(19)
(11)EP 3 778 649 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
17.02.2021 Bulletin 2021/07

(21)Application number: 19763391.0

(22)Date of filing:  08.03.2019
(51)Int. Cl.: 
C07K 19/00  (2006.01)
C12N 15/11  (2006.01)
A61K 48/00  (2006.01)
A61P 35/00  (2006.01)
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2019/077529
(87)International publication number:
WO 2019/170147 (12.09.2019 Gazette  2019/37)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 09.03.2018 CN 201810196524
20.07.2018 CN 201810806560
06.09.2018 CN 201811039594
07.12.2018 CN 201811495012

(71)Applicants:
  • Carsgen Therapeutics Co., Ltd.
    Shanghai 200231 (CN)
  • Shanghai Cancer Institute
    Shanghai 200032 (CN)

(72)Inventors:
  • LI, Zonghai
    Shanghai 200231 (CN)
  • WANG, Huamao
    Shanghai 200231 (CN)
  • ZHOU, Min
    Shanghai 200231 (CN)

(74)Representative: dompatent von Kreisler Selting Werner - Partnerschaft von Patent- und Rechtsanwälten mbB 
Deichmannhaus am Dom Bahnhofsvorplatz 1
50667 Köln
50667 Köln (DE)

  


(54)METHOD AND COMPOSITION FOR TREATING TUMORS


(57) Provided in the present invention are a composition of immune effector cells and a treatment kit including the composition of immune effector cells, wherein the composition of immune effector cells comprises an initial dose of immune effector cells and a subsequent dose of immune effector cells.




Description

Technical field



[0001] The present invention belongs to the field of immunotherapy; and in particular, the present invention relates to the immune cell therapy targeting and recognizing an tumor antigen, triggering the activation of immune effector cells, and exerting anti-tumor effects.

Background



[0002] The immunotherapy for tumor has received extensive attention and applied in recent years, and especially, a milestone development in the conmtrol of human tumor has been achieved with the emergence of CAR-T technology.

[0003] Cancer cells in a solid tumor can form a tumor microenvironment around them to support the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. The tumor microenvironment is the cellular environment in which tumors exist, including surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, other cells, soluble factors, signal transduction molecules, extracellular matrix and promoting tumor transformation, supporting tumor growth and invasion, protecting tumors from immunity of the host, cultivating resistance against the treatment, and providing a mechanical cue of the microenvironment for dormant, transfer and growth. A tumor is closely related to and constantly interacts with its surrounding microenvironment. A tumor can affect its microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance. See Swarts et al., "Tumor Microenvironment Complexity: Emerging Roles in Cancer Therapy" Cancer Res, Volume 72, Pages 2473-2480, 2012. Therefore, when CAR-T technology is applied into the treatment of a solid tumor, good therapeutic effects are usually difficult to be achieved. For example, it is currently reported in most literature that CD19 CAR T cell therapy can bring good clinical therapeutic effects to patients with a hematological tumor. However, satisfactory results have not been achieved by CAR T cell therapy in the treatment of solid tumors.

[0004] Therefore, there is an urgent need in the art for technical means with significant anti-tumor capabilities in the tumor microenvironment of solid tumors.

Summary of the Invention



[0005] The purpose of the present invention is to provide a technical means exhibiting excellent killing effects on CLD18 positive solid tumors.

[0006] In the first aspect, the present invention provides a method for treating CLD18-positive tumors, comprising administering a first dose of immune effector cells to a subject in need thereof, wherein said immune effector cells express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizes CLD18, and the first dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount does not exceed about 1x1011 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 5x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or a total of not more than about 1x1010 cells. More preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount does not exceed about 5x109 or about 2x109 cells.

[0007] In a preferred embodiment, the first dose is not less than 1x105 cells/kg of the subject's body weight.

[0008] In a specific embodiment, the CLD18 is CLD18A2.

[0009] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizing CLD18 is administered.

[0010] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered under the safety for the patient.

[0011] In a preferred embodiment, the first dose of immune effector cells is the same as the subsequent dose of immune effector cells.

[0012] In a preferred embodiment, both of the first dose of immune effector cells and the subsequent doses of immune effector cells recognize CLD18A2, but contain different chimeric antigen receptors. For example, the chimeric antigen receptors are different in the extracellular segments, however, all of them recognize CLD 18A2, or the extracellular segments of the chimeric antigen receptors are the same, while the transmembrane domain or intracellular domain is different.

[0013] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is no longer detected in vivo, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0014] In a preferred embodiment, the immune effector cells are detected by, such as qPCR.

[0015] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.

[0016] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is less than or equal to or higher than the first dose.

[0017] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is equivalent to the first dose.

[0018] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is less than the first dose.

[0019] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is higher than the first dose.

[0020] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose is higher than the first dose; and preferably, the subsequent dose is at least 2 times, 5 times, 7 times or 10 times the first dose.

[0021] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells.

[0022] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1011 cells.

[0023] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells.

[0024] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 5×107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1×1010 cells.

[0025] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed 5x109 or is about 2x109 cells.

[0026] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is not less than 1×105 cells/kg of subject's body weight.

[0027] In a specific embodiment, the first dose or subsequent dose is administered in N times within 20 days, and N is a natural number not less than 1.

[0028] In a preferred embodiment, the first dose or subsequent dose is administered in N times within 3-15 days, and N is a natural number not less than 1.

[0029] In a preferred embodiment, N is 1, 2, 3, or 4.

[0030] In a preferred embodiment, N is 2 or 3.

[0031] In a specific embodiment, when a subsequent dose is administered, the subject exhibits any of the following characteristics:
  1. (i) The fold of the serum level of the factor indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in the subject is about 10 times, about 25 times, and/or about 50 times smaller than the level in the subject immediately before the first dose is administered;
  2. (ii) neurotoxicity of grade 3 or higher is not shown;
  3. (iii) The neurotoxicity or CRS level is reduced compared with the peak level of neurotoxicity or CRS after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered; or
  4. (iv) The subject does not exhibit a detectable humoral or cell-mediated immune response to the CAR expressed by the first dose of cells.


[0032] In a specific embodiment, when the above-mentioned subsequent dose is administered and the subject exhibits characteristic (iii), the CRS level is reduced by at least 50%, preferably at least 20%, more preferably, at least 5% compared with the peak CRS level after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, or the CRS level is equivalent to the CRS level before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0033] In a preferred embodiment, the CRS level can be assessed according to the following information: fever, hypotension, hypoxia, neurological disorder, or serum levels of inflammatory cytokines or C-reactive protein (CRP).

[0034] In a preferred embodiment, the symptoms related to the clinical risk of neurotoxicity and/or grade 3 or higher neurotoxicity are selected from confusion, delirium, expressive aphasia, unresponsiveness, myoclonus, lethargy, altered mental state, convulsions, epileptic-like activity, epilepsy (optionally confirmed by EEG), elevated levels of amyloid β (Aβ), elevated glutamate levels or elevated oxygen free radical levels.

[0035] In a specific embodiment, the method further includes pretreatment performed before administering the immune effector cells, and the pretreatment includes administering a chemotherapeutic agent to the subject, irradiating the subject on the whole body, or performing local radiation therapy on the subject, or a combination thereof.

[0036] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed before the first dose or between the first dose and the subsequent dose; and more preferably, the pretreatment is performed before the first dose and the subsequent dose.

[0037] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, and the pretreatment is not required before the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0038] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is required before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered and before the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0039] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed for lymphocyte depletion.

[0040] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed to stabilize the tumor burden or reduce the tumor burden, especially to maintain the tumor burden or reduce the tumor burden before the immune effector cell therapy is administered.

[0041] In a preferred embodiment, a lymphatic depleting agent, such as cyclophosphamide and fludarabine is administered to the subject for lymphocyte depletion.

[0042] In a specific embodiment, the pretreatment is performed 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.

[0043] In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is any chemotherapeutic drug selected from the following group or a combination: cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, a taxane compound, and a pyrimidine anti-tumor drug.

[0044] In a preferred embodiment, the taxane compound includes but not limited to paclitaxel, albumin-bound paclitaxel or docetaxel, preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel; and the pyrimidine anti-tumor drug includes but not limited to 5-Fluorouracil, gemepyrimidine, ottiracil potassium, difurfurouracil, carmofur, deoxyfluridine, capecitabine.

[0045] In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is a combination of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine; or a combination of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and albumin-bound paclitaxel.

[0046] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day.

[0047] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day.

[0048] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.

[0049] In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is continuously used for not more than 4 days.

[0050] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.

[0051] In a preferred embodiment, pretreatment is performed, especially before the first dose and subsequent dose are administered, and the dose of the immune effector cells administered subsequently can be reduced accordingly.

[0052] In a specific embodiment, the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive tumor; preferably, the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive digestive tract tumor; more preferably, the digestive tract tumor is adenocarcinoma; and the most preferably, the digestive tract tumor is pancreatic cancer or gastric adenocarcinoma.

[0053] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. The extracellular domain is an antibody or a fragment thereof specifically binding to CLD18A2.

[0054] In a preferred embodiment, the transmembrane domain of the chimeric antigen receptor is the transmembrane region of CD28 or CD8.

[0055] In a preferred embodiment, the intracellular domain of the chimeric antigen receptor is a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD28 and CD3ξ, or a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD137 and CD3ζ, or a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD28, costimulatory signal domain of CD137 and CD3ζ.

[0056] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an antibody specifically binding to CLD18A2 or a fragment thereof, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain, and the antibody has:

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:2, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:7, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:8, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:9 or 68, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 10, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 11, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 12, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 13.



[0057] In a specific embodiment, the antibody or a fragment thereof has:

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 18 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 22 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:53 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:52.



[0058] Preferably, the antibody or a fragment thereof has the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 54, 56, 57 or 58.

[0059] In a preferred embodiment, the antibody or a fragment thereof has a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16.

[0060] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32; preferably, sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25 or 26.

[0061] In a preferred embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, and 26.

[0062] In a preferred example, the chimeric antigen receptor has the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:24.

[0063] In a specific embodiment, the immune effector cell is a T lymphocyte, NK cell or NKT lymphocyte.

[0064] In a preferred embodiment, the preferred immune effector cell is a T lymphocyte.

[0065] In a preferred embodiment, the T lymphocyte is derived from the subject himself.

[0066] In a preferred embodiment, the T lymphocyte is allogeneic.

[0067] In a specific embodiment, two or more subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, and the interval between each subsequent dose of immune effector cells is about 21 to about 80 days, or about 25 to about 60 days, or about 25 to 50 days, with end-points being included.

[0068] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells administered later results in a stable or reduced tumor burden in the subject compared with the subsequent dose of immune effector cells administered earlier.

[0069] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune cells administered in each subsequent dose is substantially the same.

[0070] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is higher than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.

[0071] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is less than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.

[0072] In a specific embodiment, before the immune effector cells are administered, the subject has not received treatment with immune cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors targeting CLD18.

[0073] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose is the number of cells sufficient to stabilize or reduce the tumor burden in the subject.

[0074] In a specific embodiment, before the first dose is administered, the subject is subjected to a surgical treatment, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy other than that described in the first aspect.

[0075] In a specific embodiment, before the first dose is administered, or after the first dose is administered and before the subsequent dose is administered, the subject is evaluated for the serum levels of a factor indicative of CRS, a factor indicative of neurotoxicity, a factor indicative of tumor burden, and/or a factor indicative of the anti-CAR immune response of the host.

[0076] In a specific embodiment, the factor indicative of tumor burden is: the total amount of tumor cells in the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the organ of the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the tissue of the subject, or the mass or volume of the tumor, or the extent of tumor metastasis, or the number of tumors.

[0077] In a specific embodiment, the method for treating a tumor includes:
  1. i) evaluating a factor indicative of the tumor burden before the subsequent dose is administered; and
  2. ii) determining the continuous dose of cells to be administered to the subject, based on the results of the evaluation, and
  3. iii) if it is determined by the evaluation that the subject's tumor mass or volume is stable or reduced, administering the subject with a subsequent dose comprising the number of cells less than or more than the number of CAR-expressing cells in the first dose or approximately the same number of CAR-expressing cells as that in the first dose.


[0078] In a specific embodiment, the number of cells administered in the first dose or the subsequent doses is about 1.1×106 cells/kg to 2.8×107 cells/kg, and about 2.9×106 cells/kg to 2.6×107 cells/kg, or about 3.3x106 cells/kg to 1.3x107 cells/kg or about 1.3x107 cells/kg to 1.8x107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.

[0079] In a specific embodiment, the number of CAR-expressing cells administered in the subsequent dose comprises about 1.1×107 cells/kg (cells/kg) of body weight to about 5.1×107 cells/kg, and about 1.3×107 cells/kg to about 3.7×107 cells/kg, about 1.6×107 cells/kg to about 2.2×107 cells/kg, about 1.9×107 cells/kg to about 2.2×107 cells/kg, about 2.2×107 cells/kg to about 2.7×107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.

[0080] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose or subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, the subject does not exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), severe CRS, neurotoxicity, severe neurotoxicity, or neurotoxicity above grade 3.

[0081] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose or subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, the immune effector cells proliferate in the subject.

[0082] In a preferred embodiment, the proliferation is represented by: (i) the increased serum CRP level after the first dose and/or subsequent dose is administered, compared with that immediately before the administration, and/or (ii) the increased level of CAR-encoding nucleic acid in the serum after the first dose and/or subsequent dose is administered, compared with that immediately before the administration, as measured by qPCR.

[0083] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, the subject's tumor burden is stable or reduced. In a specific embodiment, the stable or reduced tumor burden is represented by one or more stable or reduced factors indicative of tumor burden.

[0084] In a preferred embodiment, after the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered, the tumor burden is stable or further reduced compared with the tumor burden after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0085] In a specific embodiment, when the subsequent dose is administered, there is no relapse in the subject, and/or one or more factors indicative of tumor burden are not increased after being reduced.

[0086] In a specific embodiment, the stable or reduced burden and/or further reduced burden means that the total amount of diseased cells in the subject, the organ of the subject, the tissue of the subject, or the body fluid of the subject is stabilized or reduced, and/or the mass or volume of the tumor is stabilized or reduced, and/or the number and/or degree of metastasis is stabilized or reduced, and/or tumor markers are stabilized or reduced, and/or the common complications of advanced cancer disappear or are weaken.

[0087] In a specific embodiment, the tumor markers include: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CA125, CA15-3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), CA199, CA724, etc.

[0088] In a specific embodiment, the common complications of advanced cancer include: cancer pain, infection, and cancerous pleural and ascites.

[0089] In a specific embodiment, the mass or volume of the tumor is measured by PET (positron emission computed tomography) and CT (computed tomography).

[0090] In the second aspect of the present invention, another method of tumor treatment is also provided, which includes: the subject has received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, or a combination thereof, before any of the methods described above is administered.

[0091] In a preferred embodiment, the immunotherapy includes administering a checkpoint inhibitor or an immune effector cell therapy not targeting CLD18.

[0092] In a preferred embodiment, the immunotherapy does not include the immune effector cell therapy targeting CLD18.

[0093] In a preferred embodiment, the subject receives an immune effector cell therapy not targeting CLD 18.2.

[0094] In a preferred embodiment, after the subject receives chemotherapy, radiotherapy, other immunotherapy, or a combination thereof, the tumor burden does not remain stable or reduced.

[0095] In a specific embodiment, the tumor is a relapsed and refractory tumor.

[0096] In the third aspect of the present invention, the use of a composition comprising immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor specifically recognizing CLD18 is provided for preparing a medicament for treating CLD18A2 positive tumors in a subject who is previously treated with CLD18A2-CAR T cells, wherein, when used, the first dose of immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizing CLD18 is administered to a subject in need thereof, and the first dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1011 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells. Preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 5x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells. More preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed 5x109 or about 2x109 cells.

[0097] In a specific embodiment, the CLD18 is CLD18A2.

[0098] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of immune effector cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizing CLD18 is administered.

[0099] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered under the safety for the patient.

[0100] In a preferred embodiment, the first dose of immune effector cells is the same as the subsequent dose of immune effector cells.

[0101] In a preferred embodiment, both of the first dose of immune effector cells and the subsequent doses of immune effector cells recognize CLD18A2, but contain different chimeric antigen receptors. For example, the chimeric antigen receptors are different in the extracellular segments, however, all of them recognize CLD18A2, or the extracellular segments of the chimeric antigen receptors are the same, while the transmembrane domain or intracellular domain is different.

[0102] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is no longer detected in vivo, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0103] In a preferred embodiment, the immune effector cells are detected by, such as qPCR. In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.

[0104] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is equivalent to the first dose.

[0105] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is lower than the first dose.

[0106] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose is higher than the first dose.

[0107] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose is higher than the first dose; and preferably, the subsequent dose is at least 2 times, 5 times, 7 times or 10 times the first dose.

[0108] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells.

[0109] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1011 cells.

[0110] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells.

[0111] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 5×107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1×1010 cells.

[0112] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed 5x109 or is about 2x109 cells.

[0113] In a specific embodiment, the first dose or subsequent dose is administered in N times within 20 days, and N is a natural number not less than 1.

[0114] In a preferred embodiment, the first dose or subsequent dose is administered in N times within 3-15 days, and N is a natural number not less than 1.

[0115] In a preferred embodiment, N is 1, 2, 3, or 4.

[0116] In a preferred embodiment, N is 2 or 3.

[0117] In a specific embodiment, when a subsequent dose is administered, the subject exhibits any of the following characteristics:
  1. (i) The fold of the serum level of the factor indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in the subject is about 10 times, about 25 times, and/or about 50 times smaller than the level in the subject immediately before the first dose is administered;
  2. (ii) neurotoxicity of grade 3 or higher is not shown;
  3. (iii) The neurotoxicity or CRS level is reduced compared with the peak level of neurotoxicity or CRS after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered; or
  4. (iv) The subject does not exhibits a detectable humoral or cell-mediated immune response to the CAR expressed by the first dose of cells.


[0118] In a specific embodiment, when the above-mentioned subsequent dose is administered and the subject exhibits characteristic (iii), the CRS level is reduced by at least 50%, preferably at least 20%, more preferably, at least 5% compared with the peak CRS level after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, or the CRS level is equivalent to the CRS level before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0119] In a preferred embodiment, the CRS level can be assessed according to the following information: fever, hypotension, hypoxia, neurological disorder, or serum levels of inflammatory cytokines or C-reactive protein (CRP).

[0120] In a preferred embodiment, the symptoms related to the clinical risk of neurotoxicity and/or grade 3 or higher neurotoxicity are selected from confusion, delirium, expressive aphasia, unresponsiveness, myoclonus, lethargy, altered mental state, convulsions, epileptic-like activity, epilepsy (optionally confirmed by EEG), elevated levels of amyloid β (Aβ), elevated glutamate levels or elevated oxygen free radical levels.

[0121] In a specific embodiment, the method further includes pretreatment performed before administering the immune effector cells, and the pretreatment includes administering a chemotherapeutic agent to the subject, irradiating the subject on the whole body, or performing local radiation therapy on the subject, or a combination thereof.

[0122] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, and the pretreatment is not required before the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is embodiment, the pretreatment is required before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered and before the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0123] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed for lymphocyte depletion.

[0124] In a preferred embodiment, the pretreatment is performed to stabilize the tumor burden or reduce the tumor burden, especially to maintain the tumor burden or reduce the tumor burden before the immune effector cell therapy is administered.

[0125] In a preferred embodiment, a lymphatic depleting agent, such as cyclophosphamide and fludarabine is administered to the subject for lymphocyte depletion.

[0126] In a specific embodiment, the pretreatment is performed 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.

[0127] In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is any chemotherapeutic drug selected from the following group or a combination: cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, a taxane compound, and a pyrimidine anti-tumor drug. In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is a combination of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine; or a combination of cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and albumin-bound paclitaxel.

[0128] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day.

[0129] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day.

[0130] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.

[0131] In a specific embodiment, the chemotherapeutic agent is continuously used for not more than 4 days.

[0132] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide and the fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.

[0133] In a specific embodiment, the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive tumor; preferably, the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive digestive tract tumor; more preferably, the digestive tract tumor is adenocarcinoma; and most preferably, the digestive tract tumor is pancreatic cancer or gastric adenocarcinoma.

[0134] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. The extracellular domain is an antibody or a fragment thereof specifically binding to CLD18A2.

[0135] In a preferred embodiment, the transmembrane domain of the chimeric antigen receptor is the transmembrane region of CD28 or CD8.

[0136] In a preferred embodiment, the intracellular domain of the chimeric antigen receptor is a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD28 and CD3ζ, or a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD137 and CD3ζ, or a fusion peptide of the costimulatory signal domain of CD28, costimulatory signal domain of CD137 and CD3ζ.

[0137] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an antibody specifically binding to CLD18A2 or a fragment thereof, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain, and the antibody has:

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:2, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:7, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:8, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:9 or 68, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:10, LCDRlas shown in SEQ ID NO:11, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:12, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 13.



[0138] In a specific embodiment, the antibody or a fragment thereof has:

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 18 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 22 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20.



[0139] In a preferred embodiment, the antibody or a fragment thereof has a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16.

[0140] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32.

[0141] In a preferred embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, and 26.

[0142] In a preferred example, the chimeric antigen receptor has the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:24.

[0143] In a specific embodiment, the immune effector cell is a T lymphocyte, NK cell or NKT lymphocyte.

[0144] In a preferred embodiment, the preferred immune effector cell is a T lymphocyte.

[0145] In a preferred embodiment, the T lymphocyte is derived from the subject himself.

[0146] In a preferred embodiment, the T lymphocyte is allogeneic.

[0147] In a specific embodiment, two or more subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, and the interval between each subsequent dose of immune effector cells is about 21 to about 80 days, or about 25 to about 60 days, or about 25 to 50 days, with end-points being included.

[0148] In a preferred embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells administered later results in a stable or reduced tumor burden in the subject compared with the subsequent dose of immune effector cells administered earlier.

[0149] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune cells administered in each subsequent dose is substantially the same.

[0150] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is higher than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.

[0151] In a specific embodiment, the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is less than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.

[0152] In a specific embodiment, before the immune effector cells are administered, the subject has not received treatment with immune cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors targeting CLD18.

[0153] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose is the number of cells sufficient to stabilize or reduce the tumor burden in the subject.

[0154] In a specific embodiment, before the first dose is administered, the subject is subjected to a surgical treatment, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy other than that described in claim 1.

[0155] In a specific embodiment, before the first dose is administered, or after the first dose is administered and before the subsequent dose is administered, the subject is evaluated for the serum levels of a factor indicative of CRS, a factor indicative of neurotoxicity, a factor indicative of tumor burden, and/or a factor indicative of the anti-CAR immune response of the host.

[0156] In a specific embodiment, the factor indicative of tumor burden is: the total amount of tumor cells in the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the organ of the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the tissue of the subject, or the mass or volume of the tumor, or the extent of tumor metastasis, or the number of tumors.

[0157] In a specific embodiment, the method for treating a tumor includes:
  1. i) evaluating a factor indicative of the tumor burden before the subsequent dose is administered; and
  2. ii) determining the continuous doses of cells to be administered to the subject, based on the results of the evaluation, and
  3. iii) if it is determined by the evaluation that the subject's tumor mass or volume is stable or reduced, administering the subject with a subsequent dose comprising the number of cells less than or more than the number of CAR-expressing cells in the first dose or approximately the same number of CAR-expressing cells as that in the first dose.


[0158] In a specific embodiment, the number of cells administered in the first dose or the subsequent doses is about 1.1×106 cells/kg of subject's body weight to 2.8×107 cells/kg, and about 2.9×106 cells/kg to 26×107 cells/kg, or about 3.3x106 cells/kg to 1.3x107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.

[0159] In a specific embodiment, the number of CAR-expressing cells administered in the subsequent dose comprises about 1.1×107 cells/kg (cells/kg) of body weight to about 5.1×107 cells/kg, and about 1.3×107 cells/kg to about 3.7×107 cells/kg, about 1.6×107 cells/kg to about 2.2×107 cells/kg, about 19×107 cells/kg to about 2.2×107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.

[0160] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose or subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, the subject does not exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), severe CRS, neurotoxicity, severe neurotoxicity, or neurotoxicity above grade 3.

[0161] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose or subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, the immune effector cells proliferate in the subject.

[0162] In a preferred embodiment, the proliferation is represented by: (i) the increased serum CRP level after the first dose and/or subsequent dose is administered, compared with that immediately before the administration, and/or (ii) the increased level of CAR-encoding nucleic acid in the serum after the first dose and/or subsequent dose is administered, compared with that immediately before the administration, as measured by qPCR.

[0163] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, the subject's tumor burden is stable or reduced. In a specific embodiment, the stable or reduced tumor burden is represented by one or more stable or reduced factors indicative of tumor burden.

[0164] In a preferred embodiment, after the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered, the tumor burden is stable or further reduced compared with the tumor burden after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered.

[0165] In a specific embodiment, when the subsequent dose is administered, there is no relapse in the subject, and/or one or more factors indicative of tumor burden are not increased after being reduced.

[0166] In a specific embodiment, the stable or reduced burden and/or further reduced burden means that the total amount of diseased cells in the subject, the organ of the subject, the tissue of the subject, or the body fluid of the subject is stabilized or reduced, and/or the mass or volume of the tumor is stabilized or reduced, and/or the number and/or degree of metastasis is stabilized or reduced, and/or tumor markers are stabilized or reduced, and/or the common complications of advanced cancer disappear or are weaken.

[0167] In a specific embodiment, the tumor markers include: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CA125, CA15-3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), CA199, CA724, etc.

[0168] In a specific embodiment, the common complications of advanced cancer include: cancer pain, infection, and cancerous pleural and ascites.

[0169] In a specific embodiment, the mass or volume of the tumor is measured by PET (positron emission computed tomography) and CT (computed tomography).

[0170] In the fourth aspect of the present invention, a composition is also provided, comprising cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, taxane compound and/or pyrimidine antitumor drug.

[0171] In a preferred embodiment, the taxane compound includes but not limited to paclitaxel, albumin-bound paclitaxel or docetaxel, preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel; and the pyrimidine anti-tumor drug includes but not limited to 5-Fluorouracil, gemepyrimidine, ottiracil potassium, difurfurouracil, carmofur, deoxyfluridine, capecitabine.

[0172] In a specific embodiment, the composition comprises cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and paclitaxel.

[0173] In a specific embodiment, the composition comprises cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and albumin-bound paclitaxel.

[0174] In a preferred embodiment, the composition is administered to a subject before the subject receiving immune effector cell therapy receives the immune effector cells, preferably before each time the subject receiving immune effector cell therapy receives the immune effector cells.

[0175] In a preferred embodiment, the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.

[0176] In a specific embodiment, a pretreatment is administered about 30 days; preferably, about 20 days; more preferably, about 12 days; and most preferably, about 7 days before the immune cell therapy is administered.

[0177] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel are continuously used for not more than 4 days; and preferably, the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.

[0178] In a specific embodiment, it is used for anti-tumor therapy; preferably, it is used for anti-tumor targeted therapy; and most preferably, it is used for anti-tumor chimeric antigen receptor targeted therapy.

[0179] In a specific embodiment, the immune effector cells are CAR T cells.

[0180] In a specific embodiment, the CAR T cell specifically recognizes CLD18A2.

[0181] In a specific embodiment, the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive digestive tract tumor; more preferably, the digestive tract tumor is adenocarcinoma; and most preferably, the digestive tract tumor is pancreatic cancer or gastric adenocarcinoma.

[0182] In the fifth aspect of the present invention, a method for treating tumors in combination with immune effector cell therapy is also provided, comprising: administering cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and a taxane compound before administering immune effector cell therapy to the subject for pretreatment.

[0183] In a preferred embodiment, the tumor is a solid tumor.

[0184] In a preferred embodiment, the solid tumor is breast cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, liver cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, small bowel cancer, esophageal cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, Head and neck cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, anal cancer, testicular cancer, uterine cancer, fallopian tube cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, endocrine system cancer, Thyroid cancer, parathyroid cancer, adrenal cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, urethral cancer, penile cancer, bladder cancer, kidney or ureter cancer, renal pelvis cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumor, primary CNS lymphoma, spinal tumor, brain Stem glioma, pituitary adenoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma.

[0185] In a preferred embodiment, the taxane compound is selected from paclitaxel, albumin-bound paclitaxel, or docetaxel.

[0186] In a preferred embodiment, the taxane compound is selected from albumin-bound paclitaxel.

[0187] In a specific embodiment, the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.

[0188] In a specific embodiment, a pretreatment is administered about 30 days; preferably, about 20 days; more preferably, about 12 days; and most preferably, about 7 days before the immune cell therapy is administered.

[0189] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel are continuously used for not more than 4 days; and preferably, the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.

[0190] In a specific embodiment, the immune effector cells are immune effector cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors, such as CAR-T cells, CAR-NK cells, CAR-NKT cells and the like.

[0191] In the sixth aspect of the present invention, a use of immune effector cells containing CLD18A2-CAR in the preparation of a medicament is also provided, the medicament containing the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as a taxane compound (preferably paclitaxel, more preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel) for treating CLD18 positive tumors, wherein the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as taxane compound are formulated to provide therapeutic effects greater than the sum of the effects produced by the respective reagents.

[0192] In a specific embodiment, a first dose of immune effector cells is administered to a subject in need thereof, and the first dose does not exceed about 3 ×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 2×109 cell.

[0193] In a specific embodiment, after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of the immune effector cells is administered, and the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 5x109 cells.

[0194] In a specific embodiment, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.

[0195] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and taxane compound are administered 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.

[0196] In a specific embodiment, the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or
the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or
the amount of administered taxane compound is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.

[0197] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the taxane compound is administered once.

[0198] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 32; and preferably, the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, or 26.

[0199] Corresponding to the sixth aspect, the present invention also provides a kit for treating CLD18-positive tumors, wherein the kit comprises:
  1. 1) immune effector cells containing CLD18A2-CAR;
  2. 2) Cyclophosphamide;
  3. 3) Fludarabine;
  4. 4) a Taxane compound, preferably paclitaxel, more preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel;
  5. 5) containers for containing the substances described in 1)-4); and
  6. 6) an instruction for using the kit to treat CLD18 positive tumors;
wherein the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as taxane compound are formulated to provide therapeutic effects greater than the sum of the effects produced by the respective agents.

[0200] In a specific embodiment, it is described in the instruction that the first dose of the immune effector cells is administered to a subject in need thereof, and the first dose does not exceed about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 2x109 cells.

[0201] In a specific embodiment, it is described in the instruction that after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of the immune effector cells is administered, and the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 5×109 cells.

[0202] In a specific embodiment, it is described in the instruction that the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.

[0203] In a specific embodiment, the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and taxane compound are administered 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.

[0204] In a specific embodiment, it is described in the instruction that:

the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or

the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or

the amount of administered taxane compound is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.



[0205] In a specific embodiment, it is described in the instruction that:
the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the taxane compound is administered once.

[0206] In a specific embodiment, the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 32; and preferably, the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, or 26.

[0207] A person skilled in the art will know that the kit may contain each component in a dosage compatible with the description of the instruction.

[0208] In one aspect of the present invention, a method for treating a tumor is provided, including administering immune effector cells and a tubulin inhibitor to an individual suffering from a tumor, wherein the immune effector cells express a receptor recognizing a tumor antigen. In some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for reducing the growth, survival, or viability or all of the growth, survival and viability of cancer cells, comprising administering immune effector cells and a tubulin inhibitor to an individual suffering from a tumor, wherein the immune effector cells express a receptor recognizing a tumor antigen. In some embodiments, the tubulin inhibitor is a taxane compound. In some embodiments, the taxane compound is selected from: paclitaxel, albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, Abraxane), docetaxel (docetaxel), and a derivative with a taxane skeleton structure.

[0209] In another embodiment, the antibody that specifically recognizes a tumor antigen has HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:2, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or
HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:7, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or
HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:8, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:9 or 68, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 10, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 11, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:12, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 13.

[0210] In another embodiment, the antibody that specifically recognizes a tumor antigen has a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or
a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 18 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or
a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 22 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20; or
a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:53 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:52.

[0211] In another embodiment, the antibody specifically recognizing a tumor antigen has an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 54, 56, 57, or 58, preferably, as shown in SEQ ID NO: 54.

[0212] In another embodiment, no pretreatment or lymphocyte depletion is performed on the subject. The present invention also provides a use of immune effector cells expressing a receptor that recognize a tumor antigen in the preparation of a medicament, wherein the medicament contains the immune effector cells and a taxane compound, and the medicament is used for treating a tumor. In some embodiments, the immune effector cells and the taxane compound contained in the medicament provide therapeutic effects greater than the sum of their respective effects. In one aspect of the present invention, a kit for treating tumors is provided, comprising: 1) immune effector cells expressing a receptor that recognize a tumor antigen; 2) a taxane compound; 3) containers for containing the substances of 1) and 2); and 4) an instruction for using the kit to treat tumors.

[0213] It should be understood that within the scope of the present invention, the above-mentioned technical features of the present invention and the technical features specifically described in the following (such as in the Examples) can be combined with each other to form a new or preferred technical solution, which will not be repeated due to the length of the present specification.

Description of Drawings



[0214] 

Figure 1 shows the detection of the copy number of CAR-T.

Figure 2A shows the change of C-reactive protein (CRP) in a subject after the first dose of CAR-T injection (the first course of treatment); and Figure 2B shows the change of CRP in a subject after the subsequent dose of CAR-T injection (the second course of treatment).

Figure 3A shows the change of tumor lesions during CAR-T treatment in a pancreatic cancer subject; and Figure 3B shows the change of tumor markers during CAR-T treatment in a pancreatic cancer subject.

Figure 4A shows the change of tumor lesions during CAR-T treatment in a gastric adenocarcinoma subject; Figure 4B shows the change of new lesions during CAR-T treatment in a gastric adenocarcinoma subject; Figure 4C shows the change of pleural and ascites during CAR-T treatment in a gastric adenocarcinoma subject; Figure 4D shows the change of CA125 level during CAR-T treatment in a gastric adenocarcinoma subject; and Figure 4E shows the change of CA199 level during CAR-T treatment in a gastric adenocarcinoma subject.

Figure 5 shows a plasmid map of the recombinant vector MSCV-8E5-2I-mBBZ.

Figure 6A and Figure 6B are CCK8 experiments detecting the toxicity of Abraxane on pancreatic cancer cells and CAR-T cells, respectively.

Figures 7A and B show an in vivo experiment observing the inhibitory effects of Abraxane in combination with CAR T cells on pancreatic cancer in mice and the change of body weight in mice.

Figures 8A to 8C show the survival period of mice after being treated with the method of the present invention.

Figure 9 is a body weight change curve of a mouse model after being treated with the method of the present invention.


Modes for carrying out the invention



[0215] After extensive and in-depth research, the inventors unexpectedly discovered that immune effector cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) or other transgenic receptors, such as T cell receptors (TCR), can be administered in a specific amount and according to a specific time parameter, thereby significantly improving the therapeutic efficacy for tumor treatment by using immune effector cells and improving the effects of immune effector cells applied in solid tumors. At least parttially based on this discovery, the present invention is completed.

[0216] Unless otherwise defined, all technical terms, symbols, and other technical and scientific terms or proprietary words used herein are intended to have the same meaning as commonly understood by a skilled person to which the present invention belongs. In some cases, for the purpose of clarification and/or ease of reference, terms with conventionally understood meanings are further defined herein, and such definitions included herein shall not be construed as indicating that they are substantively different from the conventional understanding in the art.

[0217] All publications mentioned in the present invention, including patent documents, academic papers, and databases, are incorporated in their entirety by reference for all purposes to the same extent that each individual publication is independently incorporated by reference. If the definition shown herein is different from the definition shown in the patents, published applications, and other publications incorporated herein by reference, or is otherwise inconsistent, the definitions herein control.

[0218] As used herein, the singular "a", "an" and "the" include plural forms, unless clearly indicates otherwise. For example, "a" or "an" means "at least one" or "one or more".

[0219] In this disclosure, all aspects of the claimed subject matter are presented in a range format. It should be understood that the description in a range format is merely for convenience and brevity, and should not be construed as an inflexible limitation on the scope of the claimed subject matter. Therefore, the description of a range should be considered to have specifically disclosed all possible subranges and individual values within that range. For example, where a range of values is provided, it should be understood that every intermediate value between the upper limit and lower limit of the range and any other stated or intermediate values within the range are included in the claims. And the upper and lower limits of the scope also belong to the scope of the claimed subject. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges can be independently included in the smaller range, and they also belong to the scope of the claimed subject matter, unless the upper and lower limits of the range are explicitly excluded. When the set range includes one or two limit values, the claimed subject matter also includes a range that excludes one or two of the limit values. This principle applies regardless of the scope of the range.

[0220] The term "about" used herein refers to the usual error range of each value easily known by a skilled person. The reference to "about" a value or parameter herein includes (and describes) an embodiment that refers to the value or parameter itself. For example, description of "about X" includes description of "X". For example, "about" may mean within 1 or more than 1 according to the actual standard deviation in the field. Or "about" can mean a range of up to 10% (i.e., ±10%). For example, about 5 mg can include any number between 4.5 mg and 5.5 mg. When a specific value or composition is provided in the application and the scope of the patent application, "about" should be assumed to be within the acceptable error range of the specific value or composition, unless otherwise indicated.

[0221] When describing an amino acid or nucleic acid sequence, "having" a specific sequence should be understood to encompass variants of the specific sequence. In some embodiments, the amino acid or nucleic acid sequence having a specific sequence means that the amino acid or nucleic acid sequence has more than 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 99% sequence identity with the specific sequence.

[0222] Any concentration range, percentage range, ratio range, or integer range described herein should be understood to include any integer within the stated range, and where appropriate, its fraction (for example, one tenth of an integer and one hundredth of an integer), unless otherwise indicated.

[0223] As used herein, the "dosing interval" refers to the time between multiple courses of immune effector cell therapy administered to an individual (such as multiple courses of treatment including the first dose of immune effector cells and subsequent doses of immune effector cells) and between the administration of the pretreatment medication. Therefore, the dosing interval can be indicated as a range. In some aspects of the present invention, the present invention includes administering multiple courses of immune effector cell therapy to an individual, and in each course, a dose determined by a physician (such as the first dose and subsequent doses) is given. In some aspects of the present invention, the specific dose of immune effector cell therapy according to the present invention can be administered in two or more times, and the total dose administered in divided doses is equal to the total dose in the course of treatment determined by a physician.

[0224] The "dose" mentioned herein can be expressed as a dose calculated according to the weight or a dose calculated according to body surface area (BSA). The dose calculated according to the weight is the dose given to a patient calculated based on the weight of the patient, such as mg/kg, number of immune effector cells/kg, etc. The dose calculated according to BSA is the dose given to a patient calculated based on the surface area of the patient, such as mg/m2, and the number of immune effector cells/m2, etc.

[0225] The "number of administrations" as used herein refers to the frequency of administration of immune effector cells or pretreatment drug doses within a given time. The number of administrations can be indicated as the number of doses per given time. For example, fludarabine can be administered as follows: once a day for 4 consecutive days, once a day for 3 consecutive days, once a day for 2 consecutive days, or once a day. Cyclophosphamide can be administered as follows: once a day for 4 consecutive days, once a day for 3 consecutive days, once a day for 2 consecutive days, or once a day. The albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered as follows: once a day for 4 consecutive days, once a day for 3 consecutive days, once a day for 2 consecutive days, or once a day for administration.

[0226] The composition as used herein refers to any mixture of two or more products, substances or compounds (including cells). It can be a solution, suspension, liquid, powder, paste, which can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or any combination thereof.

[0227] As used herein, "a cell or cell population is "positive" for a specific marker" refers to the detectable presence of a specific marker (usually a surface marker) on or in the cell. Regarding a surface marker, the term means that the presence of surface expression is detected by flow cytometry, for example, by staining with an antibody specifically binding to the marker, and detecting the antibody. The staining can be detected by flow cytometry at a certain level that is significantly higher than the staining level detected when the isotype-matched control is used to perform the same step under the same conditions, and / or substantially similar to the level of cells known to be positive for the marker, and/or significantly higher than the level of cells known to be negative for the marker.

[0228] As used herein, "a cell or cell population is "negative" for a specific marker" means that no specific marker, such as a surface marker is present on or in the cell, or the specific marker is substantially undetectable. Regarding a surface marker, the term means that surface expression is not detectable by flow cytometry, or although the presence of surface expression is detected, for example, when staining with an antibody specifically binding to the marker and detecting surface expression by detecting the antibody, the staining can be detected by flow cytometry at a certain level, which is significantly lower than the staining level detected when the isotype-matched control is used to perform the same step under the same conditions, and / or significantly lower than the level of cells known to be positive for the marker, and/or substantially similar to the level of cells known to be negative for the marker.

[0229] The term "vector" as used herein refers to a nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating another nucleic acid to which it is connected. The term includes a vector in a form of a self-replicating nucleic acid structure, as well as a vector introduced into the genome of a host cell. Certain vectors can direct the expression of nucleic acids operably linked to them. The vector is also referred to herein as an "expression vector". The present application relates to adoptive cells or immune effector cells for treating a solid tumor, including the administration of multiple doses or repeated doses of cells, and methods of using the same, compositions, and products thereof. Cells generally express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or other transgenic receptors such as T cell receptors (TCR).

[0230] Claudin 18 (Claudin 18, CLD18) molecule (Genbank accession number: splice variant 1 (CLD18A1): NP_057453, NM016369, and splice variant 2 (CLD18A2): NM_001002026, NP_001002026) is an intrinsic transmembrane protein with a molecular weight of approximately 27.9/27.72kD. Claudin is an internal membrane protein located in the tight junction of epithelium and endothelium. A network of interconnected chains of particles in the tissue membrane tightly connected between adjacent cells. In tight junctions, occludin and claudin are the most important transmembrane protein components. They create a primary barrier that prevents and controls the paracellular transport of solutes and restricts the lateral diffusion of membrane lipids and proteins to maintain cell polarity due to their strong intercellular adhesion properties,. The proteins that form tight junctions are critically involved in the structure of epithelial tissues.

[0231] CLD18A1 is selectively expressed in the epithelium of normal lung and stomach, while CLD18A2 is only expressed in gastric cells. Moreover, CLD18A2 is limited to differentiated short-lived gastric epithelial cells, but does not exist in the gastric stem cell area. Both variants are strongly expressed in several cancer types, including tumors of the stomach, esophagus, pancreas, and lung, as well as human cancer cell lines. The expression is mainly in the adenocarcinoma subtypes of these indications.

[0232] The present invention provides therapeutic methods and compositions for treating diseases (such as tumors) related to CLD18 expression.

[0233] The present invention provides a method for treating tumors, particularly solid tumors, in a subject using adoptive cells or immune effector cells expressing genetically engineered (recombined) chimeric receptors. The method includes a single course of reinfusion, or a multiple course of reinfusion of adoptive cells or immune effector cells. As used herein, "dose" refers to the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are administered or reinfused in a course of treatment. In some embodiments, where multiple courses of treatment are included in the methods described herein, the dosage for each course of treatment is the same. In some embodiments, where multiple courses of treatment are included in the methods described herein, the dosage for each course of treatment is different. "Divided dose" refers to a single dose administered when the dose of the entire treatment course is divided into multiple doses and administered to a subject within a course of treatment. In some embodiments, in the case where the dose within a course of treatment is divided into multiple doses and administered to a subject, the divided dose for each administration is the same. In some embodiments, when the dose within a course of treatment is divided into multiple doses and administered to a subject, the divided dose for each administration is different. For the purposes of this article, unless otherwise specified, the dose refers to the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells administered or reinfused within a course of treatment.

[0234] In some embodiments, the methods described herein include the reinfusion of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells in a single course of treatment. A single course of treatment refers to the reinfusion of a certain amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells within a certain period of time. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused at one time during the course of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in two or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in three or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in four or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in five or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in six or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in seven or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in eight or more times. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in nine times or more. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in ten or more times. In some embodiments, the adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time are aliquots of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused. In some embodiments, the adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time are non-aliquots of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused. In some embodiments, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused each time is determined by a physician according to the specific conditions of the subject. The specific conditions of the subject may be, for example, the overall health of the subject, the severity of the disease, the response to the previous dose of the same course of treatment, the response to the previous course of treatment, the combined medication of the subject, the degree or likelihood of toxicity, complications, cancer metastasis, and any other factors considered by a physician which will affect the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells suitable for reinfusion in a subject. In some embodiments, among the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused in multiple times, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time shows an increasing trend. In some embodiments, among the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused in multiple times, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time shows a decreasing trend. In some embodiments, among the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused in multiple times, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time shows a trend which increases first and then decreases. In some embodiments, among the total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused in multiple times, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells that are reinfused each time shows a trend which decreases firstly and then increases.

[0235] Multi-course reinfusion refers to multiple time-of-periods, and a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells are reinfused in each time-of-period. In some embodiments, the lengths of the multiple time-of-periods are the same. In some embodiments, the lengths of the multiple time-of-periods are unequal. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least two time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least three time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least four time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least five time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers at least six time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least seven time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least eight time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least nine time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to at least ten time-of-periods. In some embodiments, the multiple courses of treatment refers to more than ten such time-of-periods.

[0236] In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused at one time in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in two or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in three or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in four or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in five or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in six or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in seven or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in eight or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in nine or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in ten or more times in one of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, in one of the multiple courses of treatment, the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused each time are aliquots of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused. In some embodiments, in one of the multiple courses of treatment, the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused each time are non-aliquots of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused. In some embodiments, the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells to be reinfused each time in one of the multiple courses of treatment is determined by a physician according to the specific conditions of a subject. The specific conditions of the subject may be, for example, the overall health of the subject, the severity of the disease, the response to the previous dose of the same course of treatment, the response to the previous course of treatment, the combined medication of the subject, the degree or likelihood of toxicity, complications, cancer metastasis, and any other factors considered by a physician which will affect the amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells suitable for reinfusion in the subject. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells are reinfused in the same number of times in each of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells are reinfused in the different times in each of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells are reinfused in the same number of times in each of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the same certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in each of the multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, a different certain total amount of adoptive cells or immune effector cells is reinfused in each of the multiple courses of treatment.

[0237] In some embodiments, the total amount of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells in each of the multiple courses of treatment shows an increasing trend. In some embodiments, the total amount of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells in each of the multiple courses of treatment shows a decreasing trend. In some embodiments, the total amount of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells in each of the multiple courses of treatment shows a trend which increases first and then decreases. The total amount of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells in each of the multiple courses of treatment tends to decrease firstly and then increase.

[0238] In some embodiments, the first dose is a lower dose and/or a modified or reduced dose and/or the subsequent dose is a consolidated dose and/or a modified or reduced dose. Cells, compositions, and articles that can be used in such methods are also provided. In some embodiments, the chimeric receptor is a genetically engineered antigen receptor, such as a functional non-TCR antigen receptor, for another example, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and other recombinant antigen receptors, such as genetically engineered T cell receptor (TCR). Receptors also include other recombinant chimeric receptors, such as those containing extracellular portions specifically binding to ligands or receptors or other binding partners and intracellular portions, such as the intracellular signal transduction portion of CAR. In some embodiments, the dose includes a lower first dose.

[0239] In some embodiments, the method comprises (a) administering a single course of chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR)-expressing cells to a subject with a tumor; and (b) administering multiple courses of chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR)-expressing cells to the subject. In other embodiments, one or more subsequent doses may be administered.

[0240] The term "CLD18" refers to claudin-18, and includes any variant of CLD18 (including CLD18A1 and CLD18A2), conformational variant, isoform, and specieshomologs that are naturally expressed by cells or expressed by cells transfected with CLD18 gene. Preferably, "CLD18" refers to human CLD18, particularly CLD18A2 (SEQ ID NO: 1, 2) and/or CLD18A1 (SEQ ID NO: 7, 8), more preferably CLD18A2.

[0241] The term "CLD18A1" includes any post-translational modified variants, isoforms and specieshomologs of human CLD18A1 that are naturally expressed by cells or expressed by cells transfected with CLD18A1 gene.

[0242] The term "CLD18A2" includes any post-translationally modified variants, isoforms and specieshomologs of human CLD 18A2 that are naturally expressed by cells or expressed by cells transfected with CLD18A2 gene.

[0243] The term "CLD18 variant" shall include (i) CLD18 splice variants, (ii) CLD18 post-translational modification variants, especially including variants with different N glycosylation, (iii) CLD18 conformational variants, especially including CLD18-conformational-1, CLD18-conformational-2 and CLD18-conformational-3, (iv) free CLD18 and homo/allo-associated variants at intercellular tight junctions, (v) CLD18 cancer-related variants and CLD18 non-cancer-related variants.

Method for treating tumor using cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor



[0244] The present invention provides methods, compositions and articles for cell therapy, for the treatment of diseases or disorders including various solid tumors. The method involves administering immune effector cells expressing chimeric receptors targeting and recognizing and/or specifically binding to tumor antigens and activate immune effector cells. The receptors include chimeric receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), T cell receptors (TCR), T cell fusion protein (TFP), and T cell antigen coupler (TAC).

[0245] In some embodiments, the method includes administering to the subject one or more subsequent doses of cells. The dose is usually given in a specific amount and according to specific time parameters. In some embodiments, the method generally includes administering a first dose of cells, followed by administering subsequent doses of cells during a specific time window relative to the first dose. In some embodiments, the number of cells administered and the duration of multiple doses are designed to improve one or more results, such as reducing the degree or likelihood of toxicity in the subject, and/or improving the therapeutic efficacy.

[0246] In some embodiments, the provided methods are based on the observation herein that increased exposure of a subject to the administered cells (e.g., increased cell number or duration) can improve the efficacy and effectiveness of immune effector cell therapy. Preliminary analysis after the administration of different CAR-T cells targeting CLD18A2 to subjects with various CLD18A2-positive cancers in multiple clinical trials showed a correlation between higher and/or longer exposure to CAR-T cells and the treatment outcome. These results include the patient's survival, remission, or stability of the disease. In some embodiments, the method described herein includes monitoring the subject's exposure to the adoptive cells or immune effector cells, and determining the dose and interval of subsequent divided administration or subsequent courses of treatment based on the exposure time. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include monitoring the subject's exposure to the adoptive cells or immune effector cells, and maintaining or reducing the subsequent divided administration or dose for subsequent courses of treatment and/or maintaining or extending subsequent divided administrations or the interval between subsequent courses of treatment according to the exposure level reaching or exceeding a certain level. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include monitoring the subject's exposure to the adoptive cells or immune effector cells, and maintaining or increasing subsequent divided administration or subsequent dose for subsequent courses of treatment and/or maintaining or shortening subsequent divided administrations or the interval between subsequent courses of treatment according to the exposure level lower than a certain level.

[0247] In some embodiments, the method described herein includes monitoring the degree or risk of the toxic response of a subject to the adoptive cells or immune effector cells, and determining the subsequent divided administration or the dose and interval for subsequent courses of treatment based on the degree of toxicity or risk. In some embodiments, the degree of toxicity or risk includes, but is not limited to, for example, CRS, neurotoxicity, macrophage activation syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, and the like.

[0248] In some embodiments, a subsequent dose is usually given, when the risk of toxicity response or symptoms or biochemical indicators (such as CRS or neurotoxicity, macrophage activation syndrome, or tumor lysis syndrome) is equal to or lower than an acceptable level after the first dose or the previous dose is administered. In some embodiments, the toxic response or symptoms or biochemical indicators include one or more of fever, hypotension, hypoxia, neurological disorders, inflammatory cytokines, and serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). Kind. In some embodiments, the acceptable level of the risk of the toxic response or symptoms or biochemical indicators refers to 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, 75%, 70%, 65%, 60%, 55%, 50%, 45%, 40%, 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, or 10% of the peak level after the first dose or the previous dose.

[0249] In some embodiments, a subsequent dose is given when the toxicity response reaches the peak level after the first dose or the previous dose and is decreasing. In some embodiments, a subsequent dose is administered after the first dose or the previous dose is administered and the toxicity response decreases to equal to or below an acceptable level. In some embodiments, a subsequent dose is administered after the first dose or the previous dose is administered and when the risk of the toxic response or symptoms or biochemical indicators is equal to or lower than 95%, 90%, 85%, 80%, 75%, 70%, 65%, 60%, 55%, 50%, 45%, 40%, 35%, 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, or 10% of the peak level after the first dose or the previous dose is administered. Therefore, in some embodiments, a subsequent dose is administered at least 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62 , 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80 days after the first dose or the previous dose is administered. In some embodiments, the appropriate time is determined by monitoring and/or evaluating the presence of one or more symptoms or risks associated with a toxic event and determining the subsequent dose for infusion after the symptoms or risks are determined to be at or below an acceptable level.

[0250] In some embodiments, after the first dose, the subsequent dose is administered when the serum level of factors indicative of cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) in the subject does not exceed 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 times of the subject's serum levels before the first dose is administered.

[0251] In some embodiments, the timing of the subsequent doses is selected to avoid the host immune response generated by the first dose or the previous dose, which may induce the decrease of the efficacy of the subsequent doses. In some aspects, the subsequent dose is administered before the appearance of a host immune response, such as adaptability or specificity to the administered cells and/or the expressed chimeric antigen receptor, such as a humoral or cell-mediated immune response. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered before such a response can be detected, for example, by one or more specialized detection methods. One or more subsequent doses are usually given when the host adaptive immune response to the cells is not detected, not established, and/or does not reach a certain level or degree or stage. Therefore, in some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered up to 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 , 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97 , 98 or 99 days after the first or previous dose is administered.

[0252] Therefore, in some embodiments, the provided methods involve the administration of one or more subsequent doses, after the window of toxicity risk, after the tumor burden is stabilized or reduced with the first dose, while before the adaptive host immune response (i.e., the immune rejection to CAR-T cells produced in the body) is produced. Under this condition, the subsequent dose can safely and effectively provide immune monitoring, elimination or prevention of the proliferation or metastasis of residual tumor cells. Therefore, in some embodiments, the subsequent dose is a disease-consolidating dose.

[0253] The so-called tumor burden includes the size or degree of differentiation, or the type and stage of metastasis of the tumor, and/or the appearance and disappearance of common complications of advanced cancer, such as cancerous pleural effusion, and/or changes in the appearance or expression level of tumor markers, and/or the likelihood or incidence of toxic results in the subject, such as CRS, macrophage activation syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, neurotoxicity and/or host immune responses for the administered cells and/or chimeric antigen. In some embodiments, the size of the tumor is measured by a scaler that comes with PET (positron emission computed tomography) and CT (computed tomography).

[0254] The tumor marker, also known as tumor label, refers to a substance that is characteristically present in malignant tumor cells, or is abnormally produced by malignant tumor cells, or is produced by a host in the response to tumor stimulation, and can reflect tumor occurrence and development and monitor tumor response to treatment. Tumor markers exist in the tissues, body fluids and excreta of cancer patients, and can be detected by immunological, biological and chemical methods, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CA125, CA15-3, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), soluble fragments of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA199, CA724, etc.

[0255] In some embodiments, the first dose includes cells in an amount sufficient to reduce the tumor burden of the subject, and the subsequent dose is administered, when the serum level of factors indicative of cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) in the subject does not exceed 10 or 25 times of the subject's serum level before the first dose is administered, and/or the peak level of CRS-related results in the subject begins to decline after the first dose is administered, and there is no detectable adaptive host immune response specific for the chimeric receptor expressed by the cells of the first dose in the subject.

[0256] In some embodiments, the first dose contains less than about 2.5×108 cells/ kg of subject's body weight, or less than about 1×1012 cells, and the subsequent dose is administered between 21 days to about 80 days after the first dose is administered.

Administration of cells in immune effector cell therapy



[0257] The method provided by the present invention includes administering multiple doses of immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor, such as CAR, TCR, TFP, and TAC that recognize a tumor antigen, to a subject with a solid tumor expressing the tumor antigen.

[0258] The "tumor antigen" as used herein includes, but is not limited to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR); CD171; CS-1; C-type lectin-like molecule-1; Ganglioside GD3; Tn antigen; CD19; CD20; CD 22; CD 30; CD 70; CD 123; CD 138; CD33; CD44; CD44v7/8; CD38; CD44v6; B7H3 (CD276), B7H6; KIT (CD117); interleukin 13 receptor subunit α (IL-13Rα)); interleukin 11 receptor α (IL-11Rα); prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA); prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA); carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); NY-ESO-1; HIV-1 Gag; MART-1; gp100; tyrosinase; mesothelin; EpCAM; protease serine 21 (PRSS21); vascular endothelial growth factor receptor; Lewis (Y) antigen; CD24; platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β); stage Specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4); cell surface-related mucin 1 (MUC1), MUC6; epidermal growth factor receptor family and its mutants (EGFR, EGFR2, ERBB3, ERBB4, EGFRvIII); nerve cell adhesion Attachment molecule (NCAM); Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX); LMP2; Ephrin A receptor 2 (EphA2); Fucosyl GM1; Sialyl Lewis adhesion molecule (sLe); Ganglioside GM3 (aNeu5Ac(2-3)bDGalp(1-4)bDGlcp(1-1)Cer; TGS5; high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMWMAA); o-acetyl GD2 ganglioside (OAcGD2); folate receptor; Tumor vascular endothelial marker 1 (TEM1/CD248); Tumor vascular endothelial marker 7 related (TEM7R); Claudin 6, Claudin 18.2, Claudin 18.1; ASGPR1; CDH16; 5T4; 8H9; αvβ6 integrin; B cell maturation antigen (BCMA); CA9; kappa light chain; CSPG4; EGP2, EGP40; FAP; FAR; FBP; embryonic AchR; HLA-A1, HLA-A2; MAGEA1, MAGE3; KDR; MCSP; NKG2D ligand; PSC1; ROR1; Sp17; SURVIVIN; TAG72; TEM1; Fibronectin; Tenascin; Carcinoembryonic variant of tumor necrosis zone; G protein-coupled receptor class C group 5-member D (GPRC5D); X chromosome open reading Box 61 (CXORF61); CD97; CD179a; Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK); Polysialic acid; Placenta specific 1 (PL AC1); the hexose part of globoH glycoceramide (GloboH); breast differentiation antigen (NY-BR-1); uroplakin 2 (UPK2); hepatitis A virus cell receptor 1 (HAVCR1); adrenergic receptor β3 (ADRB3); Pannexin 3 (PANX3); G protein coupled receptor 20 (GPR20); lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus K9 (LY6K); olfactory receptor 51E2 (OR51E2); TCRy alternating reading frame protein (TARP); Wilms Cell tumor protein (WT1); ETS translocation variant gene 6 (ETV6-AML); Sperm protein 17 (SPA17); X antigen family member 1A (XAGE1); Angiopoietin binds to cell surface receptor 2 (Tie2); Melanin Tumor cancer testis antigen-1 (MAD-CT-1); Melanoma cancer testis antigen-2 (MAD-CT-2); Fos-related antigen 1; p53 mutant; human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT); Sarcoma translocation breakpoint; melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis (ML-IAP); ERG (transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) ETS fusion gene); N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase V (NA17); Pairing box protein Pax-3 (PAX3); Androgen receptor; Cyclin B1; V-myc avian myeloidosis virus oncogene neuroblastoma-derived homolog (MYCN); Ras homolog family member C (RhoC); Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1); CCCTC binding factor (zinc finger protein)-like (BORIS); Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 3 (SART3) recognized by T cells; Paired box protein Pax-5 (PAX5) ; Proacrosin binding protein sp32 (OYTES 1); lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK); A kinase anchoring protein 4 (AKAP-4); synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint 2 (SSX2); CD79a; CD79b; CD72; Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1); Fc fragment of IgA receptor (FCAR); Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily member 2 (LILRA2); CD300 molecular-like family member f (CD300LF); C-type lectin domain family 12 member A (CLEC12A); bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2); mucin-like hormone receptor-like 2 (EMR2) containing EGF-like modules; lymphocyte antigen 75 (LY75); phosphatidyl muscle Glycan-3 (GPC3); Fc receptor-like 5 (FCRL5); immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1 (IGLL1). In some embodiments, the tumor antigen is EGFR, EGFRvIII, Glypican 3, claudin 18.2 or BCMA.

