(19)
(11)EP 4 020 607 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
29.06.2022 Bulletin 2022/26

(21)Application number: 21197609.7

(22)Date of filing:  20.09.2021
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01L 49/02(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
H01L 28/55
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 23.12.2020 US 202017133105

(71)Applicant: Intel Corporation
Santa Clara, CA 95054 (US)

(72)Inventors:
  • TUNG, I-Cheng
    Hillsboro, OR 97124 (US)
  • OGUZ, Kaan
    Oregon, OR 97229 (US)
  • LIN, Chia-Ching
    Portland, OR 97229 (US)
  • CHANG, Sou-Chi
    Portland, OR 97229 (US)
  • METZ, Matthew
    Portland, OR 97229 (US)
  • AVCI, Uygar
    Portland, 97225 (US)

(74)Representative: HGF 
HGF Limited 1 City Walk
Leeds LS11 9DX
Leeds LS11 9DX (GB)

  


(54)METAL INSULATOR METAL (MIM) CAPACITOR


(57) Metal insulator metal capacitors having epitaxial oxides are described. A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor includes a first electrode plate. A capacitor dielectric is on the first electrode plate. The capacitor dielectric includes a single crystalline oxide material. A second electrode plate is on the capacitor dielectric, the second electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] Embodiments of the disclosure are in the field of advanced integrated circuit structure fabrication and, in particular, metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitors or backend transistors having epitaxial oxides.

BACKGROUND



[0002] For the past several decades, the scaling of features in integrated circuits has been a driving force behind an ever-growing semiconductor industry. Scaling to smaller and smaller features enables increased densities of functional units on the limited real estate of semiconductor chips. For example, shrinking transistor size allows for the incorporation of an increased number of memory or logic devices on a chip, lending to the fabrication of products with increased capacity. The drive for ever-more capacity, however, is not without issue. The necessity to optimize the performance of each device becomes increasingly significant.

[0003] Variability in conventional and currently known fabrication processes may limit the possibility to further extend them into smaller and smaller nodes. Consequently, fabrication of the functional components needed for future technology nodes may require the introduction of new methodologies or the integration of new technologies in current fabrication processes or in place of current fabrication processes.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0004] 

Figure 1 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a transferring structure including a single-crystalline oxide film remote-epitaxially grown on a 2D material coated single crystal substrate, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 2 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a transferring structure including a single-crystalline oxide film grown on a layer material substrate via Van der Waals heteroepitaxy, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 3 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in methods of fabricating a structure including an epitaxial oxide layer, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 4 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a backend metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 5 illustrates another structure for a backend MIM including an epitaxial oxide layer, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 6 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a backend transistor, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 7 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an integrated circuit structure having four metallization layers with a metal line composition and pitch above two metallization layers with a differing metal line composition and smaller pitch, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 8 illustrates a computing device in accordance with one implementation of the disclosure.

Figure 9 illustrates an interposer that includes one or more embodiments of the disclosure.

Figure 10 is an isometric view of a mobile computing platform employing an IC fabricated according to one or more processes described herein or including one or more features described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

Figure 11 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a flip-chip mounted die, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.


DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0005] Metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitors or backend transistors having epitaxial oxides are described. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth, such as specific integration and material regimes, in order to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the present disclosure. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that embodiments of the present disclosure may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known features, such as integrated circuit design layouts, are not described in detail in order to not unnecessarily obscure embodiments of the present disclosure. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the various embodiments shown in the Figures are illustrative representations and are not necessarily drawn to scale.

[0006] The following detailed description is merely illustrative in nature and is not intended to limit the embodiments of the subject matter or the application and uses of such embodiments. As used herein, the word "exemplary" means "serving as an example, instance, or illustration." Any implementation described herein as exemplary is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other implementations. Furthermore, there is no intention to be bound by any expressed or implied theory presented in the preceding technical field, background, brief summary or the following detailed description.

[0007] This specification includes references to "one embodiment" or "an embodiment." The appearances of the phrases "in one embodiment" or "in an embodiment" do not necessarily refer to the same embodiment. Particular features, structures, or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner consistent with this disclosure.

[0008] Terminology. The following paragraphs provide definitions or context for terms found in this disclosure (including the appended claims):

"Comprising." This term is open-ended. As used in the appended claims, this term does not foreclose additional structure or operations.

"Configured To." Various units or components may be described or claimed as "configured to" perform a task or tasks. In such contexts, "configured to" is used to connote structure by indicating that the units or components include structure that performs those task or tasks during operation. As such, the unit or component can be said to be configured to perform the task even when the specified unit or component is not currently operational (e.g., is not on or active). Reciting that a unit or circuit or component is "configured to" perform one or more tasks is expressly intended not to invoke 35 U.S.C. §112, sixth paragraph, for that unit or component.

"First," "Second," etc. As used herein, these terms are used as labels for nouns that they precede, and do not imply any type of ordering (e.g., spatial, temporal, logical, etc.).

"Coupled" - The following description refers to elements or nodes or features being "coupled" together. As used herein, unless expressly stated otherwise, "coupled" means that one element or node or feature is directly or indirectly joined to (or directly or indirectly communicates with) another element or node or feature, and not necessarily mechanically.

In addition, certain terminology may also be used in the following description for the purpose of reference only, and thus are not intended to be limiting. For example, terms such as "upper", "lower", "above", and "below" refer to directions in the drawings to which reference is made. Terms such as "front", "back", "rear", "side", "outboard", and "inboard" describe the orientation or location or both of portions of the component within a consistent but arbitrary frame of reference which is made clear by reference to the text and the associated drawings describing the component under discussion. Such terminology may include the words specifically mentioned above, derivatives thereof, and words of similar import.

