(19)
(11)EP 3 822 441 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
19.05.2021 Bulletin 2021/20

(21)Application number: 20205896.2

(22)Date of filing:  05.11.2020
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
E05D 15/06(2006.01)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 13.11.2019 ES 201931875 U

(71)Applicant: Kaviflex, S.L.
46980 Paterna (Valencia) (ES)

(72)Inventor:
  • RAGA HOSTALET, Vicente
    46980 PATERNA (Valencia) (ES)

(74)Representative: Ungria López, Javier 
Avda. Ramón y Cajal, 78
28043 Madrid
28043 Madrid (ES)

  


(54)SAFETY GUIDE KIT FOR SLIDING DOORS


(57) Safety guide kit for sliding doors (11), which comprises a first profile (1) with a plurality of wheels and a second profile (2) which comprises at least two surfaces configured for housing and enabling the longitudinal movement of said wheels, such that the first profile (1) is configured for engaging with the second profile (2) and for moving longitudinally, once engaged, a certain length with respect to said second profile (2). In the same way, the second profile (2) comprises an intermediate section (26), bent at 90 degrees, which comprises a third horizontal surface (261), located on an internal side of the second profile (2) and a fourth vertical surface (262), continuous and perpendicular to the third surface (261), located on the internal side of the second profile (2) wherein the third surface (261) and the fourth surface (262) are configured for setting and rigidly fixing to a rebate (27) of the sliding door (11).




Description

Object of the Invention



[0001] The present invention consists of a kit for adapting a safety guide to any type of sliding door, especially those commonly used in industrial refrigeration facilities or similar, such that it can be easily opened and closed, and is capable of withstanding large structural loads. At the same time, it provides safety to the closure by having appropriate technical features and design, which enables the simple adaptation and assembly thereof, regardless of the features of the door, preventing it from being accidentally disassembled or released, easily, while it is moving, or immobile.

[0002] This safety guide kit enables most newly manufactured sliding doors, as well as existing ones, to comply with the most demanding safety regulations, without the need to modify or change significant portions of the structures thereof, by having the means for the easy assembly and adaptation thereof, as well as disassembly if necessary, regardless of size or dimension.

[0003] The field of application of the present invention falls within the industry dedicated to door opening and closing safety, more specifically to mobile door frames or similar elements for closing gaps.

Technical problem to be resolved and background of the invention



[0004] As is known, in the installation of sliding elements, there are a large number of mechanisms that enable said elements to move with respect to rails configured for facilitating the movement thereof.

[0005] The objective of this high number of systems or mechanisms is to open and close gaps such as doors or windows, whether in buildings or in small or large constructions, wherein elements are required that enable access or the limitation thereof, even the interior visualisation thereof, such as safety rooms, isolated chambers, such as refrigerators, or even the building's own rooms such as showers or areas.

[0006] One of the objectives of sliding doors is the establishment of communication limitations between two environments separated by a wall, so that the door leaf does not take up space in the environments themselves, but is integrated within the wall that divides both environments or at least that during the movement of the opening or closing thereof these environments are not invaded, remaining parallel and close to the wall or panel.

[0007] Another objective of this type of mechanism is to facilitate the use thereof by reducing the effort required when moving them, as they comprise rolling elements such as wheels, pulleys or bearings that are engaged in the rails, so that when moving the doors, the rotation of said wheels reduces the contact between the surfaces of the rails, requiring little force to cause the movement.

[0008] For this reason, these movement mechanisms by means of rolling elements are widely used when the door leaf is especially heavy, such as in refrigeration doors, or safety doors, wherein there are large areas to facilitate the entry and exit of large volume items, but also large in width so as not to lose the internal pressure, temperature or structural conditions thereof.

[0009] One of the problems that arises when using these mechanisms with large and heavy locks is the difficulty in carrying out the desired movement of the door, since despite having rolling elements, these are ineffective when the load is excessive, causing deterioration of some of the parts thereof due to unwanted deformations.

[0010] Another problem arises with the ease of some mechanisms to accidentally disassemble, since the only contact that the doors have with the wall or frame to which they are assembled is the one that occurs between the wheel or pulley with the rail, which in some cases are very small or of inappropriate shapes and orientations when an effort occurs in contraindicated directions.