[0259] "Subject" as used herein is a mammal, such as a human or other animal, and usually a human. In some embodiments, the subject has received tumor chemotherapy or radiation therapy before the first dose is administered and/or the subsequent dose is administered. In some aspects, the subject is refractory or non-responsive to other therapeutic agents.

[0260] In some embodiments, the tumor is persistent or recurrent, for example, after another therapeutic intervention, including chemotherapy and radiation is used. In some embodiments, the administration effectively treats the subject regardless of whether the subject is resistant to another therapy.

[0261] In some embodiments, the subject is responsive to other therapeutic agents and treatment with the therapeutic agent reduces the tumor burden. In some aspects, the subject is initially responsive to the therapeutic agent, but then shows tumor recurrence. In some embodiments, the subject is determined to be at risk of recurrence, for example at a high risk of recurrence, and the cells are thus prophylactically administered, for example, to reduce the likelihood of recurrence or prevent recurrence.

[0262] Such diseases include tumors, or other proliferative diseases or disorders. The tumors include but are not limited to: colon cancer, rectal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, liver cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, small bowel cancer, esophageal cancer, melanoma, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, skin or intraocular malignant melanoma, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, rectal cancer, anal cancer, stomach cancer, testicular cancer, uterine cancer, fallopian tube cancer, endometrial cancer, cervical cancer, vagina cancer, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, endocrine system cancer, thyroid cancer, parathyroid cancer, adrenal cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, urethral cancer, penile cancer, childhood solid tumors, bladder cancer, renal or ureteral cancer, renal pelvis cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, Primary CNS lymphoma, tumor angiogenesis, spinal tumor, brainstem glioma, pituitary adenoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, epidermoid carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, T cell lymphoma, environmentally induced cancer, a combination thereof and the metastatic foci thereof.

[0263] In some embodiments, the size of the dose and the reinfusion time are determined by the initial tumor burden of the subject. For example, in some cases, the number of cells in the first dose given to the subject is generally relatively low. In the case of low tumor burden, for solid tumors, tumor burden and/or minimal residual disease can be evaluated by detecting tumor markers, the initial dose may be relatively high. In other cases, in a subject with a higher tumor burden, the first dose can be divided into several continuous infusion, and the first dose is divided into 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 administrations, preferably 1 to 5 administrations, more preferably 2 to 3 administrations. There is an interval of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 days or no interval between each administration. In some cases, the subsequent dose may be the same as or higher than or lower than the first dose.

[0264] The term "treatment" as used herein refers to the complete or partial mitigation or reduction of tumors or associated symptoms thereof. The desired therapeutic effects include, but are not limited to, preventing the occurrence or recurrence of tumors, mitigating symptoms, reducing any direct or indirect pathological results of the tumor, preventing metastasis, slowing the tumor progression, improving or mitigating tumor status, and reducing or improving prognosis . As used herein, "delaying the development of a tumor" means delaying, hindering, slowing, slowing down, stabilizing, restraining and/or limiting the development of a tumor. The delay can be of different lengths of time, depending on the history of the disease and/or the individual to be treated. A skilled person will understand that a sufficient or significant delay can encompass prevention (for individuals who have not developed the tumor). For example, advanced cancers, such as the development of metastases, can be delayed.

[0265] In some embodiments, the provided cells and compositions are used to delay tumor development or slow tumor progression.

[0266] As used herein, "inhibiting" a function or activity means a reduction in the function or activity when compared with the same disease under other conditions or compared with another disease.

[0267] In the context of administration, an "effective amount" of an agent, for example, a pharmaceutical preparation, cell, or composition refers to a certain amount that is effective to achieve the desired results, such as treating or preventing results in terms of a certain dose and a necessary length of time.

[0268] A "therapeutically effective amount" of an agent, for example, a pharmaceutical preparation or cell, refers to a certain amount that is effective in terms of dosage and necessary time course to achieve the desired therapeutic results, such as the treatment of tumors, and/or kinetic or pharmacokinetic effects of the treatment. The therapeutically effective amount can vary depending on various factors, such as disease state, age, sex, subject weight, and the administered cell population. In some embodiments, the provided methods involve administering an effective amount (e.g., a therapeutically effective amount) of the cell and/or composition.

[0269] A "prophylactically effective amount" refers to a certain amount that is conducive to achieving the desired preventive results in terms of a certain dose and necessary time course. Generally, the prophylactically effective dose will be less than the therapeutically effective dose, since the prophylactic dose is used in the subject at an early stage of the disease or before the disease. In the case of lower tumor burden, in some aspects, the prophylactically effective amount may be higher than the therapeutically effective amount.

[0270] Methods for administering cells for immune effector cell therapy are known and can be used in combination with the methods and compositions provided herein.

[0271] In some embodiments, the cell therapy, for example, adoptive T cell or immune effector cell therapy, is performed by autologous reinfusion. Therefore, in some aspects, the cells are derived from the subject in need of treatment and the cells, and are administered to the same subject after isolation and processing.

[0272] In some embodiments, the cell therapy, for example, adoptive T cell or immune effector cell therapy, is performed by allogeneic reinfusion, wherein the cells are isolated and/or in other cases extracted and prepared from the donor, and the donor is different from the subject for the reinfusion. In such embodiments, the cells are then administered to a subject with high genetic histocompatibility. In some embodiments, the donor and recipient are genetically identical. In some embodiments, the donor and recipient are genetically similar. In some embodiments, the recipient and donor are of the same HLA category or supertype.

[0273] The cells can be administered by any suitable means, for example, by injection, such as, intravenous or subcutaneous injection, intraocular injection, fundus injection, subretinal injection, intravitreal injection, counter-interval injection, subscleral injection, intrachoroidal injection, anterior chamber injection, subconjectval injection, subconjuntival injection, superscleral cavity injection, retrobulbar injection, periocular injection or perispheric delivery. In some embodiments, they are administered parenterally, intrapulmonarily, and intranasally, and if local treatment is desired, intralesional administration. Extraperitoneal infusion includes intramuscular, intravenous, intraarterial, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration. In some embodiments, a given dose is administered by administering the cells in a single bolus injection. In some embodiments, the cells are administered by multiple boluses, for example, multiple administrations within not more than 20 days, or by continuous infusion of the cells.

[0274] For the prevention or treatment of diseases, the appropriate dose may depend on the type of disease to be treated, the type of chimeric antigen receptor or cell, the severity of the disease and the course of the disease, whether the cells are administered for preventive or therapeutic purposes, previous treatment, the clinical history and response to the cells of the subject, as well as the judgment of the attending physician. In some embodiments, the composition and cells are suitable for the administration to a subject at a time point or in a series of treatments.

[0275] In some embodiments, the immune effector cells are used as a part of a combination therapy, for example, with another interventional therapy, for example, with another therapeutic agent such as an antibody, engineered immune effector cells, receptors or reagents, cytotoxicity drugs or other treatments, simultaneously or sequentially, in any order. In some embodiments, immune effector cells are used in combination with one or more other treatment methods, or in combination with another interventional treatment method, simultaneously or sequentially in any order. In some cases, the immune effector cells are co-administered with another treatment at a sufficiently close time to produce therapeutic effects greater than those of the above-mentioned immune effector cell population or one or more other therapeutic drugs or methods, and vice versa. In some embodiments, the immune effector cells are administered before one or more other therapeutic agents are administered. In some embodiments, the immune effector cells are administered after one or more other therapeutic agents are administered. In some embodiments, one or more other therapeutic drugs include cytokines, such as IL-2, IL-12, to enhance persistence.

[0276] The other therapeutic agent may be administered by any suitable means, for example, by injection, for example, intravenous or subcutaneous injection, intraocular injection, fundus injection, subretinal injection, intravitreal injection, reverse septal injection, subscleral injection, intrachoroidal injections, anterior chamber injections, subconjectval injections, subconjuntival injections, supracleral injections, retrobulbar injections, periocular injections, or perispheric delivery. In some embodiments, they are delivered by parenteral, intrapulmonary, and intranasal route, and if local treatment is desired, they can be administered by intralesional route. Extraperitoneal infusion includes intramuscular, intravenous, intraarterial, intraperitoneal, or subcutaneous administration. In some embodiments, the therapeutic agent is administered by a single bolus injection to give a given dose. In some embodiments, the administration is multiple bolus injections, for example, multiple administrations within not more than 20 days, or by continuous infusion.

[0277] In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering a tubulin inhibitor and the adoptive cell or immune effector cell to a subject. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering a tubulin inhibitor and immune effector cells to a subject within one course of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering a tubulin inhibitor to a subject and then administering immune effector cells. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes firstly administering immune effector cells to a subject and then administering a tubulin inhibitor. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering to a subject substantially simultaneously the tubulin inhibitor and immune effector cells. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes alternately administering a tubulin inhibitor and immune effector cells to a subject. In multiple courses of treatment, the tubulin inhibitor and immune effector cells can be the same or different.

[0278] The tubulin inhibitors described herein include a tubulin polymerization promoter and a tubulin polymerization inhibitor. The tubulin polymerization promoter includes, but not limited to, for example, taxanes, epothilones, sponge lactones, and Laulimalide, and the like. The tubulin polymerization inhibitor includes, but not limited to, for example, colchicine, Combretastatin A-4, BPR0L075, Plinabulin (NPI-2358), Nakiterpiosin, Vincristine, Nocodazole, Podophyllotoxin, Dolastatins 10, Indibulin (D-24851) and Eribulin, and the like.

[0279] Taxanes compounds include paclitaxel (Trade name: taxol), albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, Abraxane), docetaxel (docetaxel) and derivatives thereof. Tubulin inhibitors of Taxanes can promote the assembly of tubulin into microtubules and inhibit the depolymerization of microtubules, resulting in abnormal arrangement of microtubules and the formation of astroid bodies, thereby causing the spindle to lose its normal function and ultimately leading to cell death.

[0280] In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within one course of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering taxanes to a subject and then administering immune effector cells within one course of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes firstly administering immune effector cells to a subject, and then administering taxanes within one course of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes substantially simultaneously administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within one course of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes alternately administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within one course of treatment.

[0281] In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering taxanes to a subject and then administering immune effector cells within multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes firstly administering immune effector cells to a subject, and then administering taxanes within multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes substantially simultaneously administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes alternately administering taxanes and immune effector cells to a subject within multiple courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering the same dose of taxanes and/or immune effector cells to a subject in different courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering different doses of taxanes and/or immune effector cells to a subject in different courses of treatment. The term "taxanes" refers to drugs, main components of which contain taxane compounds, and the taxane compounds have a bridge methylene benzocyclodecene core structure similar to taxanes. In some embodiments, an unsaturated bond is contained in the bridge methylene benzocyclodecene core structure of the taxane compound. In some embodiments, no unsaturated bond is contained in the bridge methylene benzocyclodecene core structure of the taxane compound. In some embodiments, the carbon atom on the bridge methylene benzocyclodecene core structure of the taxane is substituted with a heteroatom selected from N, O, S or P. In some embodiments, the taxane compound is administered by injection. In some embodiments, the method of the present invention can increase, enhance or prolong the activity and/or number of immune cells during cancer treatment, or produce a medically effective response. The term "increasing" or "enhancing" activities of immune cells means that the ability of a subject or tumor cells to respond to the treatment disclosed herein is improved. For example, the enhanced response may include 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, or 98% or more increase in the responsiveness. As used herein, "enhancing" can also refer to increasing the number of subjects responding to a treatment, such as immune effector cell therapy. For example, an enhanced response can refer to the total percentage of subjects responding to a treatment, where the percentages are 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55 %, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95% or 98% or higher. In some embodiments, the dose of a taxane compound, such as Abraxane is not higher than 300 mg/m2/time, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/time, preferably, 100 mg/m2/time - 200 mg/m2/time. In some embodiments, the dose of a taxane compound, such as Abraxane is about 200, 195, 190, 185, 180, 175, 170, 165, 160, 155, 150, 145, 140, 135, 130, 125, 120, 115, 110, 105, 100, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75, 70, 65, 60, 55, 50, 45, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, 8, 6, 4, 3, 2 or 1 mg/m2/time, preferably, 100 mg/m2/time - 200 mg/m2/time. In certain embodiments, the taxane compound, such as Abraxane is administered once via intravenous infusion approximately every 6 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 weeks, 3 weeks, 2 weeks, 1 week, 6 days, 5 days, 4 days, 3 days, 2 days, or 1 day. In some embodiments, a taxane compound, such as Abraxane is intravenously infused once per course of treatment. In certain embodiments, the immune effector cell therapy is administered 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 11 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 15 days, 16 days, 17 days, 18 days, 19 days, 20 days, 21 days, 22 days, 23 days, 24 days, 25 days, 26 days, 27 days, 28 days, 29 days, 1 month or any combination thereof before the taxane compound is administered. In certain embodiments, the immune effector cell therapy is administered 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, 10 hours, 11 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days, 6 days, 7 days, 8 days, 9 days, 10 days, 11 days, 12 days, 13 days, 14 days, 15 days, 16 days, 17 days, 18 days, 19 days, 20 days, 21 days, 22 days, 23 days, 24 days, 25 days, 26 days, 27 days, 28 days, 29 days, 1 month or any combination thereof after the taxane compound is administered.

[0282] In some embodiments, the method of the present invention includes administering pretreatment before the first dose or subsequent dose(s), for example, chemotherapeutic drugs (chemotherapeutics), whole body radiation, local radiation therapy, etc. or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, the method includes administering a pretreatment to a subject with one or more chemotherapeutic agents. In some embodiments, the method includes administering a pretreatment to a subject with a tubulin inhibitor and one or more other chemotherapeutic agents. Without being limited by theory, the effects of pretreatment are believed to include, but not limited to, lymphocyte clearance and reduction of tumor burden. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include not performing the pretreatment prior to administration of the first dose or subsequent dose(s). In some embodiments, not performing the pretreatment includes such a situation that not administering lymphocyte scavengers, whole body radiation therapy or a combination thereof or other means for pretreatment, and the lymphocyte clearance rate in the subject is still less than 50%, 55%, 60%, 65% or 70% after performing the pretreatment.

[0283] In some embodiments, the chemotherapeutic agents described herein refer to drugs used in chemotherapy, and refer to chemical drugs having preventive effects on microbial infections, parasitic diseases, and malignant tumors. Chemotherapeutics include, but are not limited to, synthetic antibacterial drugs, antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, antifungal drugs, antiviral drugs, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antituberculosis drugs, and antitumor drugs. For example, diterpene alkaloid compounds (such as taxane), cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, cyclosporine, rapamycin, mycophenolic acid, steroids, melphalan, bendamustine, asparaginase, busulfan, carboplatin, cisplatin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, rituximab, vinblastine, and/or vincristine, and the like. In some embodiments, the antimetabolites include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites such as carmofur, tegafur, pentostatin, deoxyfluridine, trimexate, fludarabine, capecitabine, gallopitabine, cytarabine stearyl sodium phosphate, fosteabine sodium hydrate, raltitrexed, paltitrexid, dipyriteflu, tiazofurin, norlatrexed, pemetrexed, nelzarabine, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine, 2'-fluoromethylene-2'-deoxycytidine, N-[5-(2,3-dihydrogen-benzofuranyl)sulfonyl]-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea, N6-[4-deoxy-4-[N2-[2(E),4(E)-tetradecadienoyl]glycylamino]-L-glycerol-BL-mannose-heptanosylpyranosyl]adenine, aplidine, ascidin, 4-[2-amino-4-oxo-4,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3H-pyrimido[5,4-b]thiazin-6-yl-(S)-ethyl]-2,5-thie noyl-L-glutamic acid, aminopterin, 5-fluorouracil, alanosine, 11-acetyl-8-(carbamoyloxymethyl)-4-formyl-6-methoxy-14-oxa-1,11-diazatetracycline( 7.4.1.0.0)-tetradecano-2,4,6-triene-9-yl acetate, swainsonine, lometrisol, dexrazoxane, methioninase, 2'-cyano-2'-deoxy-N4-palmitoyl-1-B-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine and 3-aminopyridine-2-aldehyde thiosemicarbazone, and the like. In some embodiments, the alkylating agent includes, but is not limited to, dacarbazine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, temozolomide, chlorambucil, busulfan, chlorambucil and nitrosourea, and the like.

[0284] Pretreating a subject before the first dose or subsequent dose(s) is administered can improve the effects of immune effector cell therapy. The day of the first infusion of immune effector cells (such as CAR T cells) in each course of treatment is set as day 0. The pretreatment is administered before the infusion of immune effector cells. In some embodiments, the pretreatment is performed at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30 days before adoptive cells or immune effector cells are administered. In some embodiments, one chemotherapeutic agent is used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, two or more chemotherapeutic agents are used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, a microtubule inhibitor and one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents are used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, two microtubule inhibitors and one or more additional chemotherapeutic agents are used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, one microtubule inhibitor such as a tubulin polymerization promoter, one or more alkylating agents and one or more antimetabolites are used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, one or more taxols, one or more alkylating agents and one or more antimetabolites are used for pretreatment. In some embodiments, one microtubule inhibitor (such as paclitaxel, particularly albumin-bound paclitaxel) and two additional chemotherapeutics (such as fludarabine and cyclophosphamide) are used for pretreatment. For the purpose of convenience, in the following context, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide as representative chemotherapeutics, and (albumin-bound) paclitaxel as a representative microtubule inhibitor will be used to illustrate the specific embodiments using one microtubule inhibitor and two additional chemotherapeutics in the pretreatment. For example, in some embodiments, one, two or three selected from fludarabine, cyclophosphamide or albumin-bound paclitaxel used as the pretreatment is administered to the subject at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 or 30 days, preferably at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 or 20 days, more preferably, at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 days before the CAR-T cell infusion. In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine and cyclophosphamide 6 days before CAR-T cell infusion. In some embodiments, pretreatment includes administering fludarabine and cyclophosphamide 7 days before CAR-T cell infusion. In some embodiments, pretreatment includes administering fludarabine and cyclophosphamide 5 days before CAR-T cell infusion. In some embodiments, pretreatment includes administering fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel 6 days before CAR-T cell infusion. In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering albumin-bound paclitaxel 4 days before CAR-T cell infusion.

[0285] As mentioned above, the day when the CAR T cell therapy is administered to a patient for each course of treatment is designated as day 0. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered at any time before the CAR T cell therapy is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphate or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered at least 7 days, at least 6 days, at least 5 days, at least 4 days, at least 3 days, at least 2 days, at least 1 day before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered at least 12 days, at least 11 days, at least 10 days, at least 9 days, or at least 8 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 7 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 6 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 12 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 5 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 4 days before the CAR T cell infusion is administered.

[0286] In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 7 days before the CAR T cell infusion, and cyclophosphamide is administered 7 days before the CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 6 days before the CAR T cell infusion, and cyclophosphamide is administered 6 days before the CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 5 days before the CAR T cell infusion, and cyclophosphamide is administered 5 days before the CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 12 days before the CAR T cell infusion, and cyclophosphamide is administered 12 days before the CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 5 days before CAR T cell infusion, cyclophosphamide is administered 5 days before CAR T cell infusion, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 4 days before CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 6 days before CAR T cell infusion, cyclophosphamide is administered 6 days before CAR T cell infusion, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 5 days before CAR T cell infusion. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered 12 days before CAR T cell infusion, cyclophosphamide is administered 12 days before CAR T cell infusion, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered 11 days before CAR T cell infusion.

[0287] The timing for administering components of the pretreatment can be adjusted to maximize the therapeutic effects of CAR T treatment. Generally, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered daily. In some embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel are administered daily for about 1 day, about 2 days, about 3 days, about 4 days, about 5 days, about 6 days, or about 7 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 4 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 2 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 2 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 3 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 2 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 4 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 1 day, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 3 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 1 day, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 4 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 4 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 2 days. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 1 day, cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 3 days, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered daily for 1 day. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered daily for 1 day, cyclophosphamide is administered daily for 4 days, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered daily for 1 day.

[0288] As mentioned above, in each round, the day when of CAR T cell therapy is administered to a patient is designated as day 0. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day 4 before day 0 (i.e., day -4). In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -5. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -6. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -12. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -6 and -5. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -5 and -4. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -6, -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -7, -6, -5, and -4. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patient on days -6, -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patienon days -6, -5, and -4. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patien on days -5, -4, and -2. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patien on days -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patient on days -12, -11, and -10. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patien on days -7 and -6. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patien on days -6 and -5. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patien on day -4. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patien on day -5. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patien on day -11. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patien on days -5 and -4.

[0289] Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered on the same day or on different days. If fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel are administered on the same day, cyclophosphamide and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered before or after fludarabine is administered; or fludarabine and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered before or after cyclophosphamide is administered; or cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine can be administered before or after albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -6, -5, -4, and -3, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on days -6 and -5. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -7, -6, -5, and -4, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on days -7 and -6. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -5 and -4, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on days -5, -4, and -2. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on days -6 and -5, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on days -6, -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -5, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -6, -5, and -4. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -6, -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -5, cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -5, -4, and -3, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -4. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -6, cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -6, -5, and -4, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -5. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -12, cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -12, -11, and -10, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -11. In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered to a patient on day -6, cyclophosphamide is administered to the patient on day -6, -5, -4, and -3, and the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -5.

[0290] In certain embodiments, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered simultaneously or sequentially. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patient before fludarabine is administered. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered to a patient after fludarabine is administered. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patient before fludarabine is administered. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patient before or after fludarabine is administered. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patient before cyclophosphamide is administered. In some embodiments, albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered to a patient after cyclophosphamide is administered.

[0291] Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered by any route, including intravenous injection (IV). In some embodiments, fludarabine is administered by IV within the following time: about 10 minutes, about 15 minutes, about 20 minutes, about 25 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 35 minutes, about 40 minutes, about 45 minutes, about 50 minutes, about 55 minutes, about 60 minutes, about 90 minutes, about 120 minutes. In some embodiments, cyclophosphamide is administered by IV within the following time: about 30 minutes, about 35 minutes, about 40 minutes, about 45 minutes, about 50 minutes, about 55 minutes, about 60 minutes, about 90 minutes, about 120 minutes. In some embodiments, the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered by IV within the following time: about 10 minutes, about 15 minutes, about 20 minutes, about 25 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 35 minutes, about 40 minutes, about 45 minutes, about 50 minutes, about 55 minutes, about 60 minutes, about 90 minutes, about 120 minutes.

[0292] In some embodiments, T cell therapy is administered to a patient while fludarabine and cyclophosphamide, or fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and albumin-bound paclitaxel are administered. In some embodiments, the T cell therapy includes adoptive cell therapy or immune effector cell therapy. In some embodiments, adoptive cell therapy or immune effector cell therapy is selected from tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) immunotherapy, autologous cell therapy, engineered autologous cell therapy (eACT), or allogeneic T cell transplantation. In some embodiments, eACT comprises the administration of engineered antigen-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T) positive T cells. In some embodiments, eACT comprises the administration of engineered antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR) positive T cells. In some embodiments, engineered T cells treat tumors in a patient.

[0293] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at not higher than about 500, 490, 480, 470, 460, 450, 440, 430, 420, 410, 400, 390, 380, 370, 360, 350, 340, 330, 320, 310, 300, 290, 280, 270, 260, 250, 240, 230, 220, 210, 200, 190, 180, 170, 160, 150, 140, 130, 120, 110, 100, 90, 85, 70, 65, 60, 55, 50, 49, 48, 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 39, 38, 37, 36, 35, 34, 33, 32, 31, 30, 29, 28, 27, 26, 25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 mg/m2/day; and/or administering cyclophosphamide at not higher than about 1000, 950, 900, 850, 800, 750, 700, 690, 680, 670, 660, 650 , 640, 630, 620, 610, 600, 595, 590, 585, 580, 579, 578, 576, 575, 574, 573, 572, 571, 570, 569, 568, 567, 566, 565, 564, 563, 562, 561, 560, 559, 558, 557, 556, 555, 554, 553, 552, 551, 550, 549, 548, 547, 546, 545, 544, 543, 542, 541, 540, 539, 538, 537, 536, 535, 534, 533, 532, 531, 530, 529, 528, 527, 526, 525, 524, 523, 522, 521, 520, 519, 518, 517, 516, 515, 514, 513, 512, 511, 510, 509, 508, 507, 506, 505, 504, 503, 502, 501, 500, 490, 480, 470, 460, 450, 440, 430, 420, 410, 400, 390, 380, 370, 360, 350, 340, 330, 320, 310, 300, 290, 280, 270, 260, 250, 240, 230, 220, 210, 200, 190, 180, 170, 160, 150, 140, 130, 120, 110, 100, 90, 80, 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20 or 10 mg/m2/day; and/or administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at not higher than about 500, 450, 400, 350 , 300 , 290, 280, 270, 265, 260, 255, 250, 245, 240, 235, 230, 225, 220, 215, 210, 205, 200, 195, 190, 185, 180, 175, 170, 165, 160 , 155, 150, 145, 140, 135, 130, 125, 120, 115, 110, 105, 100, 99, 98, 97, 96, 95, 94, 93, 92, 91, 90, 89, 88, 87 , 86, 85, 84, 83, 82, 81, 80, 79, 78, 77, 76, 75, 74, 73, 72, 71, 70, 69, 68, 67, 66, 65, 64, 63, 62 , 61, 60, 59, 58, 57, 56, 55, 54, 53, 52, 51, 49, 48, 47, 46, 45, 44, 43, 42, 41, 40, 35, 30, 25, 20 , 15, 10, 5 or 1 mg/m2/day.

[0294] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 10 mg/m2/day to 50 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 300 to 700 mg/m2/day.

[0295] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 10 mg/m2/day to 50 mg/m2/day, and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 300 to 700 mg/m2/day, and administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, 100 mg/m2/day, not higher than 80 mg/day m2/day or not higher than 70 mg/m2/day.

[0296] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 15 mg/m2/day to 40 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 400 to 650 mg/m2/day.

[0297] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 15 mg/m2/day to 40 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 400 to 650 mg/m2/day, and administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, 100 mg/m2/day, not higher than 80 mg/m2/day or not more than 70 mg/m2/day.

[0298] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 15 mg/m2/day to 30 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day.

[0299] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 15 mg/m2/day to 30 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day, and administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, 100 mg/m2/day, not higher than 80 mg/m2/day or not higher than 70 mg/m2/day.

[0300] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day to 30 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day.

[0301] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day to 30 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day, and administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, 100 mg/m2/day, not higher than 80 mg/m2/day or not higher than 70 mg/m2/day.

[0302] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day to 25 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day.

[0303] In some embodiments, the pretreatment includes administering fludarabine at a dose of about 15 mg/m2/day to 25 mg/m2/day and administering cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 450 to 600, 450 to 550, or 490 to 550 mg/m2/day, and administering albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, 100 mg/m2/day, not higher than 80mg/m2/day or not higher than 70 mg/m2/day.

[0304] In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day of and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on days -6, -5, -4, and -3, and cyclophosphamide is administered on days -6 and -5. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 514 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on days -7, -6, -5, and -4, and cyclophosphamide is administered on days -7 and -6. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 514 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on days -5 and -4, and cyclophosphamide is administered on days -5, -4, and -2. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day of and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 514 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on -6, and -5 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered on -6, -5, -4, and -3 days. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 510 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on -6, and -5 days, and cyclophosphamide is administered on -6, -5, -4, and -3 days. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -5, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 540 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, and -4. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, and -4. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, -4, and -3. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day and cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -12, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -12, -11 and -10. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day and albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose of about 100 mg/m2/day, in which fludarabine is administered on day -5, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -5, -4, and -3, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -4. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 540 mg/m2/day and albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose of about 71 mg/m2/day, wherein fludarabine is administered on day -6, and cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, and -4, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -5. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day and albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose of about 71 mg/m2/day, wherein fludarabine is administered on day -12, cyclophosphamide is administered on day -12, -11, and -10, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -11. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 500 mg/m2/day and albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose of about 100 mg/m2/day, wherein fludarabine is administered on day -6, cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, and -4, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -5. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering fludarabine to a patient at a dose of about 20 mg/m2/day, cyclophosphamide at a dose of about 507 mg/m2/day and albumin-bound paclitaxel at a dose of about 68 mg/m2/day, wherein fludarabine is administered on day -6, cyclophosphamide is administered on day -6, -5, -4, and -3, and albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -5. In some embodiments, the present invention includes a pretreatment method before administering immune effector cells infusion, the method comprising administering albumin-bound paclitaxel to a patient at a dose of about 137 mg/m2/day, wherein albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered on day -4.

[0305] Various other interventions can be included in the methods described herein. For example, cyclophosphamide and fludarabine may cause adverse events in a patient after administration. In the scope of the present invention, the administration of the composition to the patient is included to reduce some of these adverse events. In certain embodiments, the method comprises administering physiological saline to a patient. The physiological saline may be administered to a patient before or after cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine, or before and after cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine is administered. In some embodiments, the physiological saline normal saline is administered to a patient before cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine is administered, and after cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine is administered on each day of infusion. In addition, adjuvants and excipients can also be administered to a patient, such as Mesna (sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate). In addition, exogenous cytokines can also be administered to a patient.

[0306] In some embodiments, the pretreatment is administered before the infusion of the first dose or subsequent dose(s) so as to improve the results of the treatment. For example, in some aspects, the pretreatment improves the therapeutic efficacy resulted from the first dose or subsequent dose(s), or increases the persistence of chimeric antigen receptor-expressing immune effector cells (e.g., CAR-expressing immune effector cells, such as CAR-expressing T cell) in a patient. In some embodiments, the pretreatment increases the stable period of disease.

[0307] Once the immune effector cells are administered to a subject (e.g., a human), in some aspects, biological activities of the engineered immune effector cell population can be measured by any of variety of known methods. The parameters used for evaluation include: specific binding of engineered or natural T cells or other immune cells to an antigen, in vivo (for example, by imaging) or ex vivo (for example, by ELISA or flow cytometry). In some embodiments, the ability of engineered immune effector cells to destroy target cells can be tested by any suitable method known in the art, such as the cytotoxicity assay described in the following literature, for example, Kochenderfer et al., J. Immunotherapy, 32 (7): 689-702 (2009) and Herman et al. J. Immunological Methods, 285 (1): 25-40 (2004). In some embodiments, biological activities of immune effector cells can also be measured by measuring the expression and/or secretion of certain cytokines, such as CD107a, IFNγ, IL-2 and TNF. In some aspects, the biological activity is assessed by clinical outcomes, such as tumor burden or reduction in burden. In some aspects, the reduction of tumor markers is assessed. In some aspects, the cells are assessed for their toxicity outcome, persistence and/or proliferation, and/or the presence of a host immune response.

Administration



[0308] In the present invention, the administration time and size of multiple doses of immune effector cells are generally designed to reduce risk or minimize toxic effects and/or improve efficacy, for example, by providing the subject with increased exposure to immune effector cells over time. The method involves administering the first dose within a specific time frame between different doses, usually before one or more subsequent doses.

[0309] In the case of immune effector cell therapy, the administration of a given "dose" includes the administration of a given amount or number of immune effector cells as a single composition and/or a single uninterrupted administration, such as a single injection or continuous infusion, and also includes the administration of a given amount or number of immune effector cells as multiple separate compositions or infusions, in divided doses within a specific period of time not exceeding 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, or 2 days. Therefore, the first dose or subsequent doses are single or continuous administrations of a specified number of immune effector cells administered or started at a single time point. However, in some cases, the first dose or subsequent dose(s) is administered as multiple injections or infusions over a period of time not exceeding 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 days, for example, once a day for three or two days, or multiple infusions within one day. In some aspects, the first dose of immune effector cells is administered as a single pharmaceutical composition. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose(s) of immune effector cells is administered as a single pharmaceutical composition. In some embodiments, the first dose of immune effector cells is administered in multiple compositions that collectively contain the first dose of immune effector cells. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose(s) of immune effector cells is administered in multiple compositions that collectively contain the subsequent dose(s) of immune effector cells. In some aspects, an additional subsequent dose(s) can be administered in multiple compositions over a period of time not exceeding 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 days.

[0310] The term "divided dose" refers to an administration mode in which a part of a single dose is administered in divided doses, so that the single dose is administered to a subject over a period of more than one day. In some embodiments, the first dose and/or each subsequent dose can be administered in two or more divided doses. For example, in some embodiments, the dose can be administered to a subject within 3 days, 5 days, 14 days, or 15 days (the dose is the total dose of the first dose or the total dose of subsequent dose(s)). An exemplary method of divided administration includes administering a divided dose, which is 50% of the total dose, on day 0 (in each round, the day when of CAR T cell therapy is administered to a patient is designated as day 0), and administering a divided dose, which is 50% of the total dose, on day 2. In other embodiments, 10% of the total dose may be administered on day 0, 30% of the total dose on day 2, and 60% of the total dose on day 4. In some embodiments, a divided dose, which is 10% of the total dose, is administered on day 0, a divided dose, which is 30% of the total dose, is administered on day 1, and a divided dose, which is 60% of the total dose, on day 2. In some embodiments, a divided dose, which is 1/3 of the total dose, is administered on day 0, a divided dose, which is 1/3 of the total dose, is administered on day 11, and a divided dose, which is 1/3 of the total dose, is administered on day 14. In some embodiments, a divided dose, which is 46% of the total dose, is administered on day 0, a divided dose, which is 18% of the total dose, is administered on day 1, and a divided dose, which is 36% of the total dose, is administered on day 2. In some embodiments, a divided dose, which is 25% of the total dose, is administered on day 0, a divided dose, which is 25% of the total dose, is administered on day 2, a divided dose, which is 25% of the total dose, is administered on day 9, and a divided dose, which is 25% of the total dose, is administered on day 13. In some embodiments, the total period of time for a single dose to be administered in divided doses not extend beyond 15 days.

[0311] As used herein, "the first dose" is used to describe a total dose administered in the first course of treatment performed with the method described herein. This dose is equal to the total dose administered in the course of treatment during a single course of treatment, or the total dose administered in the first course of treatment during multiple courses of treatment. The term does not necessarily mean that the subject has never received immune effector cell therapy before receiving treatment with the method described herein, or the subject has not previously received a dose of the same immune effector cells expressing the same chimeric antigen receptor or targeting the same antigen.

[0312] With respect to the first dose, the term "subsequent dose" refers to a single dose administered in each course of treatment or the total dose in each course of treatment during the multiple courses of treatment after the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, the method includes the administration of multiple courses, that is, administration of one or more subsequent doses, wherein the first subsequent dose is also called the second course dose, and the second subsequent dose is also called the third course dose, and so on. And, in the series of doses, the previous dose is the dose immediately preceding the subsequent dose. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered using a similar time and manner of administration to the first dose. In some embodiments, the interval between the first dose and the first subsequent dose or the dose of the second course of treatment and the interval between multiple subsequent doses may be the same or different, as described in detail above.

The amount or size of the dose



[0313] The dosage of the first dose and/or one or more subsequent doses is usually designed to provide improved efficacy and/or reduced risk of toxicity. In some embodiments, the number of immune effector cells in the first dose or in a single subsequent dose is higher, lower than or equal to about 1 × 106 cells/kg of subject's body weight to about 3 × 107 cells/kg of subject's body weight, for example, higher than, lower than or equal to about 1 × 105, 1.5 × 105, 2 × 105, 2.5 × 105, 3 × 105, 3.5 × 105, 4 × 105, 4.5 × 105, 5 × 105, 5.5 × 105, 6 × 105, 6.5 ×105, 7 × 105, 7.5 × 105, 8 × 105, 8.5 × 1051, 9 × 105, 9.5 × 105, 1 × 106, 1.5 × 106, 2 × 106, 2.5 × 106, 3 × 106, 3.5 × 106, 4 × 106, 4.5 × 106, 5 × 106, 5.5 × 106, 6 × 106, 6.5 × 106, 7 × 106, 7.5 × 106, 8 × 106, 8.5 × 106, 9 × 106, 9.5 × 106, 1 × 107, 1.5 × 107, 2 × 107, 2.5 × 107, 3 × 107, 3.5 × 107, 4 × 107, 4.5 × 107, 5 × 107, 6 × 107, 6.5 × 107, 7 × 107, 7.5 × 107, 8 × 107, 8.5 × 107, 9 × 107, 9.5 × 107, 1 × 108, 1.5 × 108, 2 × 108, 2.5 × 108, 3 × 108, 3.5 × 108, 4 × 108, 4.5 × 108, 5 × 108, 5.5 × 108, 6 × 108, 6.5 × 108, 7 × 108, 7.5 × 108, 8 × 108, 8.5 × 108, 9 × 108, 9.5 × 108, 1 × 109, 1.5 × 109, 2 × 109, 2.5 × 109, 3 × 109, 3.5 × 109, 4 × 109, 4.5 × 109, 5 × 109, 5.5 × 109, 6 × 109, 6.5 × 109, 7 × 109, 7.5 × 109, 8 × 109, 8.5 × 109, 9 × 109, 9.5 × 109, 1 × 1010, 1.5 × 1010, 2 × 1010, 2.5 × 1010, 3 × 1010, 3.5 × 1010, 4 × 1010, 4.5 × 1010, 5 × 1010, 5.5 × 1010, 6 × 1010, 6.5 × 1010, 7 × 1010, 7.5 × 1010, 8 × 1010, 8.5 × 1010, 9 × 1010, 9.5 × 1010, 1 × 1011 cells/kg of subject's body weight.

[0314] In a specific embodiment, the number and/or concentration of immune effector cells refers to the number of immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (for example, CAR). In other embodiments, the number and/or concentration of immune effector cells refers to the number or concentration of all administered cells, T cells, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

[0315] In some embodiments, the number of immune effector cells, chimeric antigen receptor (for example, CAR)-expressing cells, T cells, or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the first dose is greater than about 1 × 106 cells/kg of subject's body weight, such as about or at least about 1 × 106, 1.1 × 106, 2 × 106, 2.9 × 106, 3 × 106, 3.3 × 106, 5 × 106, 1 × 107, 1.3 × 107, 1.6 × 107, 2.6 × 107, 2.8 × 107, 3x107 , 5 × 107, 2.5 × 108, 1 × 109, 1 × 1010, 5 × 1010 cells/kg of body weight, or a range between any two of the foregoing values.

[0316] In some embodiments, the number of immune effector cells administered in a subsequent dose(s) is the same as or similar to or greater than the number of immune effector cells administered in the first dose in any of the embodiments herein, such as equal to or about 1 × 106, equal to or about 1 × 107, equal to or about 1.3 × 107, equal to or about 1.6 × 107, equal to or about 1.9 × 107, equal to or about 2 × 107, equal to or about 2.2 × 107, equal to or about 3.7 × 107, equal to or about 5 × 107, or equal to or about 5.1 × 107, or equal to or about 1 × 108, or equal to or about 2.5 × 108, or equal to or about 1 × 109, or equal to or about 1 × 1010, or equal to or about 5 × 1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight, or a value in a range between any two of the above values.

[0317] Regarding the number of immune effector cells, in some embodiments, these values refer to the number of chimeric antigen receptor-expressing (for example, CAR-expressing) cells; in other embodiments, they refer to the number of administered T cells or PBMC or total cells.

[0318] In some aspects, the subsequent dose is greater than or equal to or less than the first dose. For example, in some embodiments, the subsequent dose contains more than about 1 x 106 cells, chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR)-expressing cells, T cells, and/or PBMC / kg of subject's body weight, such as about or at least about 1 × 106, 1 × 107, 13 × 107, 1.6 × 107, 1.9 × 107, 2 × 107, 2.2 × 107, 3.7 × 107, 5 × 107, 5.1 × 107, 1 × 108, 2.5 × 108, 1 × 109, 1 × 1010, 5 × 1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight, or a value in a range between any two of the above values, with end-points being included.

[0319] In some embodiments, the amount or size of the subsequent dose is sufficient to reduce tumor burden or indicators thereof, and/or one or more symptoms of a disease or disorder. In some embodiments, the dose is effective to improve the survival of a subject, for example, improve the survival of a subject, for example, to induce survival, recurrence-free survival, or event-free survival of the subject for at least 1 month or at least 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 years.

[0320] In some embodiments, the tumor burden, including tumor size, tumor volume, and/or tumor mass, is reduced by at least equal to or about 1%, 2%, 3% 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60 %, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or more after the subsequent dose is administered, compared with that before the first dose or subsequent dose is administered.

[0321] In other embodiments, the number of immune effector cells administered in the subsequent dose is lower than the number of immune effector cells administered in the first dose.

[0322] In some aspects, the size of the first and/or subsequent dose is determined based on one or more criteria, such as the subject's response to prior treatments, such as chemotherapy, the subject's tumor burden, such as tumor volume, size, or degree, or type, stage of metastasis and/or common complications of advanced cancer, such as cancerous pleural effusion and/or the likelihood or incidence of toxic results in the subject, such as CRS, macrophage activation syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, neurotoxicity and/or host immune response against the administered cells and/or chimeric antigen receptor.

[0323] Based on the teachings of the present invention, a skilled person should understand that the dose specifically disclosed in the present invention is a safe and effective dose obtained by the inventors through research. A skilled person, such as a clinician, can determine the specific first dose according to various actual conditions, such as the patient's tumor burden and the patient's own physical condition; if a further subsequent dose is required, a skilled person can determine the subsequent dose based on, for example, the change in tumor burden after the immune effector cells are administered.

[0324] A skilled person should also understand that the immune effector cells of the present invention, such as CLD18A2-CAR-T cells, can be used in combination with other CAR-Ts. For example, a patient's tumor can express several tumor antigens, then the patient can receive CAR-T cells targeting other tumor antigens in an early stage, and then receive the CLD18A2-CAR-T cell therapy of the present invention; the patient can also receive other CLD18A2-CAR-T cell therapy different from the present invention in an early stage, and in the case of poor antibody specificity or murine rejection, the CLD18A2-CAR-T cell therapy of the present invention is used. Therefore, under the above circumstances, a skilled person, such as a clinician, can determine the number of administrations and dosage of CLD18A2-CAR-T cells of the present invention according to the previous treatment. For example, the safe and effective doses and the number of administrations disclosed herein, that is, not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or a total amount of not more than about 1x1012 cells; preferably, not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or a total amount of not more than about 2x1011 cells; more preferably, not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of the subject's body weight, or 5x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight, or 3x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight, or a total amount of not more than 5x109 or about 1x1010 cells, can be taken into consideration.

[0325] In some aspects, the size of the first dose and/or subsequent dose is determined by the burden of the disease or disorder in a subject. For example, in some aspects, the number of immune effector cells administered in the first dose is determined based on the tumor burden present in the subject before the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, the size of the first dose and/or subsequent dose is inversely proportional to the tumor burden.

[0326] In some aspects, the number of immune effector cells to be administered in the subsequent dose is determined based on the tumor burden that is present in a subject before the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, if the first dose results in a reduction or decrease in tumor burden, or the tumor burden lower than a certain threshold amount or level (for example, higher than which indicates an increased risk of toxic results), the subsequent dose is increased, for example, more than about 1x107 cells (e.g., total cells, receptor-expressing cells, T cells, or PBMC)/kg of body weight, for example, more than about 2.0x107, 2.5x107, 3.0x107, 5.0x107, 1.0x108, 2.5x108 cells/kg, and/or higher than the first dose.

[0327] In some cases, even if the subject's tumor burden does not decrease after receiving the first dose, the subsequent dose can be increased, for example, more than about 1 × 107 cells (e.g., total cells, receptor-expressing cells, T cells or PBMC)/kg of body weight, such as more than about 2.0x107, 2.5x107, 3.0x107, 5.0x107, 1x108, 2.5x108 cells/kg, and/or more than the first dose.

[0328] T cells (such as CAR T cells) can be administered by any route (including intravenous injection (IV)). In some embodiments, IV is used to administer CAR T cells within the following period of time: about 3 minutes, about 4 minutes, about 5 minutes, about 6 minutes, about 7 minutes, about 8 minutes, about 9 minutes, about 10 minutes, about 11 minutes, about 12 minutes, about 13 minutes, about 14 minutes, about 15 minutes, about 16 minutes, about 17 minutes, about 18 minutes, about 19 minutes, about 20 minutes, about 21 minutes, about 22 minutes, about 23 minutes , About 24 minutes, about 25 minutes, about 26 minutes, about 27 minutes, about 28 minutes, about 29 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 40 minutes, about 50 minutes, about 60 minutes.

[0329] In some embodiments, the first dose includes immune effector cells in an amount that does not cause or reduce the likelihood of toxicity or toxic results, such as cytokine release syndrome (CRS), severe CRS (sCRS), macrophage activation syndrome, Tumor lysis syndrome, fever of at least 38°C or about 38°C Celsius that lasts for three or more days, CRP plasma levels at least equal to about 20 mg/dL, and/or neurotoxicity. In some aspects, the number of cells administered in the first dose is determined based on the likelihood that the subject will show toxicity or toxic results (e.g., CRS, sCRS, and/or CRS related results) after the cells are administered. For example, in some embodiments, the likelihood of developing a toxic outcome in a subject is predicted based on tumor burden. In some embodiments, the method includes detecting or evaluating toxicity results and/or tumor burden before administering the dose.

[0330] In some embodiments, a subject is administered a subsequent dose, when the serum level of the biochemical indicators or other indicators of toxicity results, for example, the CRS indicator does not increase above a given level, such as an acceptable level, for example, higher than or equal to or about 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75, or 100 times the serum level of the indicator before the first dose is administered, or has increased above the acceptable level, but has been reduced to an acceptable level or below after the first dose is administered. In some aspects, if the indicator drops below the acceptable level in 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 , 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, or 40 days after the first dose is administered, the subsequent dose will be administered, but if the level of the indicator does not drop below the acceptable level within this period of time, the subsequent dose will not be administered.

[0331] In some embodiments, if the clinical risk of cytokine release syndrome (CRS), macrophage activation syndrome or tumor lysis syndrome or neurotoxicity does not exist or has passed or has regressed after the first dose is administered, the subsequent dose is administered, for example, after a critical window where such an event has generally regressed and/or is unlikely to occur, for example in about 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% or 95% of subjects with a particular disease or disorder.

[0332] In some embodiments, whether to administer the subsequent dose, when to administer the subsequent dose, and/or the number of cells administered in the subsequent dose can be determined according to the presence or degree of the immune response or detectable immune response in a subject against the cells in the first dose or the chimeric antigen receptor expressed by the cells. In some aspects, the subsequent dose containing cells expressing receptors expressed by the cells in the first dose won't be administered to a subject who has a detectable host adaptive immune response or has established or achieved a certain level, stage, or degree of immune response.

Administration time



[0333] In some embodiments, the time for administering the subsequent dose starts from the completion of the first dose (the day, when the infusion of the total dose of the first dose is completed, is set as day 0).

[0334] In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered, when the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in a subject does not exceed about 10, 25, 50, or 100 times the serum level of the indicator in the subject before the first dose is administered.

[0335] In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered when the results related to CRS (for example, serum factors related to CRS or indicative of CRS) or a clinical sign or symptom thereof such as fever, hypoxia, hypotension, or neurological disorders in a subject reach the peak level, and begin to decrease after the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered when a decrease is observed compared with the highest level of such results after administration, or when a decrease is observed after the maximum value or level of results is reached after administration.

[0336] In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered, when the level of an indicator of toxicity results (e.g., a serum indicator of CRS) drops below about 25 times the level of the indicator before the first dose. In some aspects, the subsequent dose is administered when the subject does not exhibit CRS or severe CRS.

[0337] In some aspects, the subsequent dose is administered when the tumor burden in a patient decreases compared with the tumor burden before the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered, when the tumor burden or an indicator thereof, such as the volume or number or percentage of a disease (e.g., tumor) cells in a subject's blood, other body fluids, organs or tissues , or tumor size is reduced by about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or more after the first dose is administered.

[0338] In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered when the subject's disease or condition does not relapse after a reduction in response to the first dose or the previous dose. In some embodiments, the reduction in tumor burden is indicated by a decrease in one or more factors, such as the expression level of tumor markers in the subject or the body fluids or organs or tissues thereof, the burden or number of tumor cells, the mass or volume of the tumor, the degree or extent of metastasis. In some embodiments, the recurrence is general or one or more factors, or in tumor burden. In some aspects, the subsequent dose is administered when the subject, disease burden, or factor thereof relapses compared with the lowest point measured or reached after the first or previous dose, but is still lower than those before the first dose. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered to a subject when the tumor burden or an indicator thereof is not changed, for example, when the tumor burden has been prevented from increasing.

[0339] In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered when the host's adaptive immune response has not been detected, has not yet been established, or has not reached a certain level, degree or stage. In some aspects, the subsequent dose is administered before the subject's memory immune response develops.

[0340] In some aspects, the time between administration of the first dose and administration of the subsequent dose is about 21 to about 80 days, about 25 to about 60 days, or 25 to 55 days. In some embodiments, the administration of the subsequent dose does not exceed about 25 days, 26 days, 27 days, 28 days, 29 days, 30 days, 31 days, 32 days, 33 days, 34 days, 35 days, 36 days, 37 days, 38 days, 39 days, 40 days, 41 days, 42 days, 43 days, 44 days, 45 days, 46 days, 47 days, 48 days, 49 days, 50 days, 51 days, 52 days , 53 days, 54 days, 55 days, 56 days, 57 days, 58, 59 days or 60 days after the first dose is administered. In some embodiments, the administration of the subsequent dose does not exceed about 44 days, 45 days, 46 days, 47 days, or 48 days after the first dose is administered.

[0341] In some embodiments, after the subsequent dose (i.e., the first subsequent dose, or named as the second course dose) is administered, an additional or further subsequent dose is administered, for example, the second subsequent dose (the third course dose), the third subsequent dose (the fourth course dose), and so on. In some aspects, the additional subsequent dose is administered at least about 21 days and less than about 80 days after the previous subsequent dose (e.g., the first subsequent dose) is administered. In some embodiments, an exemplary dosage regimen includes a schedule of when or approximately when the chimeric antigen receptor expressing cells (e.g., CAR-expressing cells, such as CAR T cells) are administered. In some embodiments, the additional dose (the second subsequent dose) is administered about 49 days after the first subsequent dose, and so on. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered not exceeding about 21 to about 80 days, about 25 to about 60 days, or 25 to 55 days after the adjacent preceding subsequent dose is administered. In some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered not exceeding about 25 days, 26 days, 27 days, 28 days, 29 days, 30 days, 31 days, 32 days, 33 days, 34 days, 35 days, 36 days, 37 days, 38 days, 39 days, 40 days, 41 days, 42 days, 43 days, 44 days, 45 days, 46 days, 47 days, 48 days, 49 days, 50 days, 51 days, 52 days, 53 days, 54 days, 55 days, 56 days, 57 days, 58 days, 59 days or 60 days after the adjacent preceding subsequent dose is administered.

[0342] In any embodiment, in some cases, the method includes administering a first dose or a preceding dose and subsequent dose, and in other cases, includes administering a subsequent dose to a subject who has previously received the first dose or preceding dose, but does not include the first dose or the previous dose itself. Therefore, in some cases, the method involves administering consolidation therapy, for example, by administering consolidation subsequent dose to a subject who has previously received a dose (e.g., reduced dose) of chimeric antigen receptor-expressing (e.g., CAR-expressing) cells. In some aspects, the previous dose of the receptor-expressing, such as CAR-expressing cells, is already sufficient to reduce the disease or disease burden in a subject, so that the efficacy and/or safety of the cells administered in the subsequent dose is improved compared with the dose administered to the subject given without receiving the first dose.

[0343] In some embodiments, after the subsequent dose, the tumor burden, including tumor markers, tumor size, tumor volume, and/or tumor mass, is reduced by at least equal to or about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or more, compared with that before the first dose or subsequent dose.

Host immune response against the reinfused cells



[0344] In some embodiments, one or more doses, such as subsequent doses, are administered, when the immune response (such as adaptive or specific immune response to transgenic receptors or cells)in a subject is absent, undetectable, or can not be dected above a certain level. The presence or extent of a specific immune response to a transgene is usually related to the immunogenicity of the recipient (e.g., CAR or transgenic TCR expressed by the cell) and/or the time the subject is exposed to the cell. For example, in some embodiments, no immune response to the receptor, such as specific humoral and/or cell-mediated immune response is detected within 28 days, 35 days, or 42 days after the subject is firstly exposed to the receptor-expressing cells,. Therefore, in some embodiments, the subsequent dose is administered before the subject has developed an immune response, an adaptive or specific immune response, a detectable immune response and/or a memory response against the chimeric antigen receptor or cell. In this regard, the ability of cells in the subsequent dose to proliferate and/or persist in a subject is improved compared with other methods in which the subsequent dose is administered at a later time point relatively to the previous or first dose. The method includes detecting the presence or level of such an immune response or an indicator thereof, for example, after the first or subsequent dose is administered and before the subsequent or next subsequent dose is administered.

[0345] In some embodiments, when and/or whether to administer a subsequent dose depends on whether the subject exhibits such an immune response or a detectable reading, such as a detectable specific or adaptive host immune response for a cell or a chimeric antigen receptor, such as CAR expressed by the cells in the first dose, and/or whether such a response is detected at a certain level. In some embodiments, where such a response is detected, no subsequent dose is administered to the subject. When the subject does not exhibit a specific or adaptive (e.g., humoral or cell-mediated) immune response to the receptor (e.g., CAR expressed by the cells in the first dose), or does not exhibit a response or an indicator thereof, which is at a detectable level or higher that an acceptable level, the subsequent dose is adminstered. In some aspects, when the subsequent dose is administered, the subject exhibits a reduced humoral or cell-mediated immune response to the CAR expressed by the cells in the first dose compared with the higher initial dose.

[0346] In any of the above embodiments, a detectable immune response refers to an amount which can be detected by any one of many known methods for evaluating specific immune responses to specific antigens and cells. For example, in some embodiments, ELISPOT, ELISA, or cell-based antibody detection methods (eg, by flow cytometry) are performed on the subject's serum to detect the presence of antibodies specifically binding to and/or neutralizin antigens on cells, such as binding to epitopes on chimeric antigen receptors, such as CAR, to detect specific types of immune responses. In some such assays, the isotype of the antibody detected is determined and can indicate the type of response and/or whether the response is a memory response.

[0347] In some aspects, for example, after the first dose or subsequent dose is administered, the presence or absence of such host immune response and/or quantity, degree thereof is detected or measured.

[0348] In some embodiments, this method reduces the burden of diseases or disorders to a greater extent, such as the number of tumor cells, the size of the tumor, a longer duration of patient survival or event-free survival, and period of time, compared with the observed reduction obtained by methods using alternative dosing regimens, for example, where the subject receives a single dose (e.g., a single large dose of cells), for example, uniformly replacing a single dose with the total number of cells given in the first dose and subsequent dose by the provided method, or administering multiple boluses or multiple doses separated by less than about 21 or more than about 80 days. In some aspects, the subject's survival, survival within a certain period of time, survival range, the presence or duration of event-free or asymptomatic survival, or recurrence-free survival are assessed.

[0349] In some aspects, the disease burden is measured or detected before the first dose is administered, after the first dose is administered but before the subsequent dose is administered, and/or after the subsequent dose is administered. In the case of multiple subsequent doses, in some embodiments, the disease burden can be measured before or after any subsequent dose or between the administration of subsequent doses.

[0350] In some embodiments, after the first dose is administered, the burden is reduced by at least or about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15% , 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or 100%. In some aspects, administration of subsequent doses will further reduce disease burden, tumor burden, for example, compared with the burden before the subsequent dose is administered or before the first dose, the burden reduction is equal to or about 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% , 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65 %, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90% or 100%.

[0351] In some embodiments, this method improves the event-free survival rate or overall survival rate of a subject compared with other methods. For example, in some embodiments, the progression-free event survival rate or probability of a subject treated by this method 1 month after the first dose is greater than about 10%, greater than about 20%, greater than about 30%, greater than about 40%, greater than about 50%, greater than about 60%, greater than about 70%, greater than about 80%, greater than about 90%, or greater than about 95%. In some aspects, the overall survival rate is greater than about 10%, greater than about 20%, greater than about 30%, greater than about 40%, greater than about 50%, greater than about 60%, greater than about 70%, greater than about 80%, greater than about 90% % or greater than about 95%. In some embodiments, the subject treated by the method exhibits progression-free survival, recurrence-free survival, or survival for at least about 1 month, or at least about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 months, or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 years. In some embodiments, the time of is improved, for example, greater than or about 1 month, or at least about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 months, or 1, 2, 3 , 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 years of progress.

[0352] In some embodiments, the probability of recurrence is reduced by this treatment method compared with other methods. For example, in some embodiments, the probability of recurrence or progression 1 month after the first dose is less than about 80%, less than about 70%, less than about 60%, less than about 50%, less than about 40%, less than about 30%, less than About 20%, less than about 10%, less than about 9%, less than about 8%, less than about 7%, less than about 6%.

Cell exposure and persistence



[0353] In some embodiments, the dosage and/or duration is designed to promote exposure of a subject to the cells, for example by increasing cell proliferation and/or persistence over time.

[0354] In some embodiments, the provided methods increase the subject's exposure to the administered cells (e.g., increase in the number or duration of cells over time) and/or improve the efficacy and treatment outcome in immune cell therapy. In some aspects, the advantage of this method is that, compared with other methods, the exposure of chimeric antigen receptor-expressing cells (such as CAR-expressing cells) to a greater degree and/or longer improves the treatment outcome. These results can include patient survival and remission, even in individuals with severe tumor burden.

[0355] In some embodiments, the presence and/or amount of cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (e.g., CAR-expressing cells) in a subject after the first dose and/or subsequent doses are detected. In some aspects, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is used to assess the amount of cells (e.g., CAR-T) expressing chimeric antigen receptors in the subject's blood or serum or organs or tissues (e.g., disease sites). In some aspects, persistence is quantified as a copy of DNA or plasmid encoding a receptor, such as CAR per microgram of DNA, or as the number of cells expressing receptor, such as CAR per microliter of sample, such as blood or serum, or the total number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or white blood cells or T cells per microliter sample.

[0356] In some embodiments, after the first dose is administered or at least on the day 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 , 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30, cells were detected in the subject. In some aspects, cells were detected at or at least 2, 4, or 6 weeks or 3, 6 or 12, 18 or 24, or 30 or 36 months, or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or more years after the first or subsequent dose is administered,.

[0357] In some embodiments, alternative methods, such as methods involving administering a single dose, for example, methods that contain more cells than the first dose, the total dose of cells is administered as a single dose, a subsequent dose of cells is administered to a subject who have not received the first dose, and/or a subsequent dose is administered at a time outside the designated time window, for example, later than or after a prescribed time when the subject's immune response to the receptor (e.g., CAR) appears.

[0358] The maximum number of cells exposed to the subject, the duration of detectable cells higher than a specific number or percentage, the area under the cell number curve over time and/or a combination thereof and its indicators can be used to indicate, for example, indicating cell number, proliferation and/or continuous contact. Compared with the total amount of nucleic acid or DNA in a specific sample, such as blood or serum, known methods such as qPCR can be used to evaluate such results to detect the copy number of the nucleic acid encoding the chimeric antigen receptor, and/or flow cytometry assays that usually use antibodies specific for the receptor to detect cells expressing the receptor. Cell-based assays can also be used to detect the number or percentage of functional cells, such as those capable of binding and/or neutralizing and/or inducing responses to diseases or disorders or cells expressing antigens recognized by the receptor (e.g, cytotoxic response).

