(19)
(11)EP 3 929 298 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
29.12.2021 Bulletin 2021/52

(21)Application number: 21174106.1

(22)Date of filing:  09.03.2016
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C12N 15/85(2006.01)
C12N 5/10(2006.01)
C12N 15/09(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
C12N 15/65; C12N 15/85; C12N 5/0606; C12N 15/907; C12N 5/10
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR

(30)Priority: 09.03.2015 US 201562130258 P
09.03.2015 US 201562130270 P

(62)Application number of the earlier application in accordance with Art. 76 EPC:
16760977.5 / 3268480

(71)Applicant: Sinai Health System
Toronto, ON M5G 1X5 (CA)

(72)Inventors:
  • NAGY, Andras
    Toronto, Ontario M6G 4C2 (CA)
  • MONETTI, Claudio
    Toronto, Ontario M6P 4B8 (CA)
  • LIANG, Qin
    Toronto, Ontario M6E 3P6 (CA)

(74)Representative: Barker Brettell LLP 
100 Hagley Road Edgbaston
Birmingham B16 8QQ
Birmingham B16 8QQ (GB)


(56)References cited: : 
  
     
    Remarks:
    This application was filed on 17.05.2021 as a divisional application to the application mentioned under INID code 62.
    Remarks:
    Claims filed after the date of filing of the application / after the date of receipt of the divisional application (Rule 68(4) EPC).
     


    (54)TOOLS AND METHODS FOR USING CELL DIVISION LOCI TO CONTROL PROLIFERATION OF CELLS


    (57) The present disclosure provides molecular tools, methods and kits for using cell division loci (CDLs) to control cell proliferation in animal cells. CDLs, as provided herein, are loci whose transcription product(s) are expressed during cell division. CDLs may be genetically modified, as described herein, to comprise a negative selectable marker and/or an inducible activator-based gene expression system, which allows a user to permit, ablate, and/or inhibit proliferation of the genetically modified cell(s) by adding or removing an appropriate inducer.




    Description

    CROSS REFERENCE TO PRIOR APPLICATIONS



    [0001] This application claims priority under the Paris Convention to US Provisional Patent Application 62/130,258, filed March 9, 2015, and US Provisional Patent Application 62/130,270, filed March 9, 2015, each of which are incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in their entirety.

    FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE



    [0002] The present description relates generally to the fields of cell and molecular biology. More particularly, the description relates to molecular tools, methods and kits for controlling division of animal cells and genetically modified cells related to same.

    BACKGROUND OF THE DISCLOSURE



    [0003] Human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells, may be used as tools for understanding normal cellular development, disease development and for use in cellular therapeutics for treating currently incurable disorders, such as, for example, genetic disorders, degenerative diseases and/or various injuries. The pluripotent nature of these cells renders them able to differentiate into any cell type after a period of self-renewal in the stem cell state (Rossant and Nagy, 1999). The gold standard of hPS cells are the human embryonic stem (hES) cells reported in 1998 (Thomson et al., 1998). In 2006 and 2007 a method for reprogramming differentiated somatic cells, such as skin fibroblasts, into ES cell-like "induced pluripotent stem" (iPS) cells was reported and expanded the types of pluripotent cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006; Takahashi et al., 2007). The methods of generation of iPS cells and their applications toward many directions including cell-based therapies for treating diseases and aberrant physiological conditions have been developed further in the years since.

    [0004] One concern regarding pluripotent cell-based therapies is safety. For example, malignant growth originating from a cell graft is of concern. The process of reprogramming differentiated cells into iPS cells is also relevant to safety, as it has been reported that reprogramming methods can cause genome damage and aberrant epigenetic changes (Hussein et al., 2011; Laurent et al., 2011; Lister et al., 2011), which may pose a risk for malignant transformation of iPS cell-derived cells.

    [0005] One challenge with cell-based therapies involving pluripotent cells expanded in vitro is the pluripotent nature of the cells themselves. For example, if pluripotent cells remain among differentiated therapeutic cells, the pluripotent cells may develop into teratomas (Yoshida and Yamanaka, 2010). Attempts to increase the safety of pluripotent cell-derived products and therapies have included efforts to eliminate pluripotent cells from cell cultures after in vitro differentiation. For example: cytotoxic antibodies have been used to eliminate cells having pluripotent-specific antigens (Choo et al., 2008; Tan et al., 2009); cells have been sorted based on pluripotency cell surface markers (Ben-David et al., 2013a; Fong et al., 2009; Tang et al., 2011); tumour progression genes have been genetically altered in cells (Blum et al., 2009; Menendez et al., 2012); transgenes for assisting with separation of differentiated cells have been introduced into cells (Chung et al., 2006; Eiges et al., 2001; Huber et al., 2007); suicide genes have been introduced into cells and used to eliminate residual pluripotent stem cells after differentiation (Rong et al., 2012; Schuldiner et al., 2003); and undesired pluripotent cells have been ablated using chemicals (Ben-David et al., 2013b; Dabir et al., 2013; Tohyama et al., 2013). It is possible that even if residual pluripotent cells are eliminated from differentiated cultures, the differentiated derivatives of pluripotent cells may have oncogenic properties (Ghosh et al., 2011). Related oncogenic events could occur in therapeutic cells i) during in vitro preparation of cells; or ii) following grafting of cells into a host.

    [0006] Most current strategies for eliminating or preventing unwanted cell growth and/or differentiation are based on the herpes simplex virus - thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) / ganciclovir (GCV) negatively selectable system, which may be used to eliminate a graft entirely, if malignancy develops (Schuldiner et al., 2003) or to eliminate only the pluripotent cells 'contaminating' the intended differentiated derivatives (Ben-David and Benvenisty, 2014; Lim et al., 2013). The mechanism of GCV-induced cell killing and apoptosis is wall understood. It creates a replication-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks (Halloran and Fenton, 1998), which leads to apoptosis (Tomicic et al., 2002). However, many HSV-TK/GCV-based systems are unreliably expressed, at least because they rely on random integration or transient expression of HSV-TK. Strategies involving negative selectable markers with different killing mechanisms, such as, for example, Caspase 9 (Di Stasi et al., 2011) have been tested, but reliable expression of the negative selectable marker has not been shown. Cell-based therapies may require millions or billions of cells, which may amplify any issues caused by unwanted cell growth and/or differentiation.

    [0007] It is an object of the present disclosure to mitigate and/or obviate one or more of the above deficiencies.

    SUMMARY OF THE DISCLOSURE



    [0008] In an aspect, a method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell is provided. The method comprises: providing an animal cell; genetically modifying in the animal cell a cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells; the genetic modification of the CDL comprising one or more of: a) an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and b) an inducible exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL; controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system with an inducer of the negative selectable marker; and/or controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system with an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    [0009] In an embodiment of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the controlling of the ALINK-modified animal cell comprises one or more of: permitting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINKsystem by maintaining the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system in the absence of an inducer of the negative selectable marker; and ablating or inhibiting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system by exposing the animal cell comprising the ALINK system to the inducer of the negative selectable marker.

    [0010] In an embodiment of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the controlling of the EARC-modified animal cell comprises one or more of: permitting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system by exposing the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system; and preventing or inhibiting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system by maintaining the animal cell comprising the EARC system in the absence of the inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    [0011] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the genetic modification of the CDL comprises preforming targeted replacement of the CDL with one or more of: a) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system; b) a DNA vector comprising the EARC system; and c) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system and the EARC system.

    [0012] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the ALINK genetic modification of the CDL is homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous and/or wherein the EARC genetic modification ensures that functional CDL modification can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles.

    [0013] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2. In various embodiments, the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism. In various embodiments the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    [0014] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    [0015] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    [0016] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the animal cell is a mammalian cell or an avian cell. In various embodiment, the mammalian cell is a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell, preferably the mammalian cell is a human cell.

    [0017] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the animal cell is a pluripotent stem cell a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    [0018] In various embodiments of the method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell provided herein, the animal cell is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    [0019] In an aspect, an animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation is provided. The genetically modified animal cell comprises: a genetic modification of one or more cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells. The genetic modification being one or more of: a) an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and b) an exogenous activator of regulation of a CEDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL.

    [0020] In an embodiment of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the genetic modification of the CDL comprises preforming targeted replacement of the CDL with one or more of: a) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system; b) a DNA vector comprising the EARC system; and c) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system and the EARC system.

    [0021] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the ALINK genetic modification of the CDL is homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous and/or wherein the EARC genetic modification ensures that functional CDL modification can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles.

    [0022] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2. In various embodiments, the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism. In various embodiments, the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1, Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    [0023] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    [0024] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    [0025] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the animal cell is a mammalian cell or an avian cell. In various embodiments, the mammalian cell is a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell, preferably the mammalian cell is a human cell.

    [0026] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the animal cell is a pluripotent stem cell a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    [0027] In various embodiments of the animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation provided herein, the animal cell is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    [0028] In an aspect, a DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells is provided. The DNA vector comprises: an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to the CDL, wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are exposed to an inducer of the negative selectable marker.

    [0029] In an aspect, DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division essential locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells is provided. The DNA vector comprises: an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL, wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are not exposed to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    [0030] In an aspect, a DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division essential locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells is provided. The DNA vector comprises: an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system being a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to the CDL; and an exogenous activator of regulation of CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL, wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are exposed to an inducer of the negative selectable marker and if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are not exposed to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    [0031] In various embodiments of the DNA vectors provided herein, the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2. In various embodiments, the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism. In various embodiments, the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1 ,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    [0032] In various embodiments of the DNA vectors provided herein, the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    [0033] In various embodiments of the DNA vectors provided herein, the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    [0034] In an aspect, a kit for controlling proliferation of an animal cell by genetically modifying one or more cell division essential locus/loci (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells is provided. The kit comprises: a DNA vector comprising an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and/or a DNA vector comprising an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL; and/or a DNA vector comprising an ALINK system and an EARC system, the ALINK and EARC systems each being operably linked to the CDL; and instructions for targeted replacement of the CDL in an animal cell using one or more of the DNA vectors.

    [0035] In an embodiment of the kit provided herein, the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2. In various embodiments, the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism. In various embodiments, the CDL is one or more of Cdkl/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    [0036] In various embodiments of the kit provided herein, the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    [0037] In various embodiments of the kit provided herein, the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    [0038] Aspects or embodiments of the invention may also be provided according to the following paragraphs:

    1. A method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell, the method comprising:

    • providing an animal cell;
    • genetically modifying in the animal cell a cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the genetic modification of the CDL comprising one or more of:
      1. a) an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and
      2. b) an inducible exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL;
    • controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system with an inducer of the negative selectable marker; and/or
    • controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system with an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    2. The method of paragraph 1, wherein the controlling of the ALINK-modified animal cell comprises one or more of:

    • permitting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system by maintaining the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system in the absence of an inducer of the negative selectable marker; and
    • ablating or inhibiting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the ALINK system by exposing the animal cell comprising the ALINK system to the inducer of the negative selectable marker.

    3. The method of paragraph 1 or 2, wherein the controlling of the EARC-modified animal cell comprises one or more of:

    • permitting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system by exposing the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system; and
    • preventing or inhibiting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system by maintaining the animal cell comprising the EARC system in the absence of the inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    4. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 3, wherein the genetic modification of the CDL comprises preforming targeted replacement of the CDL with one or more of:

    1. a) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system;
    2. b) a DNA vector comprising the EARC system; and
    3. c) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system and the EARC system.

    5. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 4, wherein the ALINK genetic modification of the CDL is homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous and/or wherein the EARC genetic modification ensures that functional CDL modification can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles.

    6. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 5 wherein the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2.

    7. The method of paragraph 6, wherein the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism.

    8. The method of any one of paragraph 7, wherein the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    9. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 8, wherein the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    10. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 8, wherein the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    11. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 10, wherein the animal cell is a mammalian cell or an avian cell.

    12. The method of paragraph 11, wherein the mammalian cell is a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell, preferably the mammalian cell is a human cell.

    13. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 12, wherein the animal cell is a pluripotent stem cell a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    14. The method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 12, wherein the animal cell is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    15. A method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell population according to the method of any one of paragraphs 1 to 14.

    16 An animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell proliferation, the genetically modified animal cell comprising:

    • a genetic modification of one or more cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the genetic modification being one or more of:
      1. a) an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and
      2. b) an exogenous activator of regulation of a CEDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL.

    17. The genetically modified animal cell of paragraph 16, wherein the genetic modification of the CDL comprises preforming targeted replacement of the CDL with one or more of:

    1. a) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system;
    2. b) a DNA vector comprising the EARC system;
    3. c) a DNA vector comprising the ALINK system and the EARC system.

    18. The genetically modified animal cell of paragraph 16 or 17, wherein the ALINK genetic modification of the CDL is homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous and/or wherein the EARC genetic modification ensures that functional CDL modification can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles.

    19. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 18, wherein the CDL is one or more of the loci recited in Table 2.

    20. The genetically modified animal cell of paragraph 19, wherein the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism.

    21. The genetically modified animal cell of paragraph 20, wherein the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    22. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 21, wherein the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    23. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 21, wherein the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    24. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 23, wherein the animal cell is a mammalian cell or an avian cell.

    25. The genetically modified animal cell of paragraph 24, wherein the mammalian cell is a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell, preferably the mammalian cell is a human cell.

    26. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 25, wherein the animal cell is a pluripotent stem cell a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    27. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 25, wherein the animal cell is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, a monopotent progenitor cell, or a terminally differentiated cell.

    28. A population of genetically modified animals cells according to the cell of any one of paragraphs 16 to 27.

    29. A DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the DNA vector comprising:

    • an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to the CDL,
    wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are exposed to an inducer of the negative selectable marker.

    30. A DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division essential locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the DNA vector comprising:

    • an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL,
    wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are not exposed to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    31. A DNA vector for modifying expression of a cell division essential locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the DNA vector comprising:

    • an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system being a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to the CDL; and
    • an exogenous activator of regulation of CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL,
    wherein if the DNA vector is inserted into one or more host cells, proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector will be killed if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are exposed to an inducer of the negative selectable marker and if the proliferating host cells comprising the DNA vector are not exposed to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    32. The DNA vector of any one of paragraphs 29 to 31, wherein the CDL is one or more of the loci recited in Table 2.

    33. The DNA vector of paragraph 32, wherein the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism.

    34. The DNA vector of paragraph 33, wherein the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL
    is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    35. The DNA vector of paragraph 29 or 31, wherein the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    36. The DNA vector of paragraph 30 or 31, wherein the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.

    37. A kit for controlling proliferation of an animal cell by genetically modifying one or more cell division essential locus/loci (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells, the kit comprising:

    • a DNA vector comprising an ablation link (ALINK) system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker that is transcriptionally linked to a DNA sequence encoding the CDL; and/or
    • a DNA vector comprising an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL; and/or
    • a DNA vector comprising an ALINK system and an EARC system, the ALINK and EARC systems each being operably linked to the CDL; and
    • instructions for targeted replacement of the CDL in an animal cell using one or more of the DNA vectors.

    38. The kit of paragraph 37, wherein the CDL is one or more loci recited in Table 2.

    39. The kit of paragraph 38, wherein the CDL encodes a gene product whose function is involved with one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism.

    40. The kit of paragraph 39, wherein the CDL is one or more of Cdk1/CDK1,Top2A/TOP2A, Cenpa/CENPA, Birc5/BIRC5, and Eef2/EEF2, preferably the CDL is Cdk1 or CDK1.

    41. The kit of any one of paragraphs 37 to 40, wherein the ALINK system comprises a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system, preferably the ALINK system is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir system.

    42. The kit of any one of paragraphs 37 to 40, wherein the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system.


    DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



    [0039] The patent or application file contains at least one drawing in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawings will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.

    [0040] These and other features of the disclosure will become more apparent in the following detailed description in which reference is made to the appended drawings wherein:
    Figures 1A-1G depict schematics illustrating the concept of induced negative effectors of proliferation (iNEPs) and examples of iNEP systems contemplated for use in the methods and tools provided herein. FIG. 1A depicts a schematic representing different examples of iNEP-modified CDLs, including a homozygous modification in CDL1, homozygous insertions in CDL1 and CDL2, CDL comprising two separate loci that together are essential for cell division (CDL3). FIG. 1B depicts schematics representing examples of iNEP comprising an ablation link (ALINK) and an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) in different configurations. FIG. 1C depicts a schematic illustrating transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology combined with dimerizer-regulated expression induction. FIG. 1D depicts a schematic illustrating a reverse-cumate-Trans-Activator (rcTA) system. FIG. 1E depicts a schematic illustrating a retinoid X receptor (RXR) and an N-terminal truncation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) fused to the activation domain of Vp16 (VpEcR). FIG. 1F depicts a schematic illustrating a transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), together with ferritin, which is one example of an iNEP system, as set forth herein. FIG. 1G depicts a schematic illustrating how an IRES and a dimerization agent may be used as an iNEP.

    [0041] Figures 2A-2F depict schematics illustrating targeting HSV-TK into the 3'UTR of the Cdk1 locus to generate an ALINK, which enables elimination of dividing modified CDK1-expressing cells. FIG. 2A shows a schematic of the mouse Cdk1 locus. FIG. 2B shows a schematic of mouse target vector I. FIG. 2C shows a schematic of a Cdk1TC allele. FIG. 2D shows a schematic of mouse target vector II. FIG. 2E shows a schematic of a Cdk1TClox allele. FIG. 2F depicts the position of the CRISPR guide RNA; the sequence in the yellow box is the 8th exon of Cdk1.

    [0042] Figures 3A-3G depict generation of ALINK example, HSV-TK-mCherry into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus to generate ALINK in mouse ES cell lines. Fig. 3A shows the overall steps of generating ALINK in mouse C2 ES cells. Fig. 3B shows southern blotting result of correct genotyping of Cdk1(TK/+), Cdk1(TK, loxP-TK), and Cdk1 (TK/TK). Fig. 3C shows the locations of the primers used in ALINK genotyping in mouse cells. Fig. 3D includes PCR results illustrating targeting of Targeting Vector I into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus. Fig. 3E shows PCR results illustrating the excision event of selection marker in a mouse ES cell line already correctly targeted with Targeting Vector I to activate the expression of HSV-TK-mCherry. Fig. 3F shows PCR results illustrating targeting of Targeting Vector II into Cdk1(TK/+) cells. Fig. 3G shows PCR results illustrating the excision event of selection marker in Cdk1(TK, loxP-TK) to activate the 2nd allele expression of HSV-TK-mCherry, thus generating Cdk1(TK/TK).

    [0043] Figures 4A-4K depict generation of an ALINK modification, HSV-TK-mCherry into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus, in human ES cell lines. Fig. 4A shows the overall steps of generating ALINK in human CA1 ES cells. Fig. 4B shows the locations of the primers used in ALINK genotyping in human CA1 cells. Fig. 4C shows PCR results illustrating targeting of Targeting Vector I into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus. Fig. 4D shows flow cytometry illustrating the excision event of selection marker in human Cdk1 (PB-TK/+) ES cell line to activate the expression of HSV-TK-mCherry; the Y-axis shows the mCherry expression level, while the X-axis is an autofluorescence channel. Fig. 4E shows PCR results illustrating targeting of Targeting Vector II (puro-version) into Cdk1(TK/+) cells; the upper panel is PCR using primers flanking the 5'homology arm; the lower panel is PCR using primers inside 5' and 3' homology arm, so absence of 0.7kb band and presence of 2.8kb band means that the clone is homozygous in ALINK, and presence of 0.7kb band means that the clone is heterozygous in ALINK or the population is not clonal. Fig. 4F shows flow cytometry analysis illustrating the excision event of selection marker in Cdk1(TK, loxP-TK) to activate the 2nd allele expression of HSV-TK-mCherry; the Y-axis shows the mCherry expression level, while the X-axis is an autofluorescence channel. Fig. 4G shows the overall steps of generating ALINK in human H1 ES cells. Fig. 4H shows the locations of the primers used in ALINK genotyping in human H1 cells. Fig. 4I shows PCR results illustrating targeting of Targeting Vector II into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus. Fig. 4J shows PCR results illustrating the excision event of selection marker in human H1 Cdk1 (loxP-TK/+) to activate the expression of HSV-TK-mCherry; the Y-axis shows the mCherry expression level, while the X-axis is an autofluorescence channel. Fig. 4K shows fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of targeting of Targeting Vector III (GFP-version) into Cdk1 (TK/+) cells. After FACS sorting, clones picked from sparse plating were genotyped with mCherry-allele-specific primers, eGFP-allele-specific primers and primers in 5' and 3' homology arms; clones labeled with orange star sign are homozygous ALINK with one allele of mCherry and one allele of eGFP; the one clone labeled with green star sign is homozygous ALINK with two alleles of eGFP.

    [0044] Figures 5A-C depict teratoma histology (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm portions of the teratoma are shown from left to right, respectively). FIG. 5A depicts photomicrographs of a teratoma derived from a mouse ES Cdk1+/+,alink/alink cell. FIG 5B depicts photomicrographs of a teratoma derived from a mouse ES Cdk1earc/earc, alink/alink cell. FIG. 5C depicts photomicrographs of a teratoma derived from a human ES Cdk1+/+, alink/alink cell.

    [0045] Figures 6A-6B depict in vitro functional analysis of mouse ES cells with an HSV-TK- mCherry knock-in into the 3'UTR of the CDK1 locus. FIG. 6A illustrates killing efficiency provided by the TK.007 gene after cells were exposed to different concentrations of GCV for 3 days. Colony size and number are directly proportional to GCV concentration. The second lowest concentration of 0.01 µM did not affect the colony number but slowed down cell growth as evidenced by the reduced colony size (n=5). FIG. 6B illustrates expression of mCherry before (Cdk1•HSV-TK•NeolN) and after (Cdk1•HSV-TK) PB-mediated removal of the neo-cassette.

    [0046] Figures 7A-F depict results of cellular experiments using ALINK-modified cells. FIG. 7A graphically depicts results of GCV treatment of subcutaneous teratomas comprising ALINK-modified mouse C2 cells. FIG. 7B graphically depicts results of GCV treatment of subcutaneous teratomas comprising ALINK-modified H1 ES cells. FIG. 7C graphically depicts results of GCV treatment of mammary gland tumors comprising ALINK-modified cells. FIG. 7D schematically depicts experimental design of neural assay. FIG. 7E is a microscopic image of Neural Epithelial Progenitor (NEP) cells derived from Cdk1+/+, +/alink human CA1 ES cells. FIG. 7F depicts microscopic images illustrating GCV-induced killing of dividing ALINK-modified NEPs and non-killing of non-dividing neurons.

    [0047] Figure 8 depicts a graph showing the expected number of cells comprising spontaneous mutations in the HSV-TK gene as a population is expanded from heterozygous (blue line) and homozygous (red line) ALINKcells.

    [0048] Figures 9A-9B depict targeting of a dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the mouse Cdk1 locus to generate EARC and behavior of the bridge after insertion into Cdk1. FIG. 9A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the mouse Cdk1 locus, the target vector, and the position of the primers used for genotyping for homologous recombination events. FIG. 9B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puromycin resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Cdk1 5'UTR.

    [0049] Figure 10 depicts a flowchart illustrating that ES cells having a homozygous dox-bridge knock-in survive and divide only in the presence of doxycycline (or drug with doxycycline overlapping function).

    [0050] Figure 11 depicts representative photomicrographs illustrating that homozygous dox-bridge knock-in ES cells show doxycycline concentration dependent survival and growth.

    [0051] Figure 12 depicts dox-bridge removal with Cre recombinase-mediated excision, which rescues the doxycycline dependent survival of the ES cells.

    [0052] Figures 13A-13B depict the effect of doxycycline withdrawal on the growth of dox-bridged ES cells. FIG. 13A depicts a graph showing that in the presence of doxycycline the cells grew exponentially (red line with circle), indicating their normal growth. Upon doxycycline withdrawal on Day 1, the cells grew only for two days and then they started disappearing from the plates until no cell left on Day 9 on (dark blue line with square). The 20x lower doxycycline concentration (50ng/ml) after an initial 3 days of growth kept a constant number of cells on the plate for at least five days (Fig. 13, light blue line with triangle). On Day 10 the normal concentration of doxycycline was added back to the plates and the cells started growing again as normal ES cells. FIG. 13B depicts a bar graph showing the level of Cdk1 mRNA (as measured by quantitative-PCR) after 0, 1 and 2 days of Dox removal. Expression levels are normalized to beta-actin.

    [0053] Figure 14 depicts the process of growing dox-bridged ES cells and illustrates that no escaper cells were found among 100,000,000 dox-bridged ES cells when doxycycline was withdrawn from the media, but the sentinel (wild type, GFP positive) cells survived with high efficiency.

    [0054] Figure 15 depicts a graph showing the effect of high doxycycline concentration (10 µg/ml) on dox-bridged ES cells: in the presence of high doxycycline, the cells slow down their growth rate similarly to when in low-doxycycline (high dox was 10 µg/ml, normal dox was 1 µg/ml, low dox was 0.05 µg/ml), indicating that there is a window for Dox concentration defining optimal level of CDK1 expression for cell proliferation.

    [0055] Figures 16A-16B depict targeting of dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Cdk1 locus of mouse cells comprising ALINK modifications (i.e., Cdk1 (TK/TK) cells; the cell product described in FIGS. 3A-3G). FIG. 16A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Cdk1 locus in Cdk1(TK/TK) cells, the bridge target vector, and the location of genotyping primers. FIG. 16B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puromycin resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Cdk1 5'UTR in mouse Cdk1(TK/TK) cells, thus generating mouse cell product Cdk1earc/earc, alink/alink.

    [0056] Figures 17A-17B depict targeting of dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Cdk1 locus of human cells comprising ALINK modifications (i.e., Cdk1 (TK/TK) cells; the cell product described in FIGS. 4A-4F). FIG. 17A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Cdk1 locus in Cdk1(TK/TK) cells, the bridge target vector, and the location of genotyping primers. Fig. 17B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puromycin resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Cdk1 5'UTR in human Cdk1(TK/TK) cells, thus generating human cell product Cdk1earc/earc,alink/alink.

    [0057] Figures 18A-18B depict targeting of a dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Top2 locus to generate EARC insertion into Top2a. FIG. 18A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Top2a locus and the target vector. TOP2a_5scrF, rttaRev, CMVforw and TOP2a_3scrR indicate the position of the primers used for genotyping for homologous recombination events. FIG. 18B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puro resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Top2a 5'UTR. Nine of these cell lines was found to be homozygous targeted comprising a dox-bridge inserted by homologous recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Top2a.

    [0058] Figures 19A-19B depict the effect of doxycycline withdrawal on the growth of Top2a-EARC ES cells. FIG. 19A shows that withdrawal of doxycycline results in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days. FIG. 19B depicts how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, two days after doxycycline removal, cells growth was completely arrested.

    [0059] Figures 20A-20B depict targeting of a dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Cenpa locus to generate EARC insertion into Cenpa. FIG. 20A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Cenpa locus and the target vector. Cenpa_5scrF, rttaRev, CMVforw and Cenpa_3scrR indicate the position of the primers used for genotyping for homologous recombination events. FIG. 20B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puro resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Cenpa 5'UTR. Six of these cells were found to have a correct insertion at the 5' and 3', and at least one clone (Cenpa#4), was found to have homozygous targeting comprising a dox-bridge inserted by homologous recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Cenpa.

    [0060] Figures 21A-21B depict the effect of doxycycline withdrawal on the growth of Cenpa-EARC ES cells. FIG. 21A depicts that withdrawal of doxycycline results in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days. FIG. 21B is the Cenpa gene expression level (determined by q-PCR) in Cenpa-EARC cells with Dox and after 2 days of Dox removal, and compared it to the expression level in wild type mouse ES cells (C2). As expected Cenpa expression level is greatly reduced in Cenpa-EARC cells without Dox for 2 days.

    [0061] Figure 22 depicts how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the Cenpa-EARC ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, 80 hours after doxycycline removal, cells growth was completely arrested.

    [0062] Figures 23A-23B depict targeting of a dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Birc5 locus to generate EARC insertion into Birc5. FIG. 23A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Birc5 locus and the target vector. Birc_5scrF and rttaRev indicate the position of the primers used for genotyping for homologous recombination events. FIG. 23B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puro resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Birc5 5'UTR. Five clones were found to be correctly targeted comprising a dox-bridge inserted by recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Birc5. One of these clones was Birc#3, was found to stop growing or die in the absence of Dox.

    [0063] Figures 24A-24B depict the effect of doxycycline withdrawal on the growth of Birc5-EARC ES cells. FIG. 24A depicts that withdrawal of doxycycline results in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days. FIG. 24B is the Birc5 gene expression level (determined by q-PCR) in Birc5-EARC cells with Dox and after 2 days of Dox removal, and compared it to the expression level in wild type mouse ES cells (C2). As expected Birc5 expression level is greatly reduced in Birc5-EARC cells without Dox for 2 days.

    [0064] Figure 25 depicts how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the Birc5-EARC ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, 50 hours after doxycycline removal, cells growth was completely arrested. Interestingly, it appears that lower Dox concentrations (0.5 and 0.05 µg/ml) promote better cell growth than a higher concentration (1 µg/ml).

    [0065] Figures 26A-26B depict targeting of a dox-bridge into the 5'UTR of the Eef2 locus to generate EARC insertion into Eef2. FIG. 26A is a schematic illustrating the structure of the Eef2 locus and the target vector. Eef2_5scrF and rttaRev indicate the position of the primers used for genotyping for homologous recombination events. FIG. 26B depicts PCR results showing the genotyping of the puro resistant colonies to identify those that integrated the dox-bridge to the Eef2 5'UTR. Nine of these cell lines was found to be correctly targeted with at least one clone growing only in Dox-media.

    [0066] Figures 27 depict the effect of doxycycline withdrawal on the growth of Eef2-EARC ES cells. Withdrawal of doxycycline results in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days.

    [0067] Figure 28 depicts how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the Eef2-EARC ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, without doxycycline cells completely fail to grow.

    DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DISCLOSURE



    [0068] Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure belongs.

    Definitions



    [0069] The terms "cell division locus", "cell division loci", and "CDL" as used herein, refer to a genomic locus (or loci) whose transcription product(s) is expressed by dividing cells. When a CDL comprises a single locus, absence of CDL expression in a cell (or its derivatives) means that tumour initiation and/or formation is prohibited either because the cell(s) will be ablated in the absence of CDL expression or because proliferation of the cell(s) will be blocked or compromised in the absence of CDL expression. When a CDL comprises multiple loci, absence of expression by all or subsets of the loci in a cell (or its derivatives) means that tumour initiation and/or formation is prohibited either because the cell(s) will be ablated in the absence of CDL expression or because proliferation of the cell(s) will be blocked or compromised in the absence of CDL expression. A CDL may or may not be expressed in non-dividing and/or non-proliferating cells. A CDL may be endogenous to a host cell or it may be a transgene. If a CDL is a transgene, it may be from the same or different species as a host cell or it may be of synthetic origin. In an embodiment, a CDL is a single locus that is transcribed during cell division. For example, in an embodiment, a single locus CDL is CDK1. In an embodiment, a CDL comprises two or more loci that are transcribed during cell division. For example, in an embodiment, a multi-locus CDL comprises two MYC genes (c-Myc and N-myc) (Scognamiglio et al., 2016). In an embodiment, a multi-locus CDL comprises AURORA B and C kinases, which may have overlapping functions (Fernandez-Miranda et al., 2011). Cell division and cell proliferation are terms that may be used interchangeably herein.

    [0070] The terms "normal rate of cell division", "normal cell division rate", "normal rate of cell proliferation", and "normal cell proliferation rate" as used herein, refer to a rate of cell division and/or proliferation that is typical of a non-cancerous healthy cell. A normal rate of cell division and/or proliferation may be specific to cell type. For example, it is widely accepted that the number of cells in the epidermis, intestine, lung, blood, bone marrow, thymus, testis, uterus and mammary gland is maintained by a high rate of cell division and a high rate of cell death. In contrast, the number of cells in the pancreas, kidney, cornea, prostate, bone, heart and brain is maintained by a low rate of cell division and a low rate of cell death (Pellettieri and Sánchez Alvarado, 2007).

    [0071] The terms "inducible negative effector of proliferation" and "iNEP" as used herein, refer to a genetic modification that facilitates use of CDL expression to control cell division and/or proliferation by: i) inducibly stopping or blocking CDL expression, thereby prohibiting cell division and proliferation; ii) inducibly ablating at least a portion of CDL-expressing cells (i.e., killing at least a portion of proliferating cells); or iii) inducibly slowing the rate of cell division relative to a cell's normal cell division rate, such that the rate of cell division would not be fast enough to contribute to tumor formation.

    [0072] The terms "ablation link" and "ALINK" as used herein, refer to an example of an iNEP, which comprises a transcriptional link between a CDL and a sequence encoding a negative selectable marker. The ALINK modification allows a user to inducibly kill proliferating host cells comprising the ALINKor inhibit the host cell's proliferation by killing at least a portion of proliferating cells by exposing the ALINK-modified cells to an inducer of the negative selectable marker. For example, a cell modified to comprise an ALINK at a CDL may be treated with an inducer (e.g., a prodrug) of the negative selectable marker in order to ablate proliferating cells or to inhibit cell proliferation by killing at least a portion of proliferating cells (Figure 1B).

    [0073] The terms "exogenous activator of regulation of CDL" and "EARC" as used herein, refer to an example of an iNEP, which comprises a mechanism or system that facilitates exogenous alteration of non-coding or coding DNA transcription or corresponding translation via an activator. An EARC modification allows a user to inducibly stop or inhibit division of cells comprising the EARC by removing from the EARC-modified cells an inducer that permits transcription and/or translation of the EARC-modified CDL. For example, an inducible activator-based gene expression system may be operably linked to a CDL and used to exogenously control expression of a CDL or CDL translation, such that the presence of a drug inducible activator and corresponding inducer drug are required for CDL transcription and/or translation. In the absence of the inducer drug, cell division and/or proliferation would be stopped or inhibited (e.g., slowed to a normal cell division rate). For example, the CDL Cdk1/CDK1 may be modified to comprise a dox-bridge (Figure 1B), such that expression of Cdk1/CDK1 and cell division and proliferation are only possible in the presence of an inducer (e.g., doxycycline).

    [0074] The term "proliferation antagonist system" as used herein, refers to a natural or engineered compound(s) whose presence inhibits (completely or partially) proliferation of a cell.

    General Description of Tools and Methods



    [0075] As described herein, the inventors have provided molecular tools, methods and kits for using one or more cell division loci (CDL) in an animal cell to generate genetically modified cells in which cell division and/or proliferation can be controlled by a user through one or more iNEPs (FIG. 1A). For example, division of cells generated using one or more tools and/or methods provided herein could be stopped, blocked or inhibited by a user such that a cell's division rate would not be fast enough to contribute to tumor formation. For example, proliferation of cells generated using one or more tools and/or methods provided herein could be stopped, blocked or inhibited by a user, by killing or stopping at least a portion of proliferating cells, such that a cell's proliferation rate or volume may be maintained at a rate or size, respectively, desired by the user.

    [0076] Tools and methods for controlling cell division and/or proliferation are desirable, for example, in instances wherein faster cell division rates (relative to normal cell division rates) are undesirable. For example, cells that divide at faster than normal rates may form tumors in situ, which may be harmful to a host. In an embodiment, the genetically modified animal cells provided herein comprise one or more mechanisms for allowing normal cell division and/or proliferation and for stopping, ablating, blocking and/or slowing cell division and/or proliferation, such that undesirable cell division and/or proliferation may be controlled by a user (FIG. 1B). Referring to FIG. 1B, in example (I) EARC is inserted at the 5' UTR of the CDL and ALINK is inserted at the 3' UTR, the product of transcription is a bi-cistronic mRNA that get processed in two proteins. In example (II) both EARC and ALINK are inserted at the 5' UTR of the CDL, the product of transcription is a bi-cistronic mRNA that get processed in two proteins. In example (III) EARC is inserted at the 5' UTR of the CDL and ALINK is inserted within the CDL coding sequence, the product of transcription is a mRNA that get processed in a precursor protein that will generate two separate protein upon cleavage of specifically designed cleavage sequences. In example (IV) both EARC and ALINK are inserted at the 5' UTR of the CDL, the product of transcription is a mRNA that get processed into a fusion protein that maintains both CDL and ALINK functions. In example (V) EARC is inserted at the 5' UTR of the CDL and ALINK is inserted at the 3' UTR, the product of transcription is a mRNA that get processed into a fusion protein that maintains both CDL and ALINKfunctions.

    [0077] For example, the genetically modified animal cells provided herein may be used in a cell therapeutic treatment applied to a subject. If one or more of the genetically modified animal cells provided to the subject were to begin dividing at an undesirable rate (e.g., faster than normal), then a user could stop or slow division of cells dividing at the undesirable rate or block, slow or stop cells proliferating at the undesirable rate by i) applying to the cells dividing at the undesirable rate an inducer corresponding to the genetic modification in the cells; or ii) restricting access of the cells dividing at the undesirable rate to an inducer corresponding to the genetic modification in the cells, i) or ii) being determined based on the type of iNEP(s) provided in the genetically modified animal cells.

    [0078] In an embodiment, the genetically modified animal cells provided herein may be referred to as "fail-safe cells". A fail-safe cell contains one or more homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous ALINKs in one or more CDLs. In an embodiment, a fail-safe cell further comprises one or more EARCs in one or more CDL. In an embodiment, a fail-safe cell comprises a CDL comprising both ALINK and EARC modifications.

    [0079] As used herein, the term "fail-safe", refers to the probability (designated as pFS) defining a cell number. For example, the number of cells that can be grown from a single fail-safe cell (clone volume) where the probability of obtaining a clone containing cells, which have lost all ALINKs is less than an arbitrary value (pFS). For example, a pFS = 0.01 refers to a scenario wherein if clones were grown from a single cell comprising an ALINK-modified CDL 100 times, only one clone expected to have cells, which lost ALINKfunction (the expression of the negative selectable marker) while still capable of cell division. The fail-safe volume will depend on the number of ALINKs and the number of ALINK-targeted CDLs. The fail-safe property is further described in Table 1.
    Table 1. Fail-safe cell volumes and their relationship to a human body were calculated using mathematical modelling. The model did not take into a count the events when CDL expression was co-lost with the loss of negative selectable marker activity,compromising cell proliferation. Therefore the values are underestimates and were calculated assuming 10-6 forward mutation rate for the negative selectable marker. The estimated number of cells in a human body as 3.72x1013 was taken from (Bianconi et al., 2013).
    CDL #ALINK#Genotype in CDLsFail-safe volume (#cells)Relative (x) to a human body=3.72x1013 cellsEstimated weight of clones
    1 1 het 512 0.0000000000137 1µg
    1 2 hom 16777216 0.000000451 31 mg
    2 3 het, hom 1.374E+11 0.004 0.26 kg
    2 4 hom, hom 1.13E+15 30 2100 kg


    [0080] It is contemplated herein that fail-safe cells may be of use in cell-based therapies wherein it may be desirable to eliminate cells exhibiting undesirable growth rates, irrespective of whether such cells are generated before or after grafting the cells into a host.

    Cell Division Loci (CDLs)



    [0081] The systems, methods and compositions provided herein are based on the identification of one or more CDLs, such as, for example, the CDLs set forth in Table 2. It is contemplated herein that various CDLs could be targeted using the methods provided herein.

    [0082] In various embodiments, a CDL is a locus identified as an "essential gene" as set forth in Wang et al., 2015, which is incorporated herein by reference as if set forth in its entirety. Essential genes in Wang et al., 2015, were identified by computing a score (i.e., a CRISPR score) for each gene that reflects the fitness cost imposed by inactivation of the gene. In an embodiment, a CDL has a CRISPR score of less than about-1.0 (Table 2, column 5).

    [0083] In various embodiments, a CDL is a locus/loci that encodes a gene product that is relevant to cell division and/or replication (Table 2, column 6). For example, in various embodiments, a CDL is a locus/loci that encodes a gene product that is relevant to one or more of: i) cell cycle; ii) DNA replication; iii) RNA transcription and/or protein translation; and iv) metabolism (Table 2, column 7).

    [0084] In an embodiment, a CDL is one or more cyclin-dependent kinases that are involved with regulating progression of the cell cycle (e.g., control of G1/S G2/M and metaphase-to-anaphase transition), such as CDK1, CDK2, CDK3, CDK4, CDK5, CDK6, CDK7, CDK8, CDK9 and/or CDK11 (Morgan, 2007). In an embodiment, a CDL is one or more cyclins that are involved with controlling progression of the cell cycle by activating one or more CDK, such as, for example, cyclinB, cyclinE, cyclinA, cyclinC, cyclinD, cyclinH, cyclinC, cyclinT, cyclinL and/or cyclinF (FUNG and POON, 2005). In an embodiment, a CDL is one or more loci involved in the anaphase-promoting complex that controls the progression of metaphase to anaphase transition in the M phase of the cell cycle (Peters, 2002). In an embodiment, a CDL is one or more loci involved with kinetochore components that control the progression of metaphase to anaphase transition in the M phase of the cell cycle (Fukagawa, 2007). In an embodiment, a CDL is one or more loci involved with microtuble components that control microtubule dynamics required for the cell cycle (Cassimeris, 1999).

    [0085] In various embodiments, a CDL is a locus/loci involved with housekeeping. As used herein, the term "housekeeping gene" or "housekeeping locus" refers to one or more genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function. Housekeeping genes are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.

    [0086] In various embodiments, a CDL is a locus/loci that encodes a gene product that is relevant to cell division and/or proliferation and has a CRISPR score of less than about-1.0. For example, in an embodiment, a CDL is a locus/loci that encodes a gene product that is relevant to one or more of: i) cell cycle; ii) DNA replication; iii) RNA transcription and/or protein translation; and iv) metabolism, and has a CRISPR score of less than about -1.0. In an embodiment, the CDL may also be a housekeeping gene.

    [0087] In an embodiment, to identify potential CDLs, the inventors examined early mouse embryonic lethal phenotypes of gene knockouts (KOs; Table 2, column 8). For example, the inventors found that mouse embryos homozygous null for Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1, also referred to as cell division cycle protein 2 homolog (CDC2)) null mutation die at the 2-cell stage (E1.5) (Santamaría et al., 2007). Cdk1 (referred to as CDK1 in humans) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase whose function is critical in regulating the cell cycle. Protein complexes of Cdk1 phosphorylate a large number of target substrates, which leads to cell cycle progression. In the absence of Cdk1 expression, a cell cannot transition through the G2 to M phase of the cell cycle.

    [0088] Cdk1/CDK1 is one example of a single locus CDL. Genetic modifications of Cdk1/CDK1, in which transcription of the locus is ablated by insertion of an ALINK modification and/or exogenously controlled by insertion of an EARC modification, are examined herein as set forth in Examples 1, 2 and 3. Top2A/TOP2A is one example of a CDL. Cenpa/CEPNA is one example of a CDL. Birc5/BIRC5 is one example of a CDL. Eef2/EEF2 is one example of a CDL. Genetic modifications of Top2a, Cenpa, Birc5, and Eef2 in which transcription of the locus can be exogenously controlled by insertion of an EARC modification are examined herein as set forth in Examples 4-7, respectively.

    [0089] It an embodiment, is contemplated herein that alternative and/or additional loci are CDLs that could be targeted using the method provided herein.

    [0090] For example, RNAi screening of human cell lines identified a plurality of genes essential for cell proliferation (Harborth et al., 2001; Kittler et al., 2004). The inventors predicted that a subset of these loci were CDLs after confirming the loci's early embryonic lethal phenotype of mouse deficient of the orthologues and/or analyzing the Loci's GO term and/or genecards (Table 2, column 8).

    Targeting a CDL with an Ablation Link (ALINK) Genetic Modification



    [0091] In one aspect, the disclosure provides molecular tools, methods and kits for modifying a CDL by linking the expression of a CDL with that of a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker, thereby allowing drug-induced ablation of mitotically active cells consequently expressing the CDL and the negative selectable marker. Ablation of proliferating cells may be desirable, for example, when cell proliferation is uncontrolled and/or accelerated relative to a cell's normal division rate (e.g., uncontrolled cell division exhibited by cancerous cells). Ablation of proliferating cells may be achieved via a genetic modification to the cell, referred to herein as an "ablation link" (ALINK), which links the expression of a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker to that of a CDL, thereby allowing elimination or sufficient inhibition of ALINK-modified proliferating cells consequently expressing the CDL locus (sufficient inhibition being inhibition of cell expansion rate to a rate that is too low to contribute to tumour formation). In the presence of a pro-drug or other inducer of the negatively selectable system, cells expressing the negative selectable marker will stop proliferating or die, depending on the mechanism of action of the selectable marker. Cells may be modified to comprise homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous ALINKS. In one embodiment, to improve fidelity of ablation, a negative selectable marker may be introduced into all alleles functional of a CDL. In one preferred embodiment, a negative selectable marker may be introduced into all functional alleles of a CDL.

    [0092] An ALINK may be inserted in any position of CDL, which allows co-expression of the CDL and the negative selectable marker.

    [0093] As discussed further below in Example 1, DNA encoding a negatively selectable marker (e.g., HSV-TK), may be inserted into a CDL (e.g., CDK1) in a host cell, such that expression of the negative selectable marker causes host cells expressing the negative selectable marker and, necessarily, the CDL, to be killed in the presence of an inducer (e.g., prodrug) of the negative selectable marker (e.g., ganciclovir (GCV)). In this example, host cells modified with the ALINK will produce thymidine kinase (TK) and the TK protein will convert GCV into GCV monophosphate, which is then converted into GCV triphosphate by cellular kinases. GCV triphosphate incorporates into the replicating DNA during S phase, which leads to the termination of DNA elongation and cell apoptosis (Halloran and Fenton, 1998).

    [0094] A modified HSV-TK gene (Preuß et al., 2010) is disclosed herein as one example of DNA encoding a negative selectable marker that may be used in an ALINK genetic modification to selectively ablate cells comprising undesirable cell division rate.

    [0095] It is contemplated herein that alternative and/or additional negative selectable systems could be used in the tools and/or methods provided herein. Various negative selectable marker systems are known in the art (e.g., dCK.DM (Neschadim et al., 2012)).

    [0096] For example, various negative selectable system having clinical relevance have been under active development in the field of "gene-direct enzyme/prodrug therapy" (GEPT), which aims to improve therapeutic efficacy of conventional cancer therapy with no or minimal side-effects (Hedley et al., 2007; Nawa et al., 2008). Frequently, GEPT involves the use of viral vectors to deliver a gene into cancer cells or into the vicinity of cancer cells in an area of the cancer cells that is not found in mammalian cells and that produces enzymes, which can convert a relatively non-toxic prodrug into a toxic agent.

    [0097] HSV-TK/GCV, cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC), and carboxyl esterase/irinotecan (CE/CPT-11) are examples of negative selectable marker systems being evaluated in GEPT pre- and clinical trials (Danks et al., 2007; Shah, 2012).

    [0098] To overcome the potential immunogenicity issue of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) system, a "humanized" suicide system has been developed by engineering the human deoxycytidine kinase enzyme to become thymidine-active and to work as a negative selectable (suicide) system with non-toxic prodrugs: bromovinyl-deoxyuridine (BVdU), L-deoxythymidine (LdT) or L-deoxyuridine (LdU) (Neschadim et al., 2012).

    [0099] The CD/5-FC negative selectable marker system is a widely used "suicide gene" system. Cytosine deaminase (CD) is a non-mammalian enzyme that may be obtained from bacteria or yeast (e.g., from Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively) (Ramnaraine et al., 2003). CD catalyzes conversion of cytosine into uracil and is an important member of the pyrimidine salvage pathway in prokaryotes and fungi, but it does not exist in mammalian cells. 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) is an antifungal prodrug that causes a low level of cytotoxicity in humans (Denny, 2003). CD catalyzes conversion of 5-FC into the genotoxic agent 5-FU, which has a high level of toxicity in humans (Ireton et al., 2002).

    [0100] The CE/CPT-11 system is based on the carboxyl esterase enzyme, which is a serine esterase found in a different tissues of mammalian species (Humerickhouse et al., 2000). The anti-cancer agent CPT-11 is a prodrug that is activated by CE to generate an active referred to as 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), which is a strong mammalian topoisomerase I inhibitor (Wierdl et al., 2001). SN-38 induces accumulation of double-strand DNA breaks in dividing cells (Kojima et al., 1998).

    [0101] Another example of a negative selectable marker system is the iCasp9/AP1903 suicide system, which is based on a modified human caspase 9 fused to a human FK506 binding protein (FKBP) to allow chemical dimerization using a small molecule AP1903, which has tested safely in humans. Administration of the dimerizing drug induces apoptosis of cells expressing the engineered caspase 9 components. This system has several advantages, such as, for example, including low potential immunogenicity, since it consists of human gene products, the dimerizer drug only effects the cells expressing the engineered caspase 9 components (Straathof et al., 2005). The iCasp/AP1903 suicide system is being tested in clinical settings (Di Stasi et al., 2011).

    [0102] It is contemplated herein that the negative selectable marker system of the ALINK system could be replaced with a proliferation antagonist system. The term "proliferation antagonist" as used herein, refers to a natural or engineered compound(s) whose presence inhibits (completely or partially) division of a cell. For example, OmomycER is the fusion protein of MYC dominant negative Omomyc with mutant murine estrogen receptor (ER) domain. When induced with tamoxifen (TAM), the fusion protein OmomycER localizes to the nucleus, where the dominant negative Omomyc dimerizes with C-Myc, L-Myc and N-Myc, sequestering them in complexes that are unable to bind the Myc DNA binding consensus sequences (Soucek et al., 2002). As a consequence of the lack of Myc activity, cells are unable to divide (Oricchio et al., 2014). Another example of a proliferation antagonist is A-Fos, a dominant negative to activation protein-1 (AP1) (a heterodimer of the oncogenes Fos and Jun) that inhibits DNA binding in an equimolar competition (Olive et al., 1997). A-Fos can also be fused to ER domain, rendering its nuclear localization to be induced by TAM. OmomycER / tamoxifen or A-FosER / tamoxifen could be a replacement for TK/GCV to be an ALINK.

    Targeting a CDL with an EARC Genetic Modification



    [0103] In an aspect, the disclosure provides molecular tools, methods and kits for exogenously controlling a CDL by operably linking the CDL with an EARC, such as an inducible activator-based gene expression system. Under these conditions, the CDL will only be expressed (and the cell can only divide) in the presence of the inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system. Under these conditions, EARC-modified cells stop dividing, significantly slowdown, or die in the absence of the inducer, depending on the mechanism of action of the inducible activator-based gene expression system and CDL function. Cells may be modified to comprise homozygous or compound heterozygous EARCs or may be altered such that only EARC-modified alleles could produce functional CDLs. In an embodiment, an EARC modification may be introduced into all alleles of a CDL, for example, to provide a mechanism for cell division control.

    [0104] An EARC may be inserted in any position of CDL that permits co-expression of the CDL and the activator component of the inducible system in the presence of the inducer.

    [0105] In an embodiment, an "activator" based gene expression system is preferable to a "repressor" based gene expression system. For example, if a repressor is used to suppress a CDL a loss of function mutation of the repressor could release CDL expression, thereby allowing cell proliferation. In a case of an activation-based suppression of cell division, the loss of activator function (mutation) would shut down CDL expression, thereby disallowing cell proliferation.

    [0106] As discussed further below in Examples 2-6, a dox-bridge may be inserted into a CDL (e.g., CDK1) in a host cell, such that in the presence of an inducer (e.g., doxycycline or "DOX") the dox-bridge permits CDL expression, thereby allowing cell division and proliferation. Host cells modified with a dox-bridge EARC may comprise a reverse tetracycline Trans-Activator (rtTA) gene (Urlinger et al., 2000) under the transcriptional control of a promoter, which is active in dividing cells (e.g., in the CDL). This targeted insertion makes the CDL promoter no longer available for CDL transcription. To regain CDL transcription, a tetracycline responder element promoter (for example TRE (Agha-Mohammadi et al., 2004)) is inserted in front of the CDL transcript, which will express the CDL gene only in a situation when rtTA is expressed and doxycycline is present. When the only source of CDL expression is dox-bridged alleles, there is no CDL gene expression in the absence of doxycycline. The lack of CDL expression causes the EARC-modified cells to be compromised in their proliferation, either by death, stopping cell division, or by rendering the cell mitotic rate so slow that the EARC-modified cell could not contribute to tumor formation.

    [0107] The term "dox-bridge" as used herein, refers to a mechanism for separating activity of a promoter from a target transcribed region by expressing rtTA (Gossen et al., 1995) by the endogenous or exogenous promoter and rendering the transcription of target region under the control of TRE. As used herein, "rtTA" refers to the reverse tetracycline transactivator elements of the tetracycline inducible system (Gossen et al., 1995) and "TRE" refers to a promoter consisting of TetO operator sequences upstream of a minimal promoter. Upon binding of rtTA to the TRE promoter in the presence of doxycycline, transcription of loci downstream of the TRE promoter increases. The rtTA sequence may be inserted in the same transcriptional unit as the CDL or in a different location of the genome, so long as the transcriptional expression's permissive or non-permissive status of the target region is controlled by doxycycline. A dox-bridge is an example of an EARC.

    [0108] Introduction of an EARC system into the 5' regulatory region of a CDL is also contemplated herein.

    [0109] It is contemplated herein that alternative and/or additional inducible activator-based gene expression systems could be used in the tools and or methods provided herein to produce EARC modifications. Various inducible activator-based gene expression systems are known in the art.

    [0110] For example, destabilizing protein domains (Banaszynski et al., 2006) fused with an acting protein product of a coding CDL could be used in conjunction with a small molecule synthetic ligand to stabilize a CDL fusion protein when cell division and/or proliferation is desirable. In the absence of a stabilizer, destabilized-CDL-protein will be degraded by the cell, which in turn would stop proliferation. When the stabilizer compound is added, it would bind to the destabilized-CDL-protein, which would not be degraded, thereby allowing the cell to proliferate.

    [0111] For example, transcription activator-like effector (TALE) technology (Maeder et al., 2013) could be combined with dimerizer-regulated expression induction (Pollock and Clackson, 2002). The TALE technology could be used to generate a DNA binding domain designed to be specific to a sequence, placed together with a minimal promoter replacing the promoter of a CDL. The TALE DNA binding domain also extended with a drug dimerizing domain. The latter can bind to another engineered protein having corresponding dimerizing domain and a transcriptional activation domain. (FIG. 1C)

    [0112] For example, referring to FIG. 1D, a reverse-cumate-Trans-Activator (rcTA) may be inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the CDL, such that it will be expressed by the endogenous CDL promoter. A 6-times repeat of a Cumate Operator (6xCuO) may be inserted just before the translational start (ATG) of CDL. In the absence of cumate in the system, rcTA cannot bind to the 6xCuO, so the CDL will not be transcribed because the 6xCuO is not active. When cumate is added, it will form a complex with rcTA, enabling binding to 6xCuO and enabling CDL transcription (Mullick et al., 2006).

    [0113] For example, referring to FIG. 1E, a retinoid X receptor (RXR) and an N-terminal truncation of ecdysone receptor (EcR) fused to the activation domain of Vp16 (VpEcR) may be inserted in the 5' untranslated region of a CDL such that they are co-expressed by an endogenous CDL promoter. Ecdysone responsive element (EcRE), with a downstream minimal promoter, may also be inserted in the CDL, just upstream of the starting codon. Co-expressed RXR and VpEcR can heterodimerize with each other. In the absence of ecdysone or a synthetic drug analog muristerone A, dimerized RXR/VpEcR cannot bind to EcRE, so the CDL is not transcribed. In the presence of ecdysone or muristerone A, dimerized RXR/VpEcR can bind to EcRE, such that the CDL is transcribed (No et al., 1996).

    [0114] For example, referring to FIG. 1F, a transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), together with ferritin, may be inserted in the 5' untranslated region of a CDL and co-expressed by an endogenous CDL promoter. A promoter inducible by NFAT (NFATre) may also be inserted in the CDL, just upstream of the starting codon. In a normal environment, the NFAT promoter is not active. However, upon exposure to low-frequency radio waves, TRPV1 and ferritin create a wave of Ca++ entering the cell, which in turn converts cytoplasmatic-NFAT (NFATc) to nuclear-NFAT (NFATn), that ultimately will activate the NFATre and transcribe the CDL (Stanley et al., 2015).

    [0115] For example, referring to FIG. 1G, a CDL may be functionally divided in to parts/domains: 5'-CDL and 3'CDL, and a FKBP peptide sequence may be inserted into each domain. An IRES (internal ribosomal entry site) sequence may be placed between the two domains, which will be transcribed simultaneously by a CDL promoter but will generate two separate proteins. Without the presence of an inducer, the two separate CDL domains will be functionally inactive. Upon introduction of a dimerization agent, such as rapamycin or AP20187, the FKBP peptides will dimerize, bringing together the 5' and 3' CDL parts and reconstituting an active protein (Rollins et al., 2000).

    Methods of Controlling Division of an Animal Cell



    [0116] In an aspect, a method of controlling division of an animal cell is provided herein.

    [0117] The method comprises providing an animal cell. For example, the animal cell may be an avian or mammalian cell. For example, the mammalian cell may be an isolated human or non-human cell that is pluripotent (e.g., embryonic stem cell or iPS cell), multipotent, monopotent progenitor, or terminally differentiated. The mammalian cell may be derived from a pluripotent, multipotent, monopotent progenitor, or terminally differentiated cell. The mammalian cell may be a somatic stem cell, a multipotent or monopotent progenitor cell, a multipotent somatic cell or a cell derived from a somatic stem cell, a multipotent progenitor cell or a somatic cell. Preferably, the animal cell is amenable to genetic modification. Preferably, the animal cell is deemed by a user to have therapeutic value, meaning that the cell may be used to treat a disease, disorder, defect or injury in a subject in need of treatment for same. In various embodiments, the non-human mammalian cell may be a mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell. In a preferred embodiment, the animal cell is a human cell.

    [0118] The method further comprises genetically modifying in the animal cell a CDL. The step of genetically modifying the CDL comprises introducing into the host animal cell an iNEP, such as one or more ALINK systems or one or more of an ALINK system and an EARC system. Techniques for introducing into animal cells various genetic modifications, such as negative selectable marker systems and inducible activator-based gene expression systems, are known in the art, including techniques for targeted (i.e., non-random), compound heterozygous and homozygous introduction of same. In cases involving use of EARC modifications, the modification should ensure that functional CDL expression can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles. For example, targeted replacement of a CDL or a CDL with a DNA vector comprising one or more of an ALINKalone or together with one or more EARC systems may be carried out to genetically modify the host animal cell.

    [0119] The method further comprises permitting division of the genetically modified animal cell(s) comprising the iNEP system.

    [0120] For example, permitting division of ALINK-modified cells by maintaining the genetically modified animal cells comprising the ALINK system in the absence of an inducer of the corresponding ALINK negative selectable marker. Cell division and proliferation may be carried out in vitro and/or in vivo. For example, genetically modified cells may be allowed to proliferate and expand in vitro until a population of cells that is large enough for therapeutic use has been generated. For example, one or more of the genetically modified animal cell(s) cells that have been proliferated and expanded may be introduced into a host (e.g., by grafting) and allowed to proliferate further in vivo. In various embodiment, ablating and/or inhibiting division of the genetically modified animal cell(s) comprising an ALINK system, may be done, in vitro and/or in vivo, by exposing the genetically modified animal cell(s) comprising the ALINK system to the inducer of the corresponding negative selectable marker. Such exposure will ablate proliferating cells and/or inhibit the genetically modified animal cell's rate of proliferation by killing at least a portion of proliferating cells. Ablation of genetically modified cells and/or inhibition of cell proliferation of the genetically modified animal cells may be desirable if, for example, the cells begin dividing at a rate that is faster than normal in vitro or in vivo, which could lead to tumor formation and/or undesirable cell growth.

    [0121] For example, permitting division of EARC-modified cells by maintaining the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system in the presence of an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system. Cell division and proliferation may be carried out in vitro and/or in vivo. For example, genetically modified cells may be allowed to proliferate and expand in vitro until a population of cells that is large enough for therapeutic use has been generated. For example, one or more of the genetically modified animal cell(s) cells that have been proliferated and expanded may be introduced into a host (e.g., by grafting) and allowed to proliferate further in vivo. In various embodiment, ablating and/or inhibiting division of the genetically modified animal cell(s) comprising the EARC system, may be done, in vitro and/or in vivo, by preventing or inhibiting exposure the genetically modified animal cell(s) comprising the EARC system to the inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system. The absence of the inducer will ablate proliferating cells and/or inhibit the genetically modified animal cell's expansion by proliferation such that it is too slow to contribute to tumor formation. Ablation and/or inhibition of cell division of the genetically modified animal cells may be desirable if, for example, the cells begin dividing at a rate that is faster than normal in vitro or in vivo, which could lead to tumor formation and/or undesirable cell growth.

    [0122] For example, in various embodiments of the method provided herein, set forth in various Examples below, the inducers are doxycycline and ganciclovir.

    [0123] In an embodiment, doxycycline may be delivered to cells in vitro by adding to cell growth media a concentrated solution of the inducer, such as, for example, about 1 mg/ml of Dox dissolved in H2O to a final concentration in growth media of about 1 µg/ml. In vivo, doxycycline may be administered to a subject orally, for example through drinking water (e.g., at a dosage of about 5-10 mg/kg) or eating food (e.g., at a dosage of about 100 mg/kg), by injection (e.g., I.V. or I.P. at a dosage of about 50 mg/kg) or by way of tablets (e.g., at a dosage of about 1-4 mg/kg).

    [0124] In an embodiment, ganciclovir may be delivered to cells in vitro by adding to cell growth media a concentrated solution of the inducer, such as, for example, about 10 mg/ml of GCV dissolved in H2O to a final concentration in growth media of about 0.25-25 µg/ml. In vivo, GCV may be administered to a subject orally, for example through drinking water (e.g., at a dosage of about 4-20 mg/kg) or eating food (e.g., at a dosage of about 4-20 mg/kg), by injection (e.g., at a dosage of about I.V. or I.P. 50 mg/kg) or by way of tablets (e.g., at a dosage of about 4-20 mg/kg).

    [0125] In an embodiment, to assess whether the inducers are working in vitro, cell growth and cell death may be measured (e.g., by cell counting and viability assay), for example every 24 hours after treatment begins. To assess whether the inducers are working in vivo, the size of teratomas generated from genetically modified pluripotent cells may be measured, for example, every 1-2 days after treatment begins.

    [0126] In a particularly preferred embodiment of the method provided herein, an animal cell may be genetically modified to comprise both ALINK and EARC systems. The ALINK and EARC systems may target the same or different CDLs. Such cells may be desirable for certain applications, for example, because they provide a user with at least two mechanisms for ablating and/or inhibiting cell division and/or ablating and/or inhibiting proliferation by killing at least a portion of proliferating cells.

    [0127] It is contemplated herein that the method provided herein may be used to control division and/or proliferation of an avian cell, such as, for example, a chicken cell.

    Cells Engineered to Comprise at Least One Mechanism for Controlling Cell Division



    [0128] In an aspect, an animal cell genetically modified to comprise at least one mechanism for controlling cell division and/or proliferation, and populations of same, are provided herein. For example, the mammalian cell may be an isolated human or non-human cell that is pluripotent (e.g., embryonic stem cell or iPS cell), multipotent, monopotent progenitor, or terminally differentiated. The mammalian cell may be derived from a pluripotent, multipotent, monopotent progenitor, or terminally differentiated cell. The mammalian cell may be a somatic stem cell, a multipotent, monopotent progenitor, progenitor cell or a somatic cell or a cell derived from a somatic stem cell, a multipotent or monopotent progenitor cell or a somatic cell. Preferably, the animal cell is amenable to genetic modification. Preferably, the animal cell is deemed by a user to have therapeutic value, meaning that the cell may be used to treat a disease, disorder, defect or injury in a subject in need of treatment for same. In some embodiments, the non-human mammalian cell may be a mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, or non-human primate cell.

    [0129] The genetically modified cells provided herein comprise one or more genetic modification of one or more CDL. The genetic modification of a CDL being an ALINK system and, in the case of CDLs, one or more of an ALINK system and an EARC system, such as, for example, one or more of the ALINK and/or EARC systems described herein. For example, a genetically modified animal cell provided herein may comprise: an ALINK system in one or more CDLs; an EARC system in one or more CDLs; or ALINK and EARC systems in one or more CDLS, wherein the ALINK and EARC systems correspond to the same or different CDLs. The genetically modified cells may comprise homozygous, heterozygous, hemizygous or compound heterozygous ALINK genetic modifications. In the case of EARC modifications, the modification should ensure that functional CDL expression can only be generated through EARC-modified alleles.

    [0130] It is contemplated that the genetically modified cells provided herein may be useful in cellular therapies directed to treat a disease, disorder or injury and/or in cellular therapeutics that comprise controlled cellular delivery of compounds and/or compositions (e.g., natural or engineered biologics). As indicated above, patient safety is a concern in cellular therapeutics, particularly with respect to the possibility of malignant growth arising from therapeutic cell grafts. For cell-based therapies where intensive proliferation of the therapeutic cell graft is not required, it is contemplated that the genetically modified cells comprising one or more iNEP modifications, as described herein, would be suitable for addressing therapeutic and safety needs. For cell-based therapies where intensive proliferation of the therapeutic cell graft is required, it is contemplated that the genetically modified cells comprising two or more iNEP modifications, as described herein, would be suitable for addressing therapeutic and safety needs.

    [0131] It is contemplated herein that avian cells, such as chicken cells, may be provided, wherein the avian cells comprise the above genetic modifications.

    Molecular Tools for Targeting CDLs



    [0132] In an aspect, various DNA vectors for modifying expression of a CDL are provided herein.

    [0133] In one embodiment, the DNA vector comprises an ALINK system, the ALINK system comprising a DNA sequence encoding a negative selectable marker. The expression of the negative selectable marker is linked to that of a CDL.

    [0134] In one embodiment, the DNA vector comprises an EARC system, the EARC system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to a CDL, wherein expression of the CDL is inducible by an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.

    [0135] In one embodiment, the DNA vector comprises an ALINK system, as described herein, and an EARC system, as described herein. When such a cassette is inserted into a host cell, CDL transcription product expression may be prevented and/or inhibited by an inducer of the negative selectable marker of the ALINK system and expression of the CDL is inducible by an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system of the EARC system.

    [0136] In various embodiments, the CDL in the DNA vector is a CDL listed in Table 2.

    [0137] In various embodiments, the ALINK system in the DNA vector is a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ ganciclovir system, a cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine system, a carboxyl esterase/irinotecan system or an iCasp9/AP1903 system.

    [0138] In various embodiments, the EARC system in the DNA vector is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system.

    Kits



    [0139] The present disclosure contemplates kits for carrying out the methods disclosed herein. Such kits typically comprise two or more components required for using CDLs and/or CDLs to control cell proliferation. Components of the kit include, but are not limited to, one or more of compounds, reagents, containers, equipment and instructions for using the kit. Accordingly, the methods described herein may be performed by utilizing pre-packaged kits provided herein. In one embodiment, the kit comprises one or more DNA vectors and instructions. In some embodiments, the instructions comprise one or more protocols for introducing the one or more DNA vectors into host cells. In some embodiments, the kit comprises one or more controls.

    [0140] In one embodiment, the kit comprises one or more DNA vector for modifying expression of a CDL, as described herein. By way of example, the kit may contain a DNA vector comprising an ALINK system; and/or a DNA vector comprising an EARC system; and/or a DNA vector comprising an ALINK system and an EARC system; and instructions for targeted replacement of a CDL and/or CDL in an animal cell using one or more of the DNA vectors. In preferred embodiments, the kit may further comprise one or more inducers (e.g., drug inducer) that correspond with the ALINK and/or EARC systems provided in the DNA vector(s) of the kit.

    [0141] The following non-limiting examples illustrative of the disclosure are provided.

    Example 1: Generation of ALINK-Modified Cells (Mouse and Human)



    [0142] In Example 1, construction of ALINK (HSV-TK) vectors targeting Cdk1/CDK1 and use of same to control cell proliferation in mouse and human ES cells, by way of killing at least a portion of proliferating cells, is described. In this example, Cdk1/CDK1 is the CDL and HSV-TK is the negative selectable marker.

    [0143] Cdk1/CDK1 is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise a homozygous ALINK between the CDK1 locus and HSV-TK, all mitotically active cells express CDK1 and HSV-TK. Thus, the ALINK-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated by treatment with GCV (the pro-drug of HSV-TK). If all the functional CDK1 expressing allele is ALINK modified and the cells were to silence HSV-TK expression then likely CDK1 expression would also be silenced and the cells would no longer be able to divide. Quiescent (i.e., non-dividing) cells do not express Cdk1/CDK1. Thus, ALINK-modified quiescent cells would not express the Cdk1/CDK1-HSV-TK link.

    [0144] In Example 1, the transcriptional link between Cdk1/CDK1 and HSV-TK was achieved by homologous recombination-based knock-ins.

    METHODS


    Generation of Target Vectors



    [0145] Mouse Target Vector I: The mouse Cdk1 genomic locus is shown in FIG. 2A. Referring to FIG. 2B, two DNA fragments: 5TK (SEQ ID NO: 1) and 3TK (SEQ ID NO: 2) (Sall-F2A-5'TK.007-PB 5'LTR-Notl-Sacll and Sall-Sacll-3'TK.007-PB 3'LTR-3'TK.007-T2A-Xhol-mCherry-Nhel) were obtained by gene synthesis in a pUC57 vector (GenScript). Fragment 5TK was digested with Sall + Sacll and cloned into 3TK with the same digestion to generate pUC57-5TK-3TK. A PGK-Neomycin cassette was obtained by cutting the plasmid pBluescript-M214 (SEQ ID NO: 3) with Notl + HindIII and it was ligated into the Notl + Sacll site of pUC57-5TK-3TK to generate the ALINK cassette to be inserted at the 3' end of Cdk1 (i.e., the CDL).

    [0146] Homology arms for the insertion ALINK at the 3' of the CDL: Cdk1 DNA coding sequences were cloned by recombineering: DH10B E. coli cell strain containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) with the genomic sequences of Cdk1 (SEQ ID NO: 4), which were purchased from The Center for Applied Genomics (TCAG). The recombineering process was mediated by the plasmid pSC101-BAD-γβα Red/ET (pRET) (GeneBridges, Heidelberg Germany). pRET was first electroporated into BAC-containing DH10B E. coli at 1.8kV, 25µF, 4000hms (BioRad GenePulserl/II system, BioRad, ON, CA) and then selected for choloramphenicol and tetracycline resistance. Short homology arms (50bp) (SEQ ID NOs: 5 and 6 respectively) spanning the ALINK insertion point (5' and 3' of the Cdk1 stop codon) were added by PCR to the cassette, F2A-5'TK-PB-PGKneo-PB-3'TK-T2A-cherry. This PCR product was then electroporated into Bac+pRET DH10B E. coli under the conditions described above and then selected for kanamycin resistance. The final targeting cassette, consisting of 755bp and 842 base pair (bp) homology arms (SEQ ID NOs: 7 and 8, respectively), was retrieved by PCR with primers (SEQ ID NOs: 9 and 10, respectively) and cloned into a pGemT-Easy vector to generate mouse Target Vector I. The critical junction regions of the vector were sequenced at TCAG and confirmed.

    [0147] Mouse Target Vector II: referring to FIG. 2D, F2A-loxP-PGK-neo-pA-loxP-Ascl (SEQ ID NO: 11) was PCR amplified from pLoxPNeo1 vector and TA cloned into a pDrive vector (Qiagen). Ascl-TK-T2A-mCherry-EcoRI (SEQ ID NO: 12) was PCR amplified from excised TC allele I, and TA cloned into the pDrive vector. The latter fragment was then cloned into the former vector by BamHI + Ascl restriction sites. This F2A-loxP-PGK-neo-pA-loxP-TK-T2A-mCherry cassette was inserted between mouse Cdk1 homology arms by GeneArt® Seamless Cloning and Assembly Kit (Life Technologies). To generate the puromycin (puro) version vector, PGK-puro-pA fragment (SEQ ID NO: 13) was cut from pNewDockZ with BamHI + Notl and T4 blunted. The neo version vector was cut with Ascl+Clal, T4 blunted and ligated with PGK-puro-pA.

    [0148] Human Target Vector I: Similar to mouse Target Vector I, 847 bp upstream of human CDK1 stop codon (SEQ ID NO: 14) + F2A-5'TK-PB-PGKneo-PB-3'TK-T2A-cherry (SEQ ID NO: 15) + 831 bp downstream of human CDK1 stop codon (SEQ ID NO: 16) was generated by recombineering technology. A different version of the vector containing a puromycin resistant cassette for selection, was generated to facilitate one-shot generation of homozygous targeting: Agel-PGK-puro-pA-Fsel (SEQ ID NO: 17) was amplified from pNewDockZ vector, digested and cloned into neo version vector cut by Agel+Fsel.

    [0149] Human Target Vector II: BamHI-F2A-loxP-PGK-neo-pA-loxP-TK-T2A-mCherry (SEQ ID NO: 18) and BamHI-F2A-loxP-PGK-puro-pA-loxP-TK-T2A-mCherry (SEQ ID NO: 19) were amplified from the corresponding mouse Target Vector II, and digested with BamHI+SgrAI. The mCherry (3' 30bp)-hCDK13'HA-pGemEasy-hCDK15'HA-BamHI (SEQ ID NO: 20) was PCR-amplified and also digested with BamHI+SgrAI. The neo and puromycin version of human Target Vector II were generated by ligation of the homology arm backbone and the neo or puromycin version ALINK cassette.

    [0150] Human Target Vector III: Target vectors with no selection cassette were made for targeting with fluorescent marker (mCherry or eGFP) by FACS and avoiding the step of excision of selection cassette. BamHI-F2A-TK-T2A-mCherry-SgrAI (SEQ ID NO: 58) was PCR amplified from excised TC allele I, digested with BamHI+SgrAI, and ligated with digested mCherry (3' 30bp)-hCDK13'HA-pGemEasy-hCDK15'HA-BamHI (SEQ ID NO: 20). The CRISPR PAM site in the target vector was mutagenized with primers PAM_fwd (SEQ ID NO: 59) and PAM_rev (SEQ ID NO: 60) using site-directed PCR-based mutagenesis protocol. The GFP version vector was generated by fusion of PCR-amplified Xhol-GFP (SEQ ID NO: 61) and pGemT-hCdk1-TK-PAMmut (SEQ ID NO: 62) with NEBuiler HiFi DNA Assembly Cloning Kit (New England Biolabs Inc.).

    Generation of CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids



    [0151] CRISPR/Cas9-assisted gene targeting was used to achieve high targeting efficiency (Cong et al., 2013). Guide sequences for CRISPR/Cas9 were analyzed using the online CRISPR design tool (http://crispr.mit.edu) (Hsu et al., 2013).

    [0152] CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids pX335-mCdkTK-A (SEQ ID NO: 21) and pX335-mCdkTK-B (SEQ ID NO: 22) were designed to target mouse Cdk1 at SEQ ID NO: 23.

    [0153] CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids pX330-hCdkTK-A (SEQ ID NO: 24) and pX459-hCdkTK-A (SEQ ID NO: 25) were designed to target the human Cdk1 at SEQ ID NO: 26.

    [0154] CRISPRs were generated according to the suggested protocol with backbone plasmids purchased from Addgene. (Ran et al., 2013).

    Generation of ALINK-Modified Mouse ES Cells



    [0155] Mouse ES Cell Culture: Mouse ES cells are cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) (high glucose, 4500 mg/liter) (Invitrogen), supplemented with 15% Fetal Bovine Serum (Invitrogen), 1 mM Sodium pyruvate (Invitrogen), 0.1 mM MEM Non-essential Amino-acids (Invitrogen), 2mM GlutaMAX (Invitrogen), 0.1 mM 2-mEARCaptoethanol (Sigma), 50U/ml each Penicillin/ Streptomycin (Invitrogen) and 1000U/ml Leukemia-inhibiting factor (LIF) (Chemicon). Mouse ES cells are passed with 0.25% trypsin and 0.1% EDTA.

    [0156] Targeting: 5x105 mouse C57BL/6 C2 ES cells (Gertsenstein et al., 2010) were transfected with 2ug DNA (Target Vector:0.5 µg, CRISPR vector: 1.5 µg) by JetPrime transfection (Polyplus). 48h after transfection cells were selected for G418 or/and puromycin-resistant. Resistant clones were picked independently and transferred to 96-well plates. 96-well plates were replicated for freezing and genotyping (SEQ ID NOs: 27, 28, 29 and 30). PCR-positive clones were expanded, frozen to multiple vials, and genotyped by southern blotting.

    [0157] Excision of the selection cassette: correctly targeted ES clones were transfected with Episomal-hyPBase (for Target Vector I) (SEQ ID NO: 34) or pCAGGs-NLS-Cre-Ires-Puromycin(for Target Vector II) (SEQ ID NO: 35). 2-3 days following transfection, cells were trypsinized and plated clonally (1000-2000 cells per 10cm plate). mCherry-positive clones were picked and transferred to 96-well plates independently and genotyped by PCR (SEQ ID NOs: 31 and 36) and Southern blots to confirm the excision event. The junctions of the removal region were PCR-amplified, sequenced and confirmed to be intact and seamless without frame shift.

    [0158] Homozygous targeting: ES clones that had already been correctly targeted with a neo version target vector and excised of selection cassette were transfected again with a puromycin-resistant version of the target vector. Selection of puromycin was added after 48 hours of transfection, then colonies were picked and analyzed, as described above (SEQ ID NOs: 31 and 32). Independent puro-resistant clones were grown on gelatin, then DNA was extracted for PCR to confirm the absence of a wild-type allele band (SEQ ID NOs: 31, 33).

    Generation of ALINK-Modified Human ES Cells



    [0159] Human ES Cell Culture: Human CA1 or H1 (Adewumi et al., 2007) ES cells were cultured with mTeSR1 media (STEMCELL Technologies) plus penicillin-streptomycin (Gibco by Life Technologies) on Geltrex (Life Technologies) feeder-free condition. Cells were passed by TrypIE Express (Life Technologies) or Accutase (STEMCELL Technologies) and plated on mTeSR media plus ROCK inhibitor (STEMCELL Technologies) for the first 24h, then changed to mTeSR media. Half of cells from a fully confluent 6-well plate were frozen in 1 ml 90% FBS (Life Technologies) + 10%DMSO (Sigma).

    [0160] Targeting: 6x106 CA1 hES cells were transfected by Neon protocol 14 with 24ug DNA (Target Vector: pX330-hCdkTK-A = 18ug:6ug). After transfection, cells were plated on four 10-cm plates. G418 and/or puromycin selection was started 48h after transfection. Independent colonies were picked to 96-well plates. Each plate was duplicated for further growth and genotyping (SEQ ID NOs: 37, 38, 39 and 40). PCR-positive clones were expanded, frozen to multiple vials and genotyped with southern blotting.

    [0161] Excision of the selection cassette: ALINK-targeted ES clones were transfected with hyPBase or pCAGGs-NLS-Cre-IRES-Puromycin and plated in a 6-well plate. When cells reached confluence in 6-well plates, cells were suspended in Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) (Ca2+/ Mg2+ Free) (25 mM HEPES pH7.0, 1% Fetal Calf Serum), and mCherry-positive cells were sorted to a 96-well plate using an ASTRIOS EQ cell sorter (Beckman Coulter).

    [0162] Homozygous Targeting: Homozygous targeting can be achieved by the same way as in the mouse system or by transfecting mCherry and eGFP human target vector III plus pX330-hCdkTK-A or pX459-hCdkTK-A followed by FACS sorting for mCherry-and-eGFP double-positive cells.

    Teratoma Assay



    [0163] Matrigel Matrix High Concentration (Corning) was diluted 1:3 with cold DMEM media on ice. 5-10x106 cells were suspended into 100ul of 66% DMEM + 33% Matrigel media and injected subcutaneously into either or both dorsal flanks of B6N mice (for mouse C2 ES cells) and NOD-SCID mice (for human ES cells). Teratomas formed 2-4 weeks after injection. Teratoma size was measured by caliper, and teratoma volume was calculated using the formula V= (LxWxH)π/6. GCV/PBS treatment was performed by daily injection with 50mg/kg into the peritoneal cavity with different treatment durations. At the end of treatment, mice were sacrificed and tumors were dissected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for histology analysis.

    Mammary aland tumor assay



    [0164] Chimeras of Cdk1+/+ +/loxp-alink mouse C2 ES and CD-1 backgrounds were generated through diploid aggregation, and then were bred with B6N WT mice to generate Cdk1+/+,+/loxp-alink mice through germline transmission. Cdk1+/+, +/loxp-alink mice were bred with Ella-Cre mice to generate Cdk1+/+, +/alink mice. Cdk1+/+,+/alink mice were then bred with MMTV-PyMT mice (Guy et al., 1992) to get double-positive pups with mammary gland tumors and ALINK modification. Mammary gland tumors with fail-safe modification were isolated, cut into 1mm3 pieces, and transplanted into the 4th mammary gland of wild-type B6N females. GCV/PBS treatment was injected every other day at the dosage of 50mg/kg into the peritoneal cavity with different treatment durations. Mammary gland tumor size was measured by calipers and calculated with the formula V=Length*Width*Height* π/6.

    Neuronal progenitor vs. neuron killing assay



    [0165] Cdk1+/+, +/alink human CA1 ES cells were differentiated to neural epithelial progenitor cells (NEPs). NEPs were subsequently cultured under conditions for differentiation into neurons, thereby generating a mixed culture of non-dividing neurons and dividing NEPs, which were characterized by immunostaining of DAPI, Ki67 and Sox2. GCV (10uM) was provided to the mixed culture every other day for 20 days. Then, GCV was withdrawn from culture for 4 days before cells were fixed by 4% PFA. Fixed cells were immunostained for proliferation marker Ki67 to check whether all the leftover cells have exited cell cycle, and mature neutron marker beta-Tublinlll.

    RESULTS



    [0166] The mouse Cdk1 genomic locus is shown in FIG. 2a. Two vectors targeting murine Cdk1 were generated (FIGs. 2B and D), each configured to modify the 3'UTR of the Cdk1 gene (FIG. 2A) by replacing the STOP codon of the last exon with an F2A (Szymczak et al., 2004) sequence followed by an enhanced HSV-TK (TK.007 (Preuß et al., 2010)) gene connected to an mCherry reporter with a T2A (Szymczak et al., 2004) sequence.

    [0167] Referring to FIG. 2B and mouse target vector I, the PGK-neo-pA selectable marker (necessary for targeting) was inserted into the TK.007 open-reading-frame with a piggyBac transposon, interrupting TK expression. The piggyBac transposon insertion was designed such that transposon removal restored the normal ORF of TK.007, resulting in expression of functional thymidine kinase (FIG. 2C).

    [0168] Referring to FIG. 2D and mouse target vector II, the neo cassette was loxP-flanked and inserted between the F2A and TK.007.

    [0169] Target vectors I and II had short (~800 bp) homology arms, which were sufficient for CRISPRs assisted homologous recombination targeting and made the PCR genotyping for identifying targeting events easy and reliable. The CRISPRs facilitated high targeting frequency at 40% PCR-positive of drug-resistant clones (FIG. 3D).

    [0170] Both the piggyBac-inserted and the loxP-flanked neo cassettes were removed by transient expression of the piggyBac transposase and Cre recombinase, respectively, resulting in cell lines comprising alleles shown in FIGs. 2C and 2E, respectively. Referring to FIG. 2E, the remaining loxP site was in frame with TK and added 13 amino acids to the N-terminus of TK. The TK functionality test (GCV killing) proved that this N-terminus insertion did not interfere with TK function.

    [0171] Referring to FIG. 4, assisted with CRISPR-Cas9 technology, homozygous ALINK can also be generated efficiently in two different human ES cell lines, CA1 and H1 (Adewumi et al., 2007).

    [0172] Referring to FIG. 5A and 5C, the data indicate that: i) the TK.007 insertion into the 3'UTR of Cdk1 does not interfere with Cdk1 expression; ii) the ALINK-modified homozygous mouse C2 ES cells properly self-renew under ES cell conditions and differentiate in vivo and form complex teratomas; iii) the ALINK-modified homozygous human CA1 ES cells properly self-renew under ES cell conditions and differentiate in vivo and form complex teratomas.

    [0173] Referring to FIG. 6, the data indicate that: i) TK.007 is properly expressed; GCV treatment of undifferentiated ES cells ablates both homozygously- and heterozygously-modified cells (FIG. 6A); and ii) the T2A-linked mCherry is constitutively expressed in ES cells (FIG. 6B).

    [0174] Referring to FIG. 7A, the data indicate that in hosts comprising ALINK-modified cell grafts, GCV treatment of subcutaneous teratomas comprising the ALINK-modified ES cells stops teratoma growth by ablating dividing cells. GCV treatment did not affect quiescent cells of the teratoma. A brief (3 week) GCV treatment period of the recipient was sufficient to render the teratomas dormant. Referring to FIG. 7B, in NOD scid gamma mouse hosts comprising ALINK-modified human cell grafts, two rounds of GCV treatment (1st round 15 days + 2nd round 40 days) rendered the teratomas to dormancy.

    [0175] Referring to FIG. 7C, in B6N hosts comprising ALINK-modified MMTV-PyMT-transformed mammary epithelial tumorigenic cell grafts, GCV treatment was able to render the mammary gland tumors to dormancy.

    [0176] Referring to FIGS. 7D-F, in a mixed culture of non-dividing neurons and dividing NEPs, all cells having been derived from Cdk1+/+, +/alink human CA1 ES cells, GCV killed the dividing NEPs but did not kill the non-dividing neurons.

    [0177] In an embodiment, it is contemplated that one or more dividing cells could escape GCV-mediated ablation if an inactivating mutation were to occur in the HSV-TK component of the CDL-HSV-TK transcriptional link. To address the probability of cell escape, the inventors considered the general mutation rate per cell division (i.e., 10-6) and determined that the expected number of cell divisions required to create 1 mutant cell would be 16 in cells comprising a heterozygous Cdk1 - HSV-TK transcriptional link, and 30 cell divisions in cells comprising a homozygous Cdk1 - HSV-TK transcriptional link. This means that if a single heterozygous ALINK-modified cell is expanded to 216 (i.e., 65,000 cells) and a single homozygous ALINK-modified cell is expanded to 230 (i.e., 1 billion cells), then an average of one mutant cell comprising lost HSV-TK activity per heterozygous and homozygous cell population would be generated (FIG. 8). Accordingly, the inventors have determined that homozygous ALINK-modified cells would be very safe for use in cell-based therapies. Another way of calculating the level of safety of cell therapy was presented above.

    Example 2: Generation of EARC-Modified Mouse ES Cells in the Cdk1 Locus



    [0178] In Example 2, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting Cdk1 and use of same to control cell division in mouse ES cells is described. In this example, Cdk1/CDK1 is the CDL, which is targeted with an inducible gene expression system, wherein a dox-bridge is inserted and doxycycline induces expression of the CDL.

    [0179] As described above, Cdk1/CDK1 is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise an EARC (dox-bridge) insertion at the Cdk1 locus, cell division is only possible in the presence of the inducer (doxycycline), which permits expression of Cdk1. Thus, cell division of EARC-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated in the absence of doxycycline.

    [0180] In Example 2, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the Cdk1 gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS


    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridae



    [0181] A fragment containing an rTTA coding sequence (SEQ ID NO: 41) followed by a 3x SV40 pA signal was amplified by PCR from a pPB-CAGG-rtta plasmid, using primers containing a lox71 site added at the 5' of the rTTA (rtta3xpaFrw1 (SEQ ID NO: 63), rtta3xpaRev1(SEQ ID NO: 64)). This fragment was subcloned into a pGemT plasmid, to generate pGem-bridge-step1. Subsequently, a Sacll fragment containing a TetO promoter (SEQ ID NO: 42) (derived from pPB-TetO-IRES-mCherry) was cloned into the Sacll site of the pGem-bridge-step1, generating a pGem-bridge-step2. The final element of the bridge was cloned by inserting a BamHI IRES-Puromycin fragment (SEQ ID NO: 43) into the BamHI site of the pGem-bridge-step2, generating a pGem-bridge-step3. The 5' homology arm was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 900 bp fragment (SEQ ID NO: 44) from C57/B6 genomic DNA (primers cdk5FrwPst (SEQ ID NO: 45) and cdk5RevSpe (SEQ ID NO: 46) and cloning it into Sbfl and Spel of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 3' homology arm (900 bp) (SEQ ID NO: 47) was amplified by PCR using primers dkex3_5'FSpe (SEQ ID NO: 48), cdkex3_3lox (SEQ ID NO: 49) and cloned into Sphl and Ncol to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge (SEQ ID NO: 148).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids



    [0182] A double-nickase strategy was chosen to minimize the possibility of off-target mutations. Guide RNA sequences (SEQ ID NOs: 50, 51, 52 and 53) were cloned into pX335 (obtained from Addgene, according to the suggested protocol) (Ran et al., 2013).

    Generation of EARC-modified Mouse ES cells



    [0183] Mouse ES cell culture: All genetic manipulations were performed on a C57BL/6N mouse ES cell line previously characterized (C2) (Gertsenstein etal., 2010). Mouse ES cells were grown in media based on high-glucose DMEM (Invitrogen), supplemented with 15% ES cell-grade FBS (Gibco), 0.1 mM 2-mEARCaptophenol, 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 0.1 mM non-essential amino acids, and 2,000 units/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Cells were maintained at 37°C in 5% CO2 on mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs).

    [0184] Targeting: Plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components (pX335-cdk-ex3A (SEQ ID NO: 151) and px335-cdk-ex3B (SEQ ID NO: 152)) and the targeting plasmid (pBridge; SEQ ID NO: 148) were co-transfected in mouse ES cells using FuGENE HD (Clontech), according to the manufacturer's instructions, using a FuGENE:DNA ratio of 8:2, (2 µg total DNA: 250 ng for each pX330 and 1500 ng for pBridge). Typical transfection was performed on 3x105cells, plated on 35 mm plates. Upon transfection, doxycycline was added to the media to a final concentration of 1 µg/ml. 2 days following transfection, cells were plated on a 100 mm plate and selection was applied with 1 µg/ml of puromycin. Puromycin-resistant colonies were picked 8-10 days after start of selection and maintained in 96 well plates until PCR-screening.

    [0185] Genotyping: DNA was extracted from ES cells directly in 96 well plates according to (Nagy et al., 2003). Clones positive for correct insertion by homologous recombination of pBridge in the 5' of the Cdk1 gene were screened by PCR using primers spanning the 5' and 3' homology arms (primers rttaRev (SEQ ID NO: 54), ex3_5scr (SEQ ID NO: 55) for the 5' arm, primers CMVforw (SEQ ID NO: 56), ex3_3scr (SEQ ID NO: 57) for the 3' arm).

    [0186] Targeted cell growth: F3-bridge targeted cells were trypsinized and plated on gelatinized 24 well plates at a density of 5x104 cells per well. Starting one day after plating, cell counting was performed by trypsinizing 3 wells for each condition and counting live cells using a Countess automated cell counter (Life Technologies). Doxycycline was removed or reduced to 0.05 ng/ml 2 days after plating and live cells were counted every day up to 18 days in the different conditions.

    [0187] Cre-excision: F3-bridge cells (grown in Dox+ media) were trypsinized and transfected with 2 µg of a plasmid expressing Cre (pCAGG-NLS-Cre). Transfection was performed using JetPrime (Polyplus) according to the manufacturer's protocol. After transfection, doxycycline was removed and colonies were trypsinized and expanded as a pool.

    [0188] Quantitative PCR: Total RNA was extracted from cells treated for 2 days with 1 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml of Dox using the GeneElute total RNA miniprep kit (Sigma) according to the manufacturer's protocol. cDNA was generated by reverse transcription of 1 µg of RNA using the QuantiTect reverse transcription kit (Qiagen), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Real-time qPCR were set up in a BioRad CFX thermocycler, using SensiFast-SYBR qPCR mix (Bioline). The primers used were: qpcrcdk1_F (SEQ ID NO: 65), qpcrcdk1_R (SEQ ID NO:66) and actBf (SEQ ID NO: 67), actBr (SEQ ID NO: 68). Results were analyzed with the ΔΔCT method and normalized for beta-actin.

    RESULTS



    [0189] Referring to FIG. 9, the dox-bridge target vector, depicted in FIG. 9A, was used to generate three targeted C2 mouse ES cell lines (FIG. 9B). One of these cell lines was found to be a homozygous targeted line (3F in FIG. 9B) comprising a dox-bridge inserted by homologous recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Cdk1.

    [0190] As expected, this ES cell line grows only in the presence of doxycycline. In the presence of doxycycline, the Cdk1 promoter activity produced rtTA binds to TRE and initiates transcription of the Cdk1. Similarly to the 3' modification, the dox-bridge may be inserted into the 5'UTR into both alleles of Cdk1, to ensure that the CDL expression could occur only through EARC. An alternative is to generate null mutations in all the remaining, non-EARC modified alleles of CDL.

    [0191] Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 5 days (FIG. 10). Lowering the doxycycline concentration by 20x (50 ng/ml) compared to the concentration used for derivation and maintenance of the doc-bridged cell line, allowed some cells/colonies to survive the 5 days period (FIG. 11).

    [0192] Referring to FIG. 12, the dox-bridge was removable with a Cre recombinase mediated excision of the segment between the two lox71 sites, which restore the original endogenous expression regulation of the allele and rescues the cell lethality from the lack of doxycycline. These data indicate that the dox-bridge was working in the cells as predicted.

    [0193] Referring to FIG. 13, the inventors determined how doxycycline withdrawal affected elimination of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth in the presence and absent of doxycycline. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, upon withdrawal of doxycycline (Day 1) cells grew for only two days and then cells death began until no live cells were present on Day 9. A 20x lower doxycycline concentration (50ng/ml) provided after an initial 3 days of cell growth was sufficient to maintain a constant number of cells on the plates for at least five days (FIG. 13, light blue line). When the normal concentration of doxycycline was added back to the plate on day 10, cells started growing again as normal ES cells.

    [0194] It is contemplated that dividing cells could escape EARC (dox-bridge)-modification of Cdk1 when grown in media lacking doxycycline. To address the probability of cell escape, EARC (dox-bridge)-modified mouse ES cells were grown up to 100,000,000 cells/plate on ten plates in medium containing doxycycline. 300 GFP-positive wild-type ES cells (sentinels) were then mixed into each 10 plate of modified ES cells and doxycycline was withdrawn from the culture medium. Only GFP positive colonies were recovered (FIG. 14) indicating that there were no escapee dox-bridged ES cells among the 100,000,000 cells in the culture. Accordingly, the inventors have determined that EARC (dox-bridge)-modified ES cells would add an additional level of safety to ALINK modification for certain cell therapy applications, because loss of the dox-bridge is unlikely to occur by mutation and cell division is not possible in the absence of the inducer (doxycycline) due to the block of CDL expression.

    [0195] Referring to FIG. 15, the effect of high doxycycline concentration (10 µg/ml) on the growth of dox-bridged ES cells was examined. In the presence of high concentration doxycycline, the growth rate of dox-bridged ES cells stowed to a rate similar to that of cells grown in low concentration doxycycline. These data suggest that there is a range of doxycycline concentrations that may permit optimal Cdk1 expression for wild-type cell-like proliferation.

    Example 3: Generation of EARC-ALINK Modified Cells in the CDK1 locus (Mouse and Human)



    [0196] In Example 3, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting CDK1 and use of same to control cell division in both mouse and human ALINK-modified ES cells is described. In this example, Cdk1/CDK1 is the CDL, the dox-bridge is the EARC, and HSV-TK is the ALINK. CDL Cdk1 is modified with both EARC and ALINK systems in the homozygous form, wherein doxycycline is required to induce expression of the CDL, and wherein doxycycline and GCV together provide a way of killing the modified proliferating cells.

    [0197] In Example 3, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the CDK1 gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS



    [0198] Construction of mouse EARC targeting vector, CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids for mouse targeting are the same as in Example 2. Targeting and genotyping methods are also the same as described in Example 2 except that instead of C2 WT cells, Cdk1 (TK/TK) cells generated in Example 1 (FIG. 3A-3G) were used for transfection.

    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridae for human CDK1



    [0199] The 5' homology arm (SEQ ID NO: 69) was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 981 bp fragment from CA1 genomic DNA (primers hcdk5'F (SEQ ID NO: 70) and hcdk5'R (SEQ ID NO: 71) and cloning it into Sbfl of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 3' homology arm (943 bp; SEQ ID NO: 72) was amplified by PCR using primers hcdk3'F (SEQ ID NO: 73) and hcdk3'R (SEQ ID NO: 74) and cloned into Sphl and Ncol to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge-hCdk1 (SEQ ID NO: 75).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids for human targeting



    [0200] Guide RNA (hCdk1A_up (SEQ ID NO: 76), hCdk1A_low (SEQ ID NO: 77), hCdk1B_up (SEQ ID NO: 78), hCdk1B_low (SEQ ID NO: 79)) were cloned in to pX335 (SEQ ID NO: 149) and pX330 (SEQ ID NO: 150) to generate pX335-1A (SEQ ID NO: 80), pX335-1B (SEQ ID NO: 81) and pX330-1B (SEQ ID NO: 82).

    Generation of EARC-modified Human ES cells



    [0201] Targeting: 2x106 CA1 Cdk1 (TK/TK) (i.e., the cell product described in FIGS. 4A-4F) hES cells were transfected by Neon protocol 14 with 8ug DNA (Target Vector: pX330-hCdkTK-A = 6ug:2ug). After transfection, cells were plated on four 10-cm plates. Upon transfection, doxycycline was added to the media to a final concentration of 1 µg/ml. 2 days following transfection, selection was applied with 0.75 µg/ml of puromycin. Puromycin-resistant colonies were picked to 96-well plates, duplicated for further growth and genotyping with primers (hCdk1Br-5HAgen_F1 (SEQ ID NO: 83), rtTA_rev_1 (SEQ ID NO: 84), mCMV_F (SEQ ID NO:85), hCdk1Br-3HAgen_R1 (SEQ ID NO: 86)).

    RESULTS



    [0202] Referring to FIG. 16A, the mouse dox-bridge target vector, pBridge was used to target mouse cell products generated in Example 1, Cdk1 (TK/TK), generating mouse Cdk1earc/earc,alink/alink cells. Nine Cdk1earc/earc,alink/alink clones were generated by one-shot transfection (FIG. 16B).

    [0203] Referring to FIG. 5B, the data indicate that the EARC-and-ALINK-modified homozygous mouse C2 ES Cdk1earc/earc,alink/alink cells properly self-renewed under ES cell conditions, differentiated in vivo, and formed complex teratomas.

    [0204] Referring to FIG. 17A, the human dox-bridge target vector, pBridge-hCdk1 was used to target human CA1 cell products generated in Example 1, Cdk1(TKTK), generating human Cdk1 earc/earc,alink/alink cells. At least Cdk1 earc/earc,alink/alink CA1 clones were generated by one-shot transfection (FIG. 17B).

    Example 4: Generation of EARC-Modified Mouse ES Cells in the Top2a locus



    [0205] In Example 4, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting Top2a and use of same to control cell division in mouse ES cells is described. In this example, Top2a/TOP2A is the CDL, which is targeted with an inducible gene expression system, wherein a dox-bridge is inserted and doxycycline induces expression of the CDL.

    [0206] As described above, Top2a/TOP2A is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise an EARC (dox-bridge) insertion at the Top2a locus, cell division is only possible in the presence of the inducer (doxycycline), which permits expression of Top2a. Thus, cell division of EARC-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated in the absence of doxycycline.

    [0207] In Example 4, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the Top2a gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS


    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridae for Top2a



    [0208] The 5' homology arm (SEQ ID NO: 87) was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 870 bp fragment from C57/B6 genomic DNA (primers Top5F (SEQ ID NO: 88) and Top5R (SEQ ID NO: 89) and cloning it into Sbfl and Spel of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 3' homology arm (818 bp; SEQ ID NO: 90) was amplified by PCR using primers Top3F (SEQ ID NO: 91), Top3R (SEQ ID NO: 92) and cloned into Sphl and Ncol to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge-Top2a (SEQ ID NO: 93).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids



    [0209] A double-nickase strategy was chosen to minimize the possibility of off-target mutations. Guide RNA sequences were cloned into pX335 (Addgene) using oligos:TOP2A1BF (SEQ ID NO: 94), TOP2A1BR (SEQ ID NO: 95), TOP2A1AF (SEQ ID NO: 96), TOP2A1AR (SEQ ID NO: 97), according to the suggested protocol (Ran et al., 2013), generating the CRISPR vectors pX335-Top2aA (SEQ ID NO: 98) and px335-Top2aB (SEQ ID NO: 99).

    Generation of EARC-modified Mouse ES cells



    [0210] Mouse ES cell culture: All genetic manipulations were performed on a C57/B6 mouse ES cell line previously characterized (C2) (Gertsenstein etal., 2010). Mouse ES cells were grown in media based on high-glucose DMEM (Invitrogen), supplemented with 15% ES cell-grade FBS (Gibco), 0.1 mM 2-mEARCaptophenol, 2 mM L-glutamine, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 0.1 mM non-essential amino acids, and 2,000 units/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Cells were maintained at 37°C in 5% CO2 on mitomycin C-treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs).

    [0211] Targeting: Plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components (pX335-Top2aA (SEQ ID NO: 98) and px335-Top2aB (SEQ ID NO: 99)) and the targeting plasmid (pBridge-Top2a (SEQ ID NO: 93)) were co-transfected in mouse ES cells using FuGENE HD (Clontech), according to the manufacturer's instructions, using a FuGENE:DNA ratio of 8:2, (2 µg total DNA: 250 ng for each pX335 and 1500 ng for pBridge-Top2a). Typical transfection was performed on 3x105 cells, plated on 35 mm plates. Upon transfection, doxycycline was added to the media to a final concentration of 1 µg/ml. 2 days following transfection, cells were plated on a 100 mm plate and selection was applied with 1 µg/ml of puromycin. Puromycin-resistant colonies were picked 8-10 days after start of selection and maintained in 96 wall plates until PCR-screening.

    [0212] Genotyping: DNA was extracted from ES cells directly in 96 wall plates according to (Nagy et al., 2003). Clones positive for correct insertion by homologous recombination of pBridge-Top2a in the 5' of the Top2a gene were screened by PCR using primers spanning the 5' and 3' homology arms (primers rttaRev (SEQ ID NO: 54), top2a_5scrF (SEQ ID NO: 55) for the 5' arm, primers CMVforw(SEQ ID NO: 56), top2a_3scrR (SEQ ID NO: 57) for the 3' arm).

    [0213] Targeted cell growth: Top2a homozygously-targeted cells were trypsinized and plated on gelatinized 24 well plates at a density of 5x104 cells per well. Starting one day after plating, cells were exposed to different Dox concentrations (1 µg/ml, 0.5 µg/ml, 0.05 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml), the plate was analyzed in a IncucyteZoom system (Essen Bioscience) by taking pictures every two hours for 3-4 days and measuring confluency.

    RESULTS



    [0214] Referring to FIG. 18, the dox-bridge target vector, depicted in FIG. 18A, was used to generate several targeted C2 mouse ES cell lines (FIG. 18B). Nine of these cell lines were found to be homozygous targeted (FIG. 18B) comprising a dox-bridge inserted by homologous recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Top2a.

    [0215] As expected, this ES cell lines grows only in the presence of doxycycline. In the presence of doxycycline, the rtTA produced by Top2a promoter, binds to TRE and initiates transcription of the Top2a coding sequence. The dox-bridge may be inserted into the 5'UTR into both alleles of Top2a to ensure that the CDL expression could occur only through EARC. An alternative is to generate null mutations in all the remaining, non-EARC modified alleles of CDL.

    [0216] Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days (FIG. 19A).

    [0217] Referring to FIG. 19B, the inventors determined how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, two days after doxycycline removal, cells growth of EARC-modified cells was completely arrested.

    Example 5: Generation of EARC-Modified Mouse ES Cells in the Cenpa locus



    [0218] In Example 5, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting Cenpa and use of same to control cell division in mouse ES cells is described. In this example, Cenpa/CENPA is the CDL, which is targeted with an inducible gene expression system, wherein a dox-bridge is inserted and doxycycline induces expression of the CDL.

    [0219] As described above, Cenpa/CENPA is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise an EARC (dox-bridge) insertion at the Cenpa locus, cell division is only possible in the presence of the inducer (doxycycline), which permits expression of Cenpa. Thus, cell division of EARC-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated in the absence of doxycycline.

    [0220] In Example 5, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the Cenpa gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS


    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridge



    [0221] The 5' homology arm (SEQ ID NO: 100) was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 874 bp fragment fromC57/B6 genomic DNA (primers Cenpa5F (SEQ ID NO: 101) and Cenpa5R (SEQ ID NO: 102) and cloning it into Sbfl and Spel of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 3' homology arm (825 bp; SEQ ID NO: 103) was amplified by PCR using primers Cenpa3F (SEQ ID NO: 104), Cenpa3R (SEQ ID NO: 105) and cloned into Sphl and Ncol to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge-Cenpa (SEQ ID NO: 106).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids



    [0222] A double-nickase strategy was chosen to minimize the possibility of off-target mutations. Guide RNA sequences were cloned into pX335 (Addgene) using oligos CenpaAF (SEQ ID NO: 107), CenpaAR (SEQ ID NO: 108), CenpaBF (SEQ ID NO: 109), CenpaBR (SEQ ID NO: 110), according to the suggested protocol (Ran et al., 2013), generating the CRISPR vectors pX335-CenpaA (SEQ ID NO: 111) and px335-CenpaB (SEQ ID NO: 112).

    Generation of EARC-modified Mouse ES cells



    [0223] Mouse ES cell culture: As in Example 4.

    [0224] Targeting: Plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components (pX335-CenpaA; SEQ ID NO: 111, and px335-CenpaB; SEQ ID NO: 112) and the targeting plasmid (pBridge-Cenpa; SEQ ID NO: 106) were co-transfected in mouse ES cells using FuGENE HD (Clontech), as in Example 4.

    [0225] Genotyping: DNA was extracted as in Example 4. Clones positive for correct insertion by homologous recombination of pBridge-Cenpa in the 5' of the Cenpa gene were screened by PCR using primers spanning the 5' and 3' homology arms (primers rttaRev (SEQ ID NO: 54), Cenpa_5scr (SEQ ID NO: 113) for the 5' arm, primers CMVforw(SEQ ID NO: 114), Cenpa_3scr (SEQ ID NO: 115) for the 3' arm).

    [0226] Targeted cell growth: Cenpa homozygously-targeted cells were trypsinized and plated on gelatinized 24 well plates at a density of 5x104 cells per well. Starting one day after plating, cells were exposed to different Dox concentrations (1 µg/ml, 0.5 µg/ml, 0.05 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml), the plate was analyzed in a IncucyteZoom system (Essen Bioscience) by taking pictures every two hours for 3-4 days and measuring confluency.

    [0227] Quantitative PCR: Total RNA was extracted from cells treated for 2 days with 1 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml of Dox using the GeneElute total RNA miniprep kit (Sigma) according to the manufacturer's protocol. cDNA was generated by reverse transcription of 1 µg of RNA using the QuantiTect reverse transcription kit (Qiagen), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Real-time qPCR were set up in a BioRad CFX thermocycler, using SensiFast-SYBR qPCR mix (Bioline). The primers used were: qpcrcenpa_F (SEQ ID NO: 116), qpcrcenpa_R (SEQ ID NO: 117) and actBf (SEQ ID NO: 67), actBr (SEQ ID NO: 68). Results were analyzed with the ΔΔCT method and normalized for beta-actin.

    RESULTS



    [0228] Referring to FIG. 20, the dox-bridge target vector, depicted in FIG. 20A, was used to generate several targeted C2 mouse ES cell lines (FIG. 20B). Six of these cells were found to have a correct insertion at the 5' and 3', and at least one clone (Cenpa#4), was found to have homozygous targeting (FIG. 20B) comprising a dox-bridge inserted by homologous recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Cenpa.

    [0229] As expected, this ES cell lines grows only in the presence of doxycycline. In the presence of doxycycline, the rtTA produced by Cenpa promoter, binds to TRE and initiates transcription of the Cenpa coding sequence. The dox-bridge may be inserted into the 5'UTR into both alleles of Cenpa, to ensure that the CDL expression could occur only through EARC. An alternative is to generate null mutations in all the remaining, non-EARC modified alleles of CDL.

    [0230] Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days (FIG. 21A).

    [0231] Referring to FIG. 21B, the inventors determined by qPCR the Cenpa gene expression level in Cenpa-EARC cells with Dox and after 2 days of Dox removal, and compared it to the expression level in wild type mouse ES cells (C2). As expected Cenpa expression level is greatly reduced in Cenpa-EARC cells without Dox for 2 days.

    [0232] Referring to FIG. 22, the inventors determined how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, 80 hours after doxycycline removal, cells growth was completely arrested.

    Example 6: Generation of EARC-Modified Mouse ES Cells in the Birc5 locus



    [0233] In Example 6, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting Birc5 and use of same to control cell division in mouse ES cells is described. In this example, Birc5/BIRC5 is the CDL, which is targeted with an inducible gene expression system, wherein a dox-bridge is inserted and doxycycline induces expression of the CDL.

    [0234] As described above, Birc5/BIRC5 is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise an EARC (dox-bridge) insertion at the Birc5 locus, cell division is only possible in the presence of the inducer (doxycycline), which permits expression of Birc5. Thus, cell division of EARC-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated in the absence of doxycycline.

    [0235] In Example 6, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the Birc5 gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS


    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridge



    [0236] The 3' homology arm (SEQ ID NO: 118) was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 775 bp fragment from C57/B6 genomic DNA (primers Birc3F (SEQ ID NO: 119), Birc3R (SEQ ID NO: 120)), and cloning it into Sbfl and Ncol of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 5' homology arm (617 bp; SEQ ID NO: 121) was amplified by PCR using primers Birc5F (SEQ ID NO: 122) and Birc5R Pstl (SEQ ID NO: 123) and Spel and cloned into to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge-Birc5 (SEQ ID NO: 124).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids



    [0237] A double-nickase strategy was chosen to minimize the possibility of off-target mutations. Guide RNA sequences were cloned into pX335 (Addgene) using oligos Birc5AF (SEQ ID NO: 125), Birc5AR (SEQ ID NO: 126), Birc5BF (SEQ ID NO: 127), Birc5BR (SEQ ID NO: 128), according to the suggested protocol (Ran et al., 2013), generating the CRISPR vectors pX335-Birc5A (SEQ ID NO: 129) and px335-Birc5B (SEQ ID NO: 130).

    Generation of EARC-modified Mouse ES cells



    [0238] Mouse ES cell culture: As in Example 4.

    [0239] Targeting: Plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components (pX335-Birc5A and px335-Birc5B) and the targeting plasmid (pBridge-Birc5) were co-transfected in mouse ES cells using FuGENE HD (Clontech), as in Example 4.

    [0240] Genotyping: DNA was extracted as in Example 4. Clones positive for correct insertion by homologous recombination of pBridge-Birc5 in the 5' of the Birc5 gene were screened by PCR using primers spanning the 5' homology arm (primers rttaRev (SEQ ID NO: 54), Birc_5scrF (SEQ ID NO: 131)).

    [0241] Targeted cell growth: Birc5 ho mozygously-targeted cells were trypsinized and plated on gelatinized 24 well plates at a density of 5x104 cells per well. Starting one day after plating, cells were exposed to different Dox concentrations (1 µg/ml, 0.5 µg/ml, 0.05 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml), the plate was analyzed in a IncucyteZoom system (Essen Bioscience) by taking pictures every two hours for 3-4 days and measuring confluence.

    [0242] Quantitative PCR: Total RNA was extracted from cells treated for 2 days with 1 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml of Dox using the GeneElute total RNA miniprep kit (Sigma) according to the manufacturer's protocol. cDNA was generated by reverse transcription of 1 µg of RNA using the QuantiTect reverse transcription kit (Qiagen), according to the manufacturer's protocol. Real-time qPCR were set up in a BioRad CFX thermocycler, using SensiFast-SYBR qPCR mix (Bioline). The primers used were: qpcrbirc_F (SEQ ID NO: 132), qpcrbirc_R (SEQ ID NO: 133) and actBf (SEQ ID NO: 67), actBr (SEQ ID NO: 68). Results were analyzed with the ΔΔCT method and normalized for beta-actin.

    RESULTS



    [0243] Referring to FIG. 23, the dox-bridge target vector, depicted in FIG. 23A, was used to generate targeted C2 mouse ES cell lines (FIG. 23B). Five clones were found to be correctly targeted (FIG. 23B) comprising a dox-bridge inserted by recombination into the 5'UTR of both alleles of Birc5. One of these clones was Birc#3, was found to stop growing or die in the absence of Dox.

    [0244] As expected, this ES cell lines grows only in the presence of doxycycline. In the presence of doxycycline, the rtTA produced by Birc5 promoter, binds to TRE and initiates transcription of the Birc5 coding sequence. The dox-bridge may be inserted into the 5'UTR into both alleles of Birc5, to ensure that the CDL expression could occur only through EARC. An alternative is to generate null mutations in all the remaining, non-EARC modified alleles of CDL.

    [0245] Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days (FIG. 24A).

    [0246] Referring to FIG. 24B, the inventors determined by qPCR the Birc5 gene expression level in Birc5-EARC cells with Dox and after 2 days of Dox removal, and compared it to the expression level in wild type mouse ES cells (C2). As expected Birc5 expression level is greatly reduced in Birc5-EARC cells without Dox for 2 days.

    [0247] Referring to FIG. 25, the inventors determined how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, 50 hours after doxycycline removal, cells growth was completely arrested. Interestingly, it appears that lower Dox concentrations (0.5 and 0.05 µg/ml) promote better cell growth than a higher concentration (1 µg/ml).

    Example 7: Generation of EARC-Modified Mouse ES Cells in the Eef2 locus



    [0248] In Example 7, construction of EARC (dox-bridge) vectors targeting Eef2 and use of same to control cell division in mouse ES cells is described. In this example, Eef2/EEF2 is the CDL, which is targeted with an inducible gene expression system, wherein a dox-bridge is inserted and doxycycline induces expression of the CDL.

    [0249] As described above, Eef2/EEF2 is expressed in all mitotically active (i.e., dividing) cells. In cells modified to comprise an EARC (dox-bridge) insertion at the Eef2 locus, cell division is only possible in the presence of the inducer (doxycycline), which permits expression of Eef2. Thus, cell division of EARC-modified mitotically active cells can be eliminated in the absence of doxycycline.

    [0250] In Example 7, dox-bridge insertion into the 5'UTR of the Eef2 gene was achieved by homologous recombination knock-in technology.

    METHODS


    Construction of EARC Targeting Vector Comprising a Dox-bridae



    [0251] The 5' homology arm was cloned by PCR-amplifying a 817 bp fragment(SEQ ID NO: 134) from C57/B6 genomic DNA (primers Eef2_5F (SEQ ID NO: 135) and Eef2_5R (SEQ ID NO: 136) and cloning it into Sbfl and Spel of the pGem-bridge-step3. Similarly, the 3' homology arm (826 bp; SEQ ID NO: 137) was amplified by PCR using primers Eef2_3F (SEQ ID NO: 138), Eef2_3R (SEQ ID NO: 139) and cloned into Sphl to generate a final targeting vector, referred to as pBridge-Eef2 (SEQ ID NO: 140).

    Construction of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmids



    [0252] A double-nickase strategy was chosen to minimize the possibility of off-target mutations. Guide RNA sequences were cloned into pX335 (Addgene) using oligos Eef2aFWD (SEQ ID NO: 141), Eef2aREV (SEQ ID NO: 142), Eef2bFWD (SEQ ID NO: 143), Eef2bREV (SEQ ID NO: 144), according to the suggested protocol (Ran et al., 2013), generating the CRISPR vectors pX335-Eef2A (SEQ ID NO: 145) and px335-Eef2B (SEQ ID NO: 146).

    Generation of EARC-modified Mouse ES cells



    [0253] Mouse ES cell culture: As in Example 4.

    [0254] Targeting: Plasmids containing the CRISPR/Cas9 components (pX335-Eef2A and px335-Eef2B) and the targeting plasmid (pBridge-Eef2) were co-transfected in mouse ES cells using FuGENE HD (Clontech), as in Example 4.

    [0255] Genotyping: DNA was extracted as in Example 4. Clones positive for correct insertion by homologous recombination of pBridge-Eef2 in the 5' of the Eef2 gene were screened by PCR using primers spanning the 5' homology arm (primers rttaRev (SEQ ID NO: 54), Eef2_5scrF (SEQ ID NO: 147)).

    [0256] Targeted cell growth: Eef2 homozygously-targeted cells were trypsinized and plated on gelatinized 24 well plates at a density of 5x104 cells per well. Starting one day after plating, cells were exposed to different Dox concentrations (1 µg/ml, 0.5 µg/ml, 0.05 µg/ml and 0 µg/ml), the plate was analyzed in a IncucyteZoom system (Essen Bioscience) by taking pictures every two hours for 3-4 days and measuring confluence.

    RESULTS



    [0257] Referring to FIG. 26, the dox-bridge target vector, depicted in FIG. 26A, was used to generate several targeted C2 mouse ES cell lines (FIG. 26B). Nine of these cell lines was found to be correctly targeted (FIG. 26B) with at least one clone growing only in Dox-media.

    [0258] As expected, this ES cell lines grows only in the presence of doxycycline. In the presence of doxycycline, the rtTA produced by Eef2 promoter, binds to TRE and initiates transcription of the Eef2 coding sequence. The dox-bridge may be inserted into the 5'UTR into both alleles of Eef2, to ensure that the CDL expression could occur only through EARC. An alternative is to generate null mutations in all the remaining, non-EARC modified alleles of CDL.

    [0259] Withdrawal of doxycycline resulted in complete elimination of mitotically active ES cells within 4 days (FIG. 27).

    [0260] Referring to FIG. 28, the inventors determined how different concentrations of doxycycline affected proliferation of the dox-bridge ES cells by measuring cell growth for 4 days. ES cells in the presence of doxycycline grew exponentially, indicating their normal growth. In contrast, without doxycycline cells completely failed to grow.

    [0261] Although the disclosure has been described with reference to certain specific embodiments, various modifications thereof will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Any examples provided herein are included solely for the purpose of illustrating the disclosure and are not intended to limit the disclosure in any way. Any drawings provided herein are solely for the purpose of illustrating various aspects of the disclosure and are not intended to be drawn to scale or to limit the disclosure in any way. The scope of the claims appended hereto should not be limited by the preferred embodiments set forth in the above description, but should be given the broadest interpretation consistent with the present specification as a whole. The disclosures of all prior art recited herein are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
    Table 2: Predicted CDLs (ID refers to EntrezGene identification number CS score refers to the CRISPR score average provided in Wang et al., 2015; function refers to the known or predicted function of the locus, predictions being based on GO terms, as set forth in the Gene Ontology Consortium website http://geneontology.org/; functional category refers to 4 categories of cell functions based on the GO term-predicted function; CDL (basis) refers to information that the inventors used to predict that a gene is a CDL, predictions being based on CS score, available gene knockout (KO) data, gene function, and experimental data provided herein).
    Name (mouse)ID (mouse)Name (human)ID (human)CS scoreFunction (GO term)FunctionalCDL (basis)Citation
    Actr8 56249 ACTR8 93973 -1.88 chromatin remodeling Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Alg11 207958 ALG11 440138 -127 dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthetic process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Anapc11 66156 ANAPC1 1 51529 -2.68 protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitindependent protein catabolic process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Anapc2 99152 ANAPC2 29882 -2.88 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Wirth KG, et al. Genes Dev. 2004 Jan 1;18.1):88-98
    Anapc4 52206 ANAPC4 29945 -1.79 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphas e transition Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Anapc5 59008 ANAPC5 51433 -1.66 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Aurka 20878 AURKA 6790 -2.26 meiotic spindle organization Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Sasai K, et al. Oncogere. 2008 Jul 3;27(29):4122-7
    Banf1 23825 BANF1 8815 -2.14 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Birc5 11799 BIRC5 332 -224 regulation of signal transduction Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Uren AG et al. Curr Biol. 2000 Nov 2;10(21):1319-28
    Bub3 12237 BUB3 9184 -315 mitotic sister chromatid segregation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Kalitsis F, et al. Genes Dev. 2000 Sep 15,14(18:2277-82
    Casc5 76464 CASC5 57082 -1.16 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Overbeek PA, et al. MGI Direct Data Submiss. on. 2011
    Ccna2 12428 CCNA2 890 -1.59 regulation of cyclindependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Kalaszczynska I, et al. Cell. 2009 Jul 23; 138(2):352-65
    Ccnh 66671 CCNH 902 -2.01 regulation of cyclindependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Cell cycle CS score. function  
    Cdc123 98828 CDC123 8872 -2.45 cell cycle Cell cycle CS score. function  
    Cdc16 69957 CDC16 8881 -3.58 cell division Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Cdc20 107995 CDC20 991 -2.97 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Li M, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 May;27(9):3481-8
    Cdc23 52563 CDC23 8697 -2.28 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score. function  
    Cdk1 12534 CDK1 983 -2.44 cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Diril MK, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Mar 6;109(10):3826-31
    Cenpa 12615 CENPA 1058 -1.87 cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Howman EV, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000 Feb 1;97(3):1148-53
    Cenpm 66570 CENPM 79019 -2.53 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Chek1 12649 CHEK1 1111 -1.67 protein phosphorylation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Takai H, et al. Genes Dev. 2000 Jun 15;14(12):1439-47
    Chmp2a 68953 CHMP2A 27243 -2.40 vacuolar transport Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Ckap5 75786 CKAP5 9793 -2.94 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Barbarese E, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e69989
    Cltc 67300 CLTC 1213 -1.75 intracellular protein transport Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Cops5 26754 COPS5 10987 -1.75 protein deneddylation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Tian L, et al. Oncogene. 2010 Nov 18;29(46):6125-37
    Dctn2 69654 DCTN2 10540 -1.48 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Dctn3 53598 DCTN3 11258 -1.77 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Dhfr 13361 DHFR 1719 -2.84 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Dtl 76843 DTL 51514 -2.69 protein polyubiquitination Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Liu CL, et al. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 12;282(2):1109-18
    Dync1h1 13424 DYNC1H 1 1778 -3.44 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Harada A, et al. J Cell Biol. 1998 Apr 6;141(1):51-9
    Ecd 70601 ECD 11319 -3.18 regulation of glycolytic process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Ect2 13605 ECT2 1894 -1.80 cell morphogenesis Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Hansen J, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003 Aug 19,100(17):9918-22
    Ep300 328572 EP300 2033 -2.04 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Yao TP, et al. Cell. 1998 May 1;93(3):361-72
    Ercc3 13872 ERCC3 2071 -2.10 nucleotide-excision repair Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Andressoo JO, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2009 Mar,29(5):1276-90
    Espl1 105988 ESPL1 9700 -3.24 proteolysis Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Wirth KG et al. J Cell Biol. 2006 Mar 13;172(6):847-60
    Fntb 110606 FNTB 2342 -2.42 phototransduction, visible light Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Mijimolle N, et al. Cancer Cell. 2005 Apr;7(4):313-24
    Gadd45gi p1 102060 GADD45 GIP1 90480 -1.81 organelle organization Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Kwon MC, et al. EMBO J. 2008 Feb 20;27(4):642-68
    Gins1 69270 GINS1 9837 -1.84 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Ueno M, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;25(23):10528-32
    Gnb2l1 14694 GNB2L1 10399 -2.84 osteoblast differentiation Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Gspt1 14852 GSPT1 2935 -1.77 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Haus1 225745 HAUS1 115106 -1.92 spindle assembly Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Haus3 231123 HAUS3 79441 -1.38 mitotic nuclear division Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Haus5 71909 HAUS5 23354 -2.55 spindle assembly Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Haus8 76478 HAUS8 93323 -1.73 mitotic nuclear division Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Hdac3 15183 HDAC3 8841 -2.12 histone deacetylation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Bhaskara S, et al. Mol Cell. 2008 Apr 11;30(1):61-72
    Kif11 16551 KIF11 3832 -3.23 microtubule-based movement Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Castillo A, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Jun 8;357(3):694-9
    Kif23 71819 KIF23 9493 -1.59 microtubule-based movement Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Kpnb1 16211 KPNB1 3837 -3.19 nucleocytoplasmic transport Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Miura K, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Mar 3;34)(1):132-8
    Mastl 67121 MASTL 84930 -2.36 protein phosphorylation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Alvarez-Fernandez M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Oct 22;110(43):17374-9
    Mau2 74549 MAU2 23383 -2.71 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Smith TG, et al. Genesis. 2014 Jul;52(7)687-94
    Mcm3 17215 MCM3 4172 -2.52 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Mcm4 17217 MCM4 4173 -1.87 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Shima N, et al. Nat Genet. 2007 Jan;39(1):93-8
    Mcm7 17220 MCM7 4176 -2.39 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Mnat1 17420 MNAT1 4331 -1.22 regulation of cyclindependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Rossi DJ. et al. EMBO J. 2001 Jun 1;20(11):2844-56
    Mybbp1a 18432 MYBBP1 A 10514 -2.17 osteoblast differentiation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Mori S, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(17):e39723
    Ncapd2 68298 NCAPD2 9918 -2.03 mitotic chromosome condensation Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Ncaph 215387 NCAPH 23397 -2.33 mitotic chromosome condensation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Nishide K, et al. PLoS Genet. 2014 Dec.10(12):e10048 47
    Ndc80 67052 NDC80 10403 -2.98 attachment of mitotic spindle microtubules to kinetochore Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nle1 217011 NLE1 54475 -1.88 somitogenesis Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Hentges KE, et al. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006 Aug;6(6)653-65
    Nsl1 381318 NSL1 25936 -1.90 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nude 18221 NUDC 10726 -1.93 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nuf2 66977 NUF2 83540 -1.78 mitotic nuclear division Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nup133 234865 NUP133 55746 -2.26 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Garcia-Garcia MJ, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005 Apr 26;102(17):5913-9
    Nup160 59015 NUP160 23279 -2.64 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nup188 227699 NUP188 23511 -1.16 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nup214 227720 NUP214 8021 -2.70 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function van Deursen J, et al. EMBO J 1996 Oct 15;15(20):5574-83
    n/a n/a NUP62 23636 -2.35 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Nup85 445007 NUP85 79902 -2.47 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Orc3 50793 ORC3 23595 -1.67 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Pafah1b1 18472 PAFAH1 B1 5048 -2.34 G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Cahana A, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001 May 22;98(11):6429-84
    Pcid2 234069 PCID2 55795 -1.98 negative regulation of apoptotic process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Pfas 237823 PFAS 5198 -2.58 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Phb2 12034 PHB2 11331 -2.98 protein import into nucleus, translocation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Park SE, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Mar;25(5):1989-99
    Pkmyt1 268930 PKMYT1 9088 -1.93 regulation of cyclindependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Plk1 18817 PLK1 5347 -2.83 protein phosphorylation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Lu LY, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Nov;28(22):6870-6
    Pmf1 67037 PMF1 11243 -2.15 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Pole2 18974 POLE2 5427 -3.08 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Ppat 231327 PPAT 5471 -2.15 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psma6 26443 PSMA6 5687 -3.51 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psma7 26444 PSMA7 5688 -2.91 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmb1 19170 PSMB1 5689 -1.63 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmb4 19172 PSMB4 5692 -2.91 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmd12 66997 PSMD12 5718 -1.69 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmd13 23997 PSMD13 5719 -1.57 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmd14 59029 PSMD14 10213 -3.01 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Psmd7 17463 PSMD7 5713 -2.18 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Soriano P, et al. Genes Dev. 1987 Jun;1(4):366-75
    Racgap1 26934 RACGAP 1 29127 -1.94 mitotic spindle assembly Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Van de Putte T, et al. Mech Dev. 2001 Apr;102(1-2):33-44
    Rad21 19357 RAD21 5885 -2.12 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Rae1 66679 RAE1 8480 -2.15 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Babu JR et al. J Cell Biol. 2003 Feb 3;160(3):341-53
    Rcc1 100088 RCC1 1104 -2.91 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Rfc3 69263 RFC3 5983 -274 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Rps27a 78294 RPS27A 6233 -2.74 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Rrm2 20135 RRM2 6241 -3.09 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Sae1 56459 SAE1 10055 -2.08 cellular protein modification process Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Sec13 110379 SEC13 6396 -2.96 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Smarcb1 20587 SMARCB 1 6598 -1.98 chromatin remodeling Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Guidi CJ, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 May 15;21(10):3598-603
    Smc2 14211 SMC2 10592 -2.13 mitotic chromosome condensation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Nishide K, et al. PLoS Genet. 2014 Dec;10(12)e10048 47
    Smc4 70099 SMC4 10051 -1.47 chromosome organization Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Son 20658 SON 6651 -1.99 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Spc24 67629 SPC24 147841 -2.83 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Spc25 66442 SPC25 57405 -1.63 mitotic cell cycle Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Terf2 21750 TERF2 7014 -2.17 telomere maintenance Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Celli GB, et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2005 Jul;7(7):712-8
    Tpx2 72119 TPX2 22974 -2.08 apoptotic process Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Aguirre-Portoles C, et al. Cancer Res. 2012 Mar 15;72(6)1518-28
    Tubg1 103733 TUBG1 7283 -2.08 microtubule nucleation Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Yuba-Kubo A, et al. Dev Biol. 2005 Jun 15;282(2):361-73
    Tubgcp2 74237 TUBGCP 2 10844 -2.78 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Tubgcp5 233276 TUBGCP 5 114791 -1.76 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Tuhacp6 328580 TUBGCP 6 85378 -1.52 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Txnl4a 27366 TXNL4A 10907 -3.89 mitotic nuclear division Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Usp39 28035 USP39 10713 -2.85 spliceosomal complex assembly Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Wdr43 72515 WDR43 23160 -3.02 reproduction Cell cycle CS score, function  
    Zfp830 66983 ZNF830 91603 -1.52 blastocyst growth Cell cycle CS score, mouse K.O., function Houlard M, et al. Cell Cycle. 2011 Jan 1:10(1):108-17
    Aatf 56321 AATF 26574 -1.46 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Thomas T, et al. Dev Biol. 2000 Nov 15;227(2):324-42
    Alyref 21681 ALYREF 10189 -1.92 regulation of DNA recombination DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Brf2 66653 BRF2 55290 -2.30 DNA-templated transcription, initiation DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Cdc45 12544 CDC45 8318 -3.69 DNA replication checkpoint DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Yoshida K, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Jul;21(14):4698-668
    Cdc6 23834 CDC6 990 -1.87 DNA replication initiation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Cdt1 67177 CDT1 81620 -2.74 DNA replication checkpoint DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Cinp 67236 CINP 51550 -1.64 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Cirh1a 21771 CIRH1A 84916 -2.62 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ddb1 13194 DDB1 1642 -2.14 nucleotide-excision repair, DNA damage removal DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Cang Y, et al. Cell. 2006 Dec 1;127(5)929-40
    Ercc2 13871 ERCC2 2068 -2.80 DNA duplex unwinding DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function de Boer J, et al. Cancer Res. 1998 Jan 1;58(1):89-94
    Gabpb1 14391 GABPB1 2553 -1.74 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Xue HH, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Jul;28(13):4300-9
    Gtf2b 229906 GTF2B 2959 -2.76 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Gtf2h4 14885 GTF2H4 2968 -1.93 nucleotide-excision repair, DNA damage removal DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Gtf3a 66596 GTF3A 2971 -2.25 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Gtf3c1 233863 GTF3C1 2975 -2.45 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Gtf3c2 71752 GTF3C2 2976 -2.09 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Hinfp 102423 HINFP 25988 -2.35 DNA damage checkpoint DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Xie R, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 9
    n/a n/a HIST2H2 AA3 8337 -1.71 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ints3 229543 INTS3 65123 -3.14 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Kin 16588 KIN 22944 -1.99 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mcm2 17216 MCM2 4171 -2.86 DNA replication initiation DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mcm6 17219 MCM6 4175 -1.55 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mcrs1 51812 MCRS1 10445 -1.23 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Med11 66172 MED11 400569 -2.39 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mtpap 67440 MTPAP 55149 -1.86 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Myc 17869 MYC 4609 -2.49 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Trumpp A, et al. Nature. 2001 Dec 13;414(6865):768-73
    Ndnl2 66647 NDNL2 56160 -2.03 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Nol11 68979 NOL11 25926 -1.59 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Nol8 70930 NOL8 55035 -1.35 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Pcna 18538 PCNA 5111 -3.60 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Roa S, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 21;105(42):16248-53
    Pola1 18968 POLA1 5422 -2.28 DNA-dependent DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Pold2 18972 POLD2 5425 -2.51 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Pole 18973 POLE 5426 -2.90 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Polr1a 20019 POLR1A 25885 -262 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    n/a n/a POLR2J2 246721 -3.08 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Polr3a 218832 POLR3A 11128 -2.43 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Polr3c 74414 POLR3C 10623 -2.02 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Polr3h 78929 POLR3H 171568 -2.66 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Prmt1 15469 PRMT1 3276 -2.40 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Pawlak MR, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jul;20(13):4859-69
    Prmt5 27374 PRMT5 10419 -269 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Tee WW, et al. Genes Dev. 2010 Dec 15;24(24):2772-7
    Puf60 67959 PUF60 22827 -2.69 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rad51 19361 RAD51 5888 -2.29 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Tsuzuki T, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 25;93(13):6236-40
    Rad51c 114714 RAD51C 5889 -1.62 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Smeenk G, et al. Mutat Res. 2010 Jul 7;689(1-2):50-58
    Rbx1 56438 RBX1 9978 -2.19 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Tan M, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 14;106(15):6203-8
    Rfc2 19718 RFC2 5982 -2.88 DNA-dependent DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rfc4 106344 RFC4 5984 -1.92 DNA-dependent DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rfc5 72151 RFC5 5985 -2.78 DNA-dependent DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rpa1 68275 RPA1 6117 -2.61 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Wang Y, et al. Nat Genet. 2005 Jul;37(7):750-5
    Rps3 27050 RPS3 6188 -2.75 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rrm1 20133 RRM1 6240 -4.16 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ruvbl1 56505 RUVBL1 8607 -3.26 DNA duplex unwinding DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ruvbl2 20174 RUVBL2 10856 -3.91 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Sap30bp 57230 SAP30BP 29115 -2.18 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Smc1a 24061 SMC1A 8243 -2.76 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Smc3 13006 SMC3 9126 -3.22 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function White JK et al. Cell. 2013 Jul 18;154(2):452-64
    Snapc4 227644 SNAPC4 6621 -2.78 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication DNA repair CS score, function  
    Snapc5 330959 SNAPC5 10302 -2.24 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Snip1 76793 SNIP1 79753 -1.78 regulation of transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Srrt 83701 SRRT 51593 -2.18 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Wilson MD, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Mar;28(5):1503-14
    Ssrp1 20833 SSRP1 6749 -1.45 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Cao S, et al 5 mouse embryos. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Aug;23(15):5301-7
    Taf10 24075 TAF10 6881 -1.38 DNA-templated transcription, initiation DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Mohan WS Jr, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Jun;23(12):4307-18
    Taf1c 21341 TAF1C 9013 -1.80 chromatin silencing at rDNA DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Taf6 21343 TAF6 6878 -1.84 DNA-templated transcription, initiation DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Taf6l 67706 TAF6L 10629 -1.53 DNA-templated transcription, initiation DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ticrr 77011 TICRR 90381 -2.03 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Top1 21969 TOP1 7150 -2.02 DNA topological change DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Morham SG, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Dec;16(12):6804-9
    Top2a 21973 TOP2A 7153 -1.50 DNA replication DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Trrap 100683 TRRAP 8295 -2.36 DNA repair DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Herceg Z et al. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct;29(2) 206-11
    Zbtb11 271377 ZBTB11 27107 -2.34 transcription, DNA-templated DNA replication , DNA repair CS score, function  
    Actl6a 56456 ACTL6A 86 -2.33 neural retina development DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Krasteva V, et al. Blood. 2012 Dec 6;120(24:4720-32
    Atr 245000 ATR 545 -2.01 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function de Klein A, et al. Curr Biol. 2000 Apr 20;10(8):479-82
    Chd4 107932 CHD4 1108 -1.71 chromatin organization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ciao1 26371 CIAO1 9391 -1.94 chromosome segregation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ddx21 56200 DDX21 9188 -2.84 osteoblast differentiation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Dnaja3 83945 DNAJA3 9093 -2.19 mitochondrion organization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Lo JF, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Mar;24(6):2226-36
    Dnmt1 13433 DNMT1 1786 -1.97 methylation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Lei H, et al Development. 1996 Oct;122(10):3195-205
    Gins2 272551 GINS2 51659 -3.32 double-strand break repair via break-induced replication DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Gtf2h3 209357 GTF2H3 2967 -1.84 nucleotide-excision repair DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    n/a n/a HIST2H2 BF 440689 -1.70 chromatin organization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mms221 212377 MMS22L 253714 -1.38 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Mtor 56717 MTOR 2475 -1.98 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Murakam M, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Aug;24(15):6710-8
    Narfl 67563 NARFL 64428 -2.13 response to hypoxia DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Song D, et al. J Biol Chem. 2011 Mar 2
    Ndufa13 67184 NDUFA1 3 51079 -1.31 positive regulation of peptidase activity DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Huang G, et al Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Oct;24(191:8447-56
    Nol12 97961 NOL12 79159 -1.61 poly(A) RNA binding DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Nup107 103468 NUP107 57122 -1.30 transport DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Oraov1 72284 ORAOV1 220064 -2.26 biological_process DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Pam16 66449 PAM16 51025 -2.13 protein import into mitochondrial matrix DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Pola2 18969 POLA2 23649 -2.84 protein import into nucleus, translocation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Ppie 56031 PPIE 10450 -1.63 protein peptidyl-prolyl isomerization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Prpf19 28000 PRPF19 27339 -3.96 generation of catalytic spliceosome for first transesterification step DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Fortschegger K, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Apr;27(8) : 3123-30
    Psmc5 19184 PSMC5 5705 -2.57 ER-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rbbp5 213464 RBBP5 5929 -1.70 chromatin organization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Rbbp6 19647 RBBP6 5930 -1.78 in utero embryonic development DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Li L, et al Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007 May 8;104(19):7951-6
    Rptor 74370 RPTOR 57521 -2.43 TOR signaling DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Guertin CA, et al. Dev Cell. 2006 Dec;11(6):859-71
    Rrn3 106298 RRN3 54700 -1.85 in utero embryonic development DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Yuan X, et al Mol Cell. 2005 Jul 1;19(1):77-87
    Smg1 233789 SMG1 23049 -1.94 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Roberts IL, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2013 Jan 22;110(4):E285-94
    Supt6 20926 SUPT6H 6830 -1.78 chromatin remodeling DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Dietrich JE, et al. EMBO Rep. 2015 Aug;16(8):1005-21
    Tada2b 231151 TADA2B 93624 -1.23 chromatin organization DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Tfip11 54723 TFIP11 24144 -2.19 spliceosomal complex disassembly DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Tonsl 66914 TONSL 4796 -3.03 double-strand break repair via homologous recombination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Tpt1 22070 TPT1 7178 -2.05 calcium ion transport DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Susini L, et al. Cell Death Differ. 2008 Aug;15(8):1211-20
    Uba1 22201 UBA1 7317 -2.90 protein ubiquitination DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Vps25 28084 VPS25 84313 -2.31 protein targeting to vacuole involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process via the multivesicular body sorting pathway DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Wbscr22 66138 WBSCR2 2 114049 -2.70 methylation DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Wdr5 140858 WDR5 11091 -1.99 skeletal system development DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Xab2 67439 XAB2 56949 -2.86 generation of catalytic spliceosome for first transesterification step DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Yonemasu R, et al. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005 Apr 4;4(4):479-91
    Zmat2 66492 ZMAT2 153527 -2.17 histidine-tRNA ligase activity DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, function  
    Zfp335 329559 ZNF335 63925 -158 in utero embryonic development DNA replication, DNA repair CS score, mouse K.O., function Yang YJ, et al. Cell. 2012 Nov 21;151(5):1097-112
    Acly 104112 ACLY 47 -1.54 acetyl-CoA metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Beigneux AP, et al J Biol Chem 2004 Mar 5;279(10):9557-64
    Adsl 11564 ADSL 158 -2.39 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ahcy 269378 AHCY 191 -2.07 sulfur amino acid metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Arl2 56327 ARL2 402 -2.29 energy reserve metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Chka 12660 CHKA 1119 -1.64 lipid metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Wu G, et al. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jan 18;283(3):1456-62
    Coasy 71743 COASY 80347 -1.82 vitamin metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cox4i1 12857 COX4l1 1327 -2.00 generation of precursor metabolites and energy Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a COX7C 1350 -1.59 generation of precursor metabolites and energy Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a CTPS1 1503 -2.52 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ddx10 77591 DDX10 1662 -2.02 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ddx20 53975 DDX20 11218 -2.49 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Mouillet JF, et al. Endocrinology. 2008 May;149(5)2168-75
    Dhdds 67422 DHDDS 79947 -2.86 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dhx30 72831 DHX30 22907 -1.93 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dhx8 217207 DHX8 1659 -2.61 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dhx9 13211 DHX9 1660 -1.73 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Lee CG, et al. Proc Natl Acac Sci U S A. 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13709-13
    Dlst 78920 DLST 1743 -1.93 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dpagt1 13478 DPAGT1 1798 -2.80 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Marek KW, et al. Glycobiology. 1999 Nov;9(11:1263-71
    Gfpt1 14583 GFPT1 2673 -1.81 fructose 6-phosphate metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gmps 229363 GMPS 8833 -180 purine nucleobase metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gpn1 74254 GPN1 11321 -1.79 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gpn3 68080 GPN3 51184 -3.12 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Guk1 14923 GUK1 2987 -2.67 purine nucleotide metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Hsd17b10 15108 HSD1781 0 3028 -1.84 lipid metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Lrr1 69706 LRR1 122769 -3.44 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mta2 52856 MTG2 26164 -2.04 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Myh9 17886 MYH9 4627 -1.70 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Matsushita T, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Dec 24;325(4):1163-71
    Nampt 59027 NAMPT 10135 -2.40 vitamin metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Revollo JR, et al. Cell Metab. 2007 Nov:6(5):363-75
    Ncbp1 433702 NCBP1 4686 -1.62 RNA metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nfs1 18041 NFS1 9054 -2.40 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ppcdc 66812 PPCDC 60490 -1.98 metabolic process Metabolism CS score. function  
    Qrsl1 76563 QRSL1 55278 -1.67 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Rpp14 67053 RPP14 11102 -1.72 fatty acid metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Smarca4 20586 SMARCA 4 6597 -1.89 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Bultman S, et al. Mol Cell. 2000 Dec;6(6) 1287-95
    Snrnp200 320632 SNRNP2 00 23020 -2.50 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Srbd1 78586 SRBD1 55133 -235 nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Srcap 100043 597 SRCAP 10847 -1.43 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ube2i 22196 UBE2I 7329 -2.55 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Nacerddine K, et al. Dev Cell. 2005 Dec;9(6):769-79
    Ube2m 22192 UBE2M 9040 -2.39 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Vcp 269523 VCP 7415 -2.85 metabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Muller JM, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Mar 9;354(2):459-465
    Aamp 227290 AAMP 14 -2.37 angiogenesis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Acin1 56215 ACIN1 22985 -1.53 positive regulation of defense response to virus by host Metabolism CS score, function  
    Aco2 11429 ACO2 50 -2.08 tricarboxylic acid cycle Metabolism CS score, function  
    Adss 11566 ADSS 159 -2.46 purine nucleotide biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Alg2 56737 ALG2 85365 -2.29 biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ap2s1 232910 AP2S1 1175 -2.00 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Arcn1 213827 ARCN1 372 -191 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Armc7 276905 ARMC7 79637 -2.02 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp2a2 11938 ATP2A2 488 -3.01 calcium ion transmembrane transport Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Andersson KB, et al. Cell Calcium. 2009 Sep;46(3):219-25
    Atp5a1 11946 ATP5A1 498 -1.99 negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp5d 66043 ATP5D 513 -2.21 oxidative phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp5o 28080 ATP5O 539 -1.17 ATP biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    At6v0b 114143 A TP6VOB 533 -3.01 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp6v0c 11984 ATP6V0C 527 -3.84 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Sun-Waca GH, et al. Dev Biol. 2000 Dec 15;228(2):315-25
    Atp6v1a 11964 ATP6V1A 523 -3.58 proton transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp6v1b2 11966 ATP6V1B 2 526 -2.94 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Atp6v1d 73834 ATP6V1D 51382 -.258 transmembrane transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Aurkaip1 66077 AURKAIP 1 54998 -1.56 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a C1orf109 54955 -2.43 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a C21orf59 56683 -2.77 cell projection morph--ienesis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ccdc84 382073 CCDC84 338657 -1.86 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct2 12461 CCT2 10576 -3.23 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct3 12462 CCT3 7203 -3.31 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct4 12464 CCT4 10575 -262 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct5 12465 CCT5 22948 -2.84 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct7 12468 CCT7 10574 -2.47 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cct8 12469 CCT8 10694 -2.03 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cdipt 52858 CDIPT 10423 -2.53 phospholipid biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cenpi 102920 CENPI 2491 -1.81 centromere complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Chordc1 66917 CHORDC 1 26973 -1.52 regulation of centrosome duplication Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Ferretti R, et al. Dev Cell. 2010 Mar 16; 18(3):486-95
    Coa5 76178 COA5 493753 -2.33 mitochondrion Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cog4 102339 COG4 25839 -1.39 Golgi vesicle transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Copa 12847 COPA 1314 -1.63 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Copb1 70349 COPB1 1315 -2.30 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Copb2 50797 COPB2 9276 -2.65 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cope 59042 COPE 11316 -2.93 ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Copz1 56447 COPZ1 22818 -1.87 transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Coq4 227683 COQ4 51117 -1.29 ubiquinone biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Cox15 226139 COX15 1355 -2.14 mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Viscomi C, et al. Cell Metab. 2011 Jul 6;14(1):80-90
    Cox17 12856 COX17 10063 -1.97 copper ion transport Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Takahashi Y, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Nov;22(21):7614-21
    Cse11 110750 CSE1L 1434 -2.31 protein export from nucleus Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Bera TK, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Oct;21(20):7020-4
    Csnk2b 13001 CSNK2B 1460 -1.94 regulation of protein kinase activity Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Buchou T, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Feb:23(3):908-15
    Cycs 13063 CYCS 54205 -2.36 response to reactive oxygen species Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Li K, et al. Cell. 2000 May 12;101(4:389-99
    Dad1 13135 DAD1 1603 -2.21 protein glycosylation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Brewster JL, et al. Genesis. 2000 Apr;26(4)271-8
    Dap3 65111 DAP3 7818 -1.70 apoptotic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Kim HR, et al. FASEB J 2007 Jan;21(1):188-96
    Dctn5 59288 DCTN5 84516 -2.39 antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ddost 13200 DDOST 1650 -2.38 protein N-linked glycosylation via asparaqine Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dgcr8 94223 DGCR8 54487 -2.10 gene expression Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Ouchi Y, et al. J Neurosci 2013 May 29;33(22):9408-19
    Dhodh 56749 DHODH 1723 -2.57 de novo' pyrimidine nucleobase biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dnlz 52838 DNLZ 728489 -1.92 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dnm1l 74006 DNM1L 10059 -3.25 mitochondrial fission Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Wakabayashi J, et al. J Cell Biol. 2009 Sep 21; 186(6):805-16
    Dnm2 13430 DNM2 1785 -3.98 endocytosis Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Ferguson SM, et al. Dev Cell. 2009 Dec;17(6):811-22
    Dohh 102115 DOHH 83475 -1.76 peptidyl-lysine modification to peptidyl-hypusine Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dolk 227697 DOLK 22845 -2.38 dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Donson 60364 DONSON 29980 -2.30 multicellular organismal development Metabolism CS score, function  
    Dph3 105638 DPH3 285381 -1.62 peptidyl-diphthamide biosynthetic process from peptidyl-histidine Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Liu S, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 May;26(10):3835-41
    Dtymk 21915 DTYMK 1841 -3.54 phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Eif2b2 217715 EIF2B2 8892 -2.24 ovarian follicle development Metabolism CS score, function  
    Eif2s2 67204 EIF2S2 8894 -2.33 in utero embryonic development Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Heaney CD, et al. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Apr 15;18(8):1395-404
    Emc1 230866 EMC1 23065 -1.34 protein folding in endoplasmic reticulum Metabolism CS score, function  
    Emc7 73024 EMC7 56851 -2.27 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Eno1 13806 ENO1 2023 -2.03 glycolytic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Couldrey C, et al. Dev Dyn. 1998 Jun;212(2):284-92
    Fam50a 108160 FAM50A 9130 -3.16 spermatogenesis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Fam96b 68523 FAM96B 51647 -1.90 iron-sulfur cluster assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Fdps 110196 FDPS 2224 -2.41 isoprenoid biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gapdh 14433 GAPDH 2597 -2.40 oxidation-reduction process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gart 14450 GART 2618 -1.87 purine nucleobase biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gemin4 276919 GEMIN4 50628 -1.56 spliceosomal snRNP assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gemin5 216766 GEMIN5 25929 -2.51 spliceosomal snRNP assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ggps1 14593 GGPS1 9453 -1.62 cholesterol biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gmppb 331026 GMPPB 29925 -3.22 biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gnb1l 13972 GNB1L 54584 -1.93 G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a GOLGA6 L1 283767 -3.15   Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gosr2 56494 GOSR2 9570 -1.13 protein targeting to vacuole Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gpkow 209416 GPKOW 27238 -1.36 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gpn2 100210 GPN2 54707 -3.71 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Gps1 209318 GPS1 2873 -2.11 inactivation of MAPK activity Metabolism CS score, function  
    Grpel1 17713 GRPEL1 80273 -2.61 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Grwd1 101612 GRWD1 83743 -1.90 poly(A) RNA binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Hmgcr 15357 HMGCR 3156 -2.94 cholesterol biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Ohashi K et al. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31;278(44):42936-41
    Hmgcs1 208715 HMGCS1 3157 -2.41 liver development Metabolism CS score, function  
    Hspa5 14828 HSPA5 3309 -3.86 platelet degranulation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Luo S, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Aug;26(15):5688-97
    Hspa9 15526 HSPA9 3313 -3.55 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Hspd1 15510 HSPD1 3329 -1.95 response to hypoxia Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Christensen JH, et al. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010 Nov;15(6):851-63
    Hspe1 15528 HSPE1 3336 -3.75 osteoblast differentiation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Hyou1 12282 HYOU1 10525 -2.06 response to ischemia Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ipo13 230673 IPO13 9670 -2.84 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Iscu 66383 ISCU 23479 -2.40 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Itpk1 217837 ITPK1 3705 -1.55 phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Kansl2 69612 KANSL2 54934 -1.19 chromatin organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Kansl3 226976 KANSL3 55683 -1.53 chromatin organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Kri1 215194 KRI1 65095 -2.49 poly(A) RNA binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Lamtor2 83409 LAMTOR 2 28956 -1.62 activation of MAPKK activity Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Teis D, et al. J Cell Biol. 2006 Dec 18:175(6):861-8
    Leng8 232798 LENG8 114823 -1.75 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ltv1 353258 LTV1 84946 -1.81 nucleoplasm Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mak16 67920 MAK16 84549 -2.30 poly(A) RNA binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mat2a 232087 MAT2A 4144 -2.34 S-adenosylmethionine biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mcm3ap 54387 MCM3AP 8888 -1.58 immune system process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Yoshida M, et al. Genes Cells. 2007 Oct;12(10):1205-13
