(19)
(11)EP 3 766 584 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
20.01.2021 Bulletin 2021/03

(21)Application number: 19767772.7

(22)Date of filing:  27.02.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
B02C 25/00(2006.01)
B02C 19/00(2006.01)
B02C 18/22(2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/ES2019/070115
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/175450 (19.09.2019 Gazette  2019/38)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 12.03.2018 ES 201830333 U

(71)Applicant: Talleres ZB, S.A.
20100 Renteria, Guipuzcoa (ES)

(72)Inventors:
  • MANZANARES MERCERO, Adolfo
    20011 San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) (ES)
  • MACÍAS MARTÍN, Mikel
    20018 Donostia (Guipúzcoa) (ES)
  • MONTERO NIETO, Ángel María
    20120 Hernani (Guipúzcoa) (ES)

(74)Representative: Ungria López, Javier 
Avda. Ramón y Cajal, 78
28043 Madrid
28043 Madrid (ES)

  


(54)MOVABLE SHREDDER FOR METALLIC MATERIALS, WITH IMPROVED SAFETY


(57) The invention relates to a movable shredder for metallic materials, which comprises: a feed device; a shredding mill with a plurality of hammers connected to a rotor; an evacuation device; and an actuation device. According to the invention, the feed device comprises a hopper and a crusher with a first toothed roller and a second toothed roller that rotates in the opposite direction to the first roller and at a higher speed; the actuation device comprises a single motor; and the shredder comprises a control system with a plurality of hydraulic pumps for moving the rollers and a variable-flow hydraulic clutch for moving the rotor, the plurality of hydraulic pumps and the hydraulic clutch being joined to the motor, wherein the control system is configured to change the rotation speed of the toothed rollers according to the load of the motor connected to the shredding mill, wherein and the devices are mounted on a chassis.




Description

Object of the invention



[0001] The present invention relates to a movable shredder with a prior slow crushing that improves the safety of the shredding process for metallic materials, such that problems associated with the presence of flammable or explosive products among the metallic materials that are shredded are avoided. The movable shredder object of the invention is applicable in the metal industry, specifically in the metal recycling industry.

Technical problem to be resolved and background of the invention



[0002] A shredder is a machine that processes metallic material (scrap metal) with the aim of reducing the size and increasing the density thereof. In this manner, a material is obtained that is suitable for a series of applications in the industrial field, mainly focused on the recycling thereof.

[0003] The use of scrap metal has become an integral part of the steel industry, improving the economic viability of the sector and reducing the environmental impact. Compared to mineral extraction, the use of recycled ferric metals significantly reduces CO2 emissions, energy and water consumption as well as atmospheric pollution. At the same time, recycling steel more efficiently uses the natural resources on the Earth.

[0004] Metal recycling is a pyramidal industry with many small companies at the base that supply scrap metal to large multinationals at the top of the pyramid. Steel recycling is carried out in some or all of the following steps:
  • classification: since magnets attract steel, this metal can be easily separated from other recyclable materials such as paper in a recycling plant,
  • shredding: The shredders incorporate rotating magnetic drums to extract iron and steel from the mix of metals and other materials.
  • separation of materials: Separation is achieved using electric currents, high-pressure air flows and liquid flotation systems. It may be necessary to carry out other processes in certain cases.
  • shearing: Hydraulic machinery which exerts high pressure is used to cut large and thick steel recovered from railways and ships. Sometimes other shearing techniques such as those that use gas or plasma arcs are used.
  • packing: Iron and steel products are compacted into large blocks for easy handling and transportation.


[0005] Steel is ideal for recycling because it does not lose any of the physical properties inherent to it during the process, which can be repeated an unlimited number of times. Steel is a 100% recyclable material and therefore recycled steel can be used for the same applications as the steel produced from virgin material.

[0006] Almost 40% of worldwide steel production comes from scrap metal. Recycling one ton of steel saves 1,100 kilograms of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal and 55 kilograms of limestone. CO2 emissions are reduced by 58% with the use of ferric scrap.

[0007] A shredder, very basically, consists of:
  • An actuation system in charge of supplying mechanical power to the shredding process, and in turn supplying the hydraulic and electrical power necessary for other machine systems, such as the actuation of the feed system, cooling motors, outlet belts, etc.
  • A feed system in charge of feeding the machine with the material to be shredded, once it has been placed therein by other means.
  • A shredding system in charge of shredding the material and reducing the size thereof, which increases density. This is achieved by means of hammers arranged in a rotor, which, when rotating, strikes the material in the shredding chamber, until it has a size which enables it to exit to the evacuation area by passing through grates with a certain opening.
  • An evacuation system in charge of transporting the already shredded material to the outside and directing it to the subsequent processes of the facility.