"Inhibit" - As used herein, inhibit is used to describe a reducing or minimizing effect. When a component or feature is described as inhibiting an action, motion, or condition it may completely prevent the result or outcome or future state completely. Additionally, "inhibit" can also refer to a reduction or lessening of the outcome, performance, or effect which might otherwise occur. Accordingly, when a component, element, or feature is referred to as inhibiting a result or state, it need not completely prevent or eliminate the result or state.



[0009] Embodiments described herein may be directed to front-end-of-line (FEOL) semiconductor processing and structures. FEOL is the first portion of integrated circuit (IC) fabrication where the individual devices (e.g., transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) are patterned in the semiconductor substrate or layer. FEOL generally covers everything up to (but not including) the deposition of metal interconnect layers. Following the last FEOL operation, the result is typically a wafer with isolated transistors (e.g., without any wires).

[0010] Embodiments described herein may be directed to back end of line (BEOL) semiconductor processing and structures. BEOL is the second portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (e.g., transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) get interconnected with wiring on the wafer, e.g., the metallization layer or layers. BEOL includes contacts, insulating layers (dielectrics), metal levels, and bonding sites for chip-to-package connections. In the BEOL part of the fabrication stage contacts (pads), interconnect wires, vias and dielectric structures are formed. For modern IC processes, more than 10 metal layers may be added in the BEOL.

[0011] Embodiments described below may be applicable to FEOL processing and structures, BEOL processing and structures, or both FEOL and BEOL processing and structures. In particular, although an exemplary processing scheme may be illustrated using a FEOL processing scenario, such approaches may also be applicable to BEOL processing. Likewise, although an exemplary processing scheme may be illustrated using a BEOL processing scenario, such approaches may also be applicable to FEOL processing.

[0012] In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present disclosure, epitaxial oxides for semiconductor applications are described. One or more embodiments are directed to a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor. One or more embodiments are directed to a backend transistor device.

[0013] To provide context, conventional single-crystalline perovskite oxides require high-temperature (e.g., greater than 400°C) deposition which is not backend-compatible. Addressing such issues, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, heterogeneous integration of single-crystalline oxides with layer transfer by using two-dimensional (2D) materials or layer material substrates can be backend (BE) compatible processes to provide single crystalline oxides on or in BE devices.

[0014] One or more embodiments are directed to BE-compatible processes to form single-crystalline high-k perovskite oxides for a BE transistor high-k gate dielectric or a high capacitance MIM capacitor stack. Heterogeneous integration of single-crystalline oxide (e.g., perovskite oxides such as SrTiO3, BaTiO3, SrXBa1-XTiO3) films remote-epitaxially grown on 2D material coated single crystal substrates or grown on layer material substrates via Van der Waals heteroepitaxy is used to form high-performance single-crystalline oxide in BE passive or active devices.

[0015] As exemplary delivery vehicles, Figure 1 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a transferring structure including a single-crystalline oxide film remote-epitaxially grown on a 2D material coated single crystal substrate, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. Figure 2 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a transferring structure including a single-crystalline oxide film grown on a layer material substrate via Van der Waals heteroepitaxy, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0016] Referring to Figure 1, a transferring structure 100 includes an epitaxial oxide 104 is on a 2D material layer 102 on a single crystal substrate 101. In one embodiment, the epitaxial oxide 104 is a single crystalline oxide. In one embodiment, the epitaxial oxide 104 is a perovskite oxide, such as SrTiO3, BaTiO3, or SrXBa1-XTiO3. In another embodiment, the epitaxial oxide 104 is a binary oxide or a complex oxide such as a spinel oxide. In one embodiment, the 2D material 102 is graphene or MoO3. In another embodiment, the 2D material 102 is h-BN or an MXenes. In one embodiment, the single crystal substrate 101 is a single crystal silicon substrate.

[0017] Referring to Figure 2, a transferring structure 200 includes an epitaxial oxide 204 is on a layer material substrate 202. In one embodiment, the epitaxial oxide 204 is a single crystalline oxide. In one embodiment, the epitaxial oxide 204 is a perovskite oxide, such as SrTiO3, BaTiO3, or SrXBa1-XTiO3. In one embodiment, the layer material substrate 202 is or includes mica, a sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) mineral.

[0018] In accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, a high-performance single-crystalline oxide (e.g., a perovskite oxide, such as SrTiO3, BaTiO3, SrXBa1-XTiO3) can be formed in a BE device (passive or active) by layer transferring (1) single-crystalline oxide films remote-epitaxially grown on 2D materials coated single crystal substrates or (2) relaxed single-crystalline oxide films grown on layer material substrates via Van der Waals heteroepitaxy. For example, heterogeneous integration of high-performance single-crystalline oxide films up to hundreds of nanometers in thickness can be incorporated into BE devices by using (1) remote epitaxy or (2) Van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

[0019] In a first particular example, single-crystalline oxides can be remote-epitaxially grown on 2D materials (e.g., graphene, MoO3) coated single crystal substrates followed by a deposition of a capping metal stressor for layer transfer. In such heterostructures, due to the weak interaction between 2D materials and single-crystalline film, the epitaxial oxide films can be instantly separated from weakened epitaxial interfaces while layer transferring.

[0020] In a second particular example, relaxed single-crystalline oxide films are grown on layer material substrates (e.g., mica, such as sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals) via Van der Waals heteroepitaxy and then a capping metal layer can be deposited for layer transfer. In such heterostructures, due to the weak interaction between substrate and film, they present as the lattice of films close to bulk and the single-crystalline films are immediately separated from weakened epitaxial interfaces while layer transferring.