    Mdn1 100019 MDN1 23195 -1.68 protein complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a MFAP1 4236 -1.94 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mmgt1 236792 MMGT1 93380 -1.55 magnesium ion transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl16 94063 MRPL16 54948 -1.80 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl17 27397 MRPL17 63875 -1.80 mitochondrial genome maintenance Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl33 66845 MRPL33 9553 -1.62 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl38 60441 MRPL38 64978 -1.95 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl39 27393 MRPL39 54148 -1.71 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl45 67036 MRPL45 84311 -1.75 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl46 67308 MRPL46 26589 -1.83 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrpl53 68499 MRPL53 116540 -1.84 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrps22 64655 MRPS22 56945 -1.32 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrps25 64658 MRPS25 64432 -1.63 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrps35 232536 MRPS35 60488 -1.60 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mrps5 77721 MRPS5 64969 -1.65 organelle organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mvd 192156 MVD 4597 -3.24 isoprenoid biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Mvk 17855 MVK 4598 -1.73 isoprenoid biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Naa25 231713 NAA25 80018 -2.40 peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase activity Metabolism CS score, function  
    Napa 108124 NAPA 8775 -2.31 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nat10 98956 NAT10 55226 -2.16 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ndor1 78797 NDOR1 27158 -2.10 cell death Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ndufab1 70316 NDUFAB 1 4706 -1.83 fatty acid biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nol10 217431 NOL10 79954 -1.79 poly(A) RNA binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nop9 67842 NOP9 161424 -1.44 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nrde2 217827 NRDE2 55051 -2.69 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nsf 18195 NSF 4905 -2.76 intra-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nubp1 26425 NUBP1 4682 -2.05 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nudcd3 209586 NUDCD3 23386 -1.71 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nup155 170762 NUP155 9631 -1.59 nucleocytoplasmic transport Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Zhang X, et al. Cell. 2008 Dec 12;135(6):1017-27
    Nup93 71805 NUP93 9688 -2.11 protein import into nucleus Metabolism CS score, function  
    Nus1 52014 NUS1 116150 -1.94 angiogenesis Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Park EJ, et al. Cell Metab. 2014 Sep 2;20(3):448-57
    Nvl 67459 NVL 4931 -2.61 positive regulation of telomerase activity Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ogdh 18293 OGDH 4967 -2.98 tricarboxylic acid cycle Metabolism CS score, function  
    Osbp 76303 OSBP 5007 -2.06 lipid transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Pak1ip1 68083 PAK1IP1 55003 -2.28 cell proliferation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Pfdn2 18637 PFDN2 5202 -1.32 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Pgam1 18648 PGAM1 5223 -2.37 glycolytic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Pkm 18746 PKM 5315 -1.68 glycolytic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Lewis SE, et al. 1983:267-78. Plenum Publ. Corp.
    Pmpcb 73078 PMPCB 9512 -1.77 proteolysis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ppil2 66053 PPIL2 23759 -3.01 protein polyubiquitination Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ppp4c 56420 PPP4C 5531 -2.89 protein dephosphorylation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Toyo-oka K, et al. J Cell Biol. 2008 Mar 24;180(6):1133-47
    Prelid1 66494 PRELID1 27166 -2.27 apoptotic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Prpf31 68988 PRPF31 26121 -3.20 spliceosomal trisnRNP complex assembly Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Bujakowska K, et al. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Dec;50(12):5927-33
    Prpf6 68879 PRPF6 24148 -2.96 spliceosomal trisnRNP complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psma1 26440 PSMA1 5682 -2.39 proteasomal ubiquitin-independent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psma2 19166 PSMA2 5683 -2.23 proteasomal ubiquitin-independent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psma3 19167 PSMA3 5684 -2.30 proteasomal ubiq uitin-independent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmb2 26445 PSMB2 5690 -2.12 proteasomal ubiquitin-independent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmb3 26446 PSMB3 5691 -2.78 proteolysis involved in cellular protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmb5 19173 PSMB5 5693 -1.67 proteasomal ubiquitin-independent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmb6 19175 PSMB6 5694 -2.42 proteasomal ubiq uiti n-i ndepen dent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmb7 19177 PSMB7 5695 -2.69 proteasomal ubiq uiti n-i ndepen dent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmc2 19181 PSMC2 5701 -2.35 protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmc3 19182 PSMC3 5702 -2.76 ER-associated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Sakao Y, et al. Genomics. 2000 Jul 1;67(1):1-7
    Psmc4 23996 PSMC4 5704 -2.36 blastocyst development Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Sakao Y, et al. Genomics. 2000 Jul 1;67(1):1-7
    Psmd1 70247 PSMD1 5707 -1.88 regulation of protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmd2 21762 PSMD2 5708 -2.16 regulation of protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmd3 22123 PSMD3 5709 -2.10 regulation of protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmd4 19185 PSMD4 5710 -1.77 ubiq uitin-dependent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Soriano P, et al. Genes Dev. 1987 Jun;1(4):366-75
    Psmd6 66413 PSMD6 9861 -2.27 proteasome-mediated ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Psmg3 66506 PSMG3 84262 -2.57 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ptpmt1 66461 PTPMT1 114971 -2.89 protein dephosphorylation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Shen J, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Dec;31(24):4902-16
    Ptpn23 104831 PTPN23 25930 -1.59 negative regulation of epithelial cell migration Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Gingras MC, et al. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53(7):1069-74
    Rabggta 56187 RABGGT A 5875 -3.18 protein prenylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Rabggtb 19352 RABGGT B 5876 -2.44 protein geranylgeranylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Rbm19 74111 RBM19 9904 -2.03 multicellular organismal development Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Zhang J, et al. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:115
    Rfk 54391 RFK 55312 -1.56 riboflavin biosynthetic process Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Yazdanpanah B, et al. Nature. 2009 Aug 27;460(7259): 1159-63
    Rheb 19744 RHEB 6009 -1.38 signal transduction Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Zou J, et al. Dev Cell. 2011 Jan 18;20(1)97-108
    Riok1 71340 RIOK1 83732 -1.27 protein phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Rpn1 103963 RPN1 6184 -2.13 protein glycosylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Rtfdc1 66404 RTFDC1 51507 -2.09 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Sacm1l 83493 SACM1L 22908 -1.80 protein dephosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Samm50 68653 SAMM50 25813 -1.62 protein targeting to mitochondrion Metabolism CS score, function  
    Sco2 100126 824 SCO2 9997 -1.60 eye development Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Yang H, et al. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Jan 1;19(1):170-80
    Sdha 66945 SDHA 6389 -2.20 tricarboxylic acid cycle Metabolism CS score, function  
    Sdhb 67680 SDHB 6390 -2.33 tricarboxylic acid cycle Metabolism CS score, function  
    Sec61a1 53421 SEC61A1 29927 -2.42 protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Slc20a1 20515 SLC20A1 6574 -2.38 sodium ion transport Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Festing MH, et al. Genesis. 2009 Dec,47(12):858-63
    Slc7a6os 66432 SLC7A6O S 84138 -2.30 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Smn1 20595 SMN1 6606 -1.58 spliceosomal complex assembly Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Hsieh-Li HM, et al. Nat Genet. 2000 Jan;24(1):66-70
    Smu1 74255 SMU1 55234 -3.65 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Snrpd1 20641 SNRPD1 6632 -2.79 spliceosomal complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Snrpd3 67332 SNRPD3 6634 -3.62 spliceosomal complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Snrpe 20643 SNRPE 6635 -2.74 spliceosomal complex assembly Metabolism CS score, function  
    Spata5 57815 SPATA5 166378 -1.50 multicellular organismal development Metabolism CS score, function  
    Spata5l1 214616 SPATA5L 1 79029 -2.70 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tango6 272538 TANGO6 79613 -2.29 integral component of membrane Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a TBC1D3B 414059 -1.67 positive regulation of GTPase activity Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a TBC1D3 C 414060 -2.01 positive regulation of GTPase activity Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tbcb 66411 TBCB 1155 -1.97 nervous system development Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tbcc 72726 TBCC 6903 -3.02 cell morphogenesis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tbcd 108903 TBCD 6904 -1.82 microtubule cytoskeleton organization Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tcp1 21454 TCP1 6950 -2.34 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Telo2 71718 TELO2 9894 -2.34 regulation of TOR signaling Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Takai H, et al. Cell. 2007 Dec 28;131(7):1248-59
    Tex10 269536 TEX10 54881 -1.26 integral component of membrane Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tfrc 22042 TFRC 7037 -3.40 cellular iron ion homeostasis Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Levy JE, et al. Nat Genet. 1999 Apr;21(4):396-9
    Timm10 30059 TIMM10 26519 -1.99 protein targeting to mitochondrion Metabolism CS score, function  
    Timm13 30055 TIMM13 26517 -1.62 protein targeting to mitochondrion Metabolism CS score, function  
    Timm23 53600 TIMM23 100287 932 -2.00 protein targeting to mitochondrion Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Ahting U, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009 May:1787(5):371-6
    Timm44 21856 TIMM44 10469 -1.73 protein import into mitochondrial matrix Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tmx2 66958 TMX2 5107S -229 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tnpo3 320938 TNPO3 23534 -1.82 splicing factor protein import into nucleus Metabolism CS score, function  
    Trmt112 67674 TRMT112 51504 -3.70 peptidyl-glutamine methylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Trnau1ap 71787 TRNAU1 AP 54952 -1.40 selenocysteine incorporation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ttc1 66827 TTC1 7265 -1.74 protein folding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Ttc27 74196 TTC27 55622 -2.54 biological_process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tti1 75425 TTI1 9675 -2.91 regulation of TOR signaling Metabolism CS score, function  
    Tti2 234138 TTI2 80185 -1.94 molecular_function Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a TUBB 203068 -3.40 microtubule-based process Metabolism CS score, function  
    Txn2 56551 TXN2 25828 -1.41 sulfate assimilation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Nonn L, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Feb;23(3):916-22
    Uqcrc1 22273 UQCRC1 7384 -1.29 oxidative phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Uqcrh 66576 UQCRH 7388 -1.28 oxidative phosphorylation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Urb2 382038 URB2 9816 -2.25 molecular function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Vmp1 75909 VMP1 81671 -1.75 exocytosis Metabolism CS score, function  
    n/a n/a VPS28 51160 -3.06 protein targeting to vacuole involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process via the multivesicular body sorting pathway Metabolism CS score, function  
    Vps29 56433 VPS29 51699 -2.05 intracellular protein transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Vps52 224705 VPS52 6293 -1.85 ectodermal cell differentiation Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Sugimotc M, et al. Cell Rep. 2012 Nov 29;2(5):1363-74
    Wars2 70560 WARS2 10352 -1.16 vasculogenesis Metabolism CS score, function  
    Wdr7 104082 WDR7 23335 -1.47 hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Wdr70 545085 WDR70 55100 -1.69 enzyme binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Wdr74 107071 WDR74 54663 -2.84 blastocyst formation Metabolism CS score, function  
    Wdr77 70465 WDR77 79084 -2.19 spliceosomal snRNP assembly Metabolism CS score, mouse K.O., function Zhou L, et al. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Oct;37(2):283-300
    Yae1d1 67008 YAE1D1 57002 -1.71 molecular function Metabolism CS score, function  
    Yrdc 230734 YRDC 79693 -2.33 negative regulation of transport Metabolism CS score, function  
    Znhit2 29805 ZNHIT2 741 -2.70 metal ion binding Metabolism CS score, function  
    Aars 234734 AARS 16 -2.48 alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Bms1 213895 BMS1 9790 -1.36 ribosome assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Bud31 231889 BUD31 8896 -2.46 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Bysl 53414 BYSL 705 -2.24 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Aoki R, et al. FEBS Lett. 2006 Nov 13;580(26):6062-8
    Cars 27267 CARS 833 -2.45 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Cdc5l 71702 CDC5L 988 -2.09 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Cdc73 214498 CDC73 79577 -258 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Wang P, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2008 May;28(9):2930-40
    Cebpz 12607 CEBPZ 10153 -2.11 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription protein translation CS score, function  
    Clasrp 53609 CLASRP 11129 -1.30 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Clp1 98985 CLP1 10978 -3.47 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Hanada T, et al. Nature. 2013 Mar 28;495(7442):474-80
    Cox5b 12859 COX5B 1329 -1.50 transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Cpsf1 94230 CPSF1 29894 -2.58 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Cpsf2 51786 CPSF2 53981 -2.55 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Cpsf3l 71957 CPSF3L 54973 -2.09 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dars 226414 DARS 1615 -2.90 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dbr1 83703 DBR1 51163 -3.75 RNA splicing, via transesterification reactions RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx18 66942 DDX18 8886 -2.33 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx23 74351 DDX23 9416 -3.01 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx24 27225 DDX24 57062 -1.40 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx41 72935 DDX41 51428 -1.74 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx46 212880 DDX46 9879 -2.79 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx47 67755 DDX47 51202 -2.20 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx49 234374 DDX49 54555 -3.20 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx54 71990 DDX54 79039 -2.94 RNA secondary structure unwinding RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ddx56 52513 DDX56 54606 -2.85 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dgcr14 27886 DGCR14 8220 -1.76 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dhx15 13204 DHX15 1665 -2.58 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dhx16 69192 DHX16 8449 -1.35 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dhx38 64340 DHX38 9785 -1.76 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Diexf 215193 DIEXF 27042 -2.03 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dimt1 66254 DIMT1 27292 -1.87 rRNA methylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dis3 72662 DIS3 22894 -1.77 mRNA catabolic process RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Dkc1 245474 DKC1 1736 -2.37 box H/ACA snoRNA 3'-end processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function He J, et al. Oncogene.2002 Oct 31;21(50):7740-4
    Dnajc17 69408 DNAJC17 55192 -2.25 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Amendola E, et al. Endocrinology. 2010 pr;151(4):1948-58
    Ears2 67417 EARS2 124454 -1.91 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ebna1bp2 69072 EBNA1B P2 10969 -1.52 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eef1a1 13627 EEF1A1 1915 -3.11 translational elongation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eef1g 67160 EEF1G 1937 -1.42 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eef2 13629 EEF2 1938 -3.53 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eftud2 20624 EFTUD2 9343 -3.79 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eiflad 69860 EIF1AD 84285 -2.26 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif2b1 209354 EIF2B1 1967 -2.23 regulation of translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif2b3 108067 EIF2B3 8891 -3.00 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif2s1 13665 EIF2S1 1965 -3.93 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3c 56347 EIF3C 8663 -2.59 formation of translation preinitiation complex RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a EIF3CL 728689 -2.71 formation of translation preinitiation complex RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3d 55944 EIF3D 8664 -3.23 formation of translation preinitiation complex RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3f 66085 EIF3F 8665 -1.44 formation of translation preinitiation complex RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3g 53356 EIF3G 8666 -3.10 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3i 54709 EIF3I 8668 -2.24 formation of translation preinitiation complex RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif3l 223691 EIF3L 51386 -1.28 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif4a1 13681 EIF4A1 1973 -1.97 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif4a3 192170 EIF4A3 9775 -4.32 RNA splicing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif4g1 208643 EIF4G1 1981 -1.79 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif5b 226982 EIF5B 9669 -2.93 translational initiation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Eif6 16418 EIF6 3692 -2.75 mature ribosome assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Gandin V et al. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):684-8
    Elac2 68626 ELAC2 60528 -2.06 tRNA 3'-trailer cleavage, endonucleolytic RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    EII 13716 ELL 8178 -2.23 transcription elongation from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Mitani K, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Dec 20:279(2):563-7
    Etf1 225363 ETF1 2107 -2.44 translational termination RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Exosc2 227715 EXOSC2 23404 -1.66 exonucleolytic trimming to generate mature 3'-end of 5.8S rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Exosc4 109075 EXOSC4 54512 -3.21 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Exosc5 27998 EXOSC5 56915 -2.09 rRNA catabolic process RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a EXOSC6 118460 -3.20 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Exosc7 66446 EXOSC7 23016 -2.17 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Exosc8 69639 EXOSC8 11340 -2.08 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Fars2 69955 FARS2 10667 -1.90 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Farsa 66590 FARSA 2193 -3.30 phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Farsb 23874 FARSB 10056 -2.49 phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Fau 14109 FAU 2197 -2.64 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Fip1l1 66899 FIP1L1 81608 -1.93 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ftsj3 56095 FTSJ3 117246 -1.50 rRNA methylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Gle1 74412 GLE1 2733 -1.89 mRNA export from nucleus RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Gnl3l 237107 GNL3L 54552 -1.35 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Gtf2e1 74197 GTF2E1 2960 -1.22 transcriptional open complex formation at RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Gtpbp4 69237 GTPBP4 23560 -2.25 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Hars 15115 HARS 3035 -3.49 histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Hars2 70791 HARS2 23438 -1.92 histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Heatr1 217995 HEATR1 55127 -2.58 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Hnrnpc 15381 HNRNPC 3183 -1.95 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Williamsc n DJ, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Jun;20(11):4094-105
    Hnrnpk 15387 HNRNPK 3190 -2.39 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Hnrnpl 15388 HNRNPL 3191 -1.88 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Gaudreau MC, et al. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 1;188(11):5377-88
    Hnrnpu 51810 HNRNPU 3192 -2.44 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Roshon MJ, et al. Transgenic Res 2005 Apr 14(2):179-92
    lars 105148 IARS 3376 -3.87 isoleucyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    lars2 381314 IARS2 55699 -2.83 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Imp3 102462 IMP3 55272 -3.46 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Imp4 27993 IMP4 92856 -2.01 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ints1 68510 INTS1 26173 -1.93 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Nakayama M, et al. FASEB J 2006 Aug;20(10):1718-20
    Ints4 101861 INTS4 92105 -1.75 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ints5 109077 INTS5 80789 -2.10 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ints8 72656 INTS8 55656 -1.35 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ints9 210925 INTS9 55756 -2.26 snRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Isg20I2 229504 ISG20L2 81875 -2.27 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Kars 85305 KARS 3735 -2.76 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a KIAA0391 9692 -1.56 tRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Lars 107045 LARS 51520 -1.83 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Lars2 102436 LARS2 23395 -1.60 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Las1l 76130 LAS1L 81887 -2.12 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Lrpprc 72416 LRPPRC 10128 -1.39 negative regulation of mitochondrial RNA catabolic process RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Ruzzenente B, et al. EMBO J. 2012 Jan 18;31(2):443-56
    Lsm2 27756 LSM2 57819 -2.96 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Lsm3 67678 LSM3 27258 -1.66 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Lsm7 66094 LSM7 51690 -1.96 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Magoh 17149 MAGOH 4116 -1.78 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Silver DL et al. Nat Neurosci 2010 May;13(5):551-8
    Mars 216443 MARS 4141 -3.24 methionyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mars2 212679 MARS2 92935 -2.31 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Med17 234959 MED17 9440 -1.78 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Med20 56771 MED20 9477 -2.00 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Med22 20933 MED22 6837 -1.86 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Med27 68975 MED27 9442 -1.48 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Med30 69790 MED30 90390 -2.21 regulation of transcription from RNA transcription, CS score, function  
              RNA polymerase II promoter protein translation    
    Med8 80509 MED8 112950 -1.64 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mepce 231803 MEPCE 56257 -2.08 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mettl16 67493 METTL16 79066 -2.10 rRNA base methylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mphosph 10 67973 MPHOSP H10 10199 -1.85 RNA splicing, via transesterification reactions RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl10 107732 MRPL10 124995 -1.38 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl12 56282 MRPL12 6182 -1.56 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl21 353242 MRPL21 219927 -1.91 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl28 68611 MRPL28 10573 -1.50 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl3 94062 MRPL3 11222 -1.58 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl34 94065 MRPL34 64981 -1.66 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl4 66163 MRPL4 51073 -2.41 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl41 107733 MRPL41 64975 -2.15 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrpl51 66493 MRPL51 51258 -1.40 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps14 64659 MRPS14 63931 -1.82 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps15 66407 MRPS15 64960 -1.28 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps15 Mrps16 66242 MRPS16 51021 -2.29 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps18a 68565 MRPS18 A 55168 -1.55 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps2 118451 MRPS2 51116 -1.59 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps21 66292 MRPS21 54460 -1.51 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps24 64660 MRPS24 64951 -1.71 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Mrps6 121022 MRPS6 64968 -1.65 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nars 70223 NARS 4677 -3.31 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nars2 244141 NARS2 79731 -1.32 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ncbp2 68092 NCBP2 22916 -3.00 mRNA cis splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nedd8 18002 NEDD8 4738 -2.45 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ngdn 68966 NGDN 25983 -2.35 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nhp2 52530 NHP2 55651 -1.74 rRNA pseudouridine synthesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nip7 66164 NIP7 51388 -2.03 ribosome assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Noc2l 57741 NOC2L 26155 -2.34 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Noc4l 100608 NOC4L 79050 -2.11 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nol6 230082 NOL6 65083 -2.28 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nol9 74035 NOL9 79707 -2.20 cleavage in ITS2 between 5.8S rRNA and LSU-rRNA of tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nop16 28126 NOP16 51491 -2.10 ribosomal large subunit biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nop2 110109 NOP2 4839 -2.14 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nop58 55989 NOP58 51602 -2.54 rRNA modification RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nsa2 59050 NSA2 10412 -1.78 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Nudt21 68219 NUDT21 11051 -2.36 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Osgep 66246 OSGEP 55644 -1.98 tRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pabpn1 54196 PABPN1 8106 -1.92 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pdcd11 18572 PDCD11 22984 -1.47 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pes1 64934 PES1 23481 -2.92 maturation of LSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Lerch-Gaggl A, et al. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 22;277(47):45347-55
    Phb 18673 PHB 5245 -2.26 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function He B, et al. Endocrinology. 2011 Mar;152(3):1047-56
    Phf5a 68479 PHF5A 84844 -3.52 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pnn 18949 PNN 5411 -1.34 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Joo JH, et al. Dev Dyn 2007 Aug;236(3):2147-58
    Polr1b 20017 POLR1B 84172 -3.23 transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse KO , function Chen H, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jan 25;365(4):636-42
    Polr1c 20016 POLR1C 9533 -2.79 transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2a 20020 POLR2A 5430 -3.15 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2b 231329 POLR2B 5431 -3.09 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2c 20021 POLR2C 5432 -3.15 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2d 69241 POLR2D 5433 -2.23 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2f 69833 POLR2F 5435 -2.31 transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2g 67710 POLR2G 5436 -2.78 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2h 245841 POLR2H 5437 -1.83 transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2i 69920 POLR2I 5438 -2.92 maintenance of transcriptional fidelity during DNA-templated transcription elongation from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2i 20022 POLR2J 5439 -3.31 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr2l 66491 POLR2L 5441 -3.55 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Polr3e 26939 POLR3E 55718 -2.33 transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pop1 67724 POP1 10940 -1.79 tRNA 5'-leader removal RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pop4 66161 POP4 10775 -1.87 RNA phosphodiester bond hydrolysis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ppa1 67895 PPA1 5464 -1.63 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ppan 235036 PPAN 56342 -1.62 ribosomal large subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ppp2ca 19052 PPP2CA 5515 -3.01 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Gu P, et al. Genesis. 2012 May;50(5):429-36
    Prim1 19075 PRIM1 5557 -2.07 DNA replication, synthesis of RNA primer RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Prpf38b 66921 PRPF38B 55119 -2.68 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Prpf4 70052 PRPF4 9128 -2.24 RNA splicing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Prpf8 192159 PRPF8 10594 -3.43 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ptcd1 71799 PTCD1 26024 -1.77 tRNA 3'-end processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Pwp2 110816 PWP2 5822 -2.52 ribosomal small subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Qars 97541 QARS 5859 -3.35 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ran 19384 RAN 5901 -3.09 ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rars 104458 RARS 5917 -2.30 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rars2 109093 RARS2 57038 -1.93 arginyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rbm25 67039 RBM25 58517 -2.15 regulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rbm8a 60365 RBM8A 9939 -2.97 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rbmx 19655 RBMX 27316 -1.95 regulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rcl1 59028 RCL1 10171 -2.08 endonucleolytic cleavage of tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rnqtt 24018 RNGTT 8732 -2.90 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rnmt 67897 RNMT 8731 -1.45 7-methylguanosine mRNA capping RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rnpc3 67225 RNPC3 55599 -1.95 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpap1 68925 RPAP1 26015 -2.58 transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl10 110954 RPL10 6134 -3.76 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl10a 19896 RPL10A 4736 -2.15 nuclear-transcri bed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl11 67025 RPL11 6135 -2.99 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl12 269261 RPL12 6136 -2.64 ribosomal large subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl13 270106 RPL13 6137 -3.28 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl14 67115 RPL14 9045 -2.92 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl15 66480 RPL15 6138 -3.50 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl18 19899 RPL18 6141 -3.72 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl18a 76808 RPL18A 6142 -3.37 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl23 65019 RPL23 9349 -3.02 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a RPL23A 6147 -4.25 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl24 68193 RPL24 6152 -2.55 ribosomal large subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Oliver ER, et al. Development. 2004 Aug;131(16):3907-20
    Rpl26 19941 RPL26 6154 -2.88 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl27 19942 RPL27 6155 -2.25 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl27a 26451 RPL27A 6157 -2.87 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Terzian T et al. J Pathol. 2011 Aug;224(4):540-52
    Rpl3 27367 RPL3 6122 -3.27 ribosomal large subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl30 19946 RPL30 6156 -2.53 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl31 114641 RPL31 6160 -1.92 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl32 19951 RPL32 6161 -3.70 nuclear-transcri bed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a RPL34 6164 -2.37 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl35 66489 RPL35 11224 -2.25 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl35a 57808 RPL35A 6165 -3.20 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl36 54217 RPL36 25873 -3.44 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl37 67281 RPL37 6167 -3.02 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl37a 19981 RPL37A 6168 -2.62 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl38 67671 RPL38 6169 -2.57 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function MORGAN WC, et al. J Hered. 1950 Aug;41(8):208-15
    Rpl4 67891 RPL4 6124 -2.67 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl5 100503 670 RPL5 6125 -3.20 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl6 19988 RPL6 6128 -3.07 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl7 19989 RPL7 6129 -2.15 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl7a 27176 RPL7A 6130 -3.45 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl7l1 66229 RPL7L1 285855 -1.86 maturation of LSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl8 26961 RPL8 6132 -4.00 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpl9 20005 RPL9 6133 -3.57 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rplp0 11837 RPLP0 6175 -2.61 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpp21 67676 RPP21 79897 -2.96 tRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpp30 54364 RPP30 10556 -1.79 tRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps10 67097 RPS10 6204 -2.88 ribosomal small subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps11 27207 RPS11 6205 -2.93 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps12 20042 RPS12 6206 -3.33 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps13 68052 RPS13 6207 -3.13 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a RPS14 6208 -3.18 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps15 20054 RPS15 6209 -3.20 ribosomal small subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps15a 267019 RPS15A 6210 -3.18 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps16 20055 RPS16 6217 -2.35 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps17 20068 RPS17 6218 -2.69 ribosomal small subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps19 20085 RPS19 6223 -3.49 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Matsson H, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 May;24(9):4032-7
    Rps2 16898 RPS2 6187 -2.50 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps21 66481 RPS21 6227 -1.84 nuclear -transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps23 66475 RPS23 6228 -2.86 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps25 75617 RPS25 6230 -2.38 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    n/a n/a RPS3A 6189 -3.72 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps4x 20102 RPS4X 6191 -3.04 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps5 20103 RPS5 6193 -2.61 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps6 20104 RPS6 6194 -3.31 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps7 20115 RPS7 6201 -2.97 nuclear -transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps8 20116 RPS8 6202 -3.44 nuclear -transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rps9 76846 RPS9 6203 -3.16 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Rpsa 16785 RPSA 3921 -3.06 ribosomal small subunit assembly RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Han J, et al. MGI Direct Data Submission. 2008
    Rsl24d1 225215 RSL24D1 51187 -2.76 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sars 20226 SARS 6301 -2.67 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sars2 71984 SARS2 54938 -2.25 seryl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sart1 20227 SART1 9092 -2.13 maturation of 5S rRNA RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sart3 53890 SART3 9733 -1.88 RNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sdad1 231452 SDAD1 55153 -1.96 ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf1 22668 SF1 7536 -3.04 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Shitashige M, et al. Cancer Sci. 2007 Dec;98(12):1862-7
    Sf3a1 67465 SF3A1 10291 -3.18 mRNA 3'-splice site recognition RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf3a2 20222 SF3A2 8175 -2.66 mRNA 3'-splice site recognition RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf3a3 75062 SF3A3 10946 -2.26 RNA splicing, via transesterification reactions RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf3b2 319322 SF3B2 10992 -2.51 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf3b3 101943 SF3B3 23450 -4.13 RNA splicing, via transesterification reactions RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sf3b4 107701 SF3B4 10262 -2.60 RNA splicing, via transesterification reactions RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sfpq 71514 SFPQ 6421 -2.27 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sin3a 20466 SIN3A 25942 -1.74 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Dannenberg JH, et al. Genes Dev. 2005 Jul 1;19(13):1581-95
    Smg5 229512 SMG5 23381 -2.35 nuclear -transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Smg6 103677 SMG6 23293 -1.18 nuclear -transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Snrnp25 78372 SNRNP2 5 79622 -2.43 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Snrnp27 66618 SNRNP2 7 11017 -1.36 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Snrpd2 107686 SNRPD2 6633 -2.47 RNA splicing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Snrpf 69878 SNRPF 6636 -3.58 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Srrm1 51796 SRRM1 10250 -1.81 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Srsf1 110809 SRSF1 6426 -2.75 mRNA 5'-splice site recognition RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Xu X, et al. Cell. 2005 Jan 14;120(1):59-72
    Srsf2 20382 SRSF2 6427 -3.66 regulation of alternative mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Ding JH, et al. EMBO J. 2004 Feb 25;23(4):885-96
    Srsf3 20383 SRSF3 6428 -2.28 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Jumaa H et al. Curr Biol. 1999 Aug 26;9(16):899-902
    Srsf7 225027 SRSF7 6432 -2.06 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ssu72 68991 SSU72 29101 -2.57 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Sugp1 70616 SUGP1 57794 -1.36 RNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tars 110960 TARS 6897 -2.53 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tars2 71807 TARS2 80222 -1.91 threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tbl3 213773 TBL3 10607 -2.41 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Thoc2 331401 THOC2 57187 -2.52 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Thoc5 107829 THOC5 8563 -1.57 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Mancini A, et al. BMC Biol 2010;8:1
    Thoc7 66231 THOC7 80145 -2.23 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Timeless 21853 TIMELES S 8914 -2.27 negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Gotter AL, et al. Nat Neurosci. 2000 Aug;3(8):755-6
    Tsen2 381802 TSEN2 80746 -1.41 tRNA-type intron splice site recognition and cleavage RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tsr1 104662 TSR1 55720 -1.76 ribosome biogenesis RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tsr2 69499 TSR2 90121 -2.82 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tufm 233870 TUFM 7284 -1.92 translational elongation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Tut1 70044 TUT1 64852 -2.65 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Twistnb 28071 TWISTNB 221830 -2.17 transcription from RNA polymerase I promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    U2af1 108121 U2AF1 7307 -2.41 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    U2af2 22185 U2AF2 11338 -2.80 mRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Uba52 22186 UBA52 7311 -2.54 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ubl5 66177 UBL5 59286 -2.56 mRNA splicing, via spliceosome RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Upf1 19704 UPF1 5976 -2.63 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Medghalchi SM, et al. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Jan 15;10(2):99-105
    Upf2 326622 UPF2 26019 -2.16 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, nonsense-mediated decay RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Weischenfeldt J, et al. Genes Dev. 2008 May 15;22(10):1381-96
    Utp15 105372 UTP15 84135 -1.65 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Utp20 70683 UTP20 27340 -2.28 endonucleolytic cleavage in ITS1 to separate SSU-rRNA from 5.8S rRNA and LSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Utp23 78581 UTP23 84294 -2.54 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Utp3 65961 UTP3 57050 -1.58 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Utp6 216987 UTP6 55813 -1.99 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Vars 22321 VARS 7407 -3.35 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wars 22375 WARS 7453 -2.22 tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr12 57750 WDR12 55759 -2.16 maturation of LSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr3 269470 WDR3 10885 -2.65 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr33 74320 WDR33 55339 -2.63 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr36 225348 WDR36 134430 -2.04 rRNA processing RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, mouse K.O., function Gallenberger M, et al. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Feb 1;20(3):422-35
    Wdr46 57315 WDR46 9277 -2.41 maturation of SSU-rRNA from tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr61 66317 WDR61 80349 -2.63 nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic process, exonucleolytic, 3'-5' RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Wdr75 73674 WDR75 84128 -2.12 regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Xpo1 103573 XPO1 7514 -3.50 ribosomal large subunit export from nucleus RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Yars 107271 YARS 8565 -2.78 tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Yars2 70120 YARS2 51067 -2.40 translation RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Ythdc1 231386 YTHDC1 91746 -2.35 mRNA splice site selection RNA transcription, protein translation CS score, function  
    Zbtb8os 67106 ZBTB8O S 339487 -2.54 tRNA splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation RNA transcription, , protein translation CS score, function  
    Zc3h3 223642 ZC3H3 23144 -1.22 mRNA polyadenylation RNA transcription protein translation CS score, function  