[0008] Currently, one of the main problems with shredders are the explosions that can be generated when introducing flammable materials (for example, fuel tanks with traces of fuel, gas cylinders, etc.) therein, since the shredding process is carried out with hammers rotating at high peripheral speed, which hit the material against an anvil and therefore generate a large amount of sparks and heat in the process. When this process encounters an element or container that contains any traces of a flammable material, this is when explosions, with a greater or lesser degree, occur, these explosions constituting a risk for the machine operators, and for people and property close thereto.

[0009] One way to avoid the explosions is by performing a prior shredding of the material, using machinery designed for this purpose.

[0010] The machinery designed to perform the previous shredding exhibits two or three rollers, such that the material is deposited in an inlet hopper, by means of gravity it is directed to a first roller (that rotates at around 2-3 rpm) wherein by means of a pusher contact is facilitated between the material and that first roller that entraps the material and directs it towards a second roller which is faster than the first roller (8-11 rpm). The rollers rotate in opposite directions and have the teeth thereof interspersed in terms of width.

[0011] Therefore, the material, in the prior shredding, is torn by the teeth of the rollers and, once processed, it is directed to the material outlet area.

[0012] This process, when carried out at slow speed, does not produce explosions and leaves the material prepared for the subsequent shredding, eliminating the situations in which explosions might occur.

[0013] These machines are designed to work separately, for which reason the power designed for each of them must be the one necessary to meet a given production. When these machines work in line, in other words, first the prior crushing and then the shredder, the percentage of time during which the two machines are going to work at full load is reduced to the bare minimum. This is due to the fact that the adjustment of the feeding of the shredder is carried out according to the load of the motor that actuates it, and as soon as this motor is at a pre-established load, the feeding is reduced and even stopped depending on the control design parameters, with which the slow shredding will not need to work at full load. This results in motors oversized in design when the two machines work in line.

Description of the invention



[0014] In order to achieve the objectives and avoid the drawbacks mentioned in the previous sections, the invention proposes a movable shredder for metallic materials that offers improved operating safety conditions with respect to the movable shredders for metallic materials known in the state of the art.

[0015] The movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention comprises a feed device wherein the slow shredding process is included, configured to receive material to be shredded, a shredding mill to shred the material received by the feed device by means of a plurality of hammers connected to a rotor, an evacuation device configured to evacuate shredded material and an actuation device configured to provide energy both to the feed device and the shredding mill and to the evacuation device.

[0016] In the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention, the feed device comprises a hopper and a crusher, such that the crusher comprises a first toothed roller and a second toothed roller that rotates in the opposite direction to the first toothed roller and at a higher speed.

[0017] The actuation device of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention comprises a single motor, which is the one that provides energy to the feed device, the shredding mill and the evacuation device.

[0018] The movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention comprises a control system which comprises a plurality of hydraulic pumps and a variable-flow hydraulic clutch, the plurality of hydraulic pumps and the variable-flow hydraulic clutch being joined to the motor.

[0019] In the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention the plurality of hydraulic pumps controls the movement of the toothed rollers and the variable-flow hydraulic clutch controls the movement of the rotor.

[0020] The control system of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention is configured to change the rotation speed of the first toothed roller and the second toothed roller according to the load of the motor connected to the shredding mill.

[0021] In the shredder object of the invention the feed device, the shredding mill, the evacuation device, and the actuation device are mounted on a chassis.

[0022] In the movable shredder with improved safety object of the invention, teeth of the first toothed roller are interspersed between teeth of the second toothed roller.

[0023] The movable shredder with improved safety object of the invention comprises a series of pulleys and belts joined to the motor by means of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch, said series of pulleys and belts being in turn joined to the rotor of the shredding mill.

[0024] The movable shredder with improved safety object of the invention comprises a series of measurement systems for controlling a workload of the motor.

[0025] The measurement systems for controlling a workload of the motor of the movable shredder with improved safety object of the invention are:
  • Pressure transducers for knowing the working pressures in the shafts of the rollers of the crusher;
  • Speed sensors for knowing the speed of the rollers of the crusher;
  • Different sensors for knowing the speed of the rollers of the crusher
  • Motor control unit for knowing the motor speed and the motor torque in order to determine the power delivered by the motor; and
  • Rotor speed sensor.


[0026] The movable shredder with improved safety object of the invention comprises a series of systems for adjusting the operation of the shredder itself.