[0021] As exemplary processing scheme options, Figure 3 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in methods of fabricating a structure including an epitaxial oxide layer, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0022] Referring to Figure 3, in a first embodiment, a transferring structure 300 is a stack 308 including a cap metal 306 on an epitaxial oxide 304 on a 2D material layer 302 on a single crystal substrate 301. The stack 308 is flipped and bonded to a receiving structure 310 to form a structure 320. The receiving structure 310 includes a substrate 312 and a metallization layer 314 on or above the substrate 312. The metallization layer 314 can include conductive features 316 in a dielectric layer 318. The 2D material layer 302 and the single crystal substrate 301 are then removed from the structure 320, e.g., by facile cleaving, to form a backend starting structure 350. The backend starting structure 350 is a stack including a remaining transferred stack 352 on the receiving structure 310.

[0023] Referring again to Figure 3, in a second embodiment, a transferring structure 330 is a stack 338 including a cap metal 336 on an epitaxial oxide 334 on a layer material substrate 332. The stack 338 is flipped and bonded to a receiving structure 310 to form a structure 340. The receiving structure 310 includes a substrate 312 and a metallization layer 314 on or above the substrate 312. The metallization layer 314 can include conductive features 316 in a dielectric layer 318. The layer material substrate 332 is then removed from the structure 340, e.g., by facile cleaving, to form a backend starting structure 350. The backend starting structure 350 is a stack including a remaining transferred stack 352 on the receiving structure 310.

[0024] In a first aspect, one or more embodiments are directed to the use of a scalable and configurable parallel plate capacitor layering scheme in order to provide industry leading MIM capacitive densities, without compromising the reliability of the final device. Such a scaling method can be used to increase cap density without an area impact and can enhance existing designed layouts without extra design overhead. Increasing MIM capacitance provides a significant performance improvement.

[0025] Advanced transistor scaling requires an advanced and stable power delivery method. Decoupling capacitors are employed to minimize impedance and power supply noise. This can be leveraged in past by incorporating a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor in the interconnect stack. Higher overall total capacitance in such MIM capacitors can more effectively mitigate voltage droop and current ripples to the transistor and thereby enhance the overall performance of the final device.

[0026] As an exemplary processing scheme, Figure 4 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a backend metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0027] Referring to Figure 4, part (a) shows the backend starting structure 350 of Figure 3. Referring to part (b), a metal layer 400 is formed on the backend starting structure 350. Referring to part (c) one or more contacts 402 are formed on the structure of part (b) to form a backend structure 450 including a MIM capacitor. The MIM capacitor includes the cap metal 306/336 as a lower plate, the epitaxial oxide 304/334 as the dielectric, and the metal layer 400 as the upper plate.

[0028] With reference again to part (c) of Figure 4, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor includes a first electrode plate 306/336. A capacitor dielectric 304/334 is on the first electrode plate 306/336. The capacitor dielectric 304/334 includes a single crystalline oxide material. A second electrode plate 400 is on the capacitor dielectric 304/334, the second electrode plate 400 having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate 306/336. In one embodiment, the MIM capacitor is included in a back end of line (BEOL) metallization structure.

[0029] In one embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide. In one embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material includes a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrXBa1-XTiO3. In another embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material is a binary oxide or a complex oxide such as a spinel oxide. In one embodiment (not depicted), a second capacitor dielectric is on the second electrode plate. A third electrode plate is on the second capacitor dielectric, the third electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the second electrode plate.

[0030] In an embodiment, an electrode plate described herein is or includes Ru, Ir, RuO2 or IrO2.

[0031] Figure 5 illustrates another structure for a backend MIM including an epitaxial oxide layer, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. Referring to Figure 5, an integrated circuit structure 500 includes a MIM capacitor having a bottom plate 502, an epitaxial oxide layer 504, and a top plate 506. The MIM capacitor is integrated within a passivation material 508. Metal layers 510 are below the MIM capacitor. MIM contact vias 512 contact the MIM capacitor and the metal layers 510. In particular, the MIM contact via 512 on the right contacts the bottom plate 502, and the MIM contact via 512 on the left contacts the top plate 506.

[0032] It is to be appreciated that the above structure is a 3-plate MIM capacitor structure. In other embodiments, total MIM cap density is increased by use of a scalable and configurable parallel plate capacitor layering scheme where the total number of electrode plates/capacitors in parallel increase from 3 to 4 or 5, or even more, in total.

[0033] In a second aspect, one or more embodiments are directed to the fabrication of a backend transistor. As an exemplary processing scheme, Figure 6 illustrates cross-sectional views representing various operations in a method of fabricating a backend transistor, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0034] Referring to Figure 6, part (a) shows the backend starting structure 350 of Figure 3. Referring to part (b), a channel material layer 600 is formed on the backend starting structure 350. Referring to part (c), an upper gate structure 602 (gate electrode and gate oxide) and source or drain contact structures 604 are formed on the structure of part (b) to form a backend structure 650 including a transistor. The transistor includes the cap metal 306/336 as a bottom gate electrode and the epitaxial oxide 304/334 as the lower gate dielectric. It is to be appreciated that in other embodiments, the upper gate structure 602 may be omitted to provide a bottom-only gated device.

[0035] With reference again to part (c) of Figure 6, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure, a transistor includes a gate electrode 306/336 above a substrate. A gate dielectric 304/334 is above and on the gate electrode 306/336. The gate dielectric 304/334 includes a single crystalline oxide material. A channel material layer 600 is on the single crystalline oxide material. Source or drain contacts 604 are on the channel material layer 600. In one embodiment, the transistor is included in a back end of line (BEOL) metallization structure.

[0036] In one embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide. In one embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material includes a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrXBa1-XTiO3. In another embodiment, the single crystalline oxide material is a binary oxide or a complex oxide such as a spinel oxide. In one embodiment, a top gate structure 602 on the channel material layer 600, as is depicted.

[0037] In another aspect, back end of line (BEOL) layers of integrated circuits commonly include electrically conductive microelectronic structures, which are known in the art as vias, to electrically connect metal lines or other interconnects above the vias to metal lines or other interconnects below the vias. In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present disclosure, a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor or backend transistor having an epitaxial oxide, such as described above, can be included a BEOL structure of an integrated circuit.

[0038] As an exemplary but non-limiting BEOL structure, Figure 7 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an integrated circuit structure having four metallization layers with a metal line composition and pitch above two metallization layers with a differing metal line composition and smaller pitch, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. It is to be appreciated that a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor or backend transistor having an epitaxial oxide according to embodiments described above may be integrated into one or more layers of the integrated circuit structure described below in association with Figure 7.

[0039] Referring to Figure 7, an integrated circuit structure 700 includes a first plurality of conductive interconnect lines 704 in and spaced apart by a first inter-layer dielectric (ILD) layer 702 above a substrate 701. Individual ones of the first plurality of conductive interconnect lines 704 include a first conductive barrier material 706 along sidewalls and a bottom of a first conductive fill material 708. Individual ones of the first plurality of conductive interconnect lines 704 are along a first direction 798 (e.g., into and out of the page).

[0040] A second plurality of conductive interconnect lines 714 is in and spaced apart by a second ILD layer 712 above the first ILD layer 702. Individual ones of the second plurality of conductive interconnect lines 714 include the first conductive barrier material 706 along sidewalls and a bottom of the first conductive fill material 708. Individual ones of the second plurality of conductive interconnect lines 714 are along a second direction 799 orthogonal to the first direction 798.

[0041] A third plurality of conductive interconnect lines 724 is in and spaced apart by a third ILD layer 722 above the second ILD layer 712. Individual ones of the third plurality of conductive interconnect lines 724 include a second conductive barrier material 726 along sidewalls and a bottom of a second conductive fill material 728. The second conductive fill material 728 is different in composition from the first conductive fill material 708. Individual ones of the third plurality of conductive interconnect lines 724 are along the first direction 798.

[0042] A fourth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 734 is in and spaced apart by a fourth ILD layer 732 above the third ILD layer 722. Individual ones of the fourth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 734 include the second conductive barrier material 726 along sidewalls and a bottom of the second conductive fill material 728. Individual ones of the fourth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 734 are along the second direction 799.

[0043] A fifth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 744 is in and spaced apart by a fifth ILD layer 742 above the fourth ILD layer 732. Individual ones of the fifth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 744 include the second conductive barrier material 726 along sidewalls and a bottom of the second conductive fill material 728. Individual ones of the fifth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 744 are along the first direction 798.

[0044] A sixth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 754 is in and spaced apart by a sixth ILD layer 752 above the fifth ILD layer 742. Individual ones of the sixth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 754 include the second conductive barrier material 726 along sidewalls and a bottom of the second conductive fill material 728. Individual ones of the sixth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 754 are along the second direction 799.

[0045] In an embodiment, the second conductive fill material 728 consists essentially of copper, and the first conductive fill material 708 consists essentially of cobalt. In an embodiment, the first conductive fill material 708 includes copper having a first concentration of a dopant impurity atom, and the second conductive fill material 728 includes copper having a second concentration of the dopant impurity atom, the second concentration of the dopant impurity atom less than the first concentration of the dopant impurity atom.

[0046] In an embodiment, the first conductive barrier material 706 is different in composition from the second conductive barrier material 726. In another embodiment, the first conductive barrier material 706 and the second conductive barrier material 726 have the same composition.

[0047] In an embodiment, a first conductive via 719 is on and electrically coupled to an individual one 704A of the first plurality of conductive interconnect lines 704. An individual one 714A of the second plurality of conductive interconnect lines 714 is on and electrically coupled to the first conductive via 719.

[0048] A second conductive via 729 is on and electrically coupled to an individual one 714B of the second plurality of conductive interconnect lines 714. An individual one 724A of the third plurality of conductive interconnect lines 724 is on and electrically coupled to the second conductive via 729.

[0049] A third conductive via 739 is on and electrically coupled to an individual one 724B of the third plurality of conductive interconnect lines 724. An individual one 734A of the fourth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 734 is on and electrically coupled to the third conductive via 739.

[0050] A fourth conductive via 749 is on and electrically coupled to an individual one 734B of the fourth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 734. An individual one 744A of the fifth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 744 is on and electrically coupled to the fourth conductive via 749.

[0051] A fifth conductive via 759 is on and electrically coupled to an individual one 744B of the fifth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 744. An individual one 754A of the sixth plurality of conductive interconnect lines 754 is on and electrically coupled to the fifth conductive via 759.

[0052] In one embodiment, the first conductive via 719 includes the first conductive barrier material 706 along sidewalls and a bottom of the first conductive fill material 708. The second 729, third 739, fourth 749 and fifth 759 conductive vias include the second conductive barrier material 726 along sidewalls and a bottom of the second conductive fill material 728.