[0011] In addition to the aforementioned problems, it is also common for this type of sliding door mechanisms to be affected by external elements that obstruct the rails or rolling elements, especially when these are located in the lower portion of the doors, preventing the correct operation thereof.

[0012] An accidental disengagement or misalignment of the sliding mechanisms can generate important safety problems since doors of this type are normally large and heavy. In order to eliminate this risk, it is common to necessarily resort to replacing the entire door with the consequent cost.

[0013] Currently there is a CE marking standard on industrial doors, Regulation (EU) 205/2011, which is very demanding with the safety levels that this type of product must offer.

[0014] Despite the fact that various types of sliding door mechanisms are known in the current market, the existence of any that present technical features equal or similar to those claimed herein is unknown, since, unlike this one, said mechanisms do not incorporate a load distribution system that improves safety and less so with a kit-like morphology, which enables the adaptation thereof to most existing doors on the market, which undoubtedly entails an important advantage in order to prevent the complete replacement of the closure system.

Description of the invention



[0015] In order to achieve the objectives and avoid the drawbacks mentioned in the previous sections, the invention proposes a new safety guide kit that has a simple mechanism for moving the sliding doors, exerting a reduced effort compared to the size and volume of the door leaf. For this purpose, it comprises means for adapting to any door geometry as well as means for easy anchoring to the surface of said door, lintel or wall.

[0016] More specifically, the invention discloses a new guide kit for sliding doors, and especially for those doors that due to the particular size, consistency or more frequently, due to the heaviness thereof, such as those used in industrial freezers, require a guide assembly with special features, by means of which safe connection means are provided in order to minimise the risk of eventual falls of the sliding leaf, after the upper clamping member of the guide system itself accidentally comes off.

[0017] The safety guide kit for sliding doors comprises a first profile which in turn comprises:
  • at least two first wheels attached to the first profile by means of a first shaft, one for each first wheel, said first shafts located in the same transverse position, in a first cavity along the first profile; that is, they are located at the same position from a lateral point of view, but at different longitudinal positions, like a row, always in a first cavity along the first profile; and
  • at least two second wheels attached to the first profile by means of a second shaft, one for each second wheel, said second shafts located in the same transverse position along the first profile, in the same way as the first wheels, that is, they are located at the same lateral position, but at different longitudinal positions.


[0018] The safety guide further comprises a second profile which comprises:
  • at least one first surface configured so that the first wheel rolls longitudinally over it, withstanding the effort generated in said movement; and,
  • a second surface, configured so that the second wheel of the first profile rests and rolls longitudinally over it;
wherein the first profile is configured for engaging with the second profile and for moving longitudinally, once engaged, a certain length with respect to said second profile;
wherein the first shaft is perpendicular to the second shaft and the first surface is perpendicular to the second surface.

[0019] The fact that there are two wheels of each type is based on the need for the first profile to be statically steady with respect to the second, that is, to have two support points on the first and second surfaces. In the same way, the guide can comprise more wheels in the event that a greater distribution of loads between profiles is sought.

[0020] In addition, the second profile comprises an intermediate section, bent at 90 degrees, which comprises:
  • a third horizontal surface, located on an internal side of the second profile; and
  • a fourth vertical surface, continuous and perpendicular to the third surface, located on the internal side of the second profile;
such that the first and second surfaces of said second profile are located on an external side thereof.

[0021] This configuration of the second profile makes it possible that, the safety kit comprising support means comprising a straight rebate, that is, with a rectangular prism shape, said rebate entirely or partially surrounding the gap on the side wherein the guide is located, the third and fourth surfaces can be supported and rigidly fixed on it, improving the support of the second guide on the wall of the gap, the third surface being coplanar to a horizontal surface of said rebate.

[0022] This embodiment with the rebate located over the gap in a wall, is adaptable to any existing gap configuration. When the dimensions of the rebate require it, the assembler will have accessories, such as profiles or similar, for adapting the intermediate section, such that the kit can be installed in complete safety, regardless of the door model.

