(19)
(11)EP 4 027 515 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
13.07.2022 Bulletin 2022/28

(21)Application number: 19944046.2

(22)Date of filing:  05.09.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H03H 3/02(2006.01)
H01L 41/18(2006.01)
H03H 9/17(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
H03H 9/17; H01L 41/18; H03H 3/02
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2019/104600
(87)International publication number:
WO 2021/042343 (11.03.2021 Gazette  2021/10)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: Changzhou Chemsemi Co., Ltd.
Changzhou, Jiangsu 213166 (CN)

(72)Inventor:
  • LIU, Yuhao
    Shanghai 201803 (CN)

(74)Representative: Detken, Andreas 
Isler & Pedrazzini AG Giesshübelstrasse 45 Postfach 1772
8027 Zürich
8027 Zürich (CH)

  


(54)METHOD FOR FORMING BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONANCE DEVICE


(57) A method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, comprising: (S201) forming a first layer, which comprises: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer located on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer located on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pre-treatment layer located on the piezoelectric layer, used for forming a cavity, and at least covering a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first layer corresponds to the side of the first substrate; a second side of the first layer corresponds to the side of the cavity pre-treatment layer; (S203) forming a second layer, which comprises: providing a second substrate; (S205) connecting the first layer to the second layer, the second layer being located at the second side; (S207) removing the first substrate, so that the first side corresponds to the side of the piezoelectric layer; and (S209) forming a second electrode layer located at the first side and contacting with the piezoelectric layer. The formed piezoelectric layer does not comprise a crystal that is significantly turned so as to facilitate increasing the electromechanical coupling coefficient and the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the second substrate processing and the active layer processing can be respectively performed, and are flexible.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present disclosure relates to the technical field of semiconductors, and in particular to a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device.

BACKGROUND



[0002] A Radio Frequency (RF) front-end chip of a wireless communication device includes a power amplifier, an antenna switch, an RF filter, a duplexer, a multiplexer and a low noise amplifier, etc. The RF filter includes a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter, a Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) filter, a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) filter, and an Integrated Passive Device (IPD), etc. As both SAW resonator and BAW resonator have a high quality value (Q value), an RF filter including a SAW resonator, namely a SAW filter, and that including a BAW resonator, namely a BAW filter, have low insertion loss and high out-of-band rejection, and thus become current mainstream RF filters used by wireless communication devices such as mobile phones and base stations. The Q value is a quality factor value of a resonator, and is defined by a center frequency divided by 3 dB bandwidth of the resonator. An application frequency of the SAW filter is generally from 0.4 GHz to 2.7 GHz, and an application frequency of the BAW filter is generally from 0.7 GHz to 7 GHz.

[0003] Compared with a SAW resonator, a BAW resonator has better performance, but manufacturing cost of the BAW resonator is higher than that of the SAW resonator due to more complicated process. However, as wireless communication technology gradually evolves, more and more frequency bands are used. Moreover, with the application of frequency band superposition technology such as carrier aggregation, mutual interference between wireless frequency bands becomes more and more serious. High performance BAW technology can avoid or mitigate the mutual interference between wireless frequency bands. With the advent of 5G era, wireless mobile networks have adopted higher frequency bands, and currently, merely BAW technology can solve a filtering problem at high frequency.

[0004] FIG 1a illustrates a BAW filter including a ladder circuit consisting of a plurality of BAW resonators, where f1, f2, f3 and f4 represent four different frequencies, respectively. Within each BAW resonator, alternating voltages with different polarities are supplied to metal electrodes at both sides of a piezoelectric layer of the resonator, an acoustic wave is generated by the piezoelectric layer under the alternating voltages with different polarities, and the acoustic wave within the resonator propagates vertically. To form resonance, the acoustic wave requires to be totally reflected on an upper surface of an upper metal electrode and on a lower surface of a lower metal electrode to form a standing acoustic wave. A condition for an acoustic wave reflection is that an acoustic impedance of medium in contact with the upper surface of the upper metal electrode and the lower surface of the lower metal electrode is quite different from that of a metal electrode.

[0005] A Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator (FBAR) is a kind of BAW resonator which can restrain acoustic wave energy inside the resonator. Above a resonance region of the BAW resonator is air, and below the resonance region of the BAW resonator is a cavity. As the acoustic impedance of air is quite different from that of metal electrodes, acoustic waves can be totally reflected on an upper surface of an upper metal electrode and a lower surface of a lower metal electrode to form a standing wave.

[0006] FIG 1b illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section of an FBAR 100. The FBAR 100 includes: a substrate 101 having a cavity 101a therein; and an active layer 103 disposed on the substrate 101. The active layer 103 includes a piezoelectric layer 105, and an electrode layer 107 (i.e., a lower electrode layer) and an electrode layer 109 (i.e., an upper electrode layer) respectively disposed at both sides of the piezoelectric layer 105. The electrode layer 107 contacts the substrate 101. The FBAR 100 is formed by stacking layers, including forming the electrode layer 107 on the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 on the electrode layer 107, and forming the electrode layer 109 on the piezoelectric layer 105. As the electrode layer 107 protrudes above the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 directly on the electrode layer 107 may cause some crystals in the piezoelectric layer 105, for example, some crystals at both side edges of the piezoelectric layer 105 in a horizontal direction, to suffer from a significant change to their orientation and to be not parallel to other crystals, which may cause a decrease in an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the FBAR In addition, the FBAR 100 formed by stacking layers may not be flexible.

SUMMARY



[0007] The present disclosure is to provide a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, which enables a piezoelectric layer not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of resonator device. In addition, a substrate and active layers (including at least a piezoelectric layer, a lower electrode layer, such as the electrode layer 107, and an upper electrode layer, such as the electrode layer 109) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0008] Embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, including: forming a first stack, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer; forming a second stack, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate; joining the first stack and the second stack, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack; removing the first substrate, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer; and forming a second electrode layer at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0009] The piezoelectric layer is formed on a flat surface of the first substrate, which enables the piezoelectric layer not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the resonator device. In addition, the second substrate and the active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer, the first electrode layer, and the second electrode layer) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0010] In some embodiments, forming a cavity pretreatment layer includes forming a sacrificial layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer. In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of Benzocyclobutene (BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0011] In some embodiments, forming the cavity pretreatment layer further includes: forming a first intermediate layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering at least the sacrificial layer, wherein the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer. In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer further covers a second end of the first electrode layer.

[0012] In some embodiments, the first substrate is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0013] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals including a first crystal and a second crystal, wherein the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals among the plurality of crystals, a first coordinate axis along a first direction corresponds to a height of the first crystal, a second coordinate axis along a second direction corresponds to a height of the second crystal, and the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0014] In some embodiments, the first crystal corresponds to a first coordinate system including the first coordinate axis and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second crystal corresponds to a second coordinate system including the second coordinate axis and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction.

[0015] In some embodiments, the first coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction, and the second coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0016] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0017] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve represents a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0018] In some embodiments, forming the second stack further includes forming a second intermediate layer on the second substrate. In some embodiments, the second intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0019] In some embodiments, forming the second stack further includes forming a film between the second substrate and the second intermediate layer. In some embodiments, the film includes but is not limited to a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the polycrystalline film is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide. It should be noted that the film between the second substrate and the second intermediate layer helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the second substrate, thereby reducing an electric loss of the second substrate.

[0020] In some embodiments, the second substrate is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0021] In some embodiments, joining the first stack and the second stack includes: bonding the first intermediate layer and the second intermediate layer to form a third intermediate layer. In some embodiments, a thickness of the third intermediate layer is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the third intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0022] In some embodiments, the first electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the second electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0023] In some embodiments, the method further including: removing the sacrificial layer to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0024] In some embodiments, forming the cavity pretreatment layer further includes: prior to forming the first intermediate layer, forming an etching shield layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering at least the sacrificial layer. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers. It should be noted that the etching shield layer may serve to protect the first intermediate layer while forming the cavity by etch. In addition, the etching shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0025] In some embodiments, forming a piezoelectric layer includes: forming a first sub-piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; and forming a second sub-piezoelectric layer on the first sub-piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the first sub-piezoelectric layer is greater than 1.7 degrees, and a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the second sub-piezoelectric layer is smaller than 1.7 degrees. In some embodiments, the method further includes: following removing the first substrate, removing the first sub-piezoelectric layer, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the second sub-piezoelectric layer. It should be noted that a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being smaller than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively high lattice quality, while a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being greater than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively low lattice quality. The lattice quality of the piezoelectric layer may be affected when the first substrate is removed. Therefore, the piezoelectric layer with a two-layer structure is adopted. After the first substrate is removed, the first sub-piezoelectric layer with low lattice quality is removed, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further improve the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0026] In some embodiments, forming the first stack further includes: forming a photoetching mark prior to forming the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming a photoetching mark includes: forming an opening at an end of the first substrate; and forming the photoetching mark in the opening. In some embodiments, the method further includes: following removing the first substrate, retaining the photoetching mark at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0027] In some embodiments, the method further includes: prior to forming the second electrode layer, forming an edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming the second electrode layer includes: forming the second electrode layer at an inner side of the edge structure. It should be noted that the edge structure is disposed outside an edge of the second electrode layer, and forms a surrounding edge to the second electrode layer, so as to restrain a leakage of transverse waves, which may increase the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the edge structure is disposed within the resonance region. In some embodiments, the edge structure is a ring structure.

[0028] In some embodiments, forming an edge structure includes but is not limited to: forming a metal edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming the edge structure further includes: etching an inner side of the metal edge structure (i.e., an inner side of the edge structure) to form a slope. In some embodiments, an etching angle for etching the inner side of the metal edge structure is within a range from 1 degree to 89 degrees. It should be noted that the slope is formed at the inner side of the edge structure, and an outer side of the edge structure keeps upright, which may increase impedance of the edge structure, so as to better restrain a leakage of transverse waves.

[0029] It should be noted that the photoetching mark has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure or the second electrode layer, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark improves accuracy.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0030] 

FIG la illustrates a schematic structural view of a bulk acoustic wave filter;

FIG 1b illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section of an FBAR 100;

FIG 2 illustrates a flow chart of a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG 3a illustrates a flow chart of a method 300a for forming a cavity pretreatment layer in a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG 3b illustrates a flow chart of a method 300b for forming a cavity pretreatment layer in a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG 3c illustrates a flow chart of a method 300c for forming a cavity pretreatment layer in a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG 4 illustrates a flow chart of a method 400 for forming a second stack in a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIGS. 5 to 10 illustrate schematic structural views of cross-sections in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIGS. 11 to 14 illustrate schematic structural views of cross-sections in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIGS. 15 to 18 illustrate schematic structural views of cross-sections in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 19 illustrates a schematic structural view of a hexagonal crystal;

FIG. 20 (i) illustrates a schematic structural view of an orthorhombic crystal;

FIG. 20 (ii) illustrates a schematic structural view of a tetragonal crystal; and

FIG. 20 (iii) illustrates a schematic structural view of a cubic crystal.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0031] In order to make above-mentioned purposes, features and advantages of the present disclosure more obvious and understandable, specific embodiments of the present disclosure are described in detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawings.

[0032] In following descriptions, specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present disclosure, but the present disclosure may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the specific embodiments disclosed below.

[0033] As described in the background, referring to FIG. 1b, the FBAR 100 is formed by stacking layers, including forming the electrode layer 107 on the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 on the electrode layer 107, and forming the electrode layer 109 on the piezoelectric layer 105. As the electrode layer 107 protrudes above the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 directly on the electrode layer 107 may cause some crystals in the piezoelectric layer 105, for example, some crystals at both side edges of the piezoelectric layer 105 in a horizontal direction, to suffer from a significant change to their orientation and to be not parallel to other crystals, which may cause a decrease in an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the FBAR In addition, the FBAR 100 formed by stacking layers may not be flexible.

[0034] It has been found by the inventor that forming a piezoelectric layer on a flat surface of a first substrate can enable the piezoelectric layer not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of a resonator device.

[0035] It has also been found that a second substrate and active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer, a lower electrode layer, such as the electrode layer 107 in the FBAR 100, and an upper electrode layer, such as the electrode layer 109 in the FBAR 100) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0036] Further, as a material of the first substrate and a material of the piezoelectric layer are lattice-mismatch, the piezoelectric layer includes two sub-piezoelectric layers with different lattice quality. The first sub-piezoelectric layer between the first substrate and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is a transition layer with a relatively low lattice quality, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is formed on the first sub-piezoelectric layer with relatively high lattice quality. If the first piezoelectric sub-layer is not removed, the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonance device may be affected. It should be noted that, referring to FIG. 1b, the FBAR 100 is formed by stacking layers, and the piezoelectric layer 105 is directly formed on the electrode layer 107, thus it would be very unlikely to remove the sub-piezoelectric layer with low lattice quality which is in contact with the electrode layer 107.

[0037] It has also been found that the first sub-piezoelectric layer with low lattice quality may be further removed after the first substrate is removed, while the second sub-piezoelectric layer with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further increase the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonant device.

[0038] It has also been found that the photoetching mark on the piezoelectric layer has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure or the second electrode layer, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark improves accuracy.

[0039] FIG. 2 illustrates a flow chart of a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0040] As shown in FIG. 2, a method 200 for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device is provided in embodiments of the present disclosure, and includes S201 to S211.

[0041] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0042] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0043] In S205, joining the first stack and the second stack, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0044] In S207, removing the first substrate, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0045] In S209, forming a second electrode layer at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0046] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0047] The piezoelectric layer is formed on a flat surface of the first substrate, which enables the piezoelectric layer not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the resonator device. In addition, the second substrate and the active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer, the first electrode layer, and the second electrode layer) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0048] In some embodiments, the first substrate is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0049] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0050] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0051] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0052] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0053] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0054] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0055] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0056] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve smaller than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value the function.

[0057] In some embodiments, the second substrate is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0058] In some embodiments, the first electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the second electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0059] In some embodiments, S205 includes joining the cavity pretreatment layer and the second substrate. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the cavity pretreatment layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0060] In some embodiments, in S211, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0061] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0062] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0063] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0064] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0065] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0066] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0067] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0068] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 3a, forming a cavity pretreatment layer in S201 includes S2011, S2013 and S2015.

[0069] In S2011, a sacrificial layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer.

[0070] In S2013, an etching shield layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the sacrificial layer and the second end of the first electrode layer.

[0071] In S2015, a first intermediate layer is formed on the etching shield layer, so that the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer, wherein the etching shield layer is disposed between the first intermediate layer and the piezoelectric layer.

[0072] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0073] In some embodiments, the etching shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0074] In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, a thickness of the first intermediate layer is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0075] In some embodiments, S205 includes joining the first intermediate layer and the second substrate. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the first intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0076] In some embodiments, S211 includes removing the sacrificial layer by etching to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity. In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0077] It should be noted that the etching shield layer may serve to protect the first intermediate layer while forming the cavity by etch. In addition, the etching shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0078] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0079] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0080] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0081] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0082] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0083] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0084] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0085] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 3b, forming a cavity pretreatment layer in S201 includes S2011', S2013' and S2015'.

[0086] In S2011', a sacrificial layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer.

[0087] In S2013', an etching shield layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the sacrificial layer and the second end of the first electrode layer.

[0088] In S2015', a first intermediate layer is formed on and in contact with the piezoelectric layer and covering the etching shield layer, so that the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer.

[0089] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0090] In some embodiments, the etching shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0091] In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, a thickness of the first intermediate layer is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0092] In some embodiments, S205 includes joining the first intermediate layer and the second substrate. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the first intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0093] In some embodiments, S211 includes removing the sacrificial layer by etching to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity. In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0094] It should be noted that the etching shield layer may serve to protect the first intermediate layer while forming the cavity by etch. In addition, the etching shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0095] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0096] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0097] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0098] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0099] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0100] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0101] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0102] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 3c, forming a cavity pretreatment layer in S201 includes S2011", S2013" and S2015".

[0103] In S2011", a sacrificial layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer.

[0104] In S2013", an etching shield layer is formed on the piezoelectric layer and covering the sacrificial layer.

[0105] In S2015", a first intermediate layer is formed on and in contact with the piezoelectric layer and covering the etching shield layer and the second end of the first electrode layer, so that the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer.

[0106] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0107] In some embodiments, the etching shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0108] In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, a thickness of the first intermediate layer is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0109] In some embodiments, S205 includes joining the first intermediate layer and the second substrate. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the first intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0110] In some embodiments, S211 includes removing the sacrificial layer by etching to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity. In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0111] It should be noted that the etching shield layer may serve to protect the first intermediate layer while forming the cavity by etch. In addition, the etching shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0112] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0113] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0114] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0115] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0116] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0117] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0118] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0119] In some embodiments, as shown in FIG. 4, S203 includes S2031, S2033 and S2035.

[0120] In S2031, a second substrate is provided.

[0121] In S2033, a film is formed on the second substrate.

[0122] In S2035, a second intermediate layer is formed on the film.

[0123] In some embodiments, the film includes but is not limited to a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the polycrystalline film is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide. It should be noted that the film between the second substrate and the second intermediate layer helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the second substrate, thereby reducing an electric loss of the second substrate.

[0124] In some embodiments, the second intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0125] In some embodiments, S205 includes joining the cavity pretreatment layer and the second substrate to form a third intermediate layer. In some embodiments, a thickness of the third intermediate layer is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the third intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0126] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0127] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0128] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0129] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0130] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0131] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0132] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0133] In some embodiments, forming a cavity pretreatment layer in S201 includes:

forming a sacrificial layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer; and

forming a first intermediate layer on and in contact with the piezoelectric layer and covering the sacrificial layer and the second end of the first electrode layer, so that the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer.



[0134] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0135] In some embodiments, the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0136] In some embodiments, S203 further includes forming a second intermediate layer on the second substrate.

[0137] In some embodiments, the second intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0138] In some embodiments, S205 includes bonding the first intermediate layer and the second intermediate layer to form a third intermediate layer. In some embodiments, a thickness of the third intermediate layer is within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the third intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0139] In some embodiments, S211 includes removing the sacrificial layer by etching to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity. In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0140] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0141] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0142] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0143] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0144] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0145] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0146] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0147] In some embodiments, forming a piezoelectric layer in S201 includes: forming a first sub-piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; and forming a second sub-piezoelectric layer on the first sub-piezoelectric layer.

[0148] In some embodiments, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the first sub-piezoelectric layer is greater than 1.7 degrees, and a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the second sub-piezoelectric layer is smaller than 1.7 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. That is, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being smaller than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively high lattice quality, while a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being greater than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively low lattice quality. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0149] In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the second sub-piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer and the second sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer and the second sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of different materials.

[0150] In some embodiments, the second sub-piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0151] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0152] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0153] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0154] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0155] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second z-axis have the same orientation.

[0156] In some embodiments, the method 200 further includes: removing the first sub-piezoelectric layer following S207, so that the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the second sub-piezoelectric layer.

[0157] In some embodiments, S209 includes: forming the second electrode layer in contact with the second sub-piezoelectric layer.

[0158] It should be noted that as a material of the first substrate and a material of the piezoelectric layer are lattice-mismatch, the piezoelectric layer includes two sub-piezoelectric layers with different lattice quality. The first sub-piezoelectric layer between the first substrate and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is a transition layer with a relatively low lattice quality, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is formed on the first sub-piezoelectric layer with relatively high lattice quality. In some embodiments, after the first substrate is removed, the first sub-piezoelectric layer with low lattice quality is removed, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further improve the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0159] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0160] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0161] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0162] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0163] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0164] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0165] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0166] In some embodiments, S201 further includes: forming a photoetching mark prior to forming the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming a photoetching mark includes: forming an opening at an end of the first substrate; and forming the photoetching mark in the opening.

[0167] In some embodiments, the photoetching mark is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the piezoelectric layer may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the piezoelectric layer may be made of different materials.

[0168] In some embodiments, S207 further includes: retaining the photoetching mark at an end of the piezoelectric layer, wherein the retained photoetching mark is disposed at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0169] In some embodiments, S209 includes: forming the second electrode layer based on the photoetching mark.

[0170] It should be noted that the photoetching mark has a calibration function. During the formation of the second electrode layer, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark improves accuracy.

[0171] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0172] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0173] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0174] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0175] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0176] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0177] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0178] In some embodiments, S201 further includes: forming a photoetching mark prior to forming the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming a photoetching mark includes: forming an opening at an end of the first substrate; and forming the photoetching mark in the opening.

[0179] In some embodiments, the photoetching mark is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0180] In some embodiments, forming a piezoelectric layer in S201 includes: forming a first sub-piezoelectric layer on the first substrate and the photoetching mark; and forming a second sub-piezoelectric layer on the first sub-piezoelectric layer.

[0181] In some embodiments, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the first sub-piezoelectric layer is greater than 1.7 degrees, and a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the second sub-piezoelectric layer is smaller than 1.7 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. That is, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being smaller than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively high lattice quality, while a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being greater than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively low lattice quality. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0182] In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the second sub-piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0183] In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer and the second sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the first sub-piezoelectric layer and the second sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of different materials. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the first sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the first sub-piezoelectric layer may be made of different materials.

[0184] In some embodiments, the second sub-piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0185] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0186] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0187] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0188] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0189] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0190] In some embodiments, the method 200 further includes: removing the first sub-piezoelectric layer following S207, so that the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the second sub-piezoelectric layer; retaining the photoetching mark at an end of the second sub-piezoelectric layer, wherein the retained photoetching mark is disposed at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the second sub-piezoelectric layer.

[0191] In some embodiments, S209 includes: forming the second electrode layer in contact with the second sub-piezoelectric layer based on the photoetching mark.

[0192] It should be noted that as a material of the first substrate and a material of the piezoelectric layer are lattice-mismatch, the piezoelectric layer includes two sub-piezoelectric layers with different lattice quality. The first sub-piezoelectric layer between the first substrate and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is a transition layer with a relatively low lattice quality, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer is formed on the first sub-piezoelectric layer with relatively high lattice quality. In some embodiments, after the first substrate is removed, the first sub-piezoelectric layer with low lattice quality is removed, and the second sub-piezoelectric layer with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further improve the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0193] It should be noted that the photoetching mark has a calibration function. During the formation of the second electrode layer, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark improves accuracy.

[0194] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0195] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0196] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0197] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0198] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0199] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0200] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0201] In some embodiments, the method 200 further includes: forming an edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer prior to S209. In some embodiments, the edge structure is a ring structure.

[0202] In some embodiments, forming an edge structure includes: forming a metal edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming an edge structure includes: forming a polymer edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer; and forming a metal edge structure on the polymer edge structure.

[0203] In some embodiments, forming the edge structure further includes: etching an inner side of the metal edge structure (i.e., an inner side of the edge structure) to form a slope. In some embodiments, an etching angle for etching the inner side of the metal edge structure is within a range from 1 degree to 89 degrees.

[0204] In some embodiments, S209 includes: forming the second electrode layer at an inner side of the edge structure.

[0205] It should be noted that the edge structure is disposed outside an edge of the second electrode layer, and forms a surrounding edge to the second electrode layer, so as to restrain a leakage of transverse waves, which may increase the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the edge structure is disposed within the resonance region which at least includes the piezoelectric layer, the first electrode layer, the edge structure and the second electrode layer. In addition, the slope is formed at the inner side of the edge structure, and an outer side of the edge structure keeps upright, which may increase impedance of the edge structure, so as to better restrain a leakage of transverse waves.

[0206] In some embodiments of the present disclosure, the method 200 for forming the bulk acoustic wave resonance device includes S201 to S211.

[0207] In S201, a first stack is formed, wherein forming the first stack includes: providing a first substrate; forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer.

[0208] In S203, a second stack is formed, wherein forming the second stack includes providing a second substrate.

[0209] In S205, the first stack and the second stack are joined, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack.

[0210] In S207, the first substrate is removed, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer.

[0211] In S209, a second electrode layer is formed at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0212] In S211, the cavity pretreatment layer is etched to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.

[0213] In some embodiments, S201 further includes: forming a photoetching mark prior to forming the piezoelectric layer. In some embodiments, forming a photoetching mark includes: forming an opening at an end of the first substrate; and forming the photoetching mark in the opening.

[0214] In some embodiments, the photoetching mark is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the piezoelectric layer may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark and the piezoelectric layer may be made of different materials.

[0215] In some embodiments, S207 further includes: retaining the photoetching mark at an end of the piezoelectric layer, wherein the retained photoetching mark is disposed at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.

[0216] In some embodiments, the method 200 further includes: forming an edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer based on the photoetching mark prior to S209. In some embodiments, the edge structure is a ring structure.

[0217] In some embodiments, forming an edge structure includes: forming a metal edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer based on the photoetching mark. In some embodiments, forming an edge structure includes: forming a polymer edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer based on the photoetching mark; and forming a metal edge structure on the polymer edge structure.

[0218] In some embodiments, forming the edge structure further includes: etching an inner side of the metal edge structure (i.e., an inner side of the edge structure) to form a slope. In some embodiments, an etching angle for etching the inner side of the metal edge structure is within a range from 1 degree to 89 degrees.

[0219] In some embodiments, S209 includes: forming the second electrode layer at an inner side of the edge structure based on the photoetching mark.

[0220] It should be noted that the photoetching mark has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure and the second electrode layer, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark improves accuracy.

[0221] In addition, the edge structure is disposed outside an edge of the second electrode layer, and forms a surrounding edge to the second electrode layer, so as to restrain a leakage of transverse waves, which may increase the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the edge structure is disposed within the resonance region which at least includes the piezoelectric layer, the first electrode layer, the edge structure and the second electrode layer. In addition, the slope is formed at the inner side of the edge structure, and an outer side of the edge structure keeps upright, which may increase impedance of the edge structure, so as to better restrain a leakage of transverse waves.

[0222] In conjunction with schematic structural views of cross-sections of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, embodiments of the present disclosure provide following specific methods for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device to facilitate understanding the present disclosure. The present disclosure may also be implemented using other solutions different from the embodiments below. Therefore, the present disclosure is not limited by the specific embodiments disclosed below.

[0223] FIGS. 5 to 10 illustrate schematic structural views of a cross-section A in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0224] As shown in FIG. 5, the method includes: forming a first stack, wherein forming the first stack includes:

providing a substrate 501;

forming an opening 501a at an end of the substrate 501;

forming a photoetching mark 502 in the opening 501a;

forming a sub-piezoelectric layer 503 on the substrate 501 and the photoetching mark 502;

forming a sub-piezoelectric layer 505 on the sub-piezoelectric layer 503.



[0225] In some embodiments, the substrate 501 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0226] In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 502 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 502 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 502 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 may be made of different materials.

[0227] In some embodiments, the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 may be made of different materials.

[0228] In some embodiments, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 is greater than 1.7 degrees, and a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the second sub-piezoelectric layer 505 is smaller than 1.7 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. That is, a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being smaller than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively high lattice quality, while a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve being greater than 1.7 degrees represents a relatively low lattice quality. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0229] It should be noted that as a material of the substrate 501 and a material of the piezoelectric layer are lattice-mismatch, the piezoelectric layer includes two sub-piezoelectric layers with different lattice quality. The sub-piezoelectric layer 503 between the substrate 501 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 is a transition layer with a relatively low lattice quality, and the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 is formed on the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 with relatively high lattice quality.

[0230] In some embodiments, the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0231] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0232] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0233] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0234] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0235] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first and the second have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0236] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 6, forming the first stack includes:

forming an electrode layer 601 on the sub-piezoelectric layer 505, wherein the electrode layer 601 is disposed at a first side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505;

forming a sacrificial layer 603 on the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and covering a first end of the electrode layer 601.

forming an etching shield layer 605 on the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and covering the sacrificial layer 603 and a second end of the electrode layer 601.

forming an intermediate layer 607 on the etching shield layer 605, wherein the etching shield layer 605 is disposed between the intermediate layer 607 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 505.



[0237] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 601 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0238] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer 603 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0239] In some embodiments, the etching shield layer 605 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0240] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 607 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0241] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 7, the method further includes forming a second stack, wherein forming the second stack includes:

forming a substrate 701;

forming a film 703 on the substrate 701; and

forming an intermediate layer 705 on the film 703.



[0242] In some embodiments, the substrate 701 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0243] In some embodiments, the film 703 includes but is not limited to a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the polycrystalline film is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide. It should be noted that the film 703 between the substrate 701 and the intermediate layer 705 helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the substrate 701, thereby reducing an electric loss of the substrate 701.

[0244] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 705 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0245] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 8, the method further includes:
bonding the intermediate layer 607 and the intermediate layer 705 to form an intermediate layer 801.

[0246] In some embodiments, a thickness of the intermediate layer 801 is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 801 may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the substrate 701.

[0247] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 607 and the intermediate layer 705 are wafer bonded to form the intermediate layer 801. In some embodiments, the wafer bonding adopts but is not limited to one of polymer bonding technology and insulating dielectric bonding technology. In some embodiments, the polymer bonding technology includes: coating a polymer on a wafer; drying the polymer after the polymer is completely flat; and bonding the wafer. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric bonding technology includes: forming an insulating dielectric layer on a wafer; planarizing the insulating dielectric layer; and bonding the wafer.

[0248] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 9, the method further includes:

removing the substrate 501;

removing the sub-piezoelectric layer 503, retaining the photoetching mark 502 at an end of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505, wherein the retained photoetching mark 502 is disposed at a second side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 which is opposite to the first side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505; and

forming an edge structure 901 at the second side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and in contact with the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 based on the photoetching mark 502.



[0249] In some embodiments, the edge structure 901 is a ring structure.

[0250] In some embodiments, forming the edge structure 901 includes: forming a metal edge structure at the second side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and in contact with the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 based on the photoetching mark 502. In some embodiments, forming the edge structure 901 includes: forming a polymer edge structure at the second side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and in contact with the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 based on the photoetching mark 502; and forming a metal edge structure on the polymer edge structure.

[0251] In some embodiments, forming the edge structure 901 further includes: etching an inner side of the metal edge structure (i.e., an inner side of the edge structure 901) to form a slope. In some embodiments, an etching angle for etching the inner side of the metal edge structure is within a range from 1 degree to 89 degrees.

[0252] It should be noted that the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 is further removed after the substrate 501 is removed, while the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further increase the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonant device.

[0253] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 10, the method further includes:

forming an electrode layer 1001 at the second side of the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 and in contact with the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 based on the photoetching mark 502. The electrode layer 1001 is disposed at an inner side of the edge structure 901; and

removing the sacrificial layer 603 by etching to form the cavity 1003, wherein the first end of the electrode layer 601 is disposed in the cavity 1003.



[0254] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1001 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0255] In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0256] It should be noted that the photoetching mark 502 has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure 901 and the electrode layer 1001, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark 502 improves accuracy.

[0257] In addition, the edge structure 901 is disposed outside an edge of the electrode layer 1001, and forms a surrounding edge to the electrode layer 1001, so as to restrain a leakage of transverse waves, which may increase the Q value of the resonance device.

[0258] In addition, the edge structure 901 is disposed within the resonance region 1005 which at least includes the sub-piezoelectric layer 505, the electrode layer 601, the edge structure 901 and the electrode layer 1001. The resonance region 1005 is suspended relative to the cavity 1003, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 801.

[0259] In addition, a slope is formed at the inner side of the edge structure 901, and an outer side of the edge structure keeps upright, which may increase impedance of the edge structure 901, so as to better restrain a leakage of transverse waves.

[0260] In addition, the etching shield layer 605 may serve to protect the intermediate layer 801 when the sacrificial layer 603 is removed to form the cavity 1003. In addition, the etching shield layer 605 may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0261] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure provide following advantages.

[0262] First, the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 and the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 are formed on a flat surface of the substrate 501, which enables the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the resonator device.

[0263] Second, the substrate 701 and the active layers (including at least the sub-piezoelectric layer 505, the electrode layer 601, the edge structure 901, and the electrode layer 1001) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0264] Third, acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 801 may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the substrate 701.

[0265] Fourth, the film 703 between the substrate 701 and the intermediate layer 801 helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the substrate 701, thereby reducing an electric loss of the substrate 701.

[0266] Fifth, the sub-piezoelectric layer 503 with low lattice quality may be further removed after the substrate 501 is removed, while the sub-piezoelectric layer 505 with high lattice quality is retained, so as to further increase the electromechanical coupling factor and the Q value of the resonant device.

[0267] Sixth, the photoetching mark 502 has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure 901 and the electrode layer 1001, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark 502 improves accuracy.

[0268] FIGS. 11 to 14 illustrate schematic structural views of a cross-section A in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0269] As shown in FIG. 11, the method includes: forming a first stack, wherein forming the first stack includes:

providing a substrate 1101;

forming a piezoelectric layer 1103 on the substrate 1101;

forming an electrode layer 1105 on the piezoelectric layer 1103, wherein the electrode layer 1105 is disposed at a first side of the piezoelectric layer 1103;

forming a sacrificial layer 1107 on the piezoelectric layer 1103 and covering a first end of the electrode layer 1105.

forming an etching shield layer 1109 on the piezoelectric layer 1103 and covering the sacrificial layer 1107; and

forming an intermediate layer 1111 disposed on and in contact with the piezoelectric layer 1103 and covering the etching shield layer 1109 and a second end of the electrode layer 1105.



[0270] In some embodiments, the substrate 1101 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0271] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1103 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0272] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1103 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0273] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0274] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0275] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0276] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0277] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0278] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1103 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve represents a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0279] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1105 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0280] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer 1107 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0281] In some embodiments, the etching shield layer 1109 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0282] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 1111 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0283] The piezoelectric layer 1103 is formed on a flat surface of the substrate 1101, which enables the piezoelectric layer 1103 not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the resonator device. In addition, the second substrate and the active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer, the first electrode layer, and the second electrode layer) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0284] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 12, the method further includes forming a second stack, wherein forming the second stack includes:

forming a substrate 1201; and

forming an intermediate layer 1203 on the substrate 1201.



[0285] In some embodiments, the substrate 1201 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0286] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 1203 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0287] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 13, the method further includes: bonding the intermediate layer 1111 and the intermediate layer 1203 to form an intermediate layer 1301.

[0288] In some embodiments, a thickness of the intermediate layer 1301 is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0289] In some embodiments, bonding the intermediate layer 1111 and the intermediate layer 1203 includes: wafer bonding the intermediate layer 1111 and the intermediate layer 1203 to form the intermediate layer 1301. In some embodiments, the wafer bonding adopts but is not limited to one of polymer bonding technology and insulating dielectric bonding technology. In some embodiments, the polymer bonding technology includes: coating a polymer on a wafer; drying the polymer after the polymer is completely flat; and bonding the wafer. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric bonding technology includes: forming an insulating dielectric layer on a wafer; planarizing the insulating dielectric layer; and bonding the wafer.

[0290] It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 1301 may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the substrate 1201.

[0291] In some embodiments, referring to FIG. 14, the method further includes:

removing the substrate 1101;

forming an electrode layer 1401 at the second side of the piezoelectric layer 1103 and in contact with the piezoelectric layer 1103, wherein the second side of the piezoelectric layer 1103 is opposite to the first side of the piezoelectric layer 1103; and

removing the sacrificial layer 1107 by etching to form the cavity 1403, wherein the first end of the electrode layer 1105 is disposed in the cavity 1403.



[0292] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1401 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0293] In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0294] It should be noted that the substrate 1201 and the active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer 1103, the electrode layer 1105, and the electrode layer 1401) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0295] In addition, the etching shield layer 1109 may serve to protect the intermediate layer 1301 when the sacrificial layer 1107 is removed to form the cavity 1403. In addition, the etching shield layer 1109 may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0296] In addition, the electrode layer 1105, the piezoelectric layer 1103 and the electrode layer 1401 form the resonance region which is suspended relative to the cavity 1403, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 1301.

[0297] FIGS. 15 to 18 illustrate schematic structural views of a cross-section A in a method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0298] As shown in FIG. 15, the method includes: forming a first stack, wherein forming the first stack includes:

providing a substrate 1501;

forming an opening 1501a at an end of the substrate 1501;

forming a photoetching mark 1502 in the opening 1501a;

forming a piezoelectric layer 1503 on the substrate 1501 and the photoetching mark 1502;

forming an electrode layer 1505 on the piezoelectric layer 1503, wherein the electrode layer 1505 is disposed at a first side of the piezoelectric layer 1503; and

forming a sacrificial layer 1507 on the piezoelectric layer 1503 and covering a first end of the electrode layer 1505.

forming an intermediate layer 1509 disposed on and in contact with the piezoelectric layer 1503 and covering the sacrificial layer 1507 and a second end of the electrode layer 1505.



[0299] In some embodiments, the substrate 1501 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0300] In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 1502 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1503 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 1502 and the piezoelectric layer 1503 may be made of the same material. In some embodiments, the photoetching mark 1502 and the piezoelectric layer 1503 may be made of different materials.

[0301] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1503 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It could be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 19, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 20, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0302] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0303] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0304] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same orientation or opposite orientation.

[0305] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction is within a range from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0306] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0307] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1503 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve represents a lattice quality, and the smaller the full width at half maximum of the rocking curve is, the higher the lattice quality is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0308] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1505 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0309] In some embodiments, the sacrificial layer 1507 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. It should be noted that the doped silicon dioxide includes silicon dioxide doped with other elements.

[0310] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 1509 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0311] The piezoelectric layer 1503 is formed on a flat surface of the substrate 1501, which enables the piezoelectric layer 1503 not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of the resonator device.

[0312] In some embodiments, referring to 16, the method further includes forming a second stack, wherein forming the second stack includes:

forming a substrate 1601; and

forming an intermediate layer 1603 on the substrate 1601.



[0313] In some embodiments, the substrate 1601 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0314] In some embodiments, the intermediate layer 1603 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of BCB, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, such as SU-8, and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from but not limited to a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0315] In some embodiments, referring to 17, the method further includes: bonding the intermediate layer 1509 and the intermediate layer 1603 to form an intermediate layer 1701.

[0316] In some embodiments, a thickness of the intermediate layer 1701 is within but not limited to a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0317] In some embodiments, bonding the intermediate layer 1509 and the intermediate layer 1603 includes: wafer bonding the intermediate layer 1509 and the intermediate layer 1603 to form the intermediate layer 1701. In some embodiments, the wafer bonding adopts but is not limited to one of polymer bonding technology and insulating dielectric bonding technology. In some embodiments, the polymer bonding technology includes: coating a polymer on a wafer; drying the polymer after the polymer is completely flat; and bonding the wafer. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric bonding technology includes: forming an insulating dielectric layer on a wafer; planarizing the insulating dielectric layer; and bonding the wafer.

[0318] It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 1701 may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the substrate 1601.

[0319] In some embodiments, referring to 18, the method further includes:

removing the substrate 1501, retaining the photoetching mark 1502 at an end of the piezoelectric layer 1503, wherein the retained photoetching mark 1502 is disposed at a second side of the piezoelectric layer 1503 and in contact with the piezoelectric layer 1503, wherein the second side of the piezoelectric layer 1503 is opposite to the first side of the piezoelectric layer 1503;

forming an electrode layer 1801 at the second side of the piezoelectric layer 1503 and in contact with the piezoelectric layer 1503 based on the photoetching mark 1502; and

removing the sacrificial layer 1507 by etching to form the cavity 1803, wherein the first end of the electrode layer 1505 is disposed in the cavity 1803.



[0320] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1801 is made of one or more materials selected from but not limited to a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0321] In some embodiments, an etching method may include but is not limited to oxygen ion etching, hydrofluoric acid etching, and xenon difluoride etching.

[0322] It should be noted that the photoetching mark 1502 has a calibration function. During the formation of the edge structure 901 and the electrode layer 1001, alignment with respect to the photoetching mark 1502 improves accuracy.

[0323] In addition, the substrate 1601 and the active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer 1503, the electrode layer 1505, and the electrode layer 1801) may be processed separately, which allows the forming method of the resonant device to be flexible.

[0324] In addition, the electrode layer 1505, the piezoelectric layer 1503 and the electrode layer 1801 form the resonance region which is suspended relative to the cavity 1803, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 1701.

[0325] From above, embodiments of the present disclosure mainly provide following advantages.

[0326] A piezoelectric layer is formed on a flat surface of a first substrate, which enables the piezoelectric layer not to include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby improving an electromechanical coupling factor and a Q value of a resonator device. In addition, a second substrate and active layers (including at least the piezoelectric layer, a lower electrode layer, and an upper electrode layer) may be processed separately, which allows a forming method of the resonant device to be flexible. In addition, acoustic impedance of an intermediate layer may be relatively small so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate.

[0327] It should be understood that examples and embodiments herein are only exemplary, and those skilled in the art could make various modifications and corrections without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure.


Claims

1. A method for forming a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, comprising:

forming a first stack, wherein forming the first stack comprises:

providing a first substrate;

forming a piezoelectric layer on the first substrate;

forming a first electrode layer on the piezoelectric layer; and

forming a cavity pretreatment layer on the piezoelectric layer, wherein a cavