molecular chains in crystalline areas are arranged somewhat parallel to each other. In amorphous areas they are random. This mixture of crystalline and amorphous regions is essential to the extrusion of good extrusion coatings. The crystals can act as a filler in the matrix, and so can mineralization, improving some mechanical properties. A totally amorphous polyolefin would be grease-like and have poor physical properties. A totally crystalline polymer would be very hard and brittle. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) resins have molecular chains with comparatively few side chain branches. Therefore, the chains are packed closely together. Polyethylene, polypropylene, and polyesters are semi-crystalline. The result is crystallinity up to 95%. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resins have, generally, a crystallinity ranging from 60% to 75%, and linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) resins have crystallinity from 60% to 85%. Density ranges for extrusion coating resins include LDPE resins that range from 0.915 g/cm3 to 0.925 g/cm3, LLDPE resins have densities ranging from 0.910 g/cm3 to 0.940 g/cm3, and medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) resins have densities ranging from 0.926 g/cm3 to 0.940 g/cm3. HDPE resins range from 0.941 g/cm3 to 0.955 g/cm3. The density of PP resins range from 0.890 g/cm3 to 0.915 g/cm3.

[0080] Addition of a mineral filler to the polymer results in a rise in viscosity. The addition of filler may also change the amount of crystallinity in the polymer. As polymer crystals are impermeable to low molecular weight species, an increase in crystallinity also results in improved barrier properties, through increased tortuosity. This effect is expected to be prevalent for fillers that induce a high degree of transcrystallinity. Some minerals can change the crystallization behavior of some thermoplastics and thus the properties of the polymer phase are not those of virgin material, providing novel characteristics during processing and in the performance of the finished composite structure. Thermoplastics crystallize in the cooling phase and solidify. Solidification for semi-crystalline polymers is largely due to the formation of crystals, creating stiffer regions surrounding the amorphous area of the polymer matrix. When used correctly, mineral fillers can act as nucleating agents, normally at higher temperatures. This process can provide mechanical properties in the polymer composite favorable to high barrier performance and adhesion to fiber surfaces without a detrimental effect on heat sealing characteristics. Minerals can begin to significantly affect crystallinity when used from about 15% to about 70% by weight of the polymer composite. Some of the factors influencing mechanical adhesion to paper include extrudate temperature, oxidation, and penetration into the fibers. Mineral onset temperatures of the polymer extrudate influence cooling rate upon die exit to the nip roller, which can be adjusted by the extruder air gap setting. Other key factors include the mass of the polymers of the polymer interface layer. The crystalline onset temperatures vary, however, examples are shown in Table 4, below.
Table 4 - Selected Polymers with Estimated Mineral Onset Temperatures
Unfilled Polypropylene 120-122 °C
Calcium Carbonate 120-125 °C
Dolomite 120-131 °C
Talc 120-134 °C
Silica 120-122 °C
Mineral Fiber 120-122 °C
Mica 120-124 °C


[0081] The mineral-containing composite layer can be applied and bonded substantially and continuously on at least a fiber-containing layer using extrusion or extrusion lamination, including blown film, cast, or extrusion coating methods. Polymer content of the mineral-containing layer can be used as a tie layer for interspersed and non-interspersed constructions as well as particle bonding agents within each individual layer. These bonding agents or tie layers can include individually, polymers of monoolefins and diolefins, e.g. polypropylene, polyisobutylene, polybut-1-ene, poly-4-methylpent-1-ene, polyvinylcyclohexane, polyisoprene or polybutadiene, homogeneous mettallocene copolymers, and polymers of cycloolefins, e.g. cyclopentene or norbornene, polyethylene, cross-linked polyethylene, ethylene oxide and high density polyethylene, medium molecular weight high density polyethylene, ultra heavy weight high density polyethylene, low density polyethylene, very low density polyethylene, ultra low density polytheylene; copolymers of monoloefins and diolefins with one another or with other vinyl monomers, e.g. ethylene/propylene copolymers, linear low density polyethylene ethylene, propylene/isobutylene copolymers, ethylene/but-1-ene copolymers, ethylene/hexene copolymers, ethylene/octene copolymers, ethylene/methylepentene copolymers, ethylene/octene copolymers, ethylene/vinyelcyclohexane copolymers, ethylene/cycloolefin copolymers, COC, ethylene/1-olefin copolymers, the 1-olefin being produced in situ; propylene/butadiene copolymers, isobutylene/isoprene copolymers, ethylene/vinylcyclohexene copolymers, ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers, ethylene/alkyl methacrylate copolymers, ethylene/acrylic acid copolymers or ethyelene/acrylic acid copolymers and salts thereof (ionomers) and terapolymers of ethylene with propylene and diene, such as, for example, hexadiene, dicyclopentadiene or ethylidenenorbornene; homopolymers and copolymers that may have any desired three dimensional structure (stereo-structure), such as, for example, syndiotactic, isotactic, hemiisotactic or atactic stereoblock polymers are also possible; polystyrene, poly methyl styrene, poly alph-methystyrene, aromatic homopolymers and copolymers derived from vinylaromatic monomers, including styrene, alpha-methyl styrene, all isomers of vinyltoluene, in particular p-vinyletoluene, all isomers of ethylstyrene, propylstyrene, vinylbiphenyl, and vinylnaphthalene, homopolymers and copolymers of may have any desired three dimensional structure, including syndiotactic, isotatic, hemiisotactic or atactic, stereoblock polymers; copolymer, including the above mentioned vinylaromatic monomers and commoners selected from ethylene, propylene, dienes, nitriles, acids, maleic anhydrides, vinyl acetates and vinyl chlorides or acryloyl derivatives and mixtures thereof, for example styren/butadiene, styrene/acrylonitrile, styrene/ethylene (interpolymers) styrene/alkymethacrylate, styrene/butadiene/alkyl acrylate, styrene/butadiene/alkyl methacrylate, styrene/maleic anhydride, styrene copolymers; hydrogen saturated aromatic polymers derived from by saturation of said polymers, including polycyclohexylethylene; polymers derived from alpha, beta-unsaturated acids and derivatives; unstaturated monomers such as acrylonitrile/butadiene copolymers acrylate copolymers, halide copolymers and amines from acyl derivatives or acetals; copolymers with olefins, homopolymers and copolymers of cyclic ethers; polyamides and copolyamides derived from diamines and dicarboxylic acids and or from aminocarboxylicacides and corresponding lactams; polyesters and polyesters derived from dicarboxylic acids and diols and from hydroxycarboxylic acids or the corresponding lactones; blocked copolyetheresters derived from hydroxyl terminated polyethers; polyketones, polysulfones, polyethersufones, and polyetherketones; cross-linked polymers derived from aldehydes on the one hand phenols, ureas, and melamines such as phenol/formaldehyde resins and cross-linked acrylic resins derived from substantial acrylates, e.g. epoxyacrylates, urethaneacrylates or polyesteracrylates and starch; polymers and copolymers of such materials as poly lactic acids and its copolymers, cellulose, polyhdyroxy alcanoates, polycaprolactone, polybutylene succinate, polymers and copolymers of N-vinylpyrroolidone such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, and corsslinked polyvinylpyrrolidone, ethyl vinyl alcohol. More examples of thermoplastic polymers suitable for the mineral-containing composite include polypropylene, high density polyethylene combined with MS0825 Nanoreinforced POSS polypropylene, thermoplastic elastomers, thermoplastic vulcinates, polyvinylchloride, polylactic acid, virgin and recycled polyesters, cellulosics, polyamides, polycarbonate, polybutylene tereaphthylate, polyester elastomers,thermoplastic polyurethane, cyclic olefin copolymer; biodegradable polymers such as Cereplast-Polylactic acid, Purac-Lactide PLA, Nec Corp PLA, Mitsubishi Chemical Corp GS PLS resins, Natureworks LLC PLA, Cereplast-Biopropropylene, Spartech PLA Rejuven 8, resins made from starch, cellulose, polyhydroxy alcanoates, polycaprolactone, polybutylene succinate or combinations thereof, such as Ecoflex FBX 7011 and Ecovio L Resins from BASF, polyvinylchloride and recycled and reclaimed polyester such as Nodax biodegradable polyester by P & G.

[0082] The mineral-containing layer can include coupling agents from about 0.05% to about 15% of the weight of the mineral-containing layer. The agents aid in the mixing and the filling of the mineral into the polymer matrix. Functional coupling groups include (Pyro-) phosphato, Benzene sulfonyl and ethylene diamino. These can be added to thermoplastics including polyethylene, polypropylene, polyester, and ethyl vinyl alcohol, aluminate, siloxane, silane, amino, malice anhydride, vinyl and methtacryl. The results of these combinations improve adhesion to fibers, heat seal strength, heat seal activation temperatures, surface energy, opacity, and cosmetics. Mineral content can include, but is not limited to, wollanstonite, hydrated and non-hydrated, magnesium silicate, barium sulfate, barium ferrite, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium carbonate, aluminum trihydroxide, magnesium carbonate, aluminum trihydroxide, natural silica or sand, cristobalite, diaonite, novaculite, quartz tripoli clay calcined, muscovite, nepheliner-syenite, feldspar, calcium suphate-gypsum, terra alba, selenite, cristobalite, domite, silton mica, hydratized aluminum silicates, coke, montmorillonite (MMT), attapulgite (AT) carbon black, pecan nut flour, cellulose particles, wood flour, fly ash, starch, TiO2 and other pigments, barium carbonate, terra alba, selenite, nepheline-syenite, muscavite, pectolite, chrysotile, borates, sulfacates, nano-particles of the above from 0.01 to 0.25 micron particle size, and precipitated and ground calcium carbonate. Among, but not limited, procedures generally involving the use of polymerization initiators of catalysts for the polymerization of butene-1 monomer to polymers of high molecular weight, preferably catalytic systems used in such procedures are the reaction products of metal alkyl compounds such as aluminum triethyl, and a heavy metal compound, such as the trihalides of Groups IV-VI metals of the periodic table, e.g. titanium, vanadium, chromium, zirconium, molybdenum and tungsten. The formation of polymers exhibiting substantial isotactic properties as wells as the variations in the molecular weight and the nature of the polymerization catalyst, co-reactants, and reaction conditions. Suitable, but not limited to, isotatic polybutylenes are relatively rigid at normal temperatures but flow readily when heated, and they most preferably, should show good flow when heated, expressed in melt flow. Applicable isotatic polybutylenes should show a melt flow of from 0.1 to 500, preferably 0.2 to 300, more preferably from 0.4 to 40, most preferably 1 to 4. Other polymers expressed within the contents of the present specification should also be considered within these parameters.

[0083] Regarding the mineral-containing composite layer, upon substantially and continuously bonding to the fiber-containing using extrusion coating or extrusion lamination techniques, the layer of which can then be used to form a laminated structure of which the mineral-containing layer can be used as a peel coat onto a desired backing material. The best peel seal, for example, to the mineral-containing layer of the composite, may be selected from poly-4-methyl pentene, nylon, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), aluminum foil, polycarbonate polystyrene, polyurethane, polyvinyl chloride, polyester, polyacrylonitrile, polypropylene (PP), and paper. An example extrusion process can be accomplished with a screw or pneumatic tube. Sometimes the mineralized polymers can be combined with such materials as plasticizers lubricants, stabilizers, and colorants by means of Banbury mixers. The resulting mix is then extruded through rod shaped dies and chipped into pellets. Pelletized mineralized polymer can then enhance the mineral and other content by "letting down" the resin pellet mix with inline or offline mixing capability before being fed into the end of a, for example, screw-type extruder, heated, and mixed into a viscous fluid or semi-fluid in the extruder barrel for further processing to the die. Further, when properly dispersed the interaction between the mineral particles and the polymer content without covalent bonding, results in improved van der Waals forces that provide attraction between the materials. This interaction results in some adhesion in the composite during extrusion, resulting in an absorbed polymer layer on the filler surface.

[0084] These considerations combined with the unique attributes of the mineral content dispersed within the polymeric matrix of both monolayer and multilayer mineral composite layers impact the application of heat that initiates the melting of semi-crystalline polymers, causing the polymer molecules to better diffuse across the interface. Given sufficient time, the diffused polymers form entanglements at the inter-facial layer. This effect is possible at extrusion line speeds from up to about 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) and extrusion lamination up to about 17,78 m/s (3,500 FPM), using semi-crystalline mineralized resin blends with extrusion equipment die and barrel zone temperatures from about 555 K to about 597 K (540 degrees to about 615 degrees F). Because of improved mineral thermal properties, oxidation of the extrudate upon exiting the die but before fiber contact improves from about 10-50%, thus greatly strengthening fiber bonding characteristics under normal equipment operating conditions.

[0085] Molecular weight ranges of the polymer bonding agent component of the mineral-containing layer are from about Mw 10,000 to about Mw 100,000. Further, about 10%-70% of the polymer bonding agent may have a branching index (g') of about 0.99 or less as measured at the Z-average molecular weight (Mz) of the polymer. Some, part, or all of the mineral-containing layer polymer bonding agent is preferred but not required to have an isotactic run length of from about 1 to about 40. Further, the polymer bonding agent of the mineral-containing layer has a shear rate range of from about 1 to about 10,000 at temperatures from about 180 °C to about 410 °C.
Table 5 - Particle characteristics of CaCO3
Particle CoatingFatty Acids Including Stearates
Hunter Reflectance (Green) 91 - 97%
Hunter Reflectance (Blue) 89 - 96%
Mohs Hardness 2.75 - 4.0
pH in Water, 5% Slurry, 23 °C 8.5 - 10.5
Resistance in Water, ohms, 23 °C 5,000 - 25,000
ASTM D1199 Max % on 0.044 mm (325 Mesh) 0.05 - 0.5
Volume Resistivity @ 20 °C 109 - 1011 ohms
pH 8.5 - 10.5
Standard Heat of Formation, CaCO3 from its Elements @ 25 °C 288.45 - 288.49 Kg-cal/mole
Standard Free Energy of Formation, CaCO3 from its Elements 269.53 - 269.78 Kg-cal/mole
Specific Heat (between 0 to 100 °C) 0.200 - 0.214
Heat Conductivity 0.0071 g·ca/sec·cm2·1cm thick @ 20 °C
Coefficient of Linear Expansion C = 9 × 10-6 @ 25 to 100 °C
  C = 11.7 × 10 @ 25 to 100 °C


[0086] Also, nano-cellulose can be used in the mineral-containing composite layer having a crystalline content from 60%-70%, including nano-fibrils, micro-fibrils, and nanofibril bundles, having lateral dimensions from about 0.4-30 nanometers (nm) to several microns, and highly crystalline nano-whiskers from about 100 to 1000 nanometers. Nano-cellulose fiber widths are from about 3-5 nm and from about 5-15 nm, having charge densities from about 0.5 meq/g to about 1.5 meq/g, with the nano-cellulose having a stiffness from about an order of 140-220 GPa and tensile strength from about 400-600 MPa.

[0087] The mineral-containing interspersed or non-interspersed polymer composite layer can be substantially and continuously directly bonded to a fiber surface or to the fiber surface interface adhesive layer using extrusion coating or extrusion lamination. Further, the fiber-containing layer can contain inorganic mineral coatings and fillers, e.g. clay, kaolin, CaCO3, mica, silica, TiO2 and other pigments, etc. Other materials found in the fiber-containing layer include vinyl and polymeric fillers and surface treatments such as starch and latex. Preferred characteristics of the fiber-containing layer bound to the mineral-containing layer include, but are not limited to, a smoothness range of about 150 to about 200 Bekk seconds, and an ash content from about 1% to about 40% by weight. Also, in this example, the fiber-containing layer coefficient of static friction, µ, is from about 0.02 to about 0.50. Identified cellulose within the fiber-containing layer preferably has a thermal conductivity from about 0.034 to about 0.05 W/m·K. If using air-laid paper or non-woven fibers, the fiber content is preferably from about 40% to about 65% of the layer by weight. Other preferred, but not limiting, characteristics of the fiber-containing layer are shown in Table 6, below.
Table 6 - Fiber Layer Characteristics
Fiber Aspect Ratio (Average) 5-100
Fiber Thickness (Softwood) 1.5-30 mm
Fiber Thickness (Hardwood) 0.5-30 mm
Filled Fiber Content 1% to 30%
Fiber Density 0.3-0.7 g/cm2
Fiber Diameter 16-42 microns
Fiber Coarseness 16-42 mg/100m
Fiber Pulp Types (Single- to Triple-Layered) Mechanical, Thermo-Mechanical, Chemi-Thermo-Mechanical, and Chemical
Permeability 0.1-110 m2 × 1015
Hydrogen Ion Concentration 4.5-10
Tear Strength (Tappi 496, 402) 56-250
Tear Resistance (Tappi 414) m49-250
Moisture Content 2%-18% by weight


[0088] Coextrusion methods provide the possibility for non-interspersed contact layers within the mineral-containing layer. Based on performance and structural requirements, the finished composite structures can contain separate layers in the composite that can vary based on types of mineral and amount of mineral content per layer, degrees of amorphous and crystalline content per layer, and type of polymer resin and resin mixes per layer. The more extruders feeding a common die assembly, the more layered options become available to the non-interspersed mineral-containing layer. The number of extruders depends on the number of different materials comprising the coextruded film. For example, a non-interspersed mineral-containing composite may comprise a three-layer to six-layer coextrusion including a barrier material core that could be, for example, a high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene mix having a 25% to 65% mineral content by weight in the first base layer, this layer making contact with the fiber surface. Subsequent layers may contain differing mineral contents, neat LDPE, or polypropylene. Another example is a six-layer coextrusion including a bottom layer of LDPE, a tie-layer resin, a 20% to 65% mineral-containing polypropylene barrier resin, a tie-layer, and an EVA copolymer layer, and a final layer of polyester. Any mineral-containing barrier layer according to the present embodiments as defined in the claims has a basis weight from about 6,51 g/m2 (4 lbs/3msf) and up to a Tappi T410 weight of 52.2 g/m2, a density from 1.22 g/cm3 to 1.41 g/cm3, and a caliper from about 7.62 µm (0.30 mil) to about 76.2 µm (3 mil). Tie-layers often are used in the coextrusion coating of multiple layer constructions where mineral-containing polymers or other resins would not bond otherwise, and tie-layers are applied between layers of these materials to enable desired adhesion. Another example multilayer film construction is 25%-65% mineral content LLDPE/tie-layer/EVOH barrier/tie-layer/EVA. Interspersed, e.g. monolayer, and non-interspersed, e.g. multilayer, coextrusions can comprise from one to six layers of the mineral-containing layer substantially and continuously bonded across the surface of a fiber-containing layer. Layers can be designed to improve hot tack, heat-sealability, seal activation temperature, and extrudate adhesion to fiber, mineral enhancement of barrier performance, surface energy, hot and cold glue adhesion improvements, etc.