[0023] In one embodiment, the width of the third horizontal surface is greater than a width of the rebate of the sliding door to facilitate the universality of the guide, as it is only necessary to use wedges or boards that facilitate the installation.

[0024] For a balanced load distribution, in one embodiment, the shafts of the wheels are not only perpendicularly oriented with respect to one another, but also transversely, that is, from a lateral point of view, they are also inclined with respect to the vertical marked by the orientation of the sliding door, that is, by the gravity of the sliding element, an angle comprised within a range selected between 5 and 85°, when the first profile is engaged with the second profile.

[0025] Therefore, the contact between the first and second wheels with the first and second surfaces respectively, oppose each other, being in perpendicular directions.

[0026] In one embodiment, at least one of the elements selected between the first surface and the second surface comprises an inner rolling rail rigidly attached to the second profile along which the wheels are guided, said wheels resting and moving over the first and the second surface by means of said inner rolling rail.

[0027] The use of this rolling rail improves the coupling between the first and the second wheels with the second profile. This improvement in the coupling is achieved, among other ways, by increasing the contact surface between the wheels and the second profile, having geometries of the cross sections of the guided wheels oriented for this purpose, to be used in different cross sections of rails.

[0028] The use of the inner rolling rail prevents the second profile from requiring a complex manufacturing process that makes it possible to have first and second surfaces with complex cross sections able to be coupled to wheels with different cross sections, and enables the use of different types of rails depending on the safety guide.

[0029] In one embodiment, the inner rolling rail has a rectangular-shaped cross section and in another embodiment it has a trapezoidal cross section, wherein the wheels rest.

[0030] In one embodiment, the first, the second or both wheels comprise a first cylindrical portion and a second cylindrical portion with a smaller diameter than the first cylindrical cross section, said parts configured for guiding the wheels over the inner rolling rail when it has a rectangular cross section. Therefore, the area comprised by the crown generated by the difference between cross sections of the wheel, has a contact with the side of the inner rolling rail, thereby increasing the contact surface and, therefore, the distribution of loads and the stability of the guide.

[0031] In one embodiment, the first, the second or both wheels comprise a frustoconical portion and a second cylindrical portion, said parts configured for guiding the wheels over the inner rolling rail, when it has a trapezoidal cross section, thereby increasing the contact surface and, therefore, the distribution of loads and the stability of the guide.

[0032] In one embodiment, the safety guide comprises a first stop and a second stop at ends of the second profile that limit the longitudinal movement of the first profile with respect to the second profile, and block the extraction of the first with respect to the second.

[0033] The first profile and the second profile are made of a metal material selected from the group consisting of aluminium, steel, iron, bronze and a combination thereof.

[0034] In one embodiment, the first cavity of the first profile wherein the first wheels are located, comprises a U-shaped cross section, being fitted to the cross section of said first wheel and enabling the fixed connection of the first shaft.

[0035] In one embodiment, the second profile comprises a third cavity which comprises a U-shaped cross section wherein the second wheels move longitudinally, being fitted to the cross section of said second wheel and enabling the fixed connection of the second shaft.

[0036] In one embodiment, the first profile comprises a second cavity with a C-shaped cross section configured for rigidly fixing the first profile to a sliding door, by means of first connection means.

[0037] In one embodiment, the first connection means that attach the first profile to the sliding door comprise:
  • a bracket which comprises a first plate, configured for rigidly attaching to the sliding door by means of threaded screws, and a second plate perpendicular to the first plate with a through hole;
  • a metal bolt that goes through the through hole of the bracket screwed to two nuts rigidly fixed to the metal bolt with respect to the bracket by means of tightening;
wherein the head of the metal bolt is configured for engaging with the second cavity of the first profile and for being tightened to said first profile by means of a nut, fixing the connection of the first profile to the sliding door.

[0038] In one embodiment, the first shaft and the second shaft are located in the same transverse cross section of the first profile, that is, they are at the same longitudinal height of the first profile.

[0039] In one embodiment, the second profile is configured for rigidly attaching by means of second connection means, to an upper end of a gap in a wall, or to a lintel of said gap depending on whether it comprises it.

[0040] In one embodiment, at least one of the elements selected between the first wheels and the second wheels are located at longitudinal ends of the first profile.