[0359] In some aspects, the increased exposure of a subject to cells includes increased cell proliferation. In some embodiments, the receptor- (e.g., CAR-) expressing cells proliferate in the subject after the first dose is given and/or the subsequent doses are given. In some aspects, compared with other methods, such as those involving administering cells in a single dose, giving a larger first dose, giving subsequent doses without giving the first dose, and/or giving subsequent doses before or after a specified time window or time point, so as to for example, generate an immune response before the subsequent doses are administered, this method results in a greater cell proliferation.

[0360] In some aspects, the method results in a high in vivo proliferation of the administered cells, as measured by, for example flow cytometry. In some aspects, a peak proportion of cells is detected. For example, in some embodiments, after the first or subsequent dose is administered, at least about 10%, at least about 20%, at least about 30%, at least about 40%, at least about 50%, at least about 60%, at least about 70%, at least about 80%, or at least about 90% of cells express chimeric antigen receptors, for example, CAR, when a peak or maximum level in the subject's blood or disease site or white blood cell fraction thereof (e.g, PBMC fraction or T cell fraction).

[0361] In some embodiments, the method results in at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 5000, 10000, or 15000 copies or maximum concentration of nucleic acid encoding the receptor, per microgram of DNA, or at least 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, or 0.9 of the total number of receptor-expressing, such as CAR-expressing cells/peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), the total number of monocytes, the total number of T cells or the total number of microliters in the blood or serum or other body fluids or organs or tissues of the subject. In some embodiments, the receptor-expressing cells are detected as at least 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, or 60% of the total PBMC in the blood of the subject, and/or maintain at this level after the first administration or subsequent administration for at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 24, 36, 48, or 52 weeks, or after such administration for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 years or more.

[0362] In some aspects, the method results in, for example, an at least 2-fold, at least 4-fold, at least 10-fold, or at least 20-fold increase in copies of a nucleic acid encoding a chimeric antigen receptor, such as a CAR, per microgram of DNA in the serum of the subject.

[0363] In some embodiments, the receptor-expressing cells can be detected in the blood or serum of a subject, for example, by a designated method, such as qPCR or flow cytometry-based detection methods, and maintain at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 , 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59 or 60 or more days after the first dose or subsequent dose is administered, or at least or about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24 or more weeks after the first dose or subsequent dose is administered.

[0364] In some aspects, at least about 1 × 102, at least about 1 × 103, at least about 1 × 104, at least about 1 × 105, at least about 1 × 106 or at least about 5 × 106 or at least about 1 × 107 or at least about 5 × 107 or at least about 1 × 108 or at least about 2.5 × 108 chimeric antigen receptor-expressing, such as CAR-expressing cells, and/or at least 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500, or 1000 receptor expression-cells per microliter, such as at least 10 per microliter, can be detected or present in the subject or its fluid, tissues or compartments, such as in the blood, such as peripheral blood or its diseased location. In some embodiments, after the first dose or subsequent dose is administered, the number or concentration of cells is detectable in the subject for at least about 1 day, at least about 2 days, at least about 3 days, at least about 4 days, or at least About 5 days, at least about 6 days, at least about 7 days, at least about 8 days, at least about 9 days, at least about 10 days, at least about 11 days, at least about 12 days, at least about 13 days, at least about 14 days, at least About 15 days, at least about 16 days, at least about 17 days, at least about 18 days, at least about 19 days, at least about 20 days, at least about 40 days, or at least about 60 days, or at least about 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 months, or at least 2 or 3 years. Such cell number can be detected by a method based on flow cytometry or quantitative PCR, and extrapolated to the total cell number using known methods.

[0365] In some aspects, the number of copies of the nucleic acid encoding the chimeric antigen receptor, such as the number of vector copies per 100 cells, for example, in peripheral blood or bone marrow or other chambers can be measured by immunohistochemistry, PCR and/or flow cytometry as at least 0.01, at least 0.1, at least 1, or at least 10, when the cells are administered, for example after the first dose or subsequent dose is administered, about 1 week, about 2 weeks, about 3 weeks, about 4 weeks, about 5 weeks, or at least about 6 weeks, or at least about 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 months, or at least 2 or 3 years. In some embodiments, the number of copies of the vector expressing the receptor, for example, the CAR per microgram of genomic DNA, is at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, at least 1,000, at least 5,000, or at least 10,000, or at least 15,000, or at least 20,000, at about 1 week, about 2 weeks, about 3 weeks or at least about 4 weeks after the first dose or subsequent dose of cells expressing the receptor, for example CAR, are administered, or at least 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 months, or at least 2 or 3 years after such administration.

[0366] In some aspects, receptors expressed by cells, such as CARs, can be detected in the subject, their blood and/or their diseased sites by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or by flow cytometry after the cells are administered, for example, at least about 3 days, at least about 6 days, at least about 10 days, at least about 15 days, at least about 20 days, at least about 30 days, at least about 40 days, at least about 50 days, at least about 60 days, at least about 80 days, 3 months, at least about 6 months, at least about 12 months, at least about 1 year, at least about 2 years, at least about 3 years, or more than 3 years after the the first dose or subsequent dose or sub-subsequent dose is administered.

Chimeric antigen receptor expressed by cells



[0367] Cells usually express chimeric antigen receptors, including antigen receptors, such as functional non-TCR antigen receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) and other antigen-binding receptors such as transgenic T cell receptors (TCR), T cells Fusion protein (TFP) and T cell antigen coupler (TAC).

[0368] Exemplary antigen receptors, including CARs, and methods for engineering and introducing receptors into cells, include, for example, Chinese Patent Application Publication Nos. CN107058354A, CN107460201A, CN105194661A, CN105315375A, CN105713881A, CN106146666A, CN106519037A, CN106554414A, CN105331585A , CN106397593A, CN106467573A, those described in International Patent Application Publication Nos. WO2018006882A1, WO2015172339A8.

[0369] The chimeric receptor includes a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Chimeric receptors, such as CARs, usually include an extracellular antigen binding domain, such as a part of an antibody molecule, usually the variable heavy (VH) chain region and/or variable light (VL) chain region of an antibody, for example, scFv antibody Fragment. In some embodiments, the chimeric receptor can recognize the splice variant 1 of claudin 18 (Claudin 18, CLD18) (CLD18A1, CLD18.1) (accession numbers NP_057453, NM016369) or variants thereof, for example comprising the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 34, or an amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 34, and can recognize splice variant 2 (CLD18A2, CLD18.2) (registration number NM_001002026, NP_001002026) or variants thereof, for example comprising the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 33, or an amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 33. In some embodiments, the chimeric receptor specifically recognizes CLD18A2, but not CLD18A1.

[0370] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising the HCDR or LCDR amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 1 or 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7.

[0371] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising the HCDR or LCDR amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13.

[0372] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising the HCDR or LCDR amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13.

[0373] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising the HCDR or LCDR amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 or 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 14 or 15 or 16 or 17 or 18 or 19.

[0374] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising an amino acid sequence of heavy or light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 20 or 21 or 22 or 23.

[0375] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes scFv antibody fragments, for example, comprising an amino acid sequence of heavy or light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20 or 21 or 22 or 23 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 20 or 21 or 22 or 23.

[0376] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR), for example, comprises an amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24 or 25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29 or 30 or 31 or 32 or a variant thereof, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 24 or 25 or 26 or 27 or 28 or 29 or 30 or 31 or 32.

[0377] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) further includes a linking sequence, which may be or include at least a portion of an immunoglobulin constant region or a variant or modified form thereof, such as a hinge region, such as IgG4 hinge region and/or CH1/CL and/or Fc region. In some embodiments, the constant region or portion is of human IgG, such as IgG4 or IgG1. In some aspects, the portion of the constant region serve as the linking sequence between antigen-recognition portion, for example, scFv, and the transmembrane domain. The linking sequence may have a length that increases cell response after binding to antigen, compared with the situation in the absence of the linking sequence. In some examples, the linking sequence is 12 or about 12 amino acids in length or not more than 12 amino acids in length. Exemplary linking sequences include those having the following lengths: at least about 10-229 amino acids, about 10-200 amino acids, about 10-175 amino acids, about 10-150 amino acids, about 10-125 amino acids, about 10 -100 amino acids, about 10-75 amino acids, about 10-50 amino acids, about 10-40 amino acids, about 10-30 amino acids, about 10-20 amino acids, or about 10-15 amino acids, including an integer between any endpoints of the above listed range. In some embodiments, the linker region has about 12 amino acids or shorter, about 119 amino acids or shorter, or about 229 amino acids or shorter. Exemplary linking sequences include IgG4 hinges alone, IgG4 hinges binding to CH2 and CH3 domains, or IgG4 hinges binding to CH3 domains.

[0378] The antigen recognition domain is generally connected to one or more intracellular signal transduction moieties, for example, in the case of CAR, a signal transduction moiety mimicking the activation through the antigen receptor complex (such as TCR complex), and/or signal through another cell surface receptor. Therefore, in some embodiments, the antigen binding component (e.g., antibody) is linked to one or more transmembrane and intracellular signal transduction domains. In some embodiments, the transmembrane domain is fused to the extracellular domain. In one embodiment, the transmembrane domain of one of the domains in the naturally associated receptor (e.g., CAR) is used. In some cases, the transmembrane domain is selected or modified by amino acid substitutions to prevent the domain from binding to the transmembrane domain of the same or different surface membrane protein, so that the interaction with other members of the receptor complex is minimized.

[0379] In some embodiments, the transmembrane domain is derived from natural or synthetic sources. When the source is a natural source, in some aspects, the domain is derived from any membrane-bound or transmembrane protein. The transmembrane region includes α, β or ζ chains derived from T-cell receptors, CD28, CD3ε, CD45, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD9, CD 16, CD22, CD33, CD37, CD64, CD80, CD86, CD 134, CD137, CD 154, and/or transmembrane regions include functional variants (e.g., those that substantially retain their structural parts (e.g., transmembrane structural parts), properties) (i.e., include at least their transmembrane regions). In some embodiments, the transmembrane domain is a transmembrane domain derived from CD4, CD28, or CD8, for example, CD8α or a functional variant thereof. Alternatively, in some embodiments, the transmembrane domain is synthetic. In some aspects, the synthetic transmembrane domain mainly contains hydrophobic residues such as leucine and valine. In some aspects, trimers of phenylalanine, tryptophan and valine will appear at each end of the synthetic transmembrane domain. In some embodiments, the connection occurs through linkers, spacers, and/or transmembrane domains.

[0380] The intracellular signal transduction domains include those that mimic or approximate signals through natural antigen receptors, signals through such receptors in combination with co-stimulatory receptors, and/or signals through individual co-stimulatory receptors. In some embodiments, there is a short oligopeptide or polypeptide linker, for example, a linker of 2-10 amino acids in length, for example, a linker containing glycine and serine, for example, a glycine-serine doublet, and forming a connection between the cytoplasm signal transduction domain and the transmembrane domain of a CAR.

[0381] The receptor, for example, CAR, generally includes at least one of one or more intracellular signal transduction moieties. In some embodiments, the receptor includes the intracellular component of the TCR complex, such as the TCRCD3+ chain that mediates T-cell activation and cytotoxicity, for example, the CD3ζ chain. Therefore, in some aspects, the antigen binding moiety is connected to one or more cell signal transduction modules. In some embodiments, the cell signal transduction module includes a CD3 transmembrane domain, a CD3 intracellular signal transduction domain, and/or other CD transmembrane domains. In some embodiments, the receptor, for example, CAR, also includes portions of one or more other molecules, such as Fc receptor γ, CD8, CD4, CD25, or CD16. For example, in some aspects, CAR or other chimeric receptors include chimeric molecules between CD3ζ (CD3-ζ) or Fc receptor γ and CD8, CD4, CD25, or CD16.

[0382] In some embodiments, when the CAR or other chimeric receptor is bound, the cytoplasmic domain or intracellular signal transduction domain of the receptor activates at least one of the normal effector function or response of immune cells, such as T cells which are engineered to express a CAR. For example, in some cases, CAR induces T cell functions, such as cytolytic activity or helper T cell activity, such as secretion of cytokines or other factors. In some embodiments, an antigen receptor portion or a truncated portion of the intracellular signal transduction domain of a costimulatory molecule is used to replace the complete immunostimulatory chain, for example, if it transduces effector function signals. In some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction domain includes the cytoplasmic sequence of the T cell receptor (TCR), and in some aspects, it also includes those co-receptors that exist in nature in concert with these receptors, so that the signal transduction is initiated after antigen receptor engagement.

[0383] In the case of natural TCR, complete activation generally requires not only signal transduction through TCR, but also costimulatory signals. Therefore, in some embodiments, in order to promote complete activation, components used to generate a second or costimulatory signal are also included in the CAR. In other embodiments, the CAR does not include components used to generate costimulatory signals. In some aspects, other CARs are expressed in the same cell and provide components for generating a second or costimulatory signal.

[0384] In some aspects, T cell activation is mediated by two types of cytoplasmic signal transduction sequences: those that initiate antigen-dependent first activation via TCR (the first cytoplasmic signal transduction sequence), and those that acts in an antigen-independent manner to provide a second or costimulatory signal (second cytoplasmic signal transduction sequence). In some aspects, the CAR includes one or both of such signal transduction components.

[0385] In some embodiments, the antibody portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) also includes a signal peptide, such as a signal peptide including CD8 or a variant thereof, for example, including the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 35, or an amino acid sequences having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more of sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 35.

[0386] In some aspects, the CAR includes a major cytoplasmic signal transduction sequence that regulates the initial activation of the TCR complex. The first cytoplasmic signal transduction sequence that acts in a stimulating manner may contain a signal transduction motif, which is known as an immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motif or ITAM. Examples of ITAM include first cytoplasmic signal transduction sequences, which include those derived from: TCRζ, FcRy, FcRβ, CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ε, CDS, CD22, CD79a, CD79b, and CD66d. In some embodiments, the cytoplasmic signal transduction molecule in the CAR comprises a cytoplasmic signal transduction domain, part of which is derived from a sequence of CD3ζ.

[0387] In some embodiments, the CAR includes the transmembrane portion of a costimulatory receptor and/or signal transduction domain, such as CD28, CD137, OX40, DAP10, and ICOS. In some aspects, the same CAR includes both activation and costimulatory components.

[0388] In some embodiments, the activation domain is included in one CAR, and the costimulatory component is provided by another CAR that recognizes another antigen. In some embodiments, the CAR includes an activating or stimulating CAR and co-stimulating CAR, all of which are expressed on the same cell (see WO2014/055668). In some aspects, the cell includes one or more stimulating or activating CAR and/or costimulating CAR. In some embodiments, the cell also includes an inhibitory CAR (iCAR, see Fedorov et al., Sci. Transl. Medicine, 5 (215) (December 2013)), for example, a CAR recognizing antigens in addition to disease or disorder related and/or specific antigen, thereby reducing or inhibiting the activation signal delivered by the disease-targeted CAR by the binding of the inhibitory CAR to its ligand, for example, to reduce off-target effects.

[0389] In some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction portion of the chimeric antigen receptor, such as a CAR, comprises a CD3ζ intracellular domain and a costimulatory signal transduction region. In certain embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction domain comprises a CD28 transmembrane and signal transduction domain, which is connected to the CD3 (e.g., CD3-ζ) intracellular domain. In some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction domain comprises a chimeric CD28 and/or CD137 (4-1BB, TNFRSF9) costimulatory domain, which is linked to the CD3ζ intracellular domain.

[0390] In some embodiments, the CAR encompasses one or more, for example, two or more, costimulatory domains and activation domains, for example, the initial activation domain in the cytoplasmic portion. Exemplary CARs include the intracellular portions of CD3-ζ, CD28, and CD137.

[0391] In some cases, CARs are referred to as the first, second and/or third generation of CARs. In some aspects, the first-generation of CAR is a CAR that only provides CD3 chain induction signals upon binding to an antigen; in some aspects, the second-generation of CAR is a CAR that provides such signals and co-stimulatory signals, for example, a CAR including the intracellular signal transduction domain derived from co-stimulatory receptors (for example, CD28 or CD137); in some aspects, the third-generation of CAR is a CAR that includes multiple costimulatory domains of multiple costimulatory receptors.

[0392] In some embodiments, the chimeric antigen receptor includes an extracellular portion containing an antibody or antibody fragment. In some aspects, the chimeric antigen receptor includes an extracellular portion containing an antibody or fragment and an intracellular signal transduction domain. In some embodiments, the antibody or a fragment thereof includes scFv, and the intracellular domain includes ITAM. In some aspects, the intracellular signal transduction domain includes the signal transduction domain of the ζ chain of the CD3-ζ chain. In some embodiments, the chimeric antigen receptor includes a transmembrane domain that connects the extracellular domain and the intracellular signal transduction domain. In some aspects, the transmembrane domain comprises the transmembrane portion of CD28. In some embodiments, the chimeric antigen receptor contains the intracellular domain of a T cell costimulatory molecule. The extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain can be directly or indirectly connected. In some embodiments, the extracellular domain and transmembrane is connected through a linking sequence. In some embodiments, the receptor comprises the extracellular portion of the molecule from which the transmembrane domain is derived, such as CD28 extracellular portion. In some embodiments, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an intracellular domain derived from a T cell costimulatory molecule or a functional variant thereof, for example, between the transmembrane domain and intracellular signal transduction domain. In some aspects, the T cell costimulatory molecule is CD28 or 41BB. For example, in some embodiments, the CAR contains an antibody, such as an antibody fragment, is or contains the transmembrane portion of CD28 or the transmembrane domain of a functional variant thereof, and contains the signal transduction portion of CD28 or internal signal transduction domain of a functional variant thereof, and the signal transduction portion of CD3ζ or a functional variant thereof. In some embodiments, the CAR contains an antibody, such as an antibody fragment, which contains or comprises the transmembrane portion of CD28 or the transmembrane domain of a functional variant thereof, and contains the signal transduction portion of CD137 or internal signal transduction domain of a functional variant thereof, and the signal transduction portion of CD3ζ or a functional variant thereof. In some such embodiments, the receptor further includes a linking sequence that includes a portion of an Ig molecule (e.g., a human Ig molecule), such as an Ig hinge, such as an IgG4 hinge, such as only the hinge linking sequence. In some embodiments, the chimeric antigen receptor has: (i) an antibody specifically recognizing a tumor antigen, the transmembrane region of CD28 or CD8, costimulatory signal domain of CD28, and CD3ζ; or (ii) an antibody specifically recognizing a tumor antigen, the transmembrane region of CD28 or CD8, the costimulatory signal domain of CD137, and CD3ζ; or (iii) an antibody specifically recognizing a tumor antigen, the transmembrane region of CD28 or CD8, and the costimulatory signal of CD28, the costimulatory signal domain of CD137 and CD3ζ.

[0393] In some embodiments, the transmembrane domain of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) is or includes the transmembrane domain of human CD28 (for example, accession number P01747.1) or the transmembrane domain of a variant thereof, such as the transmembrane domain comprising the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 39, or comprising the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with the amino acid sequences as shown in SEQ ID NO: 39.

[0394] In some embodiments, the transmembrane domain of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) is or includes the transmembrane domain of human CD8 or a variant thereof, such as the transmembrane domain comprising the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 45, or comprising the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with the amino acid sequences as shown in SEQ ID NO: 45.

[0395] In some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction portion of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) includes the intracellular costimulatory signal transduction domain of human CD28 or a functional variant or portion thereof. For example, the intracellular signal transduction portion comprises the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 41, or the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with the amino acid sequences as shown in SEQ ID NO: 41.

[0396] In some embodiments, the intracellular domain comprises the intracellular costimulatory signal transduction domain of CD137 (e.g., Accession No. Q07011 .1) or a functional variant or portion thereof, such as the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 47, or the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more amino acid sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 47.

[0397] In some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction domain of the chimeric antigen receptor (e.g., CAR) comprises a human CD3ζ stimulation signal transduction domain or a functional variant thereof. For example, in some embodiments, the intracellular signal transduction domain comprises the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 43 or the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 43.

[0398] In some aspects, the chimeric antigen receptor comprises a hinge, such as a CD8 hinge. For example, in some embodiments, the CD8 hinge comprises the amino acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 37 or the amino acid sequence having at least 85%, 86%, 87%, 88%, 89%, 90%, 91%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or higher sequence identity with SEQ ID NO: 37.

[0399] For example, in some embodiments, the CAR includes antibodies, such as antibody fragments, including scFv, linking sequences, such as linking sequences containing a portion of an immunoglobulin molecule, such as a hinge region and/or one or more heavy chain constant regions, for example, a linking sequence containing an Ig-hinge, a transmembrane domain containing all or part of a CD28-derived transmembrane domain, a CD28-derived intracellular signal domain and a CD3ζ signal transduction domain. In some embodiments, the CAR includes antibodies or fragments, such as scFv, linking sequences, such as any linking sequence containing Ig-hinge, CD28-derived transmembrane domain, CD137-derived intracellular signal transduction domain and CD3ζ-derived signal transduction domain.

[0400] The terms "polypeptide" and "protein" are used interchangeably to refer to a polymer of amino acid residues and are not limited to a minimum length. Polypeptides including provided receptors and other polypeptides (e.g., linkers or peptides) can include amino acid residues, including natural and/or unnatural amino acid residues. The term also includes post-expression modifications of the polypeptide, such as glycosylation, sialylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. In some aspects, the polypeptide may include modifications to the original or native sequence, as long as the protein retains the desired activity. These modifications may be intentional, such as by site-directed mutagenesis or may be accidental, such as by mutation of the host producing the protein or errors caused by PCR amplification.

[0401] In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering an adoptive cell or immune effector cell to a subject. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering to the subject two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells directed against the same tumor antigen in different courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering to the subject two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells directed against different tumor antigens in different courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells to the same epitope of the same tumor antigen to the subject in different courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells to different epitopes of the same tumor antigen to the subject in different courses of treatment. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells to the subject in different courses of treatment to treat tumors at the same site. In some embodiments, the methods described herein include administering two or more adoptive cells or immune effector cells to the subject in different courses of treatment to treat tumors at different locations. In some embodiments, at least one of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells used in the methods described herein is a CAR-T cell targeting CLD18A2. In some embodiments, at least one of the adoptive cells or immune effector cells used in the methods described herein is the CAR-T cells targeting CLD18A2 described herein.

[0402] Chimeric antigen receptors (e.g., CAR) expressed by cells administered to a subject in various doses generally recognize or specifically bind to a molecule which is expressed by the treated disease or condition or cell, relevant to the disease or condition or cell and/or specific for the disease or condition or cell. When specifically binding a molecule such as an antigen, the receptor usually delivers an immunostimulatory signal (such as an ITAM-transduced signal) to the cell, thereby promoting an immune response targeting to a disease or disorder. For example, in some embodiments, the cells in the first dose express a CAR that specifically binds to an antigen expressed by the cells or tissues of the disease or disorder or an antigen associated with the disease or disorder.

[0403] The receptor expressed by the cell in the subsequent dose (e.g., CAR) usually specifically binds to the same antigen as the CAR in the first dose, and is usually the same or extremely similar receptor as the receptor of the cells of the first dose. In some embodiments, the receptors on the cells in the subsequent dose are the same as the receptors on the cells in the first dose or are substantially identical to the receptors.

[0404] In some embodiments, the CAR expressed by the cells in the subsequent dose contains the same scFv, the same signal transduction domain and/or the same linkage as the CAR expressed by the cells in the first dose. In some embodiments, it also contains the same co-stimulatory, stimulatory, transmembrane and/or other domains as the first dose. In some embodiments, one or more components of the CAR in the subsequent dose are different from those of the CAR in the first dose.

Immune effector cells



[0405] In the present invention, the cells expressing the chimeric receptor and provided by the methods described herein are immune effector cells. The cells are generally eukaryotic cells, such as mammalian cells, and usually human cells. In some embodiments, the cells are derived from blood, bone marrow, lymph, or lymphoid organs, and are cells of the immune system, such as cells of innate or adaptive immunity, for example, bone marrow or lymphoid cells, including lymphocytes, generally T cells and / or NK cells. Other exemplary cells include stem cells, such as multipotent and pluripotent stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). The cells are generally primary cells, such as those cells isolated directly from the subject and/or isolated and frozen from the subject. In some embodiments, the cells include one or more subgroups of T cells or other cell types, such as whole T cell populations, CD4+ cells, CD8+ cells and subgroups thereof, such as those defined by function, activation state, maturation, differentiation potential, expansion, recycling, localization, and/or persistence, antigen specificity, antigen receptor type, presence in a specific organ or compartment, marker or cytokine secretion profile, and/or degree of differentiation. Regarding the subject to be treated, the cells may be allogeneic and/or autologous. Methods include exisiting methods. In some aspects, for the existing technologies, the cells are pluripotent and/or multipotent, such as stem cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). In some embodiments, the method includes isolating cells from the subject, preparing, processing, culturing, and/or engineering the same, and reintroducing them into the same patient before or after cryopreservation.

[0406] The subtypes and subgroups of T cells and/or CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells include: naive T (TN) cells, effector T cells (TEFF), memory T cells and their subtypes, such as stem cell memory T (TSCM), Central memory T (TCM), effector memory T (TEM), or terminally differentiated effector memory T cells, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immature T cells, mature T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxicity T cells, mucosal-associated non-variant T (MAIT) cells, naturally occurring and adoptive regulatory T (Treg) cells, helper T cells, such as TH1 cells, TH2 cells, TH3 cells, TH17 cells, TH9 cells, TH22 cells, follicular helper T cells, α/β T cells, and δ/γ T cells.

[0407] In some embodiments, the cell is a natural killer (NK) cell. In some embodiments, the cells are monocytes or granulocytes, for example, bone marrow cells, macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, mast cells, eosinophils, and/or basophils granulocyte.

[0408] In some embodiments, the cell includes one or more nucleic acids introduced by genetic engineering, thereby expressing a recombinant or genetically engineered product of the nucleic acid. In some embodiments, the nucleic acid is heterologous, that is, it is not normally present in a cell or a sample obtained from the cell, such as a sample obtained from another organism or cell, that is not normally found in the engineering cells and/or organisms from which such cells are derived. In some embodiments, the nucleic acid is not naturally occurring, for example, the nucleic acid is not found in nature, including chimeric combinations comprising nucleic acids encoding various domains from multiple different cell types.

Methods and vectors for genetic engineering



[0409] The invention also provides methods, compositions and kits for producing genetically engineered cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors. The genetic engineering generally involves introducing the nucleic acid encoding the recombinant or engineered part into a cell, for example, by retroviral transduction, transfection, or transformation.

[0410] In some embodiments, gene transfer is performed: firstly, a cell is stimulated, for example, by combining it with a stimulus that induces a response, such as proliferation, survival, and/or activation, for example, detected by the expression of cytokine or activation markers, and then the activated cell is transduced and expanded in culture to a sufficient number for clinical application.

[0411] In some cases, overexpression of stimulating factors (e.g., lymphokines or cytokines) may be toxic to the subject. Therefore, in some cases, engineered cells include, for example, gene segments that make the cells susceptible to negative selection in vivo after administration in immune effect therapy. For example, in some aspects, the cells are engineered so that they can be eliminated due to changes in the in vivo condition of the subject to which they are administered. The negatively selectable phenotype can be produced by applying genes that provide sensitivity to administered agents (e.g., compounds). Genes that can be negatively selected include: herpes simplex virus type I thymidine kinase (HSV-I TK) gene (Wigler et al., Cell 11:223, 1977), which provides sensitivity to ganciclovir; cellular hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl Transferase (HPRT) gene, cellular adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) gene, bacterial cytosine deaminase (Mullen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89: 33 (1992)).

[0412] In some aspects, the cells are also engineered to promote the expression of cytokines or other factors. Various methods for introducing genetically engineered components, for example, antigen receptors (e.g., CARs) are well known, and the methods and compositions provided herein can be used. Exemplary methods include those used to transfer the nucleic acid encoding the receptor, including via virus, for example, retrovirus or lentivirus, transduction, transposon, and electroporation.

[0413] In some embodiments, recombinant infectious virus particles are used to transfer recombinant nucleic acid into cells, for example, vectors derived from simian virus 40 (SV40), adenovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV). In some embodiments, recombinant lentiviral vectors or retroviral vectors, such as γ-retroviral vectors, are used to transfer recombinant nucleic acids into T cells (see, for example, Koste et al., (2014) Gene Therapy April 3, 2014 . doi:10.1038/gt.2014.25; Carlens et al., (2000) Exp Hematol 28(10): 1137-46; Alonso-Camino et al., (2013) Mol Ther Nucl Acids 2, e93; Park et al., Trends Biotechnol. 2011 November; 29 (11): 550-557).

[0414] In some embodiments, the retroviral vector has a long terminal repeat (LTR), for example, retroviral vector derived from Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (MPSV), murine embryonic stem cell virus (MESV)), murine stem cell virus (MSCV), spleen foci forming virus (SFFV) or adeno-associated virus (AAV). Most retroviral vectors are derived from murine retroviruses. In some embodiments, the retroviruses include those derived from any avian or mammalian cell source. Retroviruses are usually amphiphilic, which means that they can infect host cells of several species, including humans. Lentiviral transduction methods are known. Exemplary methods are described in, for example, Wang et al., (2012) J. Immunother. 35(9): 689-701; Cooper et al., (2003) Blood. 101: 1637-1644; Verhoeyen et al., (2009) Methods Mol Biol 506:97-114; and Cavalieri et al. (2003) Blood. 102(2): 497-505.

[0415] In some embodiments, the recombinant nucleic acid is transferred into T cells by electroporation (see, e.g., Chicaybam et al., (2013) PLoS ONE 8(3): e60298 and Van Tedeloo et al., (2000) Gene Therapy 7(16): 1431 -1437). In some embodiments, the recombinant nucleic acid is transferred into T cells by translocation (see, for example, Manuri et al., (2010) Hum Gene Ther 21(4): 427-437; Sharma et al., (2013) Molec Ther Nucl Acids 2, e74; and Huang et al., (2009) Methods Mol Biol 506: 115-126). Other methods for introducing and expressing genetic material in immune cells include calcium phosphate transfection (e.g., described in "Current Protocols in Molecular Biology", John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY), protoplast fusion, cationic liposome-mediated transfection; particle bombardment promoted by tungsten particles (Johnston, Nature, 346: 776-777 (1990)); and strontium phosphate DNA co-precipitation (Brash et al., Mol. Cell Biol., 7: 2031-2034 (1987)).

[0416] Other methods and vectors for transferring nucleic acids encoding recombinant products are those described in, for example, WO2014055668 and US Patent No. 7,446,190.

[0417] Other nucleic acids (such as genes) used for introduction include those used to improve the efficacy of treatment, such as by promoting the viability and/or function of transferred cells; genes used to provide genetic markers for selection and/or evaluation of cells, such as assessing survival or localization in vivo; genes to improve safety, for example, by making cells susceptible to negative selection in vivo, such as Lupton S.D. et al., Mol. and Cell Biol., 11: 6 (1991); and Riddell Et al., Human Gene Therapy 3: 319-338 (1992); see also Lupton's publication numbers PCT/US91/08442 and PCT/US94/05601, etc., which describe applications of dominant positive selectable markers and negative selectable markers, bifunctional selectable fusion genes derived from the fusion of markers. See, for example, Riddell et al., U.S. Patent No. 6,040,177, columns 14-17.

Preparation of immune effector cells



[0418] In some embodiments, the preparation of engineered cells includes one or more culture and/or one or more preparation steps. Cells used to introduce nucleic acid encoding a transgenic receptor (e.g., CAR) can be isolated from a sample (e.g., a biological sample, such as a sample obtained or derived from a subject). In some embodiments, the subject from which the cells are isolated is a subject suffering from a certain disease or condition or in need of cell therapy or to be given cell therapy. In some embodiments, the subject is a person in need of specific therapeutic intervention, for example, a person in need of adoptive cell therapy or effector cell therapy, and the cells used for the therapy are isolated, processed, and/or engineered. In some embodiments, the cell is a primary cell, for example, a primary human cell. The sample includes tissues, body fluids and other samples taken directly from the subject, as well as obtained from one or more processing steps, such as separation, centrifugation, genetic engineering (such as transduction with viral vectors), washing and/or Incubate the sample. The biological sample may be a sample obtained directly from a biological source or a processed sample. Biological samples include, but are not limited to, body fluids such as blood, plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, urine and sweat, tissue and organ samples, including processed samples derived from them.

[0419] In some aspects, the sample from which the cells are derived or isolated is a blood or blood-derived sample or is or is derived from apheresis or leukopenia products. Exemplary samples include whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus, tissue biopsy, tumor, leukemia, lymphoma, lymph nodes, intestinal-associated lymphoid tissue, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue, spleen, other lymphoid tissues, liver, lung, stomach, intestine, colon, kidney, pancreas, breast, bone, prostate, cervix, testis, ovary, tonsil or other organs, and/or cells derived therefrom. In the case of cell therapy (e.g., adoptive cell therapy or immune effector cell therapy), samples include samples from autologous and allogeneic sources.

[0420] In some embodiments, the cell is derived from a cell line, for example, a T cell line. In some embodiments, the cells are obtained from xenogeneic sources, for example, from mice, rats, non-human primates, and pigs.

[0421] In some embodiments, the separation of cells includes one or more preparation and/or non-affinity-based cell separation steps. In some instances, the cells are washed, centrifuged, and/or incubated in the presence of one or more substances, for example, to remove unwanted components, enrich required components, lyse or remove cells sensitive to specific substances. In some instances, cells are separated based on one or more properties, such as density, adhesion properties, size, sensitivity and/or resistance to specific components. In some examples, cells from the circulating blood of the subject are obtained, for example, by apheresis or leukopenia. In some aspects, the sample includes lymphocytes, including T cells, monocytes, granulocytes, B cells, other nucleated blood leukocytes, red blood cells, and/or platelets, and, in some aspects, cells different from red blood cells and platelets.

[0422] In some embodiments, the blood cells collected from the subject are washed, for example, to remove the plasma fraction, and the cells are placed in a suitable buffer or medium for subsequent processing steps. In some embodiments, the cells are washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In some embodiments, the cleaning solution lacks calcium and/or magnesium and/or many or all divalent cations. In some aspects, the washing step is performed by a semi-automated "flow-through" centrifugation method (eg, COBE 2991 cell processor, BaXter) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In some aspects, the cleaning step is accomplished by intangential flow filtration (TFF) according to the manufacturer's instructions. In some embodiments, after washing, the cells are resuspended in a variety of biocompatible buffers, for example, Ca++/Mg++-free PBS. In some embodiments, blood cell sample components are removed and the cells are directly resuspended in the culture medium.

[0423] In some embodiments, the method includes a density-based cell separation method, for example, by lysing red blood cells or not lysing red blood cells and centrifuging the peripheral blood by Percoll or Ficoll gradient or single sampling or leukocyte ablation sample preparation to obtain a single peripheral blood Nuclear cells (PBMC).

[0424] In some embodiments, the separation method includes separating different cell types based on the expression or presence of one or more specific molecules in the cell, such as surface markers, for example, surface proteins, intracellular markers or nucleic acids. In some embodiments, any known method of separation based on such markers can be used. In some embodiments, the separation is based on affinity or based on immunoaffinity. For example, in some aspects, the separation includes separating cells and cell populations based on the expression or expression levels of one or more markers (usually cell surface markers) of the cells, for example, by incubating with an antibody or binding partner specifically binding to such markers, usually followed by a washing step, and separating cells binding to the antibody or binding partner from those cells not binding to the antibody or binding partner.

[0425] Such separation steps may be based on positive selection, where cells binding to the agent are retained for further use, and/or, negative selection, where cells not binding to the antibody or binding partner are retained. In some instances, both parts are reserved for further applications. In some aspects, negative selection may be particularly useful when there are no antibodies that can be used to specifically identify cell types in a heterogeneous population, so that separation is performed based on markers expressed by cells different from the desired population.

[0426] It is not necessary for the separation to result in 100% enrichment or removal of specific cell populations or cells expressing specific markers. For example, the positive selection or enrichment of specific types of cells, such as those expressing markers, refers to increasing the number or percentage of said cells, but does not need to result in the complete absence of cells that do not express the marker. Likewise, the negative selection, removal or consumption of specific types of cells, such as those expressing markers, refers to reducing the number or percentage of said cells, but need not result in the complete removal of all such cells.

[0427] In some instances, multiple rounds of separation steps are performed, where the positive or negative selection from one step is subjected to another separation step, such as subsequent positive or negative selection. In some examples, a single isolation step simultaneously consumes cells expressing multiple markers, such as by incubating the cells with multiple antibodies or binding partners that are specific for the marker targeted by negative selection respectively. Likewise, multiple cell types can be positively selected simultaneously by incubating the cells with multiple antibodies or binding partners to antigens expressed on various cell types.

[0428] For example, in some aspects, a specific subset of T cells, such as one or more surface marker positive cells or cells expressing high levels of one or more surface markers, for example, CD3+, CD28+, CD62L+, CCR7+ , CD27+, CD127+, CD4+, CD8+, CD45RA+ and/or CD45RO+ T cells, is separated by positive or negative selection techniques.

[0429] For example, CD3+ and CD28+ T cells can be positively selected using CD3/CD28-connected magnetic beads (for example, DYNA bead M-450 CD3/CD28 T cell expander).

[0430] In some embodiments, separation is performed by enriching specific cell populations by positive selection or depleting specific cell populations by negative selection. In some embodiments, the positive or negative selection is accomplished by incubating the cells with one or more antibodies or other binding reagents that specifically bind to one or more surface markers, which are expressed on positively or negatively selected cells (marker +) or at relatively high levels (marker high).

[0431] In some embodiments, T cells are isolated from PBMC samples by negative selection of markers (e.g., CD14) expressed on non-T cells (eg, B cells, monocytes, or other blood leukocytes). In some aspects, a CD4+ or CD8+ selection step is used to isolate helper CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. By positively or negatively selecting markers expressed on one or more primary, memory and/or effector T cell subpopulations or at a relatively high degree, such CD4+ and CD8+ populations can be further sorted into subpopulations.

[0432] In some embodiments, CD8+ cells are further enriched or depleted against naive, central memory, effector memory, and/or central memory stem cells, for example, by positive or negative selection based on surface antigens associated with the corresponding subpopulation. In some embodiments, enrichment for central memory T (TCM) cells is performed to increase efficacy, for example, to improve long-term survival, expansion, and/or implantation after administration. In some aspects, it is particularly strong in such subpopulations. See Terakura et al. (2012) Blood. 1: 72-82; Wang et al. (2012) J Immunother. 35(9): 689-701. In some embodiments, TCM-enriched CD8+ T cells are combined with CD4+ T cells to further enhance efficacy.

[0433] In an embodiment, memory T cells are present in the CD62L+ and CD62L-subgroups of CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes. PBMC can be enriched or consumed against the CD62L-CD8+ and/or CD62L+CD8+ part, for example, using anti-CD8 and anti-CD62L antibodies.

[0434] In some embodiments, the enrichment for central memory T (TCM) cells is based on CD45RO, CD62L, CCR7, CD28, CD3, and/or CD127 positive or high surface expression; in some aspects, it is based on negative selection for cells expressing or highly expressing CD45RA and/or granzyme B. In some aspects, the isolation of the CD8+ population enriched for TCM cells is performed by consuming cells expressing CD4, CD14, CD45RA, and positive selecting or enriching cells expressing CD62L. On the one hand, the enrichment for central memory T (TCM) cells is performed by starting from the negative part of cells selected based on CD4 expression, negative selection based on the expression of CD14 and CD45RA, and positive selection based on CD62L. In some aspects, such selections are performed simultaneously, and in other aspects, such selections are performed sequentially in a certain order. In some aspects, the same CD4 expression-based selection step is used to prepare CD8+ cell populations or subpopulations, and is also used to generate CD4+ cell populations or subpopulations, thereby retaining the positive and negative portions from the CD4-based separation, and optionally used in the subsequent steps of the method, after one or more further positive or negative selection steps.

[0435] In a specific example, CD4+ cell selection is performed on PBMC samples or other blood leukocyte samples, wherein negative and positive parts are retained. Then, negative selection is performed on the negative part based on the expression of CD14 and CD45RA or CD19, and positive selection is performed based on central memory T cell characteristic markers, such as CD62L or CCR7, wherein the positive and negative selections are performed in a certain order.

[0436] By identifying cell populations with cell surface antigens, helper CD4+ T cells are sorted into primary, central memory and effector cells. CD4+ lymphocytes can be obtained by standard methods. In some embodiments, the naive CD4+ T lymphocytes are CD45RO-, CD45RA+, CD62L+, CD4+ T cells. In some embodiments, the central memory CD4+ cells are CD62L+ and CD45RO+. In some embodiments, the effector CD4+ cells are CD62L- and CD45RO-.

[0437] In one example, in order to enrich CD4+ cells by negative selection, the monoclonal antibody mixture usually includes antibodies against CD14, CD20, CD11b, CD16, HLA-DR, and CD8. In some embodiments, the antibody or binding partner is bound to a solid support or matrix, such as magnetic beads or paramagnetic beads, to allow separation of cells for positive and/or negative selection.

[0438] In some embodiments, the preparation method includes a freezing step, for example, freezing the cells before or after isolation, incubation, and/or engineering. In some embodiments, granulocytes are removed by the freezing and subsequent thawing steps, and, to some extent, monocytes are removed in the cell population. In some embodiments, for example, after a washing step to remove plasma and platelets, the cells are suspended in a freezing solution. In some aspects, any of a variety of known freezing solutions and parameters can be used. One example involves the use of PBS containing 20% DMSO and 8% human serum albumin (HAS) or other suitable cell freezing medium. Then, it is diluted at 1:1 with medium so that the final concentrations of DMSO and HSA are 10% and 4%, respectively. Then, the cells are generally frozen to -80°C or -90°C according to a predetermined procedure or principle, such as a rate of 1°/min, with a programmable cooling device, and stored in the vapor phase of a liquid nitrogen storage tank.

[0439] In some embodiments, the provided methods include cultivation, incubation, cultivation, and/or genetic engineering steps. For example, in some embodiments, methods are provided for incubating and/or engineering the depleted cell population and the culture starting composition.

[0440] In some embodiments, the cell population is incubated in the culture starting composition. Incubation and/or engineering can be performed in culture vessels, such as cells, chambers, wells, columns, tubes, tube sets, valves, vials, petri dishes, bags, or other containers used to culture or grow cells.

[0441] In some embodiments, the cells are incubated and/or cultured before or with genetic engineering. The incubation step may include culture, incubation, stimulation, activation, and/or propagation. In some embodiments, the cells or compositions are incubated in the presence of stimulating conditions or stimulating agents. Such conditions include those designed to induce cell proliferation, reproduction, activation, and/or survival in a population to mimic antigen contact, and/or trigger cells for genetic engineering, such as those used to introduce recombinant antigen receptors.

[0442] The conditions may include one or more of the following: specific medium, temperature, oxygen content, carbon dioxide content, time, reagents, such as nutrients, amino acids, antibiotics, ions, and/or stimulating factors, such as cytokines, chemokines, antigens, binding partners, fusion proteins, recombinant soluble receptors, and any other substances designed to maintain an activated cell state.

[0443] In some embodiments, the stimulating condition or agent includes one or more substances, for example, a ligand, which can activate the intracellular signal transduction domain of the TCR complex. In some aspects, the substance turns on or initiates the TCR/CD3 intracellular signal transduction cascade in T cells. Such substances may include antibodies, such as those specific for TCR components and/or costimulatory receptors, for example, anti-CD3, anti-CD28, for example, which are bound to a solid support, such as beads, and/or one or multiple cytokines. Optionally, the amplification method may further include the step of adding anti-CD3 and/or anti-CD28 antibodies to the culture medium (for example, at a concentration of at least about 0.5 ng/ml). In some embodiments, the stimulant includes 1L-2 and/or IL-15 and/or IL-7 and/or IL-21, for example, IL-2 at a concentration of at least about 10 units/mL.

[0444] In some aspects, the incubation is performed in accordance with some techniques, such as those described in US Patent No. 6,040,177 to Riddell et al., Klebanoff et al. (2012) J Immunother. 35(9): 651-660, Terakura et al., (2012) Blood. 1: 72- 82 and/or Wang et al. (2012) J Immunother. 35(9): 689-701.

[0445] In some embodiments, the T cell population is expanded by adding to the culture starting composition feeder cells, such as non-dividing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), (for example, for each T lymphocyte in the initial population to be expanded, the resulting cell population contains at least about 5, 10, 20, or 40 or more PBMC feeder cells); and incubating the culture (e.g., for a time sufficient to expand the number of T cells). In some aspects, the non-dividing feeder cells may include γ-ray irradiated PBMC feeder cells. In some embodiments, the PBMC is irradiated with γ ray in the range of about 3000-3600 rads to prevent cell division. In some aspects, the feeder cells are added to the culture medium before the population of T cells is added.

[0446] In some embodiments, the stimulation conditions include a temperature suitable for the growth of human T lymphocytes, for example, at least about 25 degrees Celsius, generally at least about 30 degrees Celsius, and generally at or about 37 degrees Celsius. Optionally, the incubation may also include the addition of non-dividing EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells (LCL) as feeder cells. LCL can be irradiated with γ ray in the range of about 6000-10000 rads. In some aspects, the LCL feeder cells are provided in any suitable amount, for example, the ratio of LCL feeder cells to naive T lymphocytes is at least about 10:1.

[0447] In a certain embodiment, antigen-specific T cells, such as antigen-specific CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells, are obtained by stimulating natural or antigen-specific T lymphocytes with an antigen. For example, antigen-specific T cell lines or clones can be generated against cytomegalovirus antigens by isolating T cells from an infected subject and stimulating the cells in vitro with the same antigen.

Composition and formulation



[0448] The invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions and formulations used in the methods of the invention. In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical compositions and formulations of the present invention include compositions of cells for administration, including pharmaceutical compositions and preparations, such as unit dosage form composition comprising the number of cells used for administration in a given dose or part thereof. The pharmaceutical compositions and formulations generally include one or more optional pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients. In some embodiments, the composition includes at least one other therapeutic agent.

[0449] The term "pharmaceutical formulation" refers to a formulation in a form that allows the biological activity of the active ingredient contained therein to be effective, and does not contain additional ingredients with unacceptable toxicity to the subject to which the formulation is to be administered.

[0450] "Pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" refers to an ingredient in a pharmaceutical formulation that is not an active ingredient and is not toxic to a subject. Pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include, but are not limited to, buffers, excipients, stabilizers or preservatives.

[0451] In some aspects, the selection of carrier is determined in part by the particular cell and/or method of administration. Therefore, there are many suitable formulations. For example, the pharmaceutical composition may include a preservative. Suitable preservatives may include, for example, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, sodium benzoate, and benzalkonium chloride. In some aspects, a mixture of two or more preservatives is used. The preservative or mixture thereof is usually present in an amount of from about 0.0001% to about 2% (based on the total weight of the composition). The carrier is described in, for example, "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences" (Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences), 16th edition, Osol, A. Ed. (1980). At the used dosage and concentration, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers are usually non-toxic to the recipient, including but not limited to: buffers such as phosphate, citrate and other organic acid buffers; antioxidants, including ascorbic acid and Methionine; preservatives (such as octadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; hexaalkyl quaternary ammonium chloride; benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride; phenol, butyl or benzyl alcohol; p-hydroxy Alkyl benzoate, such as methyl or propyl p-hydroxybenzoate; catechol; resorcinol; cyclohexanol; 3-pentanol; and m-cresol); polypeptides of low molecular weight (less than about 10 residues); protein, such as serum albumin, gelatin or immunoglobulin; hydrophilic polymer, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone; amino acid, such as glycine, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, arginine or lysine; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and other sugars, including glucose, mannose, or dextrin; chelating agents, such as EDTA; sugars, such as sucrose, mannitol, trehalose, or sorbitol; salt-forming counterions, such as sodium; metal complexes (such as Zn-protein complexes); and/or non-ionic surfactants, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG).

[0452] In some aspects, the composition includes a buffer. Suitable buffers include, for example, citric acid, sodium citrate, phosphoric acid, potassium phosphate, and various other acids and salts. In some aspects, a mixture of two or more buffers is used. The buffering agent or mixture thereof is usually present in an amount of about 0.001% to about 4% (based on the total weight of the composition). Methods for preparing administrable pharmaceutical compositions are known. Exemplary methods are described in detail in, for example, "Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy" (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins); 21st edition (May 1, 2005).

[0453] The formulation may comprise an aqueous solution. The formulation or composition may also contain more than one active ingredients, which can be used for the specific indication, disease or condition to be treated with the cell, preferably those with complementary activity to the cell, wherein the corresponding activity agents do not negatively affect each other. Such active ingredients are suitably present in combination in an amount effective for the desired purpose. Therefore, in some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition further comprises other pharmaceutically active substances or drugs, such as chemotherapeutics, for example, asparaginase, busulfan, carboplatin, cisplatin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, paclitaxel, rituximab, vinblastine, and/or vincristine.

[0454] In some embodiments, the pharmaceutical composition includes an amount effective to treat or prevent a disease or condition, such as a therapeutically effective or preventive effective amount of cells. In some embodiments, the efficacy of treatment or prophylaxis is monitored by regularly evaluating the treated subjects. The required dose can be delivered by administering the cells by a single bolus, by administering the cells by multiple boluses, or by administering the cells by continuous infusion.

[0455] In some embodiments, the composition comprises an amount of cells effective to reduce the burden of a disease or condition, and/or an amount that does not cause CRS or severe CRS in a subject and/or an amount that achieves any other results of the methods described herein.

[0456] The cells and compositions can be administered using standard administration techniques, formulations and/or devices. The administration of the cells can be autologous or heterologous. For example, immunosuppressive cells or progenitor cells can be obtained from one subject and administered to the same subject or different compatible subjects. Peripheral blood-derived immunosuppressive cells or progenies thereof (e.g., in vivo, ex vivo, or in vitro derived) can be administered by local injection, including catheter administration, systemic injection, local injection, intravenous injection, or parenteral administration. When a therapeutic composition (for example, a pharmaceutical composition containing genetically modified immunosuppressive cells) is administered, it is usually formulated in a unit-dose injectable form (solution, suspension, emulsion).

[0457] Formulations include those for oral, intravenous, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, pulmonary, transdermal, intramuscular, intranasal, mucosal, sublingual or suppository administration. In some embodiments, the cell population is administered parenterally. The term "parenteral" as used herein includes intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, rectal, vaginal and intraperitoneal administration. In some embodiments, the cells are administered to a subject by intravenous, intraperitoneal or subcutaneous injection using peripheral systemic delivery.

[0458] In some embodiments, the composition is provided in the form of a sterile liquid formulation, for example, an isotonic aqueous solution, suspension, emulsion, dispersion, or viscous composition, which in some aspects can be buffered to a selected pH. Liquid formulations are generally easily prepared, compared with gels, other viscous compositions, and solid compositions. In addition, liquid compositions are somewhat easier to be administered, especially by injection. In another aspect, the viscous composition can be formulated in a suitable viscosity range to provide a longer contact time with a specific tissue. The liquid or viscous composition may include a carrier, which may be a solvent or dispersion medium, which contains, for example, water, saline, phosphate buffered saline, polyhydroxy compounds (for example, glycerol, propylene glycol, liquid polyethylene glycol) and a suitable mixture thereof. Sterile injectable solutions can be prepared by incorporating the cells into a solvent, such as a suitable carrier, diluent, or excipient such as sterile water, physiological saline, glucose, dextrose, and the like. The composition may contain auxiliary substances such as wetting, dispersing, or emulsifying agents (for example, methyl cellulose), pH buffering agents, gelling or viscosity enhancing additives, preservatives, flavoring agents, and/or pigments, depending on the desired route of administration and preparation. In some aspects, textbooks can be consulted to prepare suitable preparations.

[0459] Various additives can be added to enhance the stability and sterility of the composition, including antimicrobial preservatives, antioxidants, chelating agents, and buffers. Various antibacterial and antifungal agents, such as parabens, chlorobutanol, phenol, and sorbic acid, can also be used to prevent microorganisms. The absorption of the injectable drug form can be delayed by using substances that delay absorption, such as aluminum monostearate and gelatin.

[0460] The formulations for in vivo administration are generally sterile. Sterility can be easily achieved, for example, by filtration through a sterile filter membrane.

Article



[0461] The present invention also provides articles, such as kits and devices, for administering cells to a subjects according to the provided methods for adoptive cell therapy or immune effector cell therapy, and for storing and administering the cells and compositions.

[0462] The article includes one or more containers, generally multiple containers, packaging materials, and a label or package insert combined with or on one or more containers and/or packaging, and generally includes instructions for administering cells to a subject.

[0463] The container generally contains the cells to be administered, for example, one or more unit doses thereof. The article generally includes multiple containers, each containing a single unit dose of cells. The unit dose may be the amount or number of cells to be administered to the subject in the first dose or twice (or more) the number of cells to be administered in the first or subsequent doses. It may be the lowest dose or lowest possible dose of cells administered to a subject in relation to the method of administration. In some embodiments, the unit dose is the number of cells or the minimum number of cells that will be administered to any subject with a specific disease or condition in a unit dose according to the method of the present invention. For example, in some aspects, a unit dose may include the minimum amount of cells to be administered to a subject with a lower body weight and/or a lower disease burden, for example administering one or in some cases more unit doses to a given subject in the first dose, and dministering one or more unit doses to a given subject in one or more subsequent doses, for example, according to the methods provided. In some embodiments, the number of cells in a unit dose is the number of cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or CAR to be administered to a specific subject, from whom the cells are derived, in the first dose. In some embodiments, the cells are derived from a subject to be treated by the methods provided herein or in need thereof.

[0464] In some embodiments, each container individually contains a unit dose of cells, for example, including the same or substantially the same number of cells. Therefore, in some embodiments, each container contains the same or approximately or substantially the same number of cells or chimeric antigen receptor-expressing cells. In some embodiments, the unit dose includes less than about 1x1010, less than about 1x109, less than about 1x108, or less than about 1x107 engineered cells, total cells, T cells or PBMC per kilogram of the subject to be treated and/or from whom the cells are derived.

[0465] Suitable containers include, for example, bottles, vials, syringes, and flexible bags such as freezer bags. In certain embodiments, the container is a bag, for example, a flexible bag, such as those suitable for infusion of cells into a subject, for example, a flexible plastic or PVC bag or EVA or ULPDE, and/or an IV solution bag. In some embodiments, the bag is sealable and/or sterilizable to provide delivery of sterile solutions and cells and compositions. In some embodiments, the volume of the container, for example, the bag is equal to or about or at least or about 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, or 1000 ml, such as a volume of equal to or about 10 to equal to or about 100 mL or equal to or about 10 to equal to or about 500 mL. In some embodiments, the container, for example, the bag is of and/or is made of a material that is stable and/or provides stable storage and/or maintenance of cells at one or more different temperatures, such as at low temperatures, for example, lower than or about or equal to or about -20°C, -80°C, -120°C, 135°C, -196°C and/or a temperature suitable for cryopreservation, and/or other temperatures, such as a temperature suitable for freezing and thawing cells and body temperature, such as at or about 37°C or -38°C, or -39°C, or -40°C, to allow immediate freezing and thawing prior to treatment, for example, at the site of a subject or treatment site, for example, at the bedside.

[0466] The container can be made of various materials such as glass or plastic. In some embodiments, the container has one or more ports, for example, a sterile immersion port, for example, for connecting to one or more tubes through a tube or catheter, for example, for intravenous or other infusion and/or used for connection for the purpose of transferring from and to other containers, such as cell culture and/or storage bags or other containers. Exemplary containers include freezer bags, intravenous solution bags, vials, including those with stoppers that can be pierced by an injection needle.

[0467] The article may also include a package insert or label, one or more pieces of which display usage information and/or instructions. In some embodiments, the information or instructions show contents regarding what can or should be used to treat a particular disease or condition, and/or provide instructions for it. The label or package insert may show the contents of the article to be used to treat the disease or condition. In some embodiments, the label or package insert provides instructions for treating a subject, for example, a subject whose cells have been derived, by including the first and one or more subsequent doses of cells, for example, according to the provided method of any one of the embodiments. In some embodiments, the instructions specify that in the first dose, a unit dose, for example, the contents of a single container of an article, is administered, and then, at a specified time point or within a specified time window and/or after the presence or absence or amount or extent of one or more factors or results are detected in a subject, one or more subsequent doses are administered.

[0468] In some embodiments, the instructions specify that multiple unit doses are administered to a subject by performing the first administration and continuous administration. In some embodiments, the first administration includes delivering one of the unit doses to a subject and subsequent administration includes administering one or more of the unit doses to the subject.

[0469] In some embodiments, the instructions specify that the subsequent dose(s) is administered after the first administration, for example, about 21 days to about 80 days or about 25 days to about 60 days after the first administration or the start of the preceeding administration, for example, equal to or about 50 days. In some embodiments, it is stated that specifying the subsequent dose will be administered after the serum level of a factor indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in a subject is determined about 10 times lower, about 25 times, and / or about 50 times lower than the serum level of the indicator in the subject before the first administration, and/or the index of CRS has reached a peak and is declining, and/or the subject does not show a detectable adaptable host immune response specific to the receptor (e.g., CAR) expressed by the cells.

[0470] In some embodiments, the label or package insert or package contains an identifier to indicate the identity of a subject from which the cells are derived and/or the subject to be administered. In the case of autologous transplantation, the identity of the subject from which the cells are derived is the same as the identity of the subject to whom the cells are to be administered. Therefore, the identification information can specify that the cells are administered to a specific patient, such as the cells from which the cells are originally derived. Such information may be present in the packaging material and/or label in the form of a barcode or other coded identifier, or may indicate the subject's name and/or other identifying characteristics.

[0471] In some embodiments, the article includes one or more, usually multiple containers containing a cell-containing composition, such as a separate unit dosage form thereof, and also includes one or more other containers containing the composition therein, wherein the composition includes other agents, such as cytotoxic or other therapeutic agents, which, for example, will be combined with the cells, and for example, administered simultaneously or at once in any order. Alternatively or in addition, the article may also include another or the same container containing a pharmaceutically acceptable buffer. It may also include other materials, such as other buffers, diluents, filters, tubes, needles, and/or syringes.

[0472] The term "package insert" refers to the instructions often included in the commercial packaging of therapeutic products, and the instructions contain information about the instructions, usage, dosage, administration, combination therapy, contraindications and/or warnings of such therapeutic products.

Treatment of cancer patients with the first and subsequent dose(s) of autologous CAR-expressing T cells



[0473] The method of the present invention can be summarized as:
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or T cells are isolated from human subjects with cancer based on "Demononuclear Cell Separation", cultured and transduced with viral vectors encoding chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specifically binds to an antigen expressed by cancer in the subject, which is a tumor-related or tumor-specific antigen. The cells are cryopreserved in an infusion medium in a separate flexible freezing bag, each containing a single unit dose of cells, which is about 1 x 106 cells to 5 x 107 cells. The first dose per subject to be infused is not higher than about 1×1012 cells, preferably, not higher than about 1×1011 cells, more preferably, not higher than about 1×1010 cells or about 5×109 or approximately 2x109 cells. Prior to infusion, the cells are maintained at a temperature of about below -130°C or about below -175°C.

[0474] Before the cell therapy, blood is obtained from the subject, and the serum levels of one or more serum factors indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) are optionally evaluated by ELISA and/or MSD and/or CBA, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ), IL-10 and IL-6. Before the treatment, tumor burden can optionally be assessed by measuring the size or quality of the solid tumor, for example by PET or CT scan.

[0475] The resuscitation was performed by warming to about 38°C, and the subject was administered the first dose of cells by multiple infusions. Each infusion is a continuous intravenous (IV) infusion over a period of about 3-30 minutes.

[0476] After the first dose is administered, the subject is subjected to a physical examination and monitored for any symptoms of toxicity or toxicity results, such as fever, hypotension, hypoxia, neurological disorders, or increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines or C-reactive protein (CRP). Optionally, after the first dose is administered, in one or more cases, blood is obtained from the patient, and the level of serum factors indicative of CRS is evaluated by ELISA and/or MSD and/or CBA methods. The serum factor level is compared with the serum factor level obtained just before the first dose. If necessary, anti-IL6 or other CRS treatments are administered to reduce the symptoms of CRS.