[0053] In an embodiment, the first 702, second 712, third 722, fourth 732, fifth 742 and sixth 752 ILD layers are separated from one another by a corresponding etch-stop layer 790 between adjacent ILD layers. In an embodiment, the first 702, second 712, third 722, fourth 732, fifth 742 and sixth 752 ILD layers include silicon, carbon and oxygen.

[0054] In an embodiment, individual ones of the first 704 and second 714 pluralities of conductive interconnect lines have a first width (W1). Individual ones of the third 724, fourth 734, fifth 744 and sixth 754 pluralities of conductive interconnect lines have a second width (W2) greater than the first width (W1).

[0055] It is to be appreciated that the layers and materials described above in association with back end of line (BEOL) structures and processing may be formed on or above an underlying semiconductor substrate or structure, such as underlying device layer(s) of an integrated circuit. In an embodiment, an underlying semiconductor substrate represents a general workpiece object used to manufacture integrated circuits. The semiconductor substrate often includes a wafer or other piece of silicon or another semiconductor material. Suitable semiconductor substrates include, but are not limited to, single crystal silicon, poly crystalline silicon and silicon on insulator (SOI), as well as similar substrates formed of other semiconductor materials, such as substrates including germanium, silicon carbide, carbon, or group III-V materials. The semiconductor substrate, depending on the stage of manufacture, often includes transistors, integrated circuitry, and the like. The substrate may also include semiconductor materials, metals, dielectrics, dopants, and other materials commonly found in semiconductor substrates. Furthermore, the structures depicted may be fabricated on underlying lower level interconnect layers.

[0056] Although the preceding methods of fabricating a metallization layer, or portions of a metallization layer, of a BEOL metallization layer are described in detail with respect to select operations, it is to be appreciated that additional or intermediate operations for fabrication may include standard microelectronic fabrication processes such as lithography, etch, thin films deposition, planarization (such as chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)), diffusion, metrology, the use of sacrificial layers, the use of etch stop layers, the use of planarization stop layers, or any other associated action with microelectronic component fabrication. Also, it is to be appreciated that the process operations described for the preceding process flows may be practiced in alternative sequences, not every operation need be performed or additional process operations may be performed or both.

[0057] In an embodiment, as used throughout the present description, interlayer dielectric (ILD) material is composed of or includes a layer of a dielectric or insulating material. Examples of suitable dielectric materials include, but are not limited to, oxides of silicon (e.g., silicon dioxide (SiO2)), doped oxides of silicon, fluorinated oxides of silicon, carbon doped oxides of silicon, various low-k dielectric materials known in the arts, and combinations thereof. The interlayer dielectric material may be formed by techniques, such as, for example, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), or by other deposition methods.

[0058] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, metal lines or interconnect line material (and via material) is composed of one or more metal or other conductive structures. A common example is the use of copper lines and structures that may or may not include barrier layers between the copper and surrounding ILD material. As used herein, the term metal includes alloys, stacks, and other combinations of multiple metals. For example, the metal interconnect lines may include barrier layers (e.g., layers including one or more of Ta, TaN, Ti or TiN), stacks of different metals or alloys, etc. Thus, the interconnect lines may be a single material layer, or may be formed from several layers, including conductive liner layers and fill layers. Any suitable deposition process, such as electroplating, chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition, may be used to form interconnect lines. In an embodiment, the interconnect lines are composed of a conductive material such as, but not limited to, Cu, Al, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Ru, Co, Ni, Pd, Pt, W, Ag, Au or alloys thereof. The interconnect lines are also sometimes referred to in the art as traces, wires, lines, metal, or simply interconnect.

[0059] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, hardmask materials are composed of dielectric materials different from the interlayer dielectric material. In one embodiment, different hardmask materials may be used in different regions so as to provide different growth or etch selectivity to each other and to the underlying dielectric and metal layers. In some embodiments, a hardmask layer includes a layer of a nitride of silicon (e.g., silicon nitride) or a layer of an oxide of silicon, or both, or a combination thereof. Other suitable materials may include carbon-based materials. In another embodiment, a hardmask material includes a metal species. For example, a hardmask or other overlying material may include a layer of a nitride of titanium or another metal (e.g., titanium nitride). Potentially lesser amounts of other materials, such as oxygen, may be included in one or more of these layers. Alternatively, other hardmask layers known in the arts may be used depending upon the particular implementation. The hardmask layers maybe formed by CVD, PVD, or by other deposition methods.

[0060] In an embodiment, as is also used throughout the present description, lithographic operations are performed using 193nm immersion lithography (i193), extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography or electron beam direct write (EBDW) lithography, or the like. A positive tone or a negative tone resist may be used. In one embodiment, a lithographic mask is a trilayer mask composed of a topographic masking portion, an anti-reflective coating (ARC) layer, and a photoresist layer. In a particular such embodiment, the topographic masking portion is a carbon hardmask (CHM) layer and the anti-reflective coating layer is a silicon ARC layer.

[0061] Embodiments disclosed herein may be used to manufacture a wide variety of different types of integrated circuits or microelectronic devices. Examples of such integrated circuits include, but are not limited to, processors, chipset components, graphics processors, digital signal processors, micro-controllers, and the like. In other embodiments, semiconductor memory may be manufactured. Moreover, the integrated circuits or other microelectronic devices may be used in a wide variety of electronic devices known in the arts. For example, in computer systems (e.g., desktop, laptop, server), cellular phones, personal electronics, etc. The integrated circuits may be coupled with a bus and other components in the systems. For example, a processor may be coupled by one or more buses to a memory, a chipset, etc. Each of the processor, the memory, and the chipset, may potentially be manufactured using the approaches disclosed herein.