[0041] In one embodiment, the safety guide kit comprises a third profile configured for being fixed to the second profile, covering the first and the second profile, these being engaged, and preventing the manipulation or interference of the guide kit with external elements.

[0042] In one embodiment, the third profile is configured for rigidly connecting to the second profile. This connection can be carried out by coupling the parts thereof or by threaded attachments, welds or bolts.

[0043] In one embodiment, at least one of the elements selected between the first surface and the second surface comprises a C-shaped fourth cavity configured for carrying out the rigid attachment of the inner rolling rail to the second profile, embedding it inside, preventing the rotation and movement thereof.

[0044] Next, to help better understand this specification and as an integral part thereof, a series of figures is attached in which the object of the invention is depicted in an illustrative and non-limiting manner.

Brief description of the figures



[0045] 

Figure 1 shows a side view of one end of the assembled safety guide.

Figure 2 shows separate views of the profiles, without the wheels but with the shafts, wherein each one of the parts that define the shape thereof can be appreciated.

Figure 3 shows an elevation view, showing a sliding door with the safety guide installed.



[0046] A list of the references used in the figures is provided below:
  1. 1. First profile.
  2. 2. Second profile.
  3. 3. First wheel.
  4. 4. Second wheel
  5. 5. First shaft.
  6. 6. Second shaft.
  7. 7. Second cavity.
  8. 8. First connection means.
  9. 9. Second connection means.
  10. 10. First cavity.
  11. 11. Sliding doors.
  12. 12. Third profile.
  13. 13. Inner rolling rail.
  14. 14. First stop.
  15. 15. Second stop.
  16. 16. Bracket.

    161. First plate.

    162. Second plate.

    163. Through hole.

  17. 17. Threaded screws.
  18. 18. Metal bolt
  19. 19. Nut.
  20. 20. Washer.
  21. 21. First surface.
  22. 22. Second surface.
  23. 23. Third stop.
  24. 24. Third cavity
  25. 25. Fourth cavity.
  26. 26. Intermediate section.

    261. Third surface.

    262. Fourth surface.

  27. 27. Rebate.
  28. 28. Lintel.

Preferred description of the embodiment of the invention



[0047] As can be seen in Figure 1, the system described consists of a guide kit configured for moving doors or sliding elements (11) intended for opening or closing gaps, such as those in a building, cold rooms or similar.

[0048] The guide kit comprises two profiles engaged in one another. A first profile (1) with a constant cross section, shown separately in Figure 2, preferably metal, made of aluminium, due to the mechanical, structural and lightness conditions it exhibits, the cross section of which comprises a U-shaped first cavity (10) wherein two first wheels (3) are located, one at each end of said first profile (1) and a plate wherein two second wheels (4) are located, also at the ends of the first profile (1).

[0049] The first two wheels (3) are located in the first cavity (10), and are attached to the first profile (1) by means of a first shaft (5), one for each wheel (3), and the two second wheels (4) are attached to the first profile (1) by means of a second shaft (6), such that the shafts (5 and 6) limit all the movements of the wheels, except for the rotation with respect to their own axis.

[0050] The safety guide kit further comprises the second profile (2), also with a constant cross section, shown separately in Figure 2, preferably metal, and more preferably aluminium. This second profile (2) comprises a first surface (21) wherein the first wheel (3) of the first profile (1) rests and slides rolling thereon, and a second surface (22) in a U-shaped third cavity (24), wherein the second wheel (4) of the first profile (1) rests and moves rolling thereon, when the first profile (1) is coupled to the second profile (2).

[0051] The second profile (2) comprises an intermediate section (26), bent at 90 degrees, on which a third surface (261) in a horizontal direction, located on an internal side of the second profile (2) and a fourth surface (262) vertically oriented, continuous and perpendicular to the third surface (261), also located on the internal side of the second profile (2) can be differentiated.

[0052] This intermediate section is configured for resting on a straight rebate (27) that is located next to the door (11) gap, thereby favouring the attachment and support of the guide on the wall of the gap.

[0053] In this preferred embodiment, the first surface (21) is rigidly attached to an inner rolling rail (13) with a rectangular cross section, anchored to a C-shaped fourth cavity (25) being partially embedded inside, preventing the rotation and movement thereof. The first wheels (5) rest and move on the first surface (21) by means of this inner rolling rail (13), such that the first wheels (5) have two cylindrical portions, with a different diameter, to be guided on the inner rolling rail (13). Therefore, a greater support surface of the first wheels (3) is achieved, distributing the loads, reducing the stresses generated.

[0054] As can be seen in Figure 1, wherein the engaged profiles are shown, the first shaft (5) is perpendicular to the second shaft (6) and the first surface (21) is perpendicular to the second surface (22). Additionally, the first shaft (5) and the second shaft (6) are inclined 45° and 135° respectively with respect to the vertical, a direction caused by the force exerted by the gravity of the sliding element (11), so that the distribution of the loads is balanced between the wheels (3 and 4) and the surfaces (21 and 22) respectively.

[0055] In order to further achieve a good longitudinal distribution of loads, the first shaft (5) and the second shaft (6) are located in the same transverse cross section of the first profile (1) located at the longitudinal ends of said first profile (1).

[0056] In order to connect the sliding element (11), which in preferred cases is a large and heavy door, to the first profile (1), first connection means (8) are used which consist of a bracket (16), nuts (19), a metal bolt (18) and threaded screws (17), wherein the first profile (1) comprises a second cavity (7) with a C-shaped cross section in which the head of the metal bolt (18) threaded to a nut (19) is introduced, such that by tightening said nut (19) a rigid attachment of the metal bolt (18) to the first profile (1) is made.

[0057] For attaching the sliding door (11) to the metal bolt (18), the bracket (16) is used, wherein a through hole (163) located in a second plate (162) of said bracket (16) is crossed by said metal bolt (18), which is fixed to the bracket (16) by tightening two nuts (19) and two washers (20). Moreover, a first plate (161) of the bracket (16) is rigidly attached to the sliding door (11) by means of four threaded screws (17).

[0058] The safety guide further comprises a first stop (14) and a second stop (15) at the ends of the second profile (2) that limit the longitudinal displacement of the first profile (1) with respect to the second profile (2). That is to say, they collide with said first profile (1) or with some of the elements that make it up, preventing the first profile (1) from coming out with respect to the second profile (2). In the lower part of the sliding doors (11), there is a third stop (23) that limits the transverse movement of said sliding door (11), preventing the profiles (1 and 2) from disengaging.

[0059] The second profile (2) is rigidly attached, by means of second removable connection means (9), to an upper end of a gap in a wall or lintel (28), preferably to a metal frame or to a frame capable of withstanding high loads transferred through the sliding door (11).

[0060] Moreover, to prevent the first profile (1) from disengaging from the second profile (2), the safety guide comprises a third profile (12) rigidly assembled to the second profile (2) by using the second connection means (9), configured to prevent the manipulation of the guide or interference with elements external to said guide.


Claims

1. A safety guide kit for sliding doors (11), for closing gaps, characterised in that it comprises:

- a first profile (1) which comprises:

∘ at least two first wheels (3) attached to the first profile (1) by means of a first shaft (5), one for each first wheel (3), said first shafts (5) located in the same transverse position, in a first cavity (10) along the first profile (1); and

∘ at least two second wheels (4) attached to the first profile (1) by means of a second shaft (6), one for each second wheel (4), said second shafts (6) located in the same transverse position along the first profile (1);

- a second profile (2) which comprises:

∘ at least one first surface (21) configured so that the first wheel (3) rolls longitudinally over it, withstanding an effort generated in said movement; and,

∘ a second surface (22), configured so that the second wheel (4) of the first profile (1) rests and rolls longitudinally over it;

wherein the first profile (1) is configured for engaging with the second profile (2) and for moving longitudinally, once engaged, a certain length with respect to said second profile (2);
wherein the first shaft (5) is perpendicular to the second shaft (6) and the first surface (21) is perpendicular to the second surface (22);
wherein the second profile (2) comprises an intermediate section (26), bent at 90 degrees, which comprises:

- a third horizontal surface (261), located on an internal side of the second profile (2); and

- a fourth vertical surface (262), continuous and perpendicular to the third surface (261), located on the internal side of the second profile (2); and wherein the third horizontal surface (261) and the fourth vertical surface (262) are configured for setting and rigidly fixing to a rebate (27) of the sliding door (11).


 
2. The safety guide kit, according to the preceding claim wherein a width of the third horizontal surface (261) is greater than a width of the rebate (27) of the sliding door (11).
 
3. The safety guide kit according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first shaft (5) is inclined transversely with respect to a vertical determined by the orientation of the sliding door (11), an angle comprised within a range selected between 5 and 85°, the first profile (1) being engaged in the second profile (2).
 
4. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of the elements selected between the first surface (21) and the second surface (22) comprises an inner rolling rail (13), rigidly attached to the second profile (2), along which the wheels (3, 4) are guided.
 
5. The safety guide kit, according to the preceding claim, wherein the inner rolling rail (13) comprises a rectangular cross section.
 
6. The safety guide kit, according to claim 4, wherein the inner rolling rail (13) comprises a trapezoidal cross section.
 
7. The safety guide kit according to claim 5, wherein at least one of the elements selected between the first wheel (3) and the second wheel (4) comprises a first cylindrical portion and a second cylindrical portion with a smaller diameter than the first cylindrical cross section, said cylindrical portions configured for guiding the wheels (3, 4) over the inner rolling rail (13) with a rectangular cross section.
 
8. The safety guide kit according to claim 6, wherein at least one of the elements selected between the first wheel (3) and the second wheel (4) comprises a frustoconical portion and a second cylindrical portion, said portions configured for guiding the wheels (3, 4) over the inner rolling rail (13) with a trapezoidal cross section.
 
9. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein it comprises a first stop (14) and a second stop (15) at ends of the second profile (2) configured for limiting the longitudinal movement of the first profile (1) with respect to the second profile (2) and for blocking the extraction of the first profile (1) from the second profile (2).
 
10. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first profile (1) and the second profile (2) are made of a metal material selected from the group consisting of aluminium, steel, iron, bronze, copper, and a combination thereof.
 
11. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first cavity (10) comprises a U-shaped cross section.
 
12. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the second profile (2) comprises a third cavity (24) which comprises a U-shaped cross section wherein the second surface (22) is located, along which the second wheels (4) move longitudinally.
 
13. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first profile (1) comprises a second cavity (7) with a C-shaped cross section configured for rigidly fixing the first profile (1) to a sliding door (11), by means of first connection means (8).
 
14. The safety guide kit, according to the preceding claim, wherein the first connection means (8) that attach the first profile to the sliding door (11) comprise:

- a bracket (16) which comprises a first plate (161) configured for rigidly attaching to the sliding door (11) by means of threaded screws (17) and a second plate (162) perpendicular to the first plate (161) with a through hole (163);

- a metal bolt (18) that crosses the through hole (163) of the bracket (16), screwed to two nuts (19), rigidly fixed to the metal bolt (18) and to the bracket (16);
wherein the head of the metal bolt (18) is configured for engaging with the second cavity (7) of the first profile (1) and for being tightened by means of a nut (19), fixing the connection of the first profile (1) to the sliding door (11).


 
15. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the first (5) and the second shafts (6) are located in the same transverse cross section of the first profile (1), respectively.
 
16. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein the second profile (2) is configured for rigidly attaching by means of second connection means (9), to an upper end of the gap of a wall and to a lintel (28) of said gap.
 
17. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein at least one of the elements selected between the first wheels (3) and the second wheels (4) is located at longitudinal ends of the first profile (1).
 
18. The safety guide kit, according to any of the preceding claims, wherein it comprises a third profile (12) configured for being fixed to the second profile, for covering the first (1) and the second profile (2), these being engaged, and for preventing manipulation or interference of the guide kit with external elements.
 
19. The safety guide kit according to claim 4, wherein at least one of the elements selected between the first surface (21) and the second surface (22) comprises a C-shaped fourth cavity (25) configured for carrying out the rigid attachment of the inner rolling rail (13) to the second profile (2) embedding it inside, preventing the rotation and movement thereof.
 




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