[0089] Table 7, below, shows example layer constructions (not limited to) found in the mineral-containing resin and extrusion coated or laminate composite structure. Also, the mineral content of the mineral-containing layer(s) may comprise different fillers with different densities, size, and shape depending upon the desired outcome of the final composite structure.
Table 7 - Examples of Non-Interspersed (Multilayered) Mineral Composite Layers
Layer StructureExample 1Example 2Example 3Example 4Example 5Example 6
Monolayer (1) LDPE HDPE LDPE-HDPE resin blend LDPE-MMW HDPE resin blend LLDPE-LDPE resin blend PLA-bio derived starch based resin blend
Monolayer (2) Bio-derived, starch polymer blend LDPE-bio derived starch polymer blend LDPE-LLDPE-bio derived starch blend LDPE-HDPE-LLDPE-blend PP-bio derived starch based polymer blend ULDPE-HDPE-bio derived starch polymer blend
3-Layer HDPE-LDPE HDPE-PP HDPE-PET LDPE-PP LLDPE-PET EVA-LDPE
4-Layer EVA-ethylene vinyl acetate EEA-ethylene acrylic acid-HDPE-EAA ethylene acrylic acid HDPE-EV A-Ionomer resin-Polyamides - Biaxially oriented homopolypropylene -polyester-polypropylene-PE Oriented pol ypropylene-HDPE-PE-metallized PET EVA-PE-MMWHDPE-oriented polypropylene PVC-ABS-PC Nylon
not claimed


[0090] Additionally, if relative clarity is desired in the mineral-containing composite layer the following resins are possible, but not limiting, bonding agents for these materials: carboxy-polymethyelene, polyacrylic acid polymers and copolymers, hydroxypropylcellulose, cellulose ethers, salts for poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride), amorphous nylon, polyvinylchrloride, polymethylpentene, methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, acrylonitrile-styrene, poly carbonate, polystyrene, poly methylcrylate, polyvynl pyrrolidone, ply (vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate), polyesters, parylene, polyethylene napphatalate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, and polylactic acids containing from about 10% to about 65% mineral content. Various mineral-containing layer polymer and mineral content can be determined based upon performance and content requirements considering the parameters shown in Table 7, above. Branched, highly branched, and linear polymer combinations are possible in all composite layer constructions. Examples are shown in Table 7 (not limited to combinations within the table) of the interspersed and non-interspersed mineral-containing layer constructions, not including tie layers. Layer combinations depend on coextrusion die design, flow properties, and processing temperature, allowing for coextrusion fusion layers and/or subsequently extrusion laminating or laminating the layers into the final mineral-containing composition, of which individual (non-interspersed) or total combination of layers have by weight mineral content of about 20%-65%. Layers can be uniaxially or biaxially oriented (including stretching) from about 1.2 times to about 7 times in the machine direction (MD) and from about 5 times to about 10 times in the cross-machine (transverse) direction (CD), and stretched from about 10% to about 75% in both the MD and CD directions. Generally, although without limitation, polyolefin mineral content bonding agents have number average molecular weight distributions (Mn) of from about 5,500 to about 13,000, weight average molecular weight (Mw) of from about 170,000 to about 490,000, and Z average molecular weight (Mz) of from about 170,000 to about 450,000. A coextruded mineral-containing layer may differ in molecular weight, density, melt index, and/or polydispersity index within the finished layer structure. The polydispersity index is the weight average molecular weight (Mw) divided by the number average molecular weight (Mn). For example only, and without limitation, the mineral-containing layer may have a Mw/Mn ratio of from about 6.50 to about 9.50. Using wet or dry ground CaCO3 as an example, it can be surface treated at levels from about 1.6 to about 3.5 mg surface agent/m2 of CaCO3. The surface treatment can be applied before, during, or after grinding. Mean particle sizes range from, without limitation, about 0.7 microns to about 2.5 microns, having a top cut from about d98 of 4-15 microns, and a surface area of from about 3.3 m2/g to about 10.0 m2/g. For improved dispersion into the polyolefin bonding agent, the CaCO3 mineral content can be coated with fatty acids from between, without limitation, about 8 to about 24 carbon atoms.

[0091] The preferred surface treatment range is about 0.6% to about 1.5% by weight of treatment agent or about 90%-99% by weight of CaCO3. Polyolefin bonding agents having lower molecular weights and high melt index provide improved downstream moisture barrier characteristics. Preferred mineral layer content could include finely divided wet ground marble with 65% solids in the presence of a sodium polyacrylate dispersant, dried, and surface treated, and also dispersant at 20% solids, dried, and surface treated.

[0092] Testing methods for measuring moisture vapor transmission rates and water vapor transmission rates (MVTR/WVTR) often involve tropical conditions (311 K (100 °F) and 90% RH) according to TAPPI Test Method T-464, orienting the barrier coating toward the higher humidity of the chamber atmosphere, when it is present on the surface. For water resistance, the standard short (2 minute) and long (20 minute) Cobb test is often used. For oil, two tests are commonly used. The first is the 3M kit test per TAPPI T-559 standards, coating film weight as measured by TAPPI 410 standards. The second is red dyed canola oil and castor oil exposure to the coating surface using a 2-minute and a 20-minute Cobb ring.

[0093] Extruded mineral-containing interspersed and non-interspersed composite layers of the present embodiments demonstrate high barrier performance characteristics when substantially and continuously bonded to fiber-containing layers. The fiber-containing layers may include in their composition or surface, but are not limited to, mineral and polymeric sizings, surface treatments, coatings, and mineral fillers. Some advantages of the non-fiber content of the fiber-containing layer include improved fiber layer printability, ink hold out, dynamic water absorption, water resistance, sheet gloss, whiteness, delta gloss, pick strength, and surface smoothness. Often, mineral content contained within or upon one or more opposing surfaces of the fiber-containing layer can include, but is not limited to, clay, calcined clay, or combinations thereof. The minerals are frequently applied to the surface of the fiber-containing layer through a blade or air coating process. Common mineral binding methods include the use of protein systems such as a mixture of vinyl acrylic/protein co-binders. Another non-limiting example is tri-binder systems, e.g. SB/Pvac/Protein. Further, pigments such as TiO2 can be included to improve whiteness characteristics. The nature of the fiber layer's mineral and binder content can impact the selection of the non-interspersed and interspersed mineral-containing layer characteristics when bonded substantially and continuously to one or more sides of the fiber-containing layer(s), which comprise part of the composite structure. Examples of non-fiber content in the fiber-containing layer include, but are not limited to, 50%-95% of #1 clay or #1 fine clay, 3%-20% by part calcined clay, 3%-40% by part TiO2, 2%-45% vinyl acrylic, and from about 1% to about 35% protein binders, co-binders, or tri-binders.

[0094] Also, the fiber-containing layer surfaces can have from about 55% to about 88% TAPPI 452 surface brightness. The examples shown in Table 8, below, illustrate acceptable, but not limiting, fiber-containing layer characteristics for substantially and continuously bonding to the mineral-containing layer. Surface roughness values are based upon Parker Print Surf (µm) and Bendtsen (mls/min) per TAPPI T-479 (moderate pressure), TAPPI T-538, and TAPPI 555 (print-surf method). Tear resistance per TAPPI T-414 standards are expressed in millinewtons (mN). Surface brightness is expressed per TAPPI 452. Burst strength is expressed per TAPPI 403 standards. Bursting strength is reported as burst ratio = bursting strength (g/m2 (lbs/in2)) / basis weight (g (lbs)/ream). Internal bond strength or interlayer strength of the fiber-containing layer is an important characteristic as represented by TAPPI T-403 and T-569. Preferred fiber-containing layer internal strengths are, but are not limited to, from about 125 J/m2 to about 1150 J/m2. Further, fiber-containing layer Z-direction tensile strength per TAPPI T-541 testing standard is from about 45-50 Nm/g to about 950 Nm/g. Finally, preferred, but non-limiting, fiber-containing layer air resistance per TAPPI 547 is from about 0 to about 1500 mls/min, as represented by the Bendsten method.
Table 8 - Fiber-Containing Layer Characteristics
Fiber Weight g/m2 (lbs/3msf)g/m2Tear Resistance (Mn)Surface RoughnessBurst Strength (kPa)
65.1-122.06 (40-75) 60-110 400-700 2.0-5.5 µm 140-300
>122.06 (75) 110-130 650-750 2.0-3.5 µm 175-400
>187.16 (115) 180-190 1400-1900 100-2500 mls/min 175-475
>211.57 (130) 205-215 1600-2200 100-2500 mls/min 250-675
>325.5 (200) 315-330 1900-3200 100-2500 mls/min 500-950
>488.24 (300) 460-195 500-4000 100-2500 mls/min 700-1850


[0095] Table 9, below, displays finished composite board barrier performance ranges, but is not limited to, that of a composite structure having from about 20% to about 70% mineral-containing layer bonded to at least one side of a fiber-containing layer. The mineral-containing layer can be either a dispersed monolayer or non-interspersed coextrusion.
Table 9 - Barrier Values of Formed Composite Structure
Test MethodTAPPI T441TAPPI T464TAPPI T410Tappi T559
Test NameCobb Water AbsorptionWVTR in Tropical ConditionsMineral layer WgtGrease Resistance
Unitsg/m2g/m2g/m2 (g/100 in2)g/m2g/m2 (lb/1000 ft2)3M Kit Test#
Sample #Fiber Layer2 minute Cobb30 minute Cobb    Coated SideUncoate d Side
1 Recycled Fiber 7.11 µm (.28 mil) caliper 0.22 - 23.4 23.4 (1.51)     12 ∗∗1-
2 Virgin Fiber 5.08 µm (.20 mil) caliper 0.40 0.00 15.2 15.2 (0.98) 32.3 20.11 (4.12) 12 1-
3 Recycled Fiber 5.08 µm (.20 mil) caliper 0.00 - 18.6 18.6 (1.20)   16.84 (3.45) 12 1-
4 85-100% Recycled Fiber 5.08 µm (.20 mil) caliper 0.10 0.05 13.9 13.9 (0.89) 18.25 17.33 (3.55) 12 1-
5 Virgin-TMP content 7.62 µm (.30 mil) caliper - - 7.58 7.59 (0.49)     12 1-
6 Clay coated 1 side-bleached 4.57 µm (.18 mil) caliper - 0.45 7.13 7.13 (0.46)   36.62 (7.5) 12 1-
7 Fiber 2-side bleached 4.57 µm (.18 mil) caliper 0.00 - 9.31 9.3 (0.60)   31.44 (6.44) 12 1-
8 Fiber 1 side, bleached 4.57 µm (.18 mil) caliper 0.50 0.11 37.7 37.7 (2.43)   55.32 (11.33) 12 1-
9 Virgin Kraft-clay coated 4.06 µm (.16 mil) caliper 0.05 0.11 15.0 15.0 (0.97)   19.24 (3.94) 12 1-
10 Virgin Kraft-clay coated 3.56 µm (.14 mil) caliper 0.00 0.10 14.1 14.1 (0.91) 28.1 18.99 (3.89) 12 1-
11 Clay coated unbleached kraft-100% virging 4.57 µm (.18 mil) caliper 0.00 0.05 13.0 13.0 (0.84)   30.27 (6.2) 12 1-
12 Solid Unbleache d Sulfate 4.57 µm (.18 mil) caliper 0.00 0.00 9.49 9.49 (0.61) 52.2 26.85 (5.5) 12 1-
Note: 1 mil = 1/1000th of an inch