[0477] After the first dose is administered, for example, 1, 2, 3, and/or 4 weeks after the administration, the subject is optionally tested for the presence of an anti-CAR immune response, for example, by qPCR, ELISA, ELISPOT, cell-based antibody assay and/or mixed lymphocyte reaction.

[0478] The percentage reduction in tumor burden achieved by the first dose can optionally be measured by scanning one or more times after the first dose is administered in the patient with solid tumors (e.g., PET and CT scans), and/or by quantifying the disease-positive cells in the blood or at the tumor site.

[0479] The subsequent dose(s) is administered. In some subjects, the subsequent dose(s) is administered within about 80 days, preferably about 60 days, and more preferably about 50 days after the first dose. In some cases, the subsequent dose(s) is administered only when the tested CRS-related results or serum factor levels are lower than the acceptable level and no anti-CAR immune response is detected in the subject about 60 days after the first dose. In other subjects, the subsequent dose(s) is administered more than 30 days after the first dose is administered, and the subject is deemed as having no CRS or severe CRS, or levels of all tested serum factors indicative of CRS are lower than 20% of the CRS observed at the peak after the first dose and the subject is deemed as having no detectable anti-CAR immune response. In some embodiments, one or more subsequent doses of cells are administered. The time interval between each dose is 21-80 days, preferably 25-60 days, more preferably 25-55 days.

[0480] The size of subsequent dose is patient-specific and is based on tumor burden, the presence of an anti-CAR immune response, and the level of CRS-related results. Some subjects are administered with subsequent doses containing 1, 2, 3 or even more unit doses of cells. The infused subsequent dose per subject is not higher than about 1×1012 cells, or not higher than about 1×1011 cells, or not higher than about 1×1010 cells, or not higher than about 5×109, or not higher than about 2×109. The subsequent dose(s) is administered in about 3 to 30 minutes by continuous intravenous infusion.

[0481] The subjects are regularly monitored from the first dose and continued for several years. During the follow-up period, the tumor burden is measured, and/or CAR-expressing cells are detected by flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to measure the in vivo proliferation and persistence of the administered cells, and/or evaluate the development of the anti-CAR immune response .

Advantages of the invention:



[0482] 
  1. 1. The present invention significantly improves the efficacy of using immune effector cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors for tumor treatment: the number or size of tumors is reduced, and/or the number and/or degree of metastasis is reduced, and/or tumor markers are reduced, and/or the common complications of advanced cancer disappear or weaken.
  2. 2. It exhibits significant anti-tumor effects on solid tumors, and provides a safe and effective treatment method that can stabilize or even cure CLA18A2 positive adenocarcinoma of the digestive tract.
  3. 3. A pretreatment composition for improving anti-tumor therapy of immune effector cells is provided. Before the immune effector cell is administered, a composition of fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel can be administered, which can significantly promote the anti-tumor efficacy of immune effector cells, greatly reduce the tumor burden of patienta, and improve the quality of life, and prolong survival of patients.


[0483] The present invention will be further described below in conjunction with specific embodiments. It should be understood that these examples are only used to illustrate the present invention and not to limit the scope of the present invention. The experimental methods without specific conditions in the following examples usually follow the conventional conditions such as those described in J. Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning Experiment Guide, Third Edition, Science Press, 2002, or according to the conditions suggested by the manufacturer.

Materials and Methods:


material:



[0484] Various materials used in the present invention, including reagents, can be purchased from commercial channels.

[0485] Exemplary antigen receptors of the present invention, including CAR, and methods for engineering and introducing receptors into cells, can be found in, for example, full contents disclosed in Chinese Patent Application Publication Nos. CN107058354A, CN107460201A, CN105194661A, CN105315375A, CN105713881A, CN106146666A, CN106519037A, CN106554414A , CN105331585A, CN106397593A, CN106467573A, International Patent Application Publication Nos. WO2018006882A1, and WO2015172339A8.

[0486] In the following examples of the present invention, the scFv portion of the chimeric antigen receptor has the heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and the light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 18, the chimeric antigen receptor has the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, the amino acid sequence of scFv is shown in SEQ ID NO: 54, the nucleic acid sequence thereof is shown in SEQ ID NO: 55, and the CDR region is HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 2, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 5, and LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6.

[0487] The method for constructing CAR-T cells: firstly, the CAR gene is constructed, such as the construction of hu8E5-2I-BBZ, from the 5'end to 3'end including: CD8α signal peptide (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 36), hu8E5-2I scFV (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 55), CD8 hinge (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 38), CD8 transmembrane region (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 46) and the intracellular signaling domain of CD137 (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 48) and the intracellular signaling domain of CD3ξ (nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 44). Then the CAR gene is cloned into a shuttle plasmid to obtain the target plasmid containing the CAR gene. The constructed target plasmid and packaging plasmid are co-transfected into 293T cells to prepare a lentiviral vector, and the lentiviral vector is transduced into T cells obtained from the patient's peripheral blood to obtain CAR-T cells. As an example, hu8E5-2I-BBZ is used in the following embodiments.

Example 1: Treatment of cancer patients with the first and subsequent dose(s) of CAR-expressing autologous T cells



[0488] Patients with CLD18A2 positive gastrointestinal tumors (such as gastric adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer) were administered with autologous T cells expressing anti-CLD18A2 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Before administering the cells, the patients were subjected to apheresis separation technique of "mononuclear cell separation" and the pretreatment. For obtaining autologous T cells expressing CAR, PBMCs were obtained by isolation based on a single sample from individual subjects, transduced with a viral vector encoding anti-CLD18A2CAR, then subjected to a large number of amplifications, and the prepared autologous T cells expressing CAR were cryopreserved in the infusion medium in a separate flexible freezer bag. The infused first dose per subject was not higher than about 1×1012 cells, preferably, not higher than about 1×1011 cells, preferably, not higher than about 1×1010 cells, or not higher than about 5×109 cells, or not higher than 2×109 cells. Before the infusion, the cells were kept at a temperature below -175°C.

[0489] Before the cell therapy, blood was obtained from the subject, and optionally evaluated for the level of one or more factors indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in the serum by ELISA and/or MSD and/or CBA methods, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interferon γ (IFNγ), IL-10 and IL-6. Before treatment, the tumor burden can be optionally assessed by measuring the size or characteristics of solid tumors, for example, by PET or CT scanning, and the tumor burden can also be assessed by detecting tumor markers and/or observing the occurrence and severity of tumor complications.

[0490] Resuscitation was performed by warming to around 38°C, and the subject was administered with the first dose of cells by multiple infusions. The first dose was divided into multiple times within a period of not more than 20 days, for example 1-6 times, preferably 1-5 times, preferably 1-4 times, preferably 1-3 times, more preferably 2-3 times. Each infusion was about 3-30 minutes, preferably intravenous (IV) infusion within 5-25 minutes.

[0491] After the first dose is administered, the subject was subjected to a physical examination and monitored for any symptoms of toxicity or toxicity results, such as fever, hypotension, hypoxia, neurological disorders, or increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines or C-reactive protein (CRP). Optionally, after the first dose is administered, blood was obtained from the patient, and the level of serum factors indicative of CRS was evaluated by ELISA and/or MSD and/or CBA methods for one or more times. The serum factor level was compared with the serum factor level obtained just before the first dose. If necessary, anti-IL6 or other CRS treatments were administered to reduce the symptoms of CRS.

[0492] After the first dose was administered, for example, 1, 2, 3, and/or 4 weeks after the administration, the subject was optionally tested for the presence of an anti-CAR immune response, for example, by qPCR, ELISA, ELISPOT, Cell-based antibody assay and/or mixed lymphocyte reaction.

[0493] The reduction percentage in tumor burden achieved by the first dose can optionally be measured one or more times after the first dose was administered to the patient with a solid tumor by scanning (e.g., PET and CT scans), and/or by quantifying the disease-positive cells in the blood or at the tumor site.

[0494] The subsequent dose(s) was administered. In some subjects, the subsequent dose(s) was administered within about 80 days, preferably about 60 days, and more preferably about 50 days after the first dose was administered. In some cases, the subsequent dose(s) was administered only when the tested CRS-related results or serum factor levels were lower than the acceptable level and no anti-CAR immune response was detected in the subject about 60 days after the first dose. In other subjects, the subsequent dose(s) was administered more than 30 days after the first dose was administered, and the subject is deemed as having no CRS or severe CRS, or the levels of all tested serum factors indicative of CRS were lower than 20% of the CRS observed at the peak after the first dose and the subject was deemed as having no detectable anti-CAR immune response. In some embodiments, one or more subsequent doses of cells were administered. The time interval between each dose is 21-80 days, preferably 25-60 days, more preferably 25-55 days.

[0495] The size of subsequent dose was patient-specific and based on tumor burden, the presence of an anti-CAR immune response, and the level of CRS-related results. Some subjects were administered with subsequent doses containing 1, 2, 3 or even more unit doses of cells. The infused subsequent dose per subject was not higher than about 1 × 1012 cells, or not higher than about 1×1011 cells, or not higher than about 1 × 1010 cells, or not higher than about 5×109, or not higher than about 2×109. The subsequent dose(s) was administered in about 3 to 30 minutes, preferably 5-25 minutes by continuous intravenous infusion (IV).

[0496] The subjects were regularly monitored from the first dose and continued for several years. During the follow-up period, the tumor burden is measured, and/or CAR-expressing cells were detected by flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to measure the in vivo proliferation and persistence of the administered cells, and/or evaluate the development of the anti-CAR immune response.

Example 2: Evaluation of the neurotoxicity of CAR-T cell therapy in subjects with morphological diseases before treatment



[0497] The target lesions were detected by imaging to evaluate the tumor burden before treatment, and the number and size of the target lesions were determined. The efficacy evaluation criteria are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Efficacy evaluation criteria for target lesions
EfficacCriteria
Complete relief (CR) All target lesions disappear, and the short diameter value of all pathological lymph nodes (whether target disease or not) must be <10 mm
Partial relief The total diameter of the target lesion is reduced by ≥ 30%
(PR)  
Stable disease (SD) The reduction of the total diameter of the target lesion does not meet the PR standard or the increase of the total diameter of the target lesion does not meet the PD standard
Progressive disease (PD) The total diameter of the target lesions increases by ≥ 20%, and the absolute value increases by ≥ 5mm and/or one or more new lesions appear.


[0498] In about 3-30 minutes, T cells expressing CAR were administered to the subject through single, two or three intravenous (IV) continuous infusions in a total amount of about 1.1×106 CAR-T cells/KG to about 2.8×107 CAR-T/KG. Fludarabine, or cyclophosphamide, or albumin-bound paclitaxel, or fludarabine in combination with albumin-bound paclitaxel, or cyclophosphamide in combination with albumin-bound paclitaxel, or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide, or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel as a pretreatment chemotherapy were administered to the subject 1-30 days, preferably 1-20 days, more preferably 4-12 days before CAR-T cell infusion.

[0499] After CAR-T cells were administered, the disease state of the subject was evaluated to evaluate the response to treatment. After treatment, the subjects were evaluated and monitored for neurotoxicity (neurological complications, including confusion symptoms, aphasia, seizures, convulsions, lethargy and/or altered mental state), and graded according to severity (1-5 scales was used, for example, Guido Cavaletti and Paola Marmiroli Nature Reviews Neurology 6, 657-666 (December 2010), where grade 3 (severe symptoms), 4 (life-threatening symptoms) or 5 (death) are considered as serious neurotoxicity.
  1. (1) Determining and monitoring cytokine release syndrome (CRS):

    Grade 1 (mild) - not life-threatening, only systemic treatments such as antipyretics and antiemetics are required (for example, fever, nausea, fatigue, headache, myalgia, malaise);

    Grade 2 (Medium) - moderate intervention is needed and responds:

    Oxygen demand < 40%, or

    Hypotension, for which corresponding body fluid or low-dose of single vasopressor drug is needed, or

    Grade 2 organ toxicity (passed CTCAE v4.0);

    Grade 3 (serious) - active intervention is needed and responds:

    Oxygen demand ≥40%, or

    Hypotension, for which a high dose of a single vasopressor drug (for example, norepinephrine ≥ 20ug/kg/min, dopamine ≥ 10µg/kg/min, phenylephrine ≥200ug/kg/min, or epinephrine ≥ 10ug/kg/min) is needed, or

    Hypotension, for which multiple vasopressor drugs (for example, antidiuretic + one of the above agents, or a combination of vasopressor drugs equal to ≥20ug/kg/min norepinephrine) are needed, or

    Grade 3 organ toxicity or Grade 4 transaminase inflammation (through CTCAE v4.0);

    Grade 4 (life-threatening) - ventilator support is needed, or
    Grade 4 organ toxicity (excluding transaminase inflammation);

    Grade 5 (Fatal) - death.

  2. (2) Exemplary classification standards for neurotoxicity:

    Grade 1 (no or mild clinical symptoms) - mild or no clinical symptoms;

    Grade 2 (moderate) - there are symptoms that restrict active daily activities (ADL), such as cooking, buying vegetables or clothes, using the phone, and managing money;

    Grade 3 (Severe) - There is restrictive self-management ADL, such as symptoms in bathing, dressing or undressing, eating, using the toilet, and taking medication;

    Grade 4 (life-threatening) - life-threatening symptoms, for which urgent intervention is needed;

    Grade 5 (Fatal) - death.



[0500] In a group of subjects separated based on disease burden before treatment, the response, the presence of severe CRS, and the presence of severe neurotoxicity after treatment with a single infusion of different doses of CAR-T cells compared with the dose were evaluated. The results are shown in Table 2. Table 2 lists the specific doses of the cells administered in various multiple doses, the first dose and the subsequent dose, and the interval time between the adjacent previous subsequent dose and the adjacent subsequent subsequent dose. Table 2 also lists the response after each round of CAR T cell treatment evaluated according to the criteria described in Example 2 as the baseline tumor burden before the first dose was administered. Table 2 also lists the results of the response from 6 patients to each administration (the tumor burden after administration is listed in the "response" column, which indicates the response to treatment compared with the baseline tumor burden), and the presense of (Y/N) severe CRS and severe neurotoxicity. As shown in Table 2, regardless of the disease burden before treatment, SD was observed in subjects treated with CAR-T cells at all tested doses. It was observed that none of the subjects who received CAR-T cells at various dose levels developed severe CRS or severe neurotoxicity.

[0501] These results suggest that, for minimizing toxicity and maximizing efficacy, a dosage regimen is used, which includes administering a first low-dose CAR-T cells to subjects with morphological diseases to reduce disease burden, and then after tumor burden is stable or has decreased or progressed, the subsequent dose(s) of cells can be administered, and higher subsequent dose(s) can be administered, without severe CRS or risk of severe neurotoxicity. For the first dose, a higher dose of CAR-T cells can be administered to reduce the disease burden, and the subsequent dose(s) of cells can be administered after the tumor burden is stable or reduced, and a lower subsequent dose(s) can be administered, without severe CRS or severe neurotoxicity risk.
Table 2. Safety and efficacy of the first dose and subsequent dose(s) of CAR-T cells
 the first dose the second dose
ID disease expression of CLDN18.2 disease burden dose×1 07 /kg severe CRS severe neurotoxicity response disease burden No of days between doses dose×1 07 /kg severe CRS severe neurotoxicity response disease burden
1 Pancreatic cancer +++ (90%) The longest diameter of the lesion in the left abdomen spleen area was 5.4cm 0.111 N N SD 6 weeks after the injection the first dose of CAR-T cell: the longest diameter of the lesion in the left abdominal spleen area increased by <20% compared with the baseline. 45 1.11 N N PD 5 weeks after the injection of the second dose of CAR-T cell (the subject withdrew): new lesions appeared in the liver
2 Gastric adenocarcinoma ++ (40%) Multiple pelvic metastases with metastatic lymph nodes 0.288 N N PD 5 weeks after the injection of the first dose of CAR-T cells: /
1) The sum of the longest diameter of the pelvic appendage target lesion and the inguinal lymph node lesion increased = 20%, and the increase was> 5mm
3) After thoracic drainage to the 6th week (subject withdrew)
3 Pancreatic cancer +++ (100% ) Multiple pelvic metastas es with metastatic lymph nodes 1.0 N N SD The subjects withdrew from the trial 2 weeks after the injection of the first dose of CAR-T cells: /
1) The swollen lymph nodes around the superior mesenteric artery and the fusion area were significantly smaller than before;
2) More pleural fluid and ascites than before;
3) CEA decreased from 28.47 U/ml (before injection) to 5.55 U/ml, CA125 decreased from 241 to 179.5 U/ml, and CYFRA21-1 decreased from 3.02 U/ml to 1.61 U/ml
4 Gastric adenocarcinoma ++∼+++ (85%) The longest diameter of the largest lesion in the right pelvic cavity was 6.5cm; and the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the left pelvic cavity was 5.2cm 0.333 N N PD 6 weeks after the injection of the first dose of CAR-T cells: 46 2.22 N N PD 6 weeks after the injection of the second dose of CAR-T cells:
1) No significant changes in the two target lesions in the pelvis;          
2) New lesions in the pelvis, 1.9cm;           1) Two target lesions in the pelvis were reduced, and the sum of the longest diameters decreased by <30% compared with the baseline;
3) The pleural and ascites fluid was significantly reduced and the color changed from bloody to light yellow;          
4) CA125 decreased from 106.7 U/ml to 16.7 U/ml, CA199 decreased from 99.41 U/ml to 56.33 U/ml          
          2) New pelvic lesions decreased to 1.6 cm;
          3) Pleural and ascites continuously decreased and CAR copies can
                            be detected in the ascites; 4) CA125 is 19.8 U/ml, CA199 decreased to 22.83 U/ml;
                             
5 Gastric adenocarcinoma +++ (95%) Multiple liver metastases with metastatic lymph nodes 1.6 N N SD 6 weeks after the injection of the first dose of CAR-T cells: 46 1.6 N N PD 6 weeks after the injection of the second dose of CAR-T cells:
      1) For intrahepatic target lesions, the sum of the longest diameters did not          
      change significantly compared with baseline;           1) The sum of the longest diameters of the target liver lesions did not significantly change;
      2) AFP decreased from 1302 U/ml to 785 and then increased again > 1500; and CA199 decreased from> 1200 U/ml to 655.8 U/ml;          
                  2) New tumor lesions appeared on the outer wall of the left orbit;
                  3) AFP was still > 1500; and CA199 increased > 1200 U/ml;
6 Gastric adenocarcinoma +++ (90%) Multiple pelvic metastases with metastatic lymph nodes 1.25 N N SD 6 weeks after the injection the first dose of CAR-T cell: 48 1.25 N N SD 6 weeks after the injection of
      1) The sum of the longest diameter of the target pelvic lesions increased by < 20% from the baseline;           the second dose of CAR-T cells:
      2) CA 125 increased from 76.3U/ml to 249.8U/ml;           1) The sum of the longest diameters of the target pelvic lesions did not significantly change;
                            2) CA 125 decreased to 181.2 U/ml
ID: Number of the subject
SD: Stable disease
PD: Progressive disease
N/A: not available
N: None


[0502] The results in Table 2 indicate that severe CRS and severe neurotoxicity did not occur during the first dose of treatment, so the first dose of cells is safe for all subjects.

[0503] It was observed that some subjects were in stable disease (SD). After the first dose or subsequent dose(s) of cells were administered, it was observed by imaging methods that the tumor was not changed or slightly reduced (see the course of treatment for the first dose of patient number: No. 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 subjects, the course of treatment for the subsequent (the second) dose of patient number: 4, 5, 6, and the course of treatment for the subsequent (the third and fourth) dose of patient number: 4. None of the subjects showed severe CRS or severe neurotoxicity at any dose.

[0504] In some cases, Table 2 shows that some subjects are non-responsive (NR) to the first dose (see the course of treatment for the first dose of patient number: 2 and 4), thus failing to achieve stable or decreased disease or tumor burden level. In addition, the results showed that when clinical remission could not be achieved and the risk or frequency of severe CRS and neurotoxicity in subjects was not increased after the first dose infusion, severe CRS or severe neurotoxicity was not detected in these subjects after receiving higher subsequent dose(s).

[0505] In some embodiments, lacking (or relatively low) degree of reactivity or toxicity in a subject indicates that the subject may not be able to respond well to CAR-T cell therapy, but also does not have the risk of some toxic adverse events in another infusion, otherwise, it may indicate that it is necessary to avoid higher doses in the subsequent administration. Therefore, compared with the first dose, these results support the dosage regimen (e.g., if it is necessary or to maximize or improve efficacy), that is, using a higher dose in the subsequent administration after the low dose of the first administration. Even if some subjects did not respond to the first dose, the risk of severe neurotoxicity after the subsequent dose(s) was low.

[0506] For further evaluating the efficacy of cells administered in the first dose and subsequent dose(s), the continuous survival period of CAR-T cells in the body, that is, the continuous survival period of CAR-T cells "implanted" in the body, was tested. From the end of the initial infusion (day 0), Q-PCR was used at each visit point (the used probe: FAM-5'-CTGAGCAGCGTGACCGCCGC-3'TAMRA (SEQ ID NO: 49); upstream primer sequence: 5'-TGGAGTGGATCGGCTACATC-3' (SEQ ID NO: 50); the downstream primer sequence is: 5'-AGTAGTAGATGGCGGTGTCG-3' (SEQ ID NO: 51)) to detect the copy number of CAR-CLD18 DNA in peripheral blood, until any 2 consecutive tests were negative, recorded as the continuous survival period of CAR-CLD18 T cells. The results are shown in Figure 1. CAR-T cells proliferated in all subjects. The biological activities of the administered CAR-T cells were compared based on the peak level measured using the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP). The elevated peak level of CRP in serum also served as an evidence of T cell proliferation after infusion. The results are shown in Figures 2A and 2B. After the first dose and subsequent dose(s) of T cells were infused, the cells proliferated in all subjects.

Example 3. Multiple dose regimen of CAR-T cell for pancreatic cancer treatment



[0507] CAR-T cells were prepared according to the materials and methods as said above.

[0508] In an exemplary dosage regimen, repeated doses of CAR-T cells were used to treat subjects with relapsed or refractory pancreatic cancer, and the interval between each dose is about 21-80 days, preferably about 25-60 days, more preferably, about 25-55 days. Optionally, the subject received fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel or albumin-bound paclitaxel alone for chemotherapy, which was administered at least two days before the first dose and subsequent dose of CAR-T cells were administered and generally not more than about 15 days or not more than about 12 days before the cells were administered.

[0509] The subject received the first dose of CAR-T cells of less than or equal to about 2.5×108 cells/kg of the patient's body weight, for example, about 1.1×106 cells/kg to about 2.83×107 cells/kg, with the ends being included. A lower, equal or higher dose of cells were infused to the subject within 80 days after the first dose was administered and/or before the subject developped an immune response to the CAR. In some embodiments, a subsequent dose of CAR-T cells was administered about 44 days after the first dose at a dose higher or lower than the first dose, for example, about 1.1×107 cells/kg (total dose was about 5×108) to about 1.9×107 cells/kg (total dose was about 1×109), and one or more subsequent doses of cells were administered. The time interval of each administration is about 21-80 days, preferably, about 25-60 days, and more preferably, about 25-55 days. Optionally, the subject received fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel or albumin-bound paclitaxel alone for chemotherapy, which was administered at least two days before each dose of CAR-T cells and generally not more than about 15 days or not more than about 20 days before the cells were administered.

[0510] In an exemplary dosage regimen, two doses of CAR-T cells were used to treat CLD18A2-positive relapsed, refractory pancreatic cancer subject No. 1, including the first low dose of cells and the subsequent higher doses of cells. Before treatment, autologous CAR-T cells were generated substantially as described in Example 2. The subjects received chemotherapy pretreatment before the first administration of CAR-T cells (the day when the patient was administered with CAR T cell therapy for each round was designated as day 0), including fludarabine about 20 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3), cyclophosphamide about 500 mg/m2/day×2 days (day -6, day -5). The first dose included approximately 1.1 × 106 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (total dose is 5×107), and it was injected every other day, according to 10%: 30%: 60% of the total dose of the treatment course, divided into 3 infusions. After the first dose was administered, the serum levels of factors indicative of cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) in the subject reached a peak level and began to decrease to around the level before the infusion of the first dose, and subsequent doses were administered (the second course of treatment). In the second course of treatment, fludarabine was administered at about 20 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3), and cyclophosphamide about 500 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -6, day -5); and about 1.11×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (total dose is about 5×108) were infused, according to 10%: 30%: 60% of the total dose of the treatment course, divided into 3 infusions for the consecutive days.

[0511] The therapeutic efficacy of the subject was monitored, including assessing and monitoring the disease burden, evidence of adverse events, including CRS and neurotoxicity, and survival by imaging (including nuclear magnetic, CT, etc.) the abdomen or other parts (such as metastasis) and tumor marker examinations, using the results of imaging (including MRI, CT, etc.) the abdomen or other parts (such as metastasis) and tumor marker examinations after chemotherapy pretreatment and before the first dose of CAR-T cell infusion as the baseline.

[0512] Figure 3A shows that subject No. 1 received a total dose of approximately 5×107 CAR-T cells, and 2 weeks after the last infusion in the first course of treatment: the lesions in the left abdominal spleen area were stable and the short diameter was slightly reduced; 6 weeks after the last infusion in the first course of treatment: the lesions in the left abdominal spleen area were stable; 2 weeks after the second course of infusion (a total dose of approximately 5 × 108 CAR T cells): the lesions in the left abdominal spleen area were stable; 5 weeks after the second course of infusion: the lesions in the spleen area of the left abdomen were stable, and the new liver lesions were progressing. Figure 3B shows the detection of the tumor marker CA125 in Subject No. 1, and the first infusion day of the first dose was day 0. After the infusion of the first course of treatment and before the second course of treatment, the lesions at the subject's left abdominal spleen were in a stable state, and the expression of CA125 in vivo also slightly decreased, therefore the subject was in stable disease (SD). After the second course of infusion, the lesions at the subject's left abdominal spleen were in a stable state, however the treatment was withdrawn due to new lesions in the liver. There was no severe CRP and severe neurotoxicity during these two courses. The patient continuously used analgesics, the pain was scored as 3-4 points without the analgesics, and the pain was scored as 1 point after using the analgesics. After the first infusion of the continuous dose, the analgesics was no longer used and there was no pain.

Example 4. Repeated dosing regimen and multiple dosing regimen of CAR-T cells for treating gastric adenocarcinoma



[0513] In an exemplary dosage regimen, repeated doses of CAR-T cells were used to treat subjects with relapsed, refractory gastric adenocarcinoma, and the interval between each dose was about 21-80 days, preferably about 25-60 days, more preferably, about 25-55 days. Before treatment, autologous CAR-T cells were generated substantially as described in Example 2. Optionally, the subject received fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel or albumin-bound paclitaxel alone for chemotherapy, which was administered at least two days before the first and subsequent doses of CAR-T cells and generally not more than about 15 days or not more than about 12 days before the cells were administered.

[0514] Subjects with relapsed or refractory gastric adenocarcinoma received the first dose of CAR-T cells of less than or equal to about 2.5×108 cells/kg of the patient's body weight, for example, about 2.9×106 cells/kg to about 2.6×107 cells/kg, with ends being included. A lower, equal or higher dose of cells were infused to the subject within 80 days after the first dose was administered and/or before the subject developped an immune response to the CAR. In some embodiments, a subsequent dose of CAR-T cells was administered about 50 days after the first dose at a dose higher or lower than the first dose, for example, about 1.3×107 cells/kg to about 5.1×107 cells/kg (total dose was about 2×109), for example a dose of about 2.2×107 cells/kg of the patient's body weight. In some embodiments, one or more subsequent doses of cells were administered. The time interval of each administration was about 21-80 days, preferably, about 25-60 days, and more preferably, about 25-55 days. Optionally, the subject received fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide and albumin-bound paclitaxel or albumin-bound paclitaxel alone for chemotherapy, which was administered at least two days before each dose of CAR-T cells and generally not more than about 15 days or not more than about 12 days before the cells were administered.

[0515] The relapsed and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma subject No. 4, who was a patient with gastric cancer with ovarian metastasis and malignant pleural and ascites, firstly received pretreatment, including fludarabine about 30 mg/day × 4 days (i.e., about 20 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -7, day -6, day -5, day -4)), cyclophosphamide 0.75 g/day × 2 days (i.e., about 514 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -7, day -6)), and then received the first course of treatment with the first injection dose of about 3.3×106 CAR-T cells/kg (a total dose was about 1.5×108 CAR-T cells). The first dose was divided into 3 consecutive days, and administered once a day at 10%: 30%: 60% of the total dose of the course of treatment. After the first dose was administered, when the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject did not exceed 20 times (and at an acceptable level) the subject's serum level before the first dose, where IL-10, TNFα begun to decline, and IL-6 fell below the level before the first dose of infusion, the subsequent dose (the second course of treatment) was administered. In the second course of treatment, the pretreatment included fludarabine about 37 mg/day × 2 days (i.e., about 25 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -5, day -4)), and cyclophosphamide about 0.75 g/day × 3 days (i.e., about 514 mg/m2/day×3 days (day -5, day -4, day -2)); then the infusion of about 2.2×107 CAR-T cells/kg (a total dose about 1.0× 109 CAR-T cells), which was divided into 2 injections, once every other day at 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment. After the second course of treatment, the subsequent dose was administered (the third course of treatment), when the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject reached the peak level and began to drop to about or lower than the level before the infusion of the second course of treatment. In the third course of treatment, the pretreatment included the administration of albumin-bound paclitaxel about 137 mg/m2/day × 1 days (i.e., -4); then the infusion of about 2.2×107 CAR-T cells/kg (a total dose about 1.0× 109 CAR-T cells), which was divided into 2 injections, once every other day at 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment. At 6 weeks after the third course of treatment, the sum of the longest diameters of the pelvic target lesions did not significantly change compared with 6 weeks after the second injection, and the new pelvic lesions were larger than before; there was a small amount of ascites, and there was a little liquid in the pelvic cavity; and CA125 was 11.3 U/ml. After the third course of treatment, the subsequent dose was administered (the fourth course of treatment), when the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject was not more than 10 times the serum level in the subject before the dose of the third course of treatment was administered (and at an acceptable level) and the factor indicative of CRS reached the peak level and began to drop to approximately or below the level before the infusion of the third course of treatment. In the fourth course of treatment, the pretreatment included fludarabine about 20 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -6, day -5), and cyclophosphamide about 514 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3); then the infusion of about 3.7×107 CAR-T cells/kg (a total dose about 1.65× 109 CAR-T cells), which was divided into 3 injections (day 0, day 1, day 13) at 46%: 18%: 36% of the total dose of the course of treatment. Six weeks after the fourth course of treatment, the sum of the longest diameters of the target pelvic lesions did not significantly change compared with the previous period; new pelvic lesions did not significantly change compared with the previous period; the pleural and ascites continued to decrease, suggesting that CAR-CLD18 T cell therapy was also effective in controlling malignant pleural and ascites.