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    Claims

    1. A method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell, the method comprising:

    (a) genetically modifying in an animal cell a cell division locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci of Table 2, the genetic modification of the CDL comprising an inducible exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system that comprises an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL; and

    (b) controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprising the EARC system with an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.


     
    2. The method of claim 1, wherein the controlling proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell comprises:

    (a) permitting proliferation of the genetically modified animal cell by exposing the genetically modified animal to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system; or

    (b) preventing or inhibiting proliferation of the genetically modified animal by maintaining the animal cell in the absence of the inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.


     
    3. The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein the genetic modification of the CDL comprises performing targeted modification of the CDL with a DNA vector comprising the EARC system.
     
    4. The method of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the genetic modification of the CDL comprising the EARC system results in activation of the CDL solely in the presence of the inducer.
     
    5. The method of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the CDL:

    (a) is two or more loci recited in Table 2;

    (b) encodes a gene product that functions in one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism;

    (c) is one or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1; or

    (d) is two or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1 and TOP2A or CDK1 and EEF2.


     
    6. The method of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein:

    (a) the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, wherein preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system;

    (b) the animal cell is a mammalian cell selected from the group consisting of a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, and non-human primate cell or is an avian cell; and/or

    (c) the animal cell is or is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, or a monopotent progenitor cell, or is a terminally differentiated cell.


     
    7. A method of controlling proliferation of an animal cell population according to the method of any one of claims 1 to 6.
     
    8. An animal cell genetically modified to comprise a mechanism for controlling cell proliferation, the genetically modified animal cell comprising a genetic modification of one or more cell division loci (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci of Table 2, the genetic modification being an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system comprising an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is operably linked to the CDL.
     
    9. The genetically modified animal cell of claim 8, wherein the genetic modification of the CDL was generated by preforming targeted modification of the CDL with a DNA vector comprising the EARC system.
     
    10. The genetically modified animal cell of claim 8 or 9, wherein the genetic modification results in activation of the CDL solely in the presence of an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.
     
    11. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of claims 8 to 10, wherein the CDL:

    (a) is two or more loci recited in Table 2;

    (b) encodes a gene product that functions in one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism;

    (c) is one or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1; or

    (e) is two or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1 and TOP2A or CDK1 and EEF2.


     
    12. The genetically modified animal cell of any one of claims 8 to 11, wherein:

    (a) the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, wherein preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system;

    (b) the animal cell is a mammalian cell selected from the group consisting of a human, mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, cat, dog, cow, horse, deer, elk, bison, oxen, camel, llama, rabbit, pig, goat, sheep, and non-human primate cell or is an avian cell; and/or

    (c) the animal cell is or is derived from a pluripotent stem cell, a multipotent cell, or a monopotent progenitor cell, or is a terminally differentiated cell.


     
    13. The animal cell of any one of claims 8 to 12 for use in medicine.
     
    14. A DNA vector for modifying expression of an endogenous cell division essential locus (CDL), the CDL being one or more loci of Table 2, comprising an exogenous activator of regulation of a CDL (EARC) system that comprises an inducible activator-based gene expression system that is configured to be operably linked to the CDL.
     
    15. The DNA vector of claim 14, wherein the CDL:

    (a) is two or more loci recited in Table 2;

    (b) encodes a gene product that functions in one or more of: cell cycle, DNA replication, RNA transcription, protein translation, and metabolism;

    (c) is one or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1; or

    (d) is two or more of CDK1, TOP2A, CENPA, BIRC5, and EEF2, wherein preferably the CDL is CDK1 and TOP2A or CDK1 and EEF2.


     
    16. The DNA vector of claim 14 or 15, wherein:

    (a) the EARC system is a dox-bridge system, a cumate switch inducible system, an ecdysone inducible system, a radio wave inducible system, or a ligand-reversible dimerization system, wherein preferably the EARC system is a dox-bridge system; and/or

    (b) wherein integration of the EARC system into proliferating host cells permits proliferation of the host cells upon exposure of the host cells to an inducer of the inducible activator-based gene expression system.


     




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    Cited references

    REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



    This list of references cited by the applicant is for the reader's convenience only. It does not form part of the European patent document. Even though great care has been taken in compiling the references, errors or omissions cannot be excluded and the EPO disclaims all liability in this regard.

    Patent documents cited in the description




    Non-patent literature cited in the description