[0062] Figure 8 illustrates a computing device 800 in accordance with one implementation of the disclosure. The computing device 800 houses a board 802. The board 802 may include a number of components, including but not limited to a processor 804 and at least one communication chip 806. The processor 804 is physically and electrically coupled to the board 802. In some implementations the at least one communication chip 806 is also physically and electrically coupled to the board 802. In further implementations, the communication chip 806 is part of the processor 804.

[0063] Depending on its applications, computing device 800 may include other components that may or may not be physically and electrically coupled to the board 802. These other components include, but are not limited to, volatile memory (e.g., DRAM), non-volatile memory (e.g., ROM), flash memory, a graphics processor, a digital signal processor, a crypto processor, a chipset, an antenna, a display, a touchscreen display, a touchscreen controller, a battery, an audio codec, a video codec, a power amplifier, a global positioning system (GPS) device, a compass, an accelerometer, a gyroscope, a speaker, a camera, and a mass storage device (such as hard disk drive, compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD), and so forth).

[0064] The communication chip 806 enables wireless communications for the transfer of data to and from the computing device 800. The term "wireless" and its derivatives may be used to describe circuits, devices, systems, methods, techniques, communications channels, etc., that may communicate data through the use of modulated electromagnetic radiation through a non-solid medium. The term does not imply that the associated devices do not contain any wires, although in some embodiments they might not. The communication chip 806 may implement any of a number of wireless standards or protocols, including but not limited to Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 family), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 family), IEEE 802.20, long term evolution (LTE), Ev-DO, HSPA+, HSDPA+, HSUPA+, EDGE, GSM, GPRS, CDMA, TDMA, DECT, Bluetooth, derivatives thereof, as well as any other wireless protocols that are designated as 3G, 4G, 5G, and beyond. The computing device 800 may include a plurality of communication chips 806. For instance, a first communication chip 806 may be dedicated to shorter range wireless communications such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth and a second communication chip 806 may be dedicated to longer range wireless communications such as GPS, EDGE, GPRS, CDMA, WiMAX, LTE, Ev-DO, and others.

[0065] The processor 804 of the computing device 800 includes an integrated circuit die packaged within the processor 804. In some implementations of embodiments of the disclosure, the integrated circuit die of the processor includes one or more structures, such as a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor or backend transistor having an epitaxial oxide built in accordance with implementations of the disclosure. The term "processor" may refer to any device or portion of a device that processes electronic data from registers or memory to transform that electronic data, or both, into other electronic data that may be stored in registers or memory, or both.

[0066] The communication chip 806 also includes an integrated circuit die packaged within the communication chip 806. In accordance with another implementation of the disclosure, the integrated circuit die of the communication chip has a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor or backend transistor having an epitaxial oxide built in accordance with implementations of the disclosure.

[0067] In further implementations, another component housed within the computing device 800 may contain an integrated circuit die having a metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor or backend transistor having an epitaxial oxide built in accordance with implementations of embodiments of the disclosure.

[0068] In various embodiments, the computing device 800 may be a laptop, a netbook, a notebook, an ultrabook, a smartphone, a tablet, a personal digital assistant (PDA), an ultramobile PC, a mobile phone, a desktop computer, a server, a printer, a scanner, a monitor, a set-top box, an entertainment control unit, a digital camera, a portable music player, or a digital video recorder. In further implementations, the computing device 800 may be any other electronic device that processes data.

[0069] Figure 9 illustrates an interposer 900 that includes one or more embodiments of the disclosure. The interposer 900 is an intervening substrate used to bridge a first substrate 902 to a second substrate 904. The first substrate 902 may be, for instance, an integrated circuit die. The second substrate 904 may be, for instance, a memory module, a computer motherboard, or another integrated circuit die. Generally, the purpose of an interposer 900 is to spread a connection to a wider pitch or to reroute a connection to a different connection. For example, an interposer 900 may couple an integrated circuit die to a ball grid array (BGA) 906 that can subsequently be coupled to the second substrate 904. In some embodiments, the first and second substrates 902/904 are attached to opposing sides of the interposer 900. In other embodiments, the first and second substrates 902/904 are attached to the same side of the interposer 900. And, in further embodiments, three or more substrates are interconnected by way of the interposer 900.

[0070] The interposer 900 may be formed of an epoxy resin, a fiberglass-reinforced epoxy resin, a ceramic material, or a polymer material such as polyimide. In further implementations, the interposer 900 may be formed of alternate rigid or flexible materials that may include the same materials described above for use in a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, germanium, and other group III-V and group IV materials.

[0071] The interposer 900 may include metal interconnects 908 and vias 910, including but not limited to through-silicon vias (TSVs) 912. The interposer 900 may further include embedded devices 914, including both passive and active devices. Such devices include, but are not limited to, capacitors, decoupling capacitors, resistors, inductors, fuses, diodes, transformers, sensors, and electrostatic discharge (ESD) devices. More complex devices such as radio-frequency (RF) devices, power amplifiers, power management devices, antennas, arrays, sensors, and MEMS devices may also be formed on the interposer 900. In accordance with embodiments of the disclosure, apparatuses or processes disclosed herein may be used in the fabrication of interposer 900 or in the fabrication of components included in the interposer 900.