[0096] Table 10, below, shows the barrier performance of a formed composite having a monolayer HDPE-PE mix with a density from about 0.925 gm/cm3 to about 0.960 g/cm3 and containing from about 36% to about 45% mineral content by weight.
Table 10 - Barrier Values of a Formed Composite Structure, Interspersed (Mono), Mineral-Containin Layer
Monolayer 40%-60% Mineral Content (HDPE-PE MIX)
Fiber typeCobb Water AbsorptionWVTR in Tropical Conditions 311 K (100°F)/90% R.H.Mineral layer weight
Unitg/m2g/m2g/m2 (g/100 in2)g/m2g/m2 (lb/1000 ft2)
Sample 2-min 30-min        
Recycled 0.2 0.1 16.7 16.74 (1.08) 24.9 24.85 (5.09)
Recycled 0.0 0.0 9.7 9.77 (0.63) 49.6 36.13 (7.4)
Virgin Kraft 0.0 0.1 11.1 11.16 (0.72) 32.8 32.86 (6.73)
Virgin Kraft 0.1 0.1 9.9 9.92 (0.64) 36.9 36.96 (7.57)
Virgin Kraft 0.0 0.1 8.7 8.68 (0.56) 36.2 36.23 (7.42)
Virgin Kraft 0.0 0.2 7.8 7.75 (0.50) 41.0 31.54 (6.46)
Virgin Kraft - - - - 26.1 26.12 (5.35)


[0097] Table 11, below, shows projected moisture barrier performance (MVTR, WVTR) for the present embodiments, comparing a coextruded mineral-containing layer bonded to a surface of a fiber-containing layer, the mineral-containing layer having both a monolayer and a multilayer (coextrusion) construction. The fiber-containing layer in Table 11 lists Klabin virgin kraft fiber. However, the data is applicable to a range of both virgin and recycled fiber surfaces to include similar various weights and densities known in the art. Maximum MVTR via coextrusion is projected to be about the values in Table 11 in mineral-containing layers down to about 12 g/m2 layer weight. The data illustrates two different MVTR values. The first value is coextrusion. Coextrusion can provide superior results because of the flexibility to alter the type of polymers used per layer, density, branched or linear molecular nature, as well as crystallinity, among others. Also, because of stress fracturing found in more monolayer constructions as a result of bending, scoring, and processing, performance improvements using coextrusion are possible. The base layer in the coextrusion can be more dense and crystalline, for example, than the outer layer, which is more amorphous and light density and more linear, thus not as vulnerable to stress fracture within the matrix, preventing percolation through the layer. Other options for improving processing include additives to the mineral-containing blend, which include, but are not limited to, elastomers.
Table 11 - Barrier Attributes of Mineral-Containing Layer Bonded to Fiber-Containing Layer Based for Interspersed (Monolayer) and Non-Interspersed (Coextruded)
 CompositeFlat SamplesFull CaseMineral Layer
Project Barrier Peformance TableFiber Layer - Outer layerPre Score + BedPost ScoreWeight
Ethylene CoPolymerUncoatedMineralRanges WVTR-TropicalWVTRWVTRRanges
  Mineral Layer Density-% Amorphous Box board 38-65% gm/m2 day Variation gm/m2 day Variation   i
  Range                
                 
  1.22-1.41 g/cm3 25%-65% 20 pt. Klabin 2+ layer coex 5 to 13 0.20 11 to 17 0.2 15 gsm 50 gsm
                     
  1.22-1.36 g/cm3 25-70% 20 pt. Klabin Monolayer 8 to 22 0.2 14 to 25 0.2 15 gsm 50 gsm


[0098] Figure 1 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of a multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure 20 according to the present embodiments. The illustrated embodiment includes a mineral-containing layer 22 having an outer or heat-sealable surface 24. Figure 1A is a detail view of the portion of Figure 1 indicated by the circle 1A-1A. As shown in Figure 1A, a plurality of mineral particles 26 are interspersed within a thermoplastic bonding agent 28. With reference to Figure 1, the mineral-containing layer 22 may be substantially and continuously bonded to a first surface 30 of a fiber-containing layer 32. Another mineral-containing layer 22 may be substantially and continuously bonded to a second surface 34 of the fiber-containing layer 32, the second surface 34 being opposite the first surface 30. With reference to Figure 1A, the fiber-containing layer 32 includes a plurality of fibers 36 interspersed within a thermoplastic bonding agent 38. The thermoplastic bonding agent of either or both of the mineral-containing layer 22 and the fiber-containing layer 32 may comprise, for example and without limitation, polyolefin, polyester, or any other thermoplastic or polymer-containing resins.

[0099] The mineral-containing layer(s) 22 may include about 30% to about 65% minerals, and the minerals may comprise any of the minerals described throughout this specification and combinations thereof. The mineral-containing layer(s) 22 may be adhered to the fiber-containing layer 32 through coextrusion, extrusion-lamination, or any other suitable method or process. Extrusion-lamination may comprise a separately applied adhesive between the mineral- and fiber-containing layers. The composite material 20 illustrated in Figure 1 may advantageously be used as a single or multiple corrugate liner(s) or medium(s) within a single-layered or multilayered corrugated structure.

[0100] Figure 2 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite material 40 according to the present embodiments. The illustrated includes a mineral-containing layer 22 substantially and continuously bonded to the first surface 30 of a fiber-containing layer 32. In contrast to the embodiment of Figure 1, in the embodiment of Figure 2 the second surface 34 of the fiber-containing layer 32 is not bonded to a mineral-containing layer 22.

[0101] Figure 3 shows a mineral-containing layer 22 having both the first and second surfaces 30, 34.

[0102] Figure 4 is a schematic detail view of a pellet 42 of a mineral-containing resin with mineral particles interspersed within a bonding agent, according to the present embodiments. Pellets such as that illustrated in Figure 4 may be used in an extrusion process to adhere the mineral-containing layer 22 and the fiber-containing layer 32 to one another. With reference to Figure 4, the mineral particles 26 are interspersed within the bonding agent 28 within the pellet 42.

[0103] Figure 5 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite structure according to the present embodiments. The illustrated embodiment includes a first mineral-containing layer 22 substantially and continuously bonded to the first surface 30 of a fiber-containing layer 32. A second mineral-containing layer 44 is substantially and continuously bonded to the second surface 34 of the fiber-containing layer 32. The second mineral-containing layer 44 comprises three layers or plies of the first mineral-containing layer 22. The first and second mineral-containing layers 22, 44 may be secured to the fiber-containing layer 32 through any of the processes described herein, such as coextrusion, and extrusion-lamination. The plies 22 of the second mineral-containing layer 44 may be secured to one another through any of the processes described herein, such as coextrusion, and extrusion-lamination. One or more of the plies 22 may comprise a mineral content and/or a bonding agent that is different from the mineral content and/or the bonding agent of another one or more of the plies 22. Further, the illustrated embodiment in which the second mineral-containing layer 44 comprises three layers or plies 22 is only one example. In other embodiments the second mineral-containing layer 44 may have any number of layers or plies 22, such as two layers or plies, four layers or plies, five layers or plies, etc. In yet further embodiments, the fiber-containing layer 32 may have a multilayer mineral-containing layer 44 adhered to both the first and second surfaces 30, 32.

[0104] Figure 6 is a schematic side cross-sectional view of another multilayer repulpable packaging composite 46 according to the present embodiments. The material 46 of Figure 6 includes multiple layers of any of the material layers described herein, such as a first dual layer 48 and a second dual layer 50 with a corrugated layer 52 therebetween.

[0105] The composite materials illustrated in the foregoing figures and described above are well-suited for use as packaging materials, such as for packages for containing one or more products. For example, and without limitation, such packages may comprise folding cartons and/or boxes. The package material has high performance heat seal characteristics, elevated barrier performance, is repulpable, and provides excellent cosmetics and favorable economics. The present composite materials can also be used as components, or layers, of multilayer packaging structures, such as corrugated boxes, and/or be used as a single-layer or multilayer corrugated liner or medium.

Example 1



[0106] To form a repulpable composite, a 38.5% by weight mineralized HPDE-PE resin containing additives was compounded using wet ground and coated for dispersion finely ground within a range of about approximately 5-14 micron mean particle sized limestone-originating CaCO3 particles with incremental crystalline silica content within a range of from about 0.2% to about 3.5%. The specific heat of the ground CaCO3 particles was from about 0.19 to about 0.31 kcal/kg·°C. The HDPE had a density within a range of about 0.939 to about 0.957 g/cm3 and the PE had a density of from about 0.916 g/cm3 to about 0.932 g/cm3. The HDPE-PE bonding agent had a melt flow index of 14 g/10 minutes. The finished and pelletized mineralized compound had an approximate density within a range of about of 0.125 to about 1.41 g/cm3. The compound was coextruded using the mineralized HDPE-PE composite layer as a base layer applied at 22 g/m2 coating thickness contacting the uncoated side of 320 g/m2 weight Klabin virgin paper surface having a TAPPI T-441 Sheffield Smoothness of 74, a 7.5% moisture content, and a TAPPI T 556 MD-CD Taber Stiffness of 39.9 and 17.4, respectively. The minor layer, or top facing, outer, polymer bonding agent mineral-containing layer of the coextrusion was about 8 g/m2 weight having a mineral content from about 4% to about 65%, the base layer being predominately crystalline using the top layer to provide additional moisture barrier at box bend, scoring, and folding joints. The extrusion processing condition melt temperature for the base layer was within a range of approximately 566 K to 594 K (560 °F to 610 °F) with barrel temperatures from zone one to zone six from about 480 K to 589 K (405 °F to 600 °F). Base layer die temperature zones were approximately 575 K to 589 K (575 °F to 600 °F). The extruder die gap setting was within the range of 0.64 mm (0.025") - 1.17 mm (0.046"). Unfilled Westlake® brand top neat PE mineral-containing layer processing was consistent with neat LDPE. The extruder air gap was approximately 10 cm - 25.4 cm (4"-10"), providing sufficient base layer oxidation and excellent adhesion use gas pre-heat, but without ozone or primer layers. The extrusion line speeds were within the range of 150-600 meters per minute across a fiber web with within 1.27 m - 3 m (50"-118") range. Post corona treatment was used. Roll stock was in-process quality control checked for adhesion using "tape" testing and saturated for pin holing. Coat weight testing was done consistently using lab instrumentation. Finished and coated roll stock was rewound and sent for converting. Successful converting and packaging article forming, e.g. folding cartons/boxes, were done up to eight months post-extrusion coating. Using room temperature adhesives during converting, the roll stock was run on high speed detergent box production lines at speeds from about 100 to 500 cartons per minute. The enclosed detergent, being sensitive to moisture exposure, was shipped in tropical moisture conditions. Glue seams and small, medium, and large carton sizes were successfully formed having sufficient fiber tear, meeting standards with both room temperature and hot melt adhesives, including the manufacturer's seam. Moisture barrier testing was completed for large size sampling sizes, which included full converted and formed case samples having MVTR performance of 13.91 g/m2/24 hours with a minimum of 13.03 g/m2/24 hours, with a standard deviation of 0.86. These results compared to 40 g/m2 inline primed and then applied aqueous PVDC coatings on the same Klabin board having an average MVTR of 18.92 g/m2/24 hrs with a minimum of 16.83 g/m2/24 hours, a maximum of 20.89 g/m2/24 hrs, with a standard deviation of 2.00, and also compared to 20 micron thick BOPP primed and roll-to-roll laminated on the same Klabin board having an average MVTR of 15.03 g/m2/24 hrs with a minimum of 13.20 g/m2/24 hrs, a maximum of 16.64 g/m2/24 hrs, with a standard deviation of 1.41.

Example 2



[0107] To form a repulpable and recyclable composite, a 43.5% by weight mineralized PE resin containing additives was compounded using wet ground and coated with fatty acid-containing materials for dispersion and finely ground approximately 4-12 micron mean particle sized limestone-originating CaCO3 particles with incremental crystalline silica content of less than from about 0.2% to about 5%. The resin blend also had 5% by weight titanium dioxide (TiO2) for a total mineral content of from about 48.5% by weight. The specific heat of the ground CaCO3 particles was 0.21 kcal/kg·°C. The PE had a density of 0.919 g/cm3 to about 93.1 g/cm3. The PE bonding agent had a melt flow index of 16 g/10 minutes. The finished and pelletized mineralized compound had an approximate density of 1.38 g/cm3. The compound was then extruded using the mineralized PE and TiO2 composite layer as a mono layer applied at 52.08 g/m2 (32 lbs/3 msf) coating weight contacting the uncoated side of Rock Tenn AngelCote® approximately 100% recycled fiberboard with a nominal basis weight of 380.83 g/m2 (78 lbs/msf), with the paper surface having a TAPPI T-441 Sheffield Smoothness of approximately 68-72, a 5% to 7.5% moisture content, and a TAPPI T 556 MD-CD Taber Stiffness g-cm of 320 and 105, respectively. The extrusion processing condition melt temperature was approximately 580 K (585 °F) with barrel temperatures from zone one to zone six from about 478 K to 580 K (400 °F to about 585 °F). Die temperature zones were approximately 575 K to 580 K (575 °F to 585 °F). The extruder die gap setting was within the range of 0.64 mm - 0.76 mm (0.025"-0.030"). The extruder air gap was approximately 15.24 cm - 25.4 cm (6"-10"), providing excellent extrudate to fiber adhesion without a gas pre-heat, ozone, or primer layers. Extrusion line speeds were within the range of 0.76-7.11 m/s (150-1400 feet per minute) across a 2.03 m - 3 m (80"-118") web width. Post corona treatment was used. Roll stock was in-process quality control checked for adhesion using "tape" testing and saturated for visual pin holing. Post production coat weight testing was done consistently using lab instrumentation. Finished and coated roll stock was rewound and sent for converting. Successful converting and packaging forming was done up to three months post-extrusion coating. During converting, the roll stock was run for use in high barrier MVR requirement frozen seafood box production lines at speeds up to 250 boxes per minute. The finished composite material was formed, bent, scored, and machined at standard production rates. The mineral-containing surface layer was efficiently offset printed using standard industry inks and aqueous press coatings. The mineral coating layer was highly opaque and improved the brightness of the base paper surface from about 59 bright to about 76 bright. The mineral layer had a resident dyne level range of 44-48 as measured during post-production testing. Moisture barrier testing was completed for large size sampling sizes, which included full converted and formed case samples having MVTR performance of 12 to 16 g/m2/24 hrs @ 100% humidity in tropical conditions with mineral composite layer coat weights from 19.53 g/m2(12 lbs/3 msf) to 26.04 g/m2(16 lbs/3 msf).

Example 3



[0108] Example 3 illustrates three different finished repulpable composites containing bleached virgin board SBS paper within a caliper range from about 0.36 mm (0.014") to about 0.71 mm (0.028") having a mineral-containing layer extrusion-coated to the fiber-containing layer. These composites were analyzed for ash content with Tappi standard T211, and for repulpability using an in-house procedure developed by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Results indicated that ash content varied from about 2.21% up to about 21.44%. Screen yield and overall recovery seem to depend at least in part on ash content of the starting paper. A 40% by weight mineralized PE resin and a 47% by weight mineralized PE resin, both containing additives, were compounded using wet ground and coated for dispersion finely ground approximately 5.0 to 13.0 micron mean particle sized limestone-originating CaCO3 particles with incremental crystalline silica content of less that about 5% by weight. The specific heat of the ground CaCO3 particles was 0.21 kcal/kg·°C. The PE had a density from about 0.919 g/cm3 to about 93.2 g/cm3. The PE bonding agent had a melt flow index of 16 g/10 minutes. The finished and pelletized mineralized compound had an approximate density from about 1.34 g/cm3 to about 1.41 g/cm3. The compound was then extruded as a mono layer substantially and continuously applied on the fiber-containing layer at from about 12.21 g/m2 (7.5 lbs/3msf) to about 26.04 g/m2 (16 lbs/3msf) layer weight contacting the uncoated side of International Paper Fortress SBS and Clearwater Paper Candesce SBS having approximately 89% to approximately 100% bleached virgin fiberboard with nominal basis weight from about 82,5 kg (182 lbs) to about 105.7 kg (233 lbs), with the paper surface having a TAPPI T-441 Sheffield Smoothness of approximately 68-72, a 5% to 7.5% moisture content, and a TAPPI T 556 MD-CD Taber Stiffness g-cm above 375 and 105, respectively. The extrusion processing condition melt temperature was from about 569 K to 594 K (565 °F to about 610 °F), with barrel temperatures from zone one to zone six from about 478 K to 591 K (400 °F to about 605 °F). The die temperature zones were approximately 575 K to 594 K (575 °F to 610 °F). The extruder die gap setting was within the range of about 0.51 mm - 1.02 mm (0.020"-0.040"). The extruder air gap was approximately 10.2 cm - 40.6 cm (4"-16"), providing excellent extrudate to fiber adhesion without a gas pre-heat, ozone, or primer layers. The extrusion line speeds were within the range of 0.76-7.11 m/s (150-1600 feet per minute) across a 1.4 m - 3 m (55"-118") web width. Post corona treatment was used. Roll stock was in-process quality control checked for adhesion using "tape" testing and saturated for visual pin holing. Post production coat weight testing was done consistently using lab instrumentation. Finished and coated roll stock was rewound and sent for converting. Successful converting and packaging forming was done up to three months post-extrusion coating. During converting, the roll stock was run for use in high barrier MVR requirement frozen seafood box production lines at speeds up to 250-500 boxes per minute, and cupstock as well as ice cream packaging material converted from about 150 to about 600 formed units per minute. The finished composite material was formed, bent, scored, and machined at standard production rates. The mineral-containing surface layer was efficiently offset printed using standard industry inks and aqueous press coatings. The mineral coating layer was highly opaque and maintained the fiber layer brightness of the base paper surface from about 80 to about 90 bright. The mineral layer had a post corona treatment resident dyne level range of 42-56 as measured during post-production testing. Moisture barrier testing was completed for large size sampling sizes, which included full converted and formed case samples having MVTR performance of about 8 g/m2/24 hrs to about 16 g/m2/24 hrs @ 100% humidity in tropical conditions with mineral composite layer coat weights from about 12.21 g/m2 (7.5 lbs/3msf) to about 26.04 g/m2 (16 lbs/3msf). Packages were closed and sealed using standard heat seal procedures found on cup forming and folding carton production lines.

Example 4 - Repulpability Experiment


1. Ash Content



[0109] Ash content was measured following Tappi standard T413. The time at maximum temperature was extended to eight hours to ensure complete ash.
Table 12 - Ash/Solids Content for Six Paper Samples
Ash/Solids Content
SampleDish, gSample Wt., gSolids, %Ash Content, %
1# 27.7401 1.1446 95.83 21.41
Duplicate 15.8099 1.1136 96.20 21.46
Average     96.02 21.44
2# 18.8742 1.0837 96.16 5.41
Duplicate 16.1962 0.9697 96.11 6.45
Average     96.14 5.93
3# 15.7174 1.0131 95.92 2.17
Duplicate 16.5933 1.0285 95.73 2.26
Average     95.83 2.21
4# 17.9733 0.9974 96.09 9.31
Duplicate 18.4839 1.0778 95.75 9.32
Average     95.92 9.32
5# 16.3182 1.0548 95.92 4.11
Duplicate 18.3800 1.2260 96.28 3.83
Average     96.10 3.97
6# 28.1106 1.3772 94.88 2.80
Duplicate 27.5611 1.5707 95.24 2.76
Average     95.06 2.78


[0110] The above results indicate that the ash content of sample 1# is 21.44%, the highest among the six samples, whereas that of sample 3# is only 2.21%. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 12 above may vary by about ±50%.

2. Repulpability



[0111] Around 25 g of oven dried paper samples were torn into 2.54 cm × 2.54 cm (1" × 1") pieces and weighted into a preheated (around 52 °C) Waring blender, which was equipped with a special blade to reduce fiber cutting. After 1,500 ml of hot (around 52 °C) water were added, the paper was disintegrated on low speed (15,000 rpm) for 4 minutes. The content was then transferred quantitatively into a British disintegrator using 500 ml hot water as rinsing liquor, so that the pulp slurry had a temperature around 52 °C. The pulp suspension was then de-flaked for 5 minutes with a British disintegrator at 3,000 rpm. The disintegrated pulp was screened by using a Valley flat screen with 0.25 mm (0.01") slot openings for 20 minutes. During the screening, a water head over the screen was maintained at 7.62 cm (3") and water flow was kept constant. Accepts and rejects were collected and were used to calculate the screen yield (accepts/starting paper100) and overall recovery ((accepts + rej ects)/starting paper 100). Images of the accepts and rejects were taken to examine the fibers and flakes. After full completion of the repulpability cycle, the entire procedure was completed without using an acid wash to clean the flat screen during the test or dismantling the pressure screens to clean them before completing the test. Also, there was no visible deposition on any part or the disintegrator during the test.
Table 13 - Repulpability Data of the Paper Samples
SampleStart Pulp, gAccepts, gRejects, gScreen Yield, %Overall Recovery, %
#2 26.448 20.511 1.754 77.55 84.18
#3 25.203 19.421 1.963 77.06 84.85
#5 26.235 20.700 2.044 78.90 86.69


[0112] The samples were disintegrated for 70,000 revolutions. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 13 above may vary by about ±50%.

3. Determination of Fibers, Plastics, and Ash Compositions - Determined Ash Content of the Fraction Following the Procedure Stated in 1 (above)



[0113] Around 0.2 g was weighted into a 50 plastic vial. After 1.8 ml of 72% sulfuric acid was added, the content was mixed thoroughly and the sample mass turned to a paste. The vial was then set in a 30 °C heating block for 1 hour, and the content was stirred periodically. By the end of the heating treatment, water was added to the vial until a total of 50 ml volume was reached. The vial was capped and set in a 121°C autoclave for two hours. This would completely hydrolyze the carbohydrate components and solubilize the acid soluble inorganics. By the end of hydrolysis, the acid insoluble substances were collected over a tarred glass filter, which was preheated at 550 °C overnight. The collected substances were plastics plus acid insoluble inorganics (ash), which was determined by the procedure stated under heading 1 above. Thus, the fiber content was calculated from the weight difference of starting materials and substances after hydrolysis minus the acid soluble inorganics. This portion of inorganics was determined from the ash content stated under heading 3 above, minus acid insoluble inorganics. The plastics were the weight difference of acid insoluble substances minus acid insoluble inorganics.

[0114] Validation - In validation run, 1.5 g starting materials was first hydrolyzed with 15 ml of 72% sulfuric acid at room temperature for 1 hour followed by a 3% sulfuric acid hydrolysis for 4 hours at boiling temperature.

4. Stickies Analysis



[0115] Around 0.3 g materials were hydrolyzed following the procedure stated under heading 3 above. The hydrolyzed content was filtered through black filtering paper (15 cm diameter). The retained white residues were thoroughly washed with water until neutral. When the filter paper was dry, the residues on the black filtering paper were scanned with a HP scanner. A known dimension shape was placed in the scanner as a reference. The image thus acquired was input to Image-J software. Set threshold at 125/255 and scale based on the insert reference. The particles were analyzed and the output was input into MS Excel for further calculations. The stickies content was expressed as specified stickies area, which was defined as total stickies area in mm2/weight of starting materials in g.

5. Fate of Rosin Acids



[0116] Proper amount of mass from each fraction was weighted into 15 ml vials. After 10 ml DCM and 3 drops of 2 M HCL were added, the vial was firmly capped with Teflon-lined caps, and shaken for 3 minutes. The vial was set in room temperature overnight. 1 ml extract was filtered through a layer of sodium sulfate, and 100 µl clear filtrate was measured into a 1 ml GC vial. After the content was dried under a stream of nitrogen, the residues were derivatized with MSTFA (N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide) at 50 °C for 30 minutes with periodic shaking. 1 µl derivatized mixture was injected into the GC/MS for analysis. The GC was equipped with 60 meter SPB DB-5 fused silica capillary column and helium was used as carrying gas. GC operation conditions were set as follows: initial temperature 120 °C, initial time 5 min., rate 15 °C/min., final temperature 315 °C, and final time 30 minutes, inject port temperature 250°C. The components were analyzed using an HP 5975C mass detector in EI mode. The operation parameters were properly set to realize maximum detection limit. Identification of individual compounds based on the commercial mass spectra libraries and in-house libraries. Peak area was used to anticipate the total mass of rosin acids.

6. Starch Detection



[0117] Around 0.2 g materials were weighted into a 10 ml vial. After 5 ml water were added, the vial was capped and placed in a 105 °C oven overnight. Around 2 ml water extract were transferred to a test tube and added with 2 drops of 0.1 M iodine solution. If the solution inside the test tube turned to blue, it indicated that starch was present.

Results


1. Repulpability



[0118] Coated paper board and product are repulped and recovered in three fractions: accepts, rejects, and wash-out. The oven dry weight of each fraction, along with the accepts yield and overall yield, are listed in Table 14, below.
Table 14 - Repulpability Data of the Paper Samples
Repulpability
  Start pulp, g Accepts, g Rejects, g Washout, g Accepts Yield, % Overall Yield, %
CS-1 26.616 22.388 2.255 1.711 84.12 99.01
IP Mix 26.170 20.573 1.376 3.770 78.61 98.28
CLWR 2 25.257 20.123 1.056 3.930 79.67 99.42
CLWR 8.1 25.550 20.572 0.919 3.941 80.51 99.53


[0119] Results indicated that the accepts yield for all studied samples is close to 80%. Sample CS-1 had the highest accepts yield and the least amount of wash-out. This result may be due to the uncoating feature of the based paper sheet. For all the samples, the overall yield almost reaches 100%, indicating excellent recovery of the starting materials in the three fractions. All the accepts had particles of impurities in various sizes. Accepts of some samples also contain fragments of plastics that may have been broken down from the plastic coating. Judged from the reference ruler, the size of those particles is less than 1 mm. The rejects also contain small quantities of fibers. The entire procedure was completed without the use of acid wash to clean the flat screens in the repulpability tests or dismantling the pressure screens to clean them before finishing the recyclability test. Further, there was no visible deposition on any part of the disintegrator during the repulpability test or anticipated in a recyclability test. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 14 above may vary by about ±50%.

2. Compositions of the Three Fractions



[0120] Compositions of the fractions are divided into three categories: fibers, plastics and inorganics which may come from the fillers in the base paper and the mineral coatings in the coating layers. Through the acid hydrolysis-ash operations, the fibers, plastics and inorganics can be distinguished and quantified. This is based on the fact that fibers are composed of carbohydrates and they are readily hydrolyzed in sulfuric acid solution under elevated temperature. Plastics, however, are generally resistant toward such hydrolysis and will be recovered as insoluble substances. In the ashing process, both fibers and plastics will be burnt out. Inorganics survive this process and are recovered as ash.

[0121] Table 15, below, lists the experimental results indicating the percentage of each fraction in each sample.
Table 15 - Percent Compositions of the Three Fractions
SampleAshAcceptsRejectsWash-out
FibersPlasticsAshFibersPlasticsAshFibersPlasticsAsh
CS-1 0.24 98.92 0.74 0.40 3.56 96.44 0.04 82.44 1.47 17.78
IP Mix 8.18 92.18 3.21 4.75 1.05 89.28 9.22 68.43 2.56 29.01
CLWR_2 10.33 94.43 (94.17) 1.04 (1.30) 4.53 5.05 57.43 37.52 63.07 2.21 34.72
CLWR_8.1 8.43 94.42 94.11) 1.00 (1.31) 4.58 10.59 54.87 34.54 61.82 2.79 35.39


[0122] Note: Data in parentheses are validation runs. Plastics columns can represent either mineralized layer fragments or separated plastic materials or both. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 15 above may vary by about ±50%.

[0123] In order to obtain reliable results, analysis to accepts of sample CLWR-2 and CLWR-8 was performed in triplet runs: a duplicate run to produce the average result, and a third run in large sample size to serve as validation. As indicated, the majority of the accepts is fibers, accounts for over 92% of the mass. Ash and plastics are minor components existing probably in the forms of small particles. Comparing to sample CS-1, all the accepts from other three samples contain higher amounts of inorganics. As to the plastics components, IP Mix has substantially higher quantity than CS-1, whereas those among CS-1, CLWR-2 and CLWR-8.1 are comparable. Plastics are the dominant components in the rejects fraction, especially in sample CS-1. Sample IP Mix, CLWR-2 and CLWR-8.1 have increasing amounts of inorganics in the rejects. It is not known if these inorganics are closely packed inside the plastics or presented as separated particles. In the washout, the fibers are the major components, especially in sample CS-1 and IP MIX. Samples CLWR-2 and CLWR-8.1 have increasingly amounts of inorganics, probably presented as colloid particles in the washing liquor.

3. Stickies Analysis



[0124] Impurities in the accepts are the major concern in the recycled pulp fibers. Although composition analysis in section 2 provides information regarding these impurities, a visualized analysis can provide more subtle features of the impurities. Stickies analysis (some of the particles could also be referred to as "dirties") is thus performed to reveal the particle content and their size distribution.
Table 16 - Stickies Analysis Results
 CLWR-2CLWR-8.1
FibersRejectsWashoutFibersRejectsWashout
Stickies, mm2/g 108 n/a n/a 123 n/a n/a
Rosin +++ + +++ +++ + +++
Starch + Not detected + + Not detected +


[0125] In Table 16 the stickie count is represented as a number of stickies contained in the accepts sampling prior to any further processing. Therefore, the 3 gram hand sheets subsequently made from the accepts fibers contained 100% of the stickies and other miscellaneous particles in the accepts immediately after pulping but before further cleansing or processing such as cleaning, flotation, etc. The hand sheets are pressed and dried at 450 K (350 °F) and 3,447 kPa (500 psi) on a Carver press for 5 minutes and tested for performance consistent with TAPPI T 537, TAPPI T277, TAPPI T 220, TAPPI 815, TAPPI T 826, TAPPI T 403, TAPPI T 831 and TAPPI T563. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 16 above may vary by about ±50%.



[0126] The result indicates that contents of stickies in both CLWR-2 and CLWR-8.1 are comparable. Particle size distribution plots indicate that all the stickies have a size less than 0.4 mm2. All particles having an area area less than 0.05 mm2 are dominant, with approximately 80% or more of the particles 0.0015 mm2 or less. This result, however, is highly in line with what have been observed the accepts for each sampling. Since no further processing e.g. cleaning, reverse cleaning, flotation, high density cleaning, sidewall washing, peroxide dispersion, sodium hydrosulfite bleaching, hydrosieve washing, or post flotation at specified pH levels, etc., of the accepts occurred, 100% of the stickies or dirties residing in the unprocessed accepts passed directly through to the handsheets. Upon completion of the handsheets, no substantial or important visual or cosmetic difference from that of the virgin control board samples were seen. This exceptional cosmetic result is primarily a factor driven by the very small overall particle size and the white, opaque, color which closely matches the bleached board SBS fibers found in the handsheets and control samples. Further, 100% of the particles are less than or equal to 0.4 mm2 and therefore would not be considered large enough for cosmetic considerations. It is expected that the mineralized board testing samples CS-1, IP MIX, CLWR 8.1 CLW 2 and the handsheets would be considered fully recyclable fibers based on structural, cosmetic, and other considerations including processability within about pH 6 to 8 ±0.5 pH levels, fiber processing temperature levels from about 316 K to 330 K (110 °F to about 135 °F), pulper consistency from about 1.2 to 30%, pulping time from about 10 minutes to about 40 minutes, fiber on fiber yield from about 60% to about 95% and hand sheet drying temperatures in the range of about 389 K to 416 K (240 °F to about 290 °F), with finished sheet moisture levels from about 5% to 9%, recyclability testing methods in accordance with testing standards established by TAPPI T220, T815, T826, T403, T831, T537, T277, T563.

4. Fate of Rosin Acids



[0127] Rosin is a collective name given to a group of chemicals including abietic acid, pimaric acid, isopimirc acid, palustric acid, dehydroabietic acid, etc. The rosin used in the paper making process can also be oxidized into different forms. Nonetheless, the acids are readily extracted by using DCM in acidic medium, and can be easily separated by using a neutral GC capillary column.

[0128] Results of GC/MS analysis to the three fractions from sample CLWR-2 and CLWR-8.1 are shown in Table 16, above. Table 18, below, illustrates a typical total ion spectrum of the DCM extract.



[0129] As indicated, the rosin acids are separated completely by GC. Judged from the peak area, the fibers fraction contains the highest amount of rosin, following by the washout and the rejects. It is contemplated that the values shown in Table 18 above may vary by about ±50%.

5. The Whereabouts of Starch



[0130] Starch's whereabouts among the three fractions is determined by iodine detection. It is well known that starch will turn the iodine-contained solution into blue color. Based on this phenomenon, starch is found in both the fibers fraction and washout fraction, but not in the rejects fraction, as indicated in Table 3.

Example 5



[0131] By weight 40% to 60% mineralized resins were applied via extrusion coating to uncoated and clay coated virgin bleached boards with weights from about 278.3 g/m2 (57 lbs per thousand square feet (msf)) to about 375.95 g/m2 (77 lbs per thousand square feet (msf)) and were repulped to produce three fractions: the accepts, the rejects and the wash-out. A full study including repulpability, compositions of different fractions, stickies analysis, fate of rosin acids and starch was performed. Results indicated that the accept yield was over 78%, and an overall recovery of almost 100% was reached when the accepts, the rejects and the wash-out were compiled. In general, the accepts were dominated with fibers, which accounted for over 92% of the mass. However, small amounts of plastics and inorganics (fillers and coatings) were also present. The rejects were mainly plastics, but significant amount of inorganics was also found in some samples. The wash-out collected from the washing liquor contained significant amounts of fibers and inorganics with small portion of plastics. Stickies content in the accepts without any cleaning, screening, washing, or flotation was determined in mm2/g and was 108 and 123 respectively for samples CWR-2 and CWR-8.1. The stickies or non-fiber particles were quite unique in composition and do not fit the standard industry definition as such, for example, they were not comprised of adhesives, hot melts, waxes, or inks. They were instead comprised of small dense fragmented mineral particles with varying amounts of PE bonding agent attached, forming primarily structures appearing to be easily dispersed as individual particles within the accepted fibers. Other characteristics included relatively high surface energy and little, if any, tackiness. They appeared to resist deformability and appeared to have little potential to cause problems with deposition, quality of sheet, and process efficiency. The stickies and other various particles were predominently opaque and white in color, with densities projected to fall within a range from about 1.10 g/cm3 to about 4.71 g/cm3. Because of the nature of the stickies, higher processing pH levels or peroxide bleaching would not have the effect of increasing tackiness. The majority of the stickies can be defined as "micro-stickies" as their particles sizes fell beneath 150 microns in size and above 0.001 micron in size. Because of the benign nature of the stickie composition, it is expected they will have little tendency to stick or adhere to equipment during processing. The data indicated that the rosin acids were found in almost all three fractions, but most of them associated with the accepts and the wash-out. An iodine detect technique found that the starch was in the accepts and the wash-out, and the rejects was practically starch-free.

[0132] The composite structures described herein are well suited to be formed into containers of various types. For example, Figure 7 illustrates a container comprising a box 60. The box 60 may have many applications, such as, without limitation, retail and shipping. The box 60 may be in the form of a cube or other parallelepiped that is sized to contain an item for retail sale and/or shipping. The box 60 may be formed by preparing the composite structure in the form of a pliable sheet, for example by performing a milling step and/or other processing steps as described above, cutting the structure into a desired shape, and then folding and/or creasing the sheet, either manually or by machine, such as via an automated cartoning process, to form the final three-dimensional box shape. Abutting surfaces of the box 60 may be secured to one another using the various heat seal processes described herein and/or other heat seal processes known in the art. In the embodiment shown in Figure 7, the composite structure forms the walls of the box 60, including a bottom wall 62, one or more side walls 64, as well as a fold-over lid portion 66.

[0133] In other embodiments, the composite structures described herein may be formed into a container liner 70 for retail and/or shipping use, as shown in Figure 8. The liner 70 may be used to line a shipping or retail container 72 to cushion and/or protect a product held in the container 72, as well as to provide moisture resistance and deter infiltration of rodents and other pests. The liner 70 formed of the composite structure may be sufficiently flexible and pliable such that it is capable of at least partially conforming to the shape of the container 72.

[0134] In other embodiments, the composite structures described herein may be formed into a shipping mailer 80, such as an envelope, which may be used to ship documents and/or other items, as shown in Figure 9. The composite structure may be used to form a part of or even all of the mailer structure 80, and may be fabricated by using a series of folding, creasing, and/or adhesive/heat seal steps to prepare the desired mailer shape.

[0135] In other embodiments, the composite structures described herein may be formed into a display tray 90 and/or other sales displays, as shown in Figure 10. For example, the composite structure may be cut, shaped, and/or folded into the shape of a display tray 90 capable of holding and displaying products for retail sale. The composite structure can be molded by bending and/or folding, as well as via thermo- and/or vacuum-forming to form desired parts of the display 90.


Claims

1. A recyclable composite packaging structure, comprising:

a fiber-containing layer; and

a barrier layer bonded to the fiber-containing layer, the barrier layer including mineral particles evenly dispersed in a matrix of a polyolefin bonding agent;

wherein the barrier layer has Tappi T410 weights from 5.5 g/m2 to 52.2 g/m2, a density from 1.22 g/cm3 to 1.41 g/cm3, and a caliper from 7.6·10-3 millimeter (0.30 mil) to 8·10-2 (3 mil); and wherein the barrier layer comprises Tappi T464 moisture barrier values from 7.13 g/m2·day (0.46 g/100 in2·day) to 584.35 g/m2·day (37.7 g/100 in2·day), Tappi T441 Cobb 2-minute water absorption from 0.00 to 0.40, a Tappi T559 grease resistance of 12.0, and T441 30-minute water absorption from 0.00 to 0.45.
 
2. The recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 1, wherein the barrier layer has a polyolefin content from 30% to 70% by weight.
 
3. The recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 1, wherein the mineral particles have densities from 2.4 g/cm3 to 4.9 g/cm3.
 
4. The recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 1, wherein the mineral particles are selected from calcium carbonate, dolomite, and mica or wherein the mineral particles are cube or block particles.
 
5. The recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 1, wherein the mineral particles comprise calcium carbonate particles coated with fatty acids having from 8 to 24 carbon atoms wherein the fatty acid surface treatment level is from 0.6% to 1.5% by weight of fatty acid.
 
6. The recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 1, wherein the fiber-containing layer comprises a combination of recycled fiber, virgin fiber, thermo-mechanical pulp "TMP," virgin kraft fiber, clay coated craft fiber, clay coated unbleached kraft fiber, and solid bleached sulfate fiber.
 
7. A method of making a recyclable composite packaging structure including a fiber-containing layer and a mineral-containing layer, the method comprising:

extrusion coating the mineral-containing layer onto the fiber-containing layer using a mineral-containing layer having mineral particles interspersed within a polyolefin bonding agent, wherein the mineral-containing resin has a density of 1.22 g/cm3 to 1.41 g/cm3 and a mineral content of 20% to 70 wt.%;

wherein the extrusion process is carried out under the following conditions:

the resin having a melt flow index from 4 g/10 min to 16 g/10 min as determined by ASTM method D1238-04;

a melt temperature from 226.7 °C to 337.8 °C (440° F to 640° F);

an extruder screw or tube barrel pressure from 8,274 - 17,237 kPa (1,200 psi to 2,500 psi);

an air gap from 10.16 cm (4") to 40.64 cm (16");

a die gap from 0.51 mm (0.020") to 1.27 mm (0.050");

barrel and die zone temperatures from 204.5 °C to 337.8 °C (400° F to 640° F);

an extrusion lamination line speed from 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) to 17.78 m/s (3,500 FPM), or

an extrusion line speed from 0.51 m/s (100 FPM) to 17.78 m/s (3,500 FPM).


 
8. The method of making a recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 7, wherein the mineral-containing resin is supplied to the extrusion process in the form of pellets; and/or wherein the mineral-containing layer is supplied to the fiber-containing layer in coat weights from 6.52 g/m2 (4 lbs/3 msf) to 48.87 g/m2 (30 lbs/3 msf).
 
9. The method of making a recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 7, wherein the recyclable composite packaging structure does not contain water-based dispersions, aqueous dispersions, aqueous coatings, emulsions, emulsion-containing coatings, water-containing dispersions, or press-line applications.
 
10. The method of making a recyclable composite packaging structure of claim 7, wherein the mineral-containing layer, weighing from 15 g/m2 to 50 g/m2, is coextruded in line on an extrusion coating machine and bonded by extrusion to the fiber-containing layer.
 


Ansprüche

1. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur, umfassend:

eine faserhaltige Schicht; und

eine Barriereschicht, die an die faserhaltige Schicht gebunden ist, wobei die Barriereschicht mineralische Teilchen enthält, die gleichmäßig in einer Matrix aus einem Polyolefin-Bindemittel verteilt sind;

wobei die Barriereschicht Tappi T410 Gewichte von 5,5 g/m2 bis 52,2 g/m2, eine Dichte von 1,22 g/cm3 bis 1,41 g/cm3 und eine Papierstärke von 7,6·10-3 Millimeter (0,30 mil) bis 8·10-2 (3 mil) aufweist; und wobei die Barriereschicht Tappi T464-Feuchtigkeitsbarrierewerte von 7,13 g/m2·Tag (0,46 g/100 in2·Tag) bis 584,35 g/m2·Tag (37,7 g/100 in2·Tag), Tappi T441 Cobb 2-Minuten-Wasserabsorption von 0,00 bis 0,40, eine Tappi T559-Fettbeständigkeit von 12,0, und T441 30-Minuten-Wasserabsorption von 0,00 bis 0,45 umfasst.


 
2. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die Barriereschicht einen Polyolefingehalt von 30 Gewichts-% bis 70 Gewichts-% aufweist.
 
3. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die mineralischen Partikel Dichten von 2,4 g/cm3 bis 4,9 g/cm3 aufweisen.
 
4. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die mineralischen Partikel aus Calciumcarbonat, Dolomit und Glimmer ausgewählt sind oder wobei die mineralischen Partikel Würfel- oder Blockpartikel sind.
 
5. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die mineralischen Partikel Calciumcarbonatpartikel, die mit Fettsäuren mit von 8 bis 24 Kohlenstoffatomen beschichtet sind, umfassen, wobei der Behandlungsgrad der Oberfläche mit Fettsäure 0,6 bis 1,5 Gewichts-% an Fettsäure beträgt.
 
6. Wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 1, wobei die faserhaltige Schicht eine Kombination aus recycelten Fasern, Frischfasern, thermomechanischer Pulpe "TMP" (thermo-mechanical pulp), ungebleichten Kraftfasern, Ton-beschichteten Craft-Fasern, Ton-beschichteten ungebleichten Kraftfasern und festen gebleichten Sulfatfasern umfasst.
 
7. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur, die eine faserhaltige Schicht und eine mineralhaltige Schicht enthält, wobei das Verfahren umfasst:

Extrusionsbeschichten der mineralhaltigen Schicht auf die faserhaltige Schicht unter Verwendung einer mineralhaltigen Schicht mit mineralischen Partikeln, die in einem Polyolefin-Bindemittel verteilt sind, wobei das mineralhaltige Harz eine Dichte von 1,22 g/cm3 bis 1,41 g/cm3 und einen Mineralgehalt von 20 % bis 70 Gew.-% aufweist;

wobei das Extrusionsverfahren unter den folgenden Bedingungen ausgeführt wird:

das Harz weist einen Schmelzflussindex von 4 g/10 min bis 16 g/10 min auf, bestimmt durch das ASTM Verfahren D1238-04;

eine Schmelztemperatur von 226,7 °C bis 337,8 °C (440° F bis 640° F);

Extruderschnecken- oder Rohrzylinderdruck von 8274 - 17237 kPa (1200 psi bis 2500 psi);

einen Luftspalt von 10,16 cm (4") bis 40,64 cm (16");

einen Düsenspalt von 0,51 mm (0,020") bis 1,27 mm (0,050");

Temperaturen der Zylinder- und Düsenzone von 204,5 °C bis 337,8 °C (400° F bis 640° F);

eine Geschwindigkeit der Extrusionslaminierungsanlage von 0,51 m/s (100 FPM) bis 17,78 m/s (3500 FPM) oder

eine Geschwindigkeit der Extrusionsanlage von 0,51 m/s (100 FPM) bis 17,78 m/s (3500 FPM).


 
8. Das Verfahren zur Herstellung einer wiederverwertbaren Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 7, wobei das mineralhaltige Harz dem Extrusionsverfahren in Form von Pellets zugeführt wird; und/oder wobei die mineralhaltige Schicht der faserhaltigen Schicht in Strichgewichten von 6,52 g/m2 (4 lbs/3 msf) bis 48,87 g/m2 (30 lbs/3 msf) zugeführt wird.
 
9. Das Verfahren zur Herstellung einer wiederverwertbaren Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 7, wobei die wiederverwertbare Verbundverpackungsstruktur keine Dispersionen auf Wasserbasis, keine wässrigen Dispersionen, keine wässrigen Beschichtungen, keine Emulsionen, keine emulsionshaltigen Beschichtungen, keine wasserhaltigen Dispersionen oder Teile aus Pressenlinien enthält.
 
10. Das Verfahren zur Herstellung einer wiederverwertbaren Verbundverpackungsstruktur nach Anspruch 7, wobei die mineralhaltige Schicht mit einem Gewicht von 15 g/m2 bis 50 g/m2 in einer Linie auf einer Extrusionsbeschichtungsmaschine coextrudiert und durch Extrusion an die faserhaltige Schicht gebunden wird.
 


Revendications

1. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable, comprenant :

une couche contenant des fibres ; et

une couche barrière liée à la couche contenant des fibres, la couche barrière comprenant des particules minérales uniformément dispersées dans une matrice d'un agent de liaison polyoléfine ;

dans laquelle la couche barrière a des poids selon la norme Tappi T410 de 5,5 g/m2 à 52,2 g/m2, une masse volumique de 1,22 g/cm3 à 1,41 g/cm3 et une épaisseur de 7,6•10-3 millimètre (0,30 mil) à 8•10-2 (3 mil) ; et dans laquelle la couche barrière comprend des valeurs de barrière contre l'humidité selon la norme Tappi T464 de 7,13 g/m2•jour (0,46 g/100 in2•jour) à 584,35 g/m2•jour (37,7 g/100 in2•jour), une absorption d'eau selon la norme Tappi T441 Cobb 2-minutes de 0,00 à 0,40, une résistance à la graisse selon la norme Tappi T559 de 12,0 et une absorption d'eau selon la norme T441 30-minutes de 0,00 à 0,45.


 
2. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle la couche barrière a une teneur en polyoléfine de 30 % à 70 % en poids.
 
3. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les particules minérales ont des masses volumiques de 2,4 g/cm3 à 4,9 g/cm3.
 
4. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les particules minérales sont choisies parmi le carbonate de calcium, la dolomite et le mica ou dans laquelle les particules minérales sont des particules cubiques ou en bloc.
 
5. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle les particules minérales comprennent des particules de carbonate de calcium enrobées d'acides gras ayant de 8 à 24 atomes de carbone dans laquelle le taux de traitement de surface par acide gras est de 0,6 % à 1,5 % en poids d'acide gras.
 
6. Structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 1, dans laquelle la couche contenant des fibres comprend une combinaison de fibre recyclée, de fibre vierge, de pâte thermomécanique « TMP », de fibre kraft vierge, de fibre kraft enduite d'argile, de fibre kraft non blanchie enduite d'argile et de fibre de sulfate solide blanchie.
 
7. Procédé de fabrication d'une structure d'emballage composite recyclable comprenant une couche contenant des fibres et une couche contenant des minéraux, le procédé comprenant :

le revêtement par extrusion de la couche contenant des minéraux sur la couche contenant des fibres en utilisant une couche contenant des minéraux ayant des particules minérales intercalées dans un agent de liaison polyoléfine, dans lequel la résine contenant des minéraux a une masse volumique de 1,22 g/cm3 à 1,41 g/cm3 et un teneur en minéraux de 20 % à 70 % en poids,

dans lequel le processus d'extrusion est effectué dans les conditions suivantes :

la résine ayant un indice de fluidité à chaud de 4 g/10 min à 16 g/10 min tel que défini selon la norme ASTM D1238-04 ;

une température de fusion de 226,7 °C à 337,8 °C (440 °F à 640 °F);

une pression de vis d'extrudeuse ou de cylindre tubulaire de 8 274 à 17 237 kPa (1 200 psi à 2 500 psi) ;

un entrefer de 10,16 cm (4 ") à 40,64 cm (16 ") ;

un écartement de filière de 0,51 mm (0,020 ") à 1,27 mm (0,050 ") ;

des températures de zones de cylindre et de filière de 204,5 °C à 337,8 °C (400 °F à 640 °F);

une vitesse de ligne de laminage par extrusion de 0,51 m/s (100 FPM) à 17,78 m/s (3 500 FPM),
ou

une vitesse de ligne d'extrusion de 0,51 m/s (100 FPM) à 17,78 m/s (3 500 FPM).


 
8. Procédé de fabrication d'une structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la résine contenant des minéraux est alimentée au procédé d'extrusion sous la forme de pastilles ; et/ou dans laquelle la couche contenant des minéraux est alimentée à la couche contenant des fibres en des poids de revêtement de 6,52 g/m2 (4 lbs/3 msf) à 48,87 g/m2 (30 lbs/3 msf).
 
9. Procédé de fabrication d'une structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la structure d'emballage composite recyclable ne contient pas de dispersions à base d'eau, de dispersions aqueuses, de revêtements aqueux, d'émulsions, de revêtements contenant des émulsions, de dispersions contenant de l'eau ou d'applications en ligne de presse.
 
10. Procédé de fabrication d'une structure d'emballage composite recyclable selon la revendication 7, dans lequel la couche contenant des minéraux, pesant de 15 g/m2 à 50 g/m2, est coextrudée en ligne sur une machine de revêtement par extrusion et liée par extrusion à la couche contenant des fibres.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description