[0516] Figure 4A shows that 2 weeks after the subject No. 4 received the last infusion of the first dose of the first course of treatment: the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the right pelvis was 6.5 cm, and the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the left pelvis was 5.2 cm; 6 weeks after the last infusion of the first course of treatment: the longest diameter of the largest pelvic lesion on the right was 6.8 cm, the longest diameter of the largest pelvic lesion on the left was 5.3 cm, and the new pelvic lesion was 1.9 cm (Figure 4B), and such results were also used as the baseline for the second course of treatment. 2 weeks after the infusion of the subsequent dose during the second course of treatment: the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the right pelvis was 6.8 cm, the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the left pelvis was 5.2 cm, and the new lesion was 1.9 cm; 6 weeks after the last infusion of the second course of treatment: the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the right pelvic cavity was 6.5 cm; the longest diameter of the largest lesion in the left pelvic cavity was 5.1 cm; and the new pelvic lesion was 1.3 cm.

[0517] Figure 4C shows that the cancerous pleural and ascites fluid of the subjects was significantly reduced during the CAR-T treatment. In Figures 4D and 4E, the tumor markers CA125 and CA199 were detected, respectively, and the first infusion day of the first dose was day 0. The tumor markers CA125 and CA199 decreased significantly, wherein, in the first course of treatment, CA125 decreased from 106.7 U/ml before CAR-T injection to 32.1 U/ml before the injection the second course of treatment (normal range < 35 U/ml). CA125 remained at a low level during the course of treatment. In the first course of treatment, CA199 decreased from 99.41 U/ml before CAR-T injection to 52.98 U/ml before the injection the second course of treatment (normal range < 37 U/ml), and CA199 remained within the normal range during the second course of treatment.

[0518] The above results indicate that the original lesions of Subject No. 4 were in a stable state during the first course of treatment, but new lesions emerged. In the second course of treatment, the original lesions were in a stable state, while the new lesions were significantly reduced, with a reduction ratio of 31.6%. At the same time, the tumor marker CA125 in the subjects remained at a low level, and CA199 remained at a normal level. There was no severe CRS or severe neurotoxicity during these two courses.

[0519] Subject No. 5 with recurrent and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma received chemotherapy pretreatment before the first administration of CAR-T cells, including fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -6, day -5), cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3). The first dose included about 1.6 × 107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109), injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions. After the first dose was administered, the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject reached the peak level and began to decrease, or drcrease to about or below the level before the infusion of the first dose, and the subsequent dose was administered (the second course of treatment). In the second course of treatment, the pretreatment included infusion of fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5), and cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 3 days (day -5, day -4, day -3), and albumin-bound paclitaxel at about 100 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -4) chemotherapy; then about 1.6×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109) were infused, injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions.

[0520] Subject No. 6 with recurrent and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma received chemotherapy pretreatment before the first administration of CAR-T cells, including fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 2 days (day -6, day -5), cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3). The first dose included about 1.25×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109), injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions. After the first dose was administered, the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject reached the peak level and began to decrease to about or below the level before the infusion of the first dose, and the subsequent dose was administered (the second course of treatment). The pretreatment in the second course of treatment included the administration of fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5), cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 3 days (day -5, day -4, day - 3), and albumin-bound paclitaxel at about 100 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -4); the about 1.25 × 107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (total dose is about 1×109) were infused, injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions.

Example 5 Treatment of subjects with relapsed and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma



[0521] The subject No. 7 with relapsed and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma had gastric cardia adenocarcinoma for 1.3 years. The disease progressed with multiple liver metastases after gastrectomy. And then the subject received treatments such as tigeo, docetaxel, oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and were still in a state of disease progression. In this case, the patient received the CAR-T cell therapy of the present invention.

[0522] Before the first administration of CAR-T cells, the subject received a chemotherapy pretreatment, including fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -12), and cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 3 days (day -12, day -11, day -10). The first dose included about 26×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109), injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions. After the infusion, the patient had a fever, up to 39.3°, which can be controlled by physical cooling. Two weeks after the first dose was administered, the carcinoembryonic antigen decreased from 12.49 U/ml to less than 5 U/ml, and the carbohydrate antigen CA199 decreased from 12.17 U/ml to less than 4 U/ml. 6 weeks after the first dose was administered, the MR scan showed that the tumor in the upper right posterior lobe was reduced by 41%.

[0523] After the first dose was administered, the serum level of the factor indicative of CRS in the subject reached the peak level and began to decrease to about or below the level before the infusion of the first dose, and the subsequent dose was administered (the second course of treatment, 47 days after the first dose was administered). The pretreatment in the second course of treatment included the administration of fludarabine at about 21 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -6), cyclophosphamide at about 540 mg/m2/day × 3 days (day -6, day -5, day -4), and albumin-bound paclitaxel at about 71 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5); and then about 5.1×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 2 × 109), according to 25%: 25%: 25%: 25% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 4 infusions (day 0, day 2, day 9, day 13). Two weeks after the subsequent dose of the second course of treatment was administered, the tumor in the upper right posterior lobe was reduced by 63%.

[0524] The subject No. 9 with relapsed and refractory gastric adenocarcinoma received 8 weeks of SOX chemotherapy after bilateral ovarian metastasis of gastric cancer, and 2 weeks of oral TS chemotherapy for 5 cycles (docetaxel, Tiggio), and was still in a state of disease progression. In this case, the patient received the CAR-T cell therapy of the present invention.

[0525] Before the first administration of CAR-T cells, the subject received a chemotherapy pretreatment, including fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -6), cyclophosphamide at about 500 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3), albumin-bound paclitaxel at about 64 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5). The first dose included about 1.82×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109 CAR-T cells), divided into multiple infusions according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, injected for two consecutive days, once a day. After the first infusion, the patient developed a fever of grade 2 and was treated with indomethacin suppository to reduce the fever.

[0526] After the first dose was administered, IL-2 increased significantly from the 3rd day after infusion, reached the peak level about 10 days and began to decrease to about or lower than the level before the infusion of the first dose, and the remaining cytokines did not change significantly. The subsequent dose was administered (the second course of treatment, the 40th day after the first dose was administered). After the pretreatment in the second course of treatment (the same as the pretreatment of the first course of treatment), about 2.73×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1.5×109 CAR-T cells), according to 1 /3: 1/3: 1/3 of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 3 consecutive infusions, once a day. During the period, III lymphopenia and leukopenia related to the treatment, and II hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and nausea occurred, all of which recovered after symptomatic and supportive treatment. No SAE occurred.

[0527] The subsequent dose was administered (the third course of treatment, the 25th day after the dose of the second course of treatmentwas administered). After the pretreatment of the third course of treatment (the same as the pretreatment of the first course of treatment), about 1.82 × 107 CAR-T cells/kg (the total dose of about 1.0×109 CAR-T cells) was infused, according to 50%: 50 % of the total dose of the course of treatment, infused in divided doses, injected for two consecutive days, once a day. The imaging examination showed that the patient's lesion disappeared and was evaluated by an imaging specialist as complete remission (CR).

Example 6 Treatment of subjects with relapsed and refractory pancreatic cancer



[0528] Before receiving CAR-T cell therapy, Subject No. 8 with relapsed and refractory pancreatic cancer received a resection of the pancreatic body and tail of the pancreas, and developed PD after the operation with metastases in the mesenteric lymph nodes and liver. After received a local radiotherapy, the subject was still in disease progression, and 4 new lesions developed in the liver.

[0529] Before the first administration of CAR-T cells, the subject received a chemotherapy pretreatment, including fludarabine at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -6), cyclophosphamide at about 507 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3), and albumin-bound paclitaxel at about 68 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5). The first dose included about 2.83×107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1.5×109), according to 1/3:1/3:1/3 of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 3 infusions (day 0, 11, 14). Six weeks after the first dose of CAR-T cells was injected, the longest diameters of 2 target lesions in the liver and 1 target lesion in the pelvis were reduced by 90% compared with the baseline, and CA 199 decreased from 899.6 U/ml to 56.79 U/ml, which was evaluated as reaching PR (Partial Relief).

[0530] The subsequent dose (the second course of treatment) was administered on the 44th day after the first dose was administered, wherein fludarabine was administered at about 20 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -6), cyclophosphamide was administered at about 507 mg/m2/day × 4 days (day -6, day -5, day -4, day -3), and albumin-bound paclitaxel was administered at about 68 mg/m2/day × 1 day (day -5); and CAR-T cells were infused at about 1.887 × 107 CAR-T cells/kg of the patient's body weight (the total dose was about 1×109), injected once every other day, according to 50%: 50% of the total dose of the course of treatment, divided into 2 infusions. 9 days after the continuous doses of the second course of treatment were administered, the liver MR scan showed no clear active lesions in the liver. The pelvic CT scan revealed that the pelvic soft tissue nodules were significantly reduced compared with the results during the 6 weeks of the first course of treatment.

Example 7 Statistics of adverse reactions of patients



[0531] The 9 patients in the foregoing examples were subjected to physical examinations, and symptoms of adverse events (AE) were detected, including the symptoms listed in Table 3. The treatment acute AE (TEAE) after the first dose was infused is defined as any AE that occurs after receiving the first dose. The results are shown in Table 3:
Table 3. Statistics of adverse events
adverse eventsTEAE(n=9)
All 9
Hypoalbuminemia 4
Hypokalemia 3
Hypocalcemia 4
fever 9
Chills 2
Joint pain 1
stomach ache 1
Skin cyanosis 1
Itchy skin 1
Tachycardia 1
CRS 0

Example 8 Establishment of Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2, 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR T cell


1. Construction of Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 cells



[0532] A model of Panc02 pancreatic cancer cells overexpressing mouse Claudin 18.2 (SEQ ID NO: 67) was established by conventional methods of molecular biology. Mouse Claudin 18.2 (SEQ ID NO: 67) was inserted to construct plasmid pWPT-mClaudin 18.2 by using pWPT as a vector. Afterwards, the pancreatic cancer cell Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 overexpressing mouse Claudin 18.2 was established by lentivirus packaging infection method.

2. Construction of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors


(1) Construction of plasmid



[0533] Using conventional methods in molecular biology, the amino acid sequence of scFv used in this example is shown in SEQ ID NO: 54, the nucleic acid sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 55, and the CDR regions are: HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 7, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 5, and LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6.

[0534] The used chimeric antigen receptor is a second generation of chimeric antigen receptor, including a transmembrane domain of CD8, intracellular domain of 4-1BB, and CD3ζ. According to the plasmid map as shown in Figure 5, the plasmid MSCV-8E5-2I-mBBZ was constructed.

[0535] A retroviral plasmid MSCV-8E5-2I-mBBZ expressing the second generation of chimeric antigen receptor was constructed by using MSCV.pBABE 5 as a vector. The 8E5-2I-mBBZ sequence is composed of mouse CD8α signal peptide (the amino acid sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 59, the nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 60), scFv targeting claudin 18.2 (SEQ ID NO: 55), mouse CD8 hinge and transmembrane region (the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 61, the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO: 62) and mouse 4-1BB intracellular signaling domain (the amino acid sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 63, the nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 64) as well as intracellular segment CD3ζ of mouse CD3 (the amino acid sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 65, the nucleotide sequence is shown in SEQ ID NO: 66).

[0536] 293T cells were transfected by MSCV-8E5-2I-mBBZ for packaging retrovirus, so as to obtain retrovirus. The infection method is a conventional infection method for preparing T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors in the art.

[0537] (2) Construction of CAR T cells: spleen T lymphocytes from C57BL/6 mice were taken, and purified mouse CD3+ T lymphocytes were added into Dynabeads Mouse T-activator CD3/CD28 at a volume ratio of 1: 1, washed once with PBS, activated, and placed into an incubator for culture. The medium is RPMI 1640 complete medium supplemented with 10% FBS serum.

[0538] The mouse spleen T lymphocytes activated for 24 hours were inoculated into a 12-well plate coated with recombinant human fibrin fragments, and retroviruses were added for infection for 12 hours, and then cultured and amplified to the required number to obtain mouse 8E5-2I- mBBZ CAR T cells.

Example 9 CCK8 experiment to detect the toxicity of Abraxane on pancreatic cancer cells and CAR-T cells



[0539] The Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 cells and the 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR T cells prepared in Example 8 were plated in a 96-well plate at 10,000 cells per well (Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2) or 100,000 cells per well (hu8E5-2I- mBBZ CAR T) in 100 ul of medium. Abraxane with different concentrations were taken and added into the cells to prepare ten gradients (maximum concentration 500 µg/ml, 2-fold gradient dilution). In addition, a group of wells only containing the medium was set as the blank group. After 24 hours, 10 ul of CCK8 reagent (Dojindo) was added to each well and incubated for 2 hours at 37°C, and then the absorbance at 450 nm was measured with a microplate reader to calculate cell viability.

[0540] The calculation formula is :



[0541] The results are shown in Figures 6A and 6B. The IC50 value of Abraxane on Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 cells was 174.45 ± 20.98 µg/ml. The results of Abraxane for killing 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T cells showed that the survival rate of 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T cells was still higher than 50%, even under the treatment of 500 µg/ml of Abraxane. Therefore, it is demonstrated that Abraxane is less toxic to 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T cells.

Example 10 Inhibitory effects of simultaneous administration of Abraxane and CAR T cells on pancreatic cancer in mice



[0542] The pancreas of 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with 2×105 Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 cells in situ, and the day of the tumor cell inoculation was recorded as Day 0 (Day 0).

[0543] On the second day (Day 2) after tumor inoculation, mouse T cells were taken to construct 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR T cells.

[0544] On the 7th day after tumor inoculation (Day 7), mice were administered with 1 × 106 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T cell through tail vein injection or Abraxane (60 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal injection or a combination of both, and on the 14th day, the same dose of CART and Abraxane was repeatedly injected once, and the therapeutic effects were observed by intravital imaging every week.

[0545] The results are shown in Figure 7A: 19 days after CAR T cell injection (i.e., Day 26), it can be observed that the luciferase activity of the combination group was significantly lower than that of the single CAR-T treatment group or the single Abraxane treatment group (P < 0.05, Two way ANOVA). It is demonstrated that, compared with 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T group and Abraxane treatment group, the tumor growth rate in the group of 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T in combination with Abraxane is the slowest, and there are good inhibitory effects on pancreatic orthotopic tumors. The above results indicate that the combination with Abraxane can increase the inhibitory effects of CAR-T cells on tumor cell growth.

[0546] The body weight of the mice was monitored 1 to 2 times every week. The results are shown in Figure 7B. Compared with the UT control group, the weight of the mice was not reduced during the combined treatment of CAR-T cells with Abraxane and 2 weeks after the treatment. There were no other abnormalities in the mice, indicating that the combination of CAR-T cells with Abraxane exert no serious side effects on the mice.

Example 11 Inhibitory effects on mouse pancreatic cancer from the administration of Abraxane and CAR T cells in sequence



[0547] The pancreas of 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with 2×105 Panc02/Luc-GFP-Claudin 18.2 cells in situ, and the day of the tumor cell inoculation was recorded as Day 0 (Day 0).

[0548] On the 7th day after tumor inoculation (Day 7), mouse spleen T cells were taken to construct hu8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR T cells.

[0549] On the 7th day after tumor inoculation (i.e., Day 7), mice were intraperitoneally administered with Abraxane at 60 mg/kg (Abraxane group), and on the 10th day after tumor inoculation (i.e., Day 10), mice were administered with 3×106 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T Cells through tail vein injection (8E5-2I-BBZ CAR-T group) or 3 × 106 control UT cell through tail vein injection (UT group), or a combination of the both (Abraxane at 60 mg/kg was administered to the mice on the 7th day after tumor inoculation through intraperitoneal injection, and then 3×106 8E5-2I-mBBZ CAR-T cells were administered to the mice on the 10th day after tumor inoculation through tail vein injection, Abraxane + 8E5-2I-BBZ CAR-T group), and the survival period of the mice was recorded. The results are shown in Figures 8A, 8B and 8C. In the combination group (Abraxane + 8E5-2I-BBZ), the survival time of mice was significantly prolonged, compared with the control UT group (P < 0.05), and in the combination group, the survival time of mice was significantly prolonged compared with the single Abraxane group (P < 0.05).

[0550] The body weight of the mice was monitored 1 to 2 times a week. The results are shown in Figure 9. Compared with the UT control group, the weight of the mice was not reduced during the combined treatment of CAR-T cells with Abraxane and 2 weeks after the treatment. There were no other abnormalities in the mice, indicating that the combination of CAR-T cells with Abraxane exert no serious side effects on the mice.

[0551] All documents mentioned in the present invention are cited as references in this application, as if each document was individually cited as a reference. In addition, it should be understood that after reading the above teaching content of the present invention, a skilled person can make various changes or modifications to the present invention, and these equivalent forms also fall within the scope defined by the appended claims of the present application.






























































































Claims

1. A method for treating CLD18-positive tumors, comprising administering a first dose of immune effector cells to a subject in need thereof, wherein said immune effector cells express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizes CLD18, and the first dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells,
preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount does not exceed about 1x1011 cells,
preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells,
preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 5x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or a total of not more than about 1x1010 cells,
more preferably, the first dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount does not exceed about 2x109 cells.
 
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the CLD18 is CLD18A2.
 
3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of immune effector cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and specifically recognizing CLD18 is administered.
 
4. The method of claim 3, wherein after the first dose of immune effector cells is no longer detected in vivo, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered.
 
5. The method of claim 3, wherein the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.
 
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the subsequent dose is higher than the first dose; and preferably, the subsequent dose is at least 2 times, 5 times, 7 times or 10 times the first dose.
 
7. The method of claim 3, wherein the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x1010 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1012 cells,
preferably, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2x109 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1011 cells,
preferably, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 2.5x108 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1x1010 cells,
preferably, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 5x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 1×1010 cells,
more preferably, the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3x107 cells/kg of subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed 5x109 or is about 2x109 cells.
 
8. The method of claim 1 or 3, wherein the first dose or subsequent dose is administered in N times within 20 days, and N is a natural number not less than 1; and preferably, in N times within 3-15 days.
 
9. The method of claim 3, wherein when the subsequent dose is administered, the subject exhibits any of the following characteristics:

(i) The fold of the serum level of the factor indicative of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) in the subject is about 10 times, about 25 times, and/or about 50 times smaller than the level in the subject immediately before the first dose is administered;

(ii) neurotoxicity of grade 3 or higher is not shown;

(iii) The neurotoxicity or CRS level is reduced compared with the peak level of neurotoxicity or CRS after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered; or

(iv) The subject does not exhibit a detectable humoral or cell-mediated immune response to the CAR expressed by the first dose of cells.


 
10. The method of claim 9, wherein in (iii), the CRS level is reduced by at least 50%, preferably at least 20%, more preferably, at least 5% compared with the peak CRS level after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, or the CRS level is comparable to the CRS level before the first dose of immune effector cells is administered.
 
11. The method of any one of claims 1-10, wherein the method further includes pretreatment performed before administering the immune effector cells, and the pretreatment includes administering a chemotherapeutic agent to the subject, irradiating the subject on the whole body, or performing local radiation therapy on the subject, or a combination thereof.
 
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the pretreatment is performed 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.
 
13. The method of claim 11, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is any chemotherapeutic drug selected from the following group or a combination: cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, a taxane compound, and a pyrimidine anti-tumor drug.
 
14. The method of claim 13, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is cyclophosphamide and fludarabine; or cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and albumin-bound paclitaxel.
 
15. The method of claim 13 or 14, wherein the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and / or
the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and / or
the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.
 
16. The method of claim 15, wherein the chemotherapeutic agent is continuously used for not more than 4 days.
 
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.
 
18. The method of claim 1, wherein the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive digestive tract tumor; preferably, the digestive tract tumor is adenocarcinoma; and more preferably, the digestive tract tumor is pancreatic cancer or gastric adenocarcinoma.
 
19. The method of claim 2, wherein the chimeric antigen receptor comprises an antibody specifically binding to CLD18A2 or a fragment thereof, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain, and the antibody has:

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:2, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 1, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:7, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:3, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:4, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:5, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 6; or

HCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 8, HCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:9 or 68, HCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO:10, LCDR1 as shown in SEQ ID NO:11, LCDR2 as shown in SEQ ID NO:12, LCDR3 as shown in SEQ ID NO: 13.


 
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the antibody or a fragment thereof has:

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 14 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 18 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 16; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 22 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO: 20; or

a heavy chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:53 and a light chain variable region as shown in SEQ ID NO:52;

preferably, the antibody or a fragment thereof has the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 54, 56, 57 or 58.


 
21. The method of claim 20, wherein the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31 and 32; preferably, sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25 or 26.
 
22. The method of any one of claims 1-21, wherein the immune effector cell is a T lymphocyte, NK cell or NKT lymphocyte; preferably, a T lymphocyte; and more preferably, the T lymphocyte is derived from the subject himself.
 
23. The method of claim 3, wherein two or more subsequent doses of immune effector cells are administered, and the interval between each subsequent dose of immune effector cells is about 21 to about 80 days, or about 25 to about 60 days, or about 25 to 50 days, with end-points being included.
 
24. The method of claim 23, wherein the number of immune cells administered in each subsequent dose is substantially the same, or the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is higher than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.
 
25. The method of claim 23, wherein the number of immune effector cells administered in the later subsequent dose is less than the number of immune cells administered in the earlier subsequent dose.
 
26. The method of claim 1, wherein before the immune effector cells are administered, the subject has not received treatment with immune cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors targeting CLD18.
 
27. The method of claim 3, wherein the subsequent dose is the number of cells sufficient to stabilize or reduce the tumor burden in the subject.
 
28. The method of claim 1, wherein before the first dose is administered, the subject is subjected to a surgical treatment, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy other than the immune therapy as said in claim 1.
 
29. The method of claim 1 or 3, wherein before the first dose is administered, or after the first dose is administered and before the subsequent dose is administered, the subject is evaluated for the serum levels of a factor indicative of CRS, a factor indicative of neurotoxicity, a factor indicative of tumor burden, and/or a factor indicative of the anti-CAR immune response of the host.
 
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the factor indicative of tumor burden is: the total amount of tumor cells in the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the organ of the subject, or the total amount of tumor cells in the tissue of the subject, or the mass or volume of the tumor, or the extent of tumor metastasis, or the number of tumors.
 
31. The method of claim 30, wherein the method includes:

i) evaluating a factor indicative of the tumor burden before the subsequent dose is administered; and

ii) determining the subsequent dose of cells to be administered to the subject, based on the results of the evaluation, and

iii) if it is determined by the evaluation that the subject's tumor mass or volume is stable or reduced, administering the subject with a subsequent dose comprising the number of cells less than or more than the number of CAR-expressing cells in the first dose or approximately the same number of CAR-expressing cells as that in the first dose.


 
32. The method of claim 1 or 3, wherein the number of cells administered in the first dose or the subsequent doses is about 1.1×106 cells/kg to 2.8×107 cells/kg, and about 2.9×106 cells/kg to 2.6×107 cells/kg, or about 3.3×106 cells/kg to 1.3×107 cells/kg or about 1.3×107 cells/kg to 1.8×107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.
 
33. The method of claim 3, wherein the number of CAR-expressing cells administered in the subsequent dose comprises about 1.1×107 cells/kg (cells/kg) of body weight to about 5.1×107 cells/kg, about 1.3×107 cells/kg to about 3.7 × 107 cells/kg, about 1.6×107 cells/kg to about 2.2 × 107 cells/kg, about 1.9×107 cells/kg to about 2.2×107 cells/kg, about 2.2 × 107 cells/kg to about 2.7 × 107 cells/kg, with end-points being included.
 
34. The method of claim 1 or 3, wherein after the first dose or subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered, the subject does not exhibit cytokine release syndrome (CRS), severe CRS, neurotoxicity, severe neurotoxicity, or neurotoxicity above grade 3.
 
35. The method of claim 1 or 3, wherein after the first dose or subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered, the immune effector cells proliferate in the subject.
 
36. A method for treating a tumor, wherein the method includes: the subject has received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or immunotherapy, before the method of any one of claims 1-35.
 
37. A composition, comprising cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, or cyclophosphamide and fludarabine in combination with a taxane compound and/or a pyrimidine antitumor drug.
 
38. The composition of claim 37, wherein the composition comprises cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and paclitaxel.
 
39. The composition of claim 38, wherein the composition comprises cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and albumin-bound paclitaxel.
 
40. The composition of claim 39, wherein the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or the amount of administered albumin-bound paclitaxel is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.
 
41. The composition of any one of claims 37-40, wherein the composition is administered about 30 days; preferably, about 20 days; more preferably, about 12 days; and most preferably, about 7 days before the immune cell therapy is administered.
 
42. The composition of any one of claims 37-41, wherein the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and/or albumin-bound paclitaxel are continuously used for not more than 4 days; and preferably, the albumin-bound paclitaxel is administered once.
 
43. The composition of any one of claims 37-42, wherein it is used for anti-tumor therapy; preferably, for anti-tumor targeted therapy; and most preferably, for anti-tumor chimeric antigen receptor targeted therapy.
 
44. The composition of any one of claims 41-43, wherein the immune effector cells are CAR T cells.
 
45. The composition of any one of claim 44, wherein the CAR T cell specifically recognizes CLD18A2.
 
46. The composition of any one of claims 43-45, wherein the tumor is a CLD18A2 positive digestive tract tumor; more preferably, the digestive tract tumor is adenocarcinoma; and most preferably, the digestive tract tumor is pancreatic cancer or gastric adenocarcinoma.
 
47. Use of immune effector cells containing CLD18A2-CAR in the preparation of a medicament, the medicament containing the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as a taxane compound (preferably paclitaxel, more preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel) for treating CLD18 positive tumors, wherein the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as taxane compound are formulated to provide therapeutic effects greater than the sum of the effects produced by the respective reagents.
 
48. The use of claim 47, wherein a first dose of immune effector cells is administered to a subject in need thereof, and the first dose does not exceed about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 2 × 109 cell.
 
49. The use of claim 47 or 48, wherein after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of the immune effector cells is administered, and the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 5x109 cells; preferably, the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 2x109 cells.
 
50. The use of any one of claims 47-49, wherein the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.
 
51. The use of any one of claims 47-50, wherein the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and taxane compound are administered 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.
 
52. The use of any one of claims 47-51, wherein
the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or
the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or
the amount of administered taxane compound is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.
 
53. The use of any one of claims 47-52, wherein the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the taxane compound is administered once.
 
54. The use of any one of claims 47-53, wherein the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 32; and preferably, the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, or 26.
 
55. A kit for treating a CLD18-positive tumor, wherein the kit comprises:

1) immune effector cells containing CLD18A2-CAR;

2) Cyclophosphamide;

3) Fludarabine;

4) a Taxane compound, preferably paclitaxel, more preferably albumin-bound paclitaxel;

5) containers for containing the substances described in 1)-4); and

6) an instruction for using the kit to treat the CLD18 positive tumor;

wherein the cells and cyclophosphamide, fludarabine as well as taxane compound are formulated to provide therapeutic effects greater than the sum of the effects produced by the respective agents.
 
56. The kit of claim 55, wherein it is described in the instruction that the first dose of the immune effector cells is administered to a subject in need thereof, and the first dose does not exceed about 3 × 107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of cells does not exceed about 2x109 cells; preferably, the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 2x109 cells.
 
57. The kit of claim 55 or 56, wherein it is described in the instruction that after the first dose of immune effector cells is administered, at least one subsequent dose of the immune effector cells is administered, and the subsequent dose contains not more than about 3×107 cells/kg of the subject's body weight or the total amount of the cells does not exceed about 5×109 cells.
 
58. The kit of any one of claims 55-57, wherein it is described in the instruction that the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 21 to 80 days after the first dose is administered; preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 60 days after the first dose is administered; and more preferably, the subsequent dose of immune effector cells is administered at about 25 to 50 days after the first dose is administered.
 
59. The kit of any one of claims 55-57, wherein the cyclophosphamide, fludarabine and taxane compound are administered 4-12 days before the immune effector cells are administered.
 
60. The kit of any one of claims 55-59, wherein it is described in the instruction that:

the amount of administered fludarabine is about 10-50 mg/m2/day, or about 15-40 mg/m2/day, or about 15-30 mg/m2/day, or about 20-30 mg/m2/day; and/or

the amount of administered cyclophosphamide is about 300-700 mg/m2/day, or about 400-650 mg/m2/day, or about 450-600 mg/m2/day, or about 450-550 mg/m2/day, or about 490-550 mg/m2/day; and/or

the amount of administered taxane compound is not higher than about 300 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 200 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 150 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 100 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 80 mg/m2/day, or not higher than about 70 mg/m2/day.


 
61. The kit of any one of claims 55-60, wherein it is described in the instruction that:
the cyclophosphamide and/or fludarabine are continuously used for not more than 4 days, and the taxane compound is administered once.
 
62. The kit of any one of claims 55-61, wherein the chimeric antigen receptor has an amino acid sequence as shown in any one of SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, and 32; and preferably, the sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO: 24, 25, or 26.
 




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REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

Patent documents cited in the description




Non-patent literature cited in the description