[0027] The systems for adjusting the operation of the shredder itself are:
  • Variable-flow pumps in charge of feeding the crusher rollers.
  • System for reversing the rotation of the rollers if necessary
  • A system for changing the speed of the combustion motor; and
  • An all or nothing supply system to the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch in order to transmit more or less torque to the rotor of the shredding mill.

Brief description of the figures



[0028] Next, to help better understand this specification and as an integral part thereof, a series of figures is attached in which the object of the invention is depicted in an illustrative and non-limiting manner:

Figure 1 shows a cross-sectional side view of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention.

Figure 2 shows a perspective view of the actuation device, with the motor, the hydraulic pumps, and the variable-flow hydraulic clutch of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention.



[0029] The different reference numbers that are seen in the figures correspond to the following elements:
1.
feed device;
2.
shredding mill;
3.
evacuation device;
4.
actuation device;
5.
motor;
6.
hammers;
7.
rotor;
8.
shredding chamber;
9.
crusher;
10.
first toothed roller;
11.
second toothed roller;
12.
hopper;
13.
variable-flow hydraulic clutch;
14.
hydraulic pumps;
15.
chassis; and
16.
control system.

Description of an exemplary embodiment of the invention



[0030] Considering the numbering adopted in the figures, the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention comprises a feed device (1) that receives the material to be shredded and directs it to a shredding mill (2) wherein the shredding of the material received by the feed device (1) is carried out and an evacuation device (3) that evacuates the material already shredded by the shredding mill.

[0031] Furthermore, the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention comprises an actuation device (4) which comprises a single motor (5) that provides the energy necessary for all the components of the shredder itself to operate, that is, the motor (5) provides energy to the feed device (1), the shredding mill (2) and the evacuation device (3).

[0032] The shredding mill (2), in the preferred embodiment of the invention, comprises a plurality of hammers (6) connected to a rotor (7) inside a shredding chamber (8), such that the shredding of the metallic material occurs by means of impacts on the metallic material.

[0033] The feed device (1) of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention incorporates a hopper (12) wherein the material to be shredded is deposited and a crusher (9) that performs a first shredding of the metallic material at low speed, so that when the metallic material enters the shredding mill (2) wherein the hammers (6) rotate connected to the rotor (7) at a very high speed and produce sparks and heat inside the shredding chamber (8), preventing possible traces of flammable materials present in the material to be shredded from producing explosions that are dangerous for the operation of the shredder.

[0034] The crusher (9), in the preferred embodiment of the invention of the movable shredder for metallic materials, comprises a first toothed roller (10) and a second toothed roller (11) that rotates in the opposite direction to the first toothed roller (10). The first toothed roller (10), in the preferred embodiment of the invention rotates at a slow speed (approximately 2-3 r/min) while the second toothed roller (11) rotates at a speed greater than the speed of the first toothed roller (10) (approximately 8-11 r/min).

[0035] The two toothed rollers (10, 11) have teeth interspersed along the width thereof, such that the material to be crushed is entrapped by the teeth of the two toothed rollers (10,11) and once crushed, passes to the shredding mill (2).

[0036] The feeding to the shredding mill (2) is adjusted by means of the adjustment of the rotation speed of the toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9), since the shredding mill (2) is fed by the production of the crusher (9).

[0037] The movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention moves the rotor (7) of the shredding mill (2) with a series of pulleys and belts joined to the motor (5) with the interposition of a variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13), while the two toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9) are connected to a plurality of hydraulic pumps (14) which can cause them to rotate at higher or lower speeds.

[0038] The plurality of hydraulic pumps (14) and the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13) which are all joined to the motor (5) make up a control system (16), which ensures maximum use of the single motor (5) had by the movable shredder object of the invention.

[0039] The operation of the control system (16) is simple, since, assuming a state of equilibrium between the crusher (9) and the shredding mill (2), the hydraulic pumps (14) which move the toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9) operate at full capacity, feeding the shredding mill (2) with an amount of product that the shredding mill (2) is able to shred. However, when material that has come out of the crusher (9) accumulates in the shredding mill (2), the rotor (7) of the shredding mill (2) is going to require additional power from the motor (5) for which reason this additional power comes from reducing the performance of the hydraulic pumps (14) which move the toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9), therefore there is an automatic adjustment of the material that leaves the crusher (9) and which the shredding mill (2) has to absorb.

[0040] The movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention further has a plurality of measurement systems for controlling the workload of the motor (5) and the hydraulic pumps (14) of the crusher (9).

[0041] The measurement systems that are incorporated into the shredder are:
  • Pressure transducers for knowing the working pressures in the shafts of the rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9).
  • Speed sensors for knowing the speed of the rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9) or flowmeters for the same purpose.
  • A motor control unit that measures the speed of the motor (5), which is the same as the inlet speed to the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13), and the torque of the motor; with this data and the motor speed data, the power delivered by the motor (5) is determined.
  • Rotor speed sensor (7).
  • Oil temperature sensor of the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow clutch
  • The speed data from the rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9) together with the data from the pressure transducers, enables the power of the motor (5) derived to the part of the crusher (9) to be known.


[0042] Moreover, the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention has a series of systems for adjusting the operation of the shredder itself. These systems for adjusting the operation are:
  • System for changing the flow rate of the hydraulic pumps (14) that feed the toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9).
  • System for changing the speed of the motor (5).
  • All or nothing supply system to the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13), such that more or less torque is transmitted to the rotor (7) of the shredding mill (2);


[0043] By changing the flow rate of the hydraulic pumps (14) which feed the toothed rollers (10, 11) the speed of the toothed rollers (10, 11) themselves is changed and the power that is directed to the crusher (9) is changed. The pressure of the hydraulic pumps (14) is limited to a maximum value.

[0044] The all or nothing supply system to the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13) is used to avoid overloading the motor (5) of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention.

[0045] With these control and operation adjustment systems, it is known at all times what percentage of the power of the motor (5) is being derived to each part of the shredder itself, that is, to the crusher (9) or to the shredding mill (2).

[0046] In this manner, if it is detected that the motor (5) is operating above predetermined values and it is in the part of the shredding mill (2), more power can be derived to the shredding mill (2) itself by decreasing the flow rate of the hydraulic pumps (14) of the crusher thus adjusting the feed (9) and vice versa.

[0047] All the components of the movable shredder for metallic materials object of the invention are incorporated on a chassis (15), said chassis (15) in turn rests on the ground by means of a traction system, which in the preferred embodiment of the invention are tracks but they could further be a plurality of wheels or any other means that serve to make the shredder object of the invention movable.

[0048] The invention should not be limited to the particular embodiments described herein. Persons skilled in the art may develop other embodiments in view of the description made herein. Accordingly, the scope of the invention is defined by the following claims.


Claims

1. A movable shredder for metallic materials with improved safety which comprises a feed device (1) configured to receive material to be shredded and crush it, a shredding mill (2) for shredding the material received by the feed device (1) by means of a plurality of hammers (6) connected to a rotor (7), an evacuation device (3) configured to evacuate shredded material and an actuation device (4) configured to provide power to the feed device (1), to the shredding mill (2) and to the evacuation device (3), characterised in that:

- the feed device (1) comprises a hopper (12) and a crusher (9), wherein the crusher (9) comprises a first toothed roller (10) and a second toothed roller (11) that rotates in the opposite direction to the first toothed roller (10) and at a higher speed;

- the actuation device (4) comprises a single motor (5),

- it comprises a control system (16) which comprises a plurality of hydraulic pumps (14) for moving the toothed rollers (10, 11) and a variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13) for moving the rotor (7), the plurality of hydraulic pumps (14) and the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13) being joined to the motor (5);
wherein the control system (16) is configured to change the rotation speed of the first toothed roller (10) and/or of the second toothed roller (11) according to the load of the motor connected to the shredding mill (2), and wherein the feed device (1), the shredding mill (2), the evacuation device (3) and the actuation device (4) are mounted on a chassis (15).


 
2. The movable shredder with improved safety, according to claim 1, wherein teeth of the first toothed roller (10) are interspersed between teeth of the second toothed roller (11).
 
3. The movable shredder with improved safety, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein it comprises a series of pulleys and belts joined to the motor (5) by means of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13), in turn joined to the rotor (7) of the shredding mill (2).
 
4. The movable shredder with improved safety, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein it comprises:

- pressure transducers for knowing the working pressures in the shafts of the rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9);

- speed sensors or flowmeters for knowing the speed of the rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9);

- a motor control unit for measuring the motor (5) speed and a motor torque in order to determine the power delivered by the motor (5); and

- a rotor speed sensor (7).

- a temperature sensor of the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow clutch all the elements being configured to control a workload of the motor.


 
5. The movable shredder with improved safety, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein it comprises a series of systems for adjusting the operation of the shredder itself, which are:

- a system for changing the flow rate of the hydraulic pumps (14) that feed the toothed rollers (10, 11) of the crusher (9);

- a system for changing the speed of the motor (5); and

- an all or nothing supply system to the hydraulic circuit of the variable-flow hydraulic clutch (13) in order to transmit more or less torque to the rotor (7) of the shredding mill (2).


 




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