[0072] Figure 10 is an isometric view of a mobile computing platform 1000 employing an integrated circuit (IC) fabricated according to one or more processes described herein or including one or more features described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0073] The mobile computing platform 1000 may be any portable device configured for each of electronic data display, electronic data processing, and wireless electronic data transmission. For example, mobile computing platform 1000 may be any of a tablet, a smart phone, laptop computer, etc. and includes a display screen 1005 which in the exemplary embodiment is a touchscreen (capacitive, inductive, resistive, etc.), a chip-level (SoC) or package-level integrated system 1010, and a battery 1013. As illustrated, the greater the level of integration in the system 1010 enabled by higher transistor packing density, the greater the portion of the mobile computing platform 1000 that may be occupied by the battery 1013 or non-volatile storage, such as a solid state drive, or the greater the transistor gate count for improved platform functionality. Similarly, the greater the carrier mobility of each transistor in the system 1010, the greater the functionality. As such, techniques described herein may enable performance and form factor improvements in the mobile computing platform 1000.

[0074] The integrated system 1010 is further illustrated in the expanded view 1020. In the exemplary embodiment, packaged device 1077 includes at least one memory chip (e.g., RAM), or at least one processor chip (e.g., a multi-core microprocessor and/or graphics processor) fabricated according to one or more processes described herein or including one or more features described herein. The packaged device 1077 is further coupled to the board 1060 along with one or more of a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) 1015, RF (wireless) integrated circuit (RFIC) 1025 including a wideband RF (wireless) transmitter and/or receiver (e.g., including a digital baseband and an analog front end module further includes a power amplifier on a transmit path and a low noise amplifier on a receive path), and a controller thereof 1011. Functionally, the PMIC 1015 performs battery power regulation, DC-to-DC conversion, etc., and so has an input coupled to the battery 1013 and with an output providing a current supply to all the other functional modules. As further illustrated, in the exemplary embodiment, the RFIC 1025 has an output coupled to an antenna to provide to implement any of a number of wireless standards or protocols, including but not limited to Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 family), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16 family), IEEE 802.20, long term evolution (LTE), Ev-DO, HSPA+, HSDPA+, HSUPA+, EDGE, GSM, GPRS, CDMA, TDMA, DECT, Bluetooth, derivatives thereof, as well as any other wireless protocols that are designated as 3G, 4G, 5G, and beyond. In alternative implementations, each of these board-level modules may be integrated onto separate ICs coupled to the package substrate of the packaged device 1077 or within a single IC (SoC) coupled to the package substrate of the packaged device 1077.

[0075] In another aspect, semiconductor packages are used for protecting an integrated circuit (IC) chip or die, and also to provide the die with an electrical interface to external circuitry. With the increasing demand for smaller electronic devices, semiconductor packages are designed to be even more compact and must support larger circuit density. Furthermore, the demand for higher performance devices results in a need for an improved semiconductor package that enables a thin packaging profile and low overall warpage compatible with subsequent assembly processing.

[0076] In an embodiment, wire bonding to a ceramic or organic package substrate is used. In another embodiment, a C4 process is used to mount a die to a ceramic or organic package substrate. In particular, C4 solder ball connections can be implemented to provide flip chip interconnections between semiconductor devices and substrates. A flip chip or Controlled Collapse Chip Connection (C4) is a type of mounting used for semiconductor devices, such as integrated circuit (IC) chips, MEMS or components, which utilizes solder bumps instead of wire bonds. The solder bumps are deposited on the C4 pads, located on the top side of the substrate package. In order to mount the semiconductor device to the substrate, it is flipped over with the active side facing down on the mounting area. The solder bumps are used to connect the semiconductor device directly to the substrate.

[0077] Figure 11 illustrates a cross-sectional view of a flip-chip mounted die, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0078] Referring to Figure 11, an apparatus 1100 includes a die 1102 such as an integrated circuit (IC) fabricated according to one or more processes described herein or including one or more features described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure. The die 1102 includes metallized pads 1104 thereon. A package substrate 1106, such as a ceramic or organic substrate, includes connections 1108 thereon. The die 1102 and package substrate 1106 are electrically connected by solder balls 1110 coupled to the metallized pads 1104 and the connections 1108. An underfill material 1112 surrounds the solder balls 1110.

[0079] Processing a flip chip may be similar to conventional IC fabrication, with a few additional operations. Near the end of the manufacturing process, the attachment pads are metalized to make them more receptive to solder. This typically consists of several treatments. A small dot of solder is then deposited on each metalized pad. The chips are then cut out of the wafer as normal. To attach the flip chip into a circuit, the chip is inverted to bring the solder dots down onto connectors on the underlying electronics or circuit board. The solder is then re-melted to produce an electrical connection, typically using an ultrasonic or alternatively reflow solder process. This also leaves a small space between the chip's circuitry and the underlying mounting. In most cases an electrically-insulating adhesive is then "underfilled" to provide a stronger mechanical connection, provide a heat bridge, and to ensure the solder joints are not stressed due to differential heating of the chip and the rest of the system.

[0080] In other embodiments, newer packaging and die-to-die interconnect approaches, such as through silicon via (TSV) and silicon interposer, are implemented to fabricate high performance Multi-Chip Module (MCM) and System in Package (SiP) incorporating an integrated circuit (IC) fabricated according to one or more processes described herein or including one or more features described herein, in accordance with an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0081] Thus, embodiments of the present disclosure include metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitors or backend transistors having epitaxial oxides.

[0082] Although specific embodiments have been described above, these embodiments are not intended to limit the scope of the present disclosure, even where only a single embodiment is described with respect to a particular feature. Examples of features provided in the disclosure are intended to be illustrative rather than restrictive unless stated otherwise. The above description is intended to cover such alternatives, modifications, and equivalents as would be apparent to a person skilled in the art having the benefit of the present disclosure.

[0083] The scope of the present disclosure includes any feature or combination of features disclosed herein (either explicitly or implicitly), or any generalization thereof, whether or not it mitigates any or all of the problems addressed herein. Accordingly, new claims may be formulated during prosecution of the present application (or an application claiming priority thereto) to any such combination of features. In particular, with reference to the appended claims, features from dependent claims may be combined with those of the independent claims and features from respective independent claims may be combined in any appropriate manner and not merely in the specific combinations enumerated in the appended claims.

[0084] The following examples pertain to further embodiments. The various features of the different embodiments may be variously combined with some features included and others excluded to suit a variety of different applications.

[0085] Example embodiment 1: A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor includes a first electrode plate. A capacitor dielectric is on the first electrode plate. The capacitor dielectric includes a single crystalline oxide material. A second electrode plate is on the capacitor dielectric, the second electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate.

[0086] Example embodiment 2: The MIM capacitor of example embodiment 1, wherein the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide.

[0087] Example embodiment 3: The MIM capacitor of example embodiment 1 or 2, wherein the single crystalline oxide material includes a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrXBa1-XTiO3.

[0088] Example embodiment 4: The MIM capacitor of example embodiment 1, 2 or 3, further including a second capacitor dielectric on the second electrode plate. A third electrode plate is on the second capacitor dielectric, the third electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the second electrode plate.

[0089] Example embodiment 5: The MIM capacitor of example embodiment 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the MIM capacitor is included in a back end of line (BEOL) metallization structure.

[0090] Example embodiment 6: A transistor includes a gate electrode above a substrate. A gate dielectric above and on the gate electrode. The gate dielectric includes a single crystalline oxide material. A channel material layer is on the single crystalline oxide material. Source or drain contacts are on the channel material layer.

[0091] Example embodiment 7: The transistor of example embodiment 6, wherein the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide.

[0092] Example embodiment 8: The transistor of example embodiment 6 or 7, wherein the single crystalline oxide material includes a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrXBa1-XTiO3.

[0093] Example embodiment 9: The transistor of example embodiment 6, 7 or 8, further including a top gate structure on the channel material layer.

[0094] Example embodiment 10: The transistor of example embodiment 6, 7, 8 or 9, wherein the transistor is included in a back end of line (BEOL) metallization structure.

[0095] Example embodiment 11: A computing device includes a board, and a component coupled to the board. The component includes a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor including a first electrode plate. A capacitor dielectric is on the first electrode plate. The capacitor dielectric includes a single crystalline oxide material. A second electrode plate is on the capacitor dielectric, the second electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate.

[0096] Example embodiment 12: The computing device of example embodiment 11, further including a memory coupled to the board.

[0097] Example embodiment 13: The computing device of example embodiment 11 or 12, further including a communication chip coupled to the board.

[0098] Example embodiment 14: The computing device of example embodiment 11, 12 or 13, further including a camera coupled to the board.

[0099] Example embodiment 15: The computing device of example embodiment 11, 12, 13 or 14, wherein the component is a packaged integrated circuit die.

[0100] Example embodiment 16: A computing device includes a board, and a component coupled to the board. The component includes transistor including a gate electrode above a substrate. A gate dielectric above and on the gate electrode. The gate dielectric includes a single crystalline oxide material. A channel material layer is on the single crystalline oxide material. Source or drain contacts are on the channel material layer.

[0101] Example embodiment 17: The computing device of example embodiment 16, further including a memory coupled to the board.

[0102] Example embodiment 18: The computing device of example embodiment 16 or 17, further including a communication chip coupled to the board.

[0103] Example embodiment 19: The computing device of example embodiment 16, 17 or 18, further including a camera coupled to the board.

[0104] Example embodiment 20: The computing device of example embodiment 16, 17, 18 or 19, wherein the component is a packaged integrated circuit die.


Claims

1. A metal-insulator-metal, MIM, capacitor, comprising:

a first electrode plate;

a capacitor dielectric on the first electrode plate, wherein the capacitor dielectric comprises a single crystalline oxide material; and

a second electrode plate on the capacitor dielectric, the second electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate.


 
2. The MIM capacitor of claim 1, wherein the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide.
 
3. The MIM capacitor of claim 1 or 2, wherein the single crystalline oxide material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrxBai-XTiO3.
 
4. The MIM capacitor of any of claims 1 to 3, further comprising:

a second capacitor dielectric on the second electrode plate; and

a third electrode plate on the second capacitor dielectric, the third electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the second electrode plate.


 
5. The MIM capacitor of any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the MIM capacitor is included in a back end of line, BEOL, metallization structure.
 
6. A method of fabricating a metal-insulator-metal, MIM, capacitor, the method comprising:

forming a first electrode plate;

forming a capacitor dielectric on the first electrode plate, wherein the capacitor dielectric comprises a single crystalline oxide material; and

forming a second electrode plate on the capacitor dielectric, the second electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the first electrode plate.


 
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the single crystalline oxide material is a perovskite oxide.
 
8. The method of claim 6 or 7, wherein the single crystalline oxide material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of SrTiO3, BaTiO3, and SrXBa1-XTiO3.
 
9. The method of any of claims 6 to 8, further comprising:

forming a second capacitor dielectric on the second electrode plate; and

forming a third electrode plate on the second capacitor dielectric, the third electrode plate having a portion over and parallel with the second electrode plate.


 
10. The method of any of claims 6 to 9, wherein the MIM capacitor is included in a back end of line, BEOL, metallization structure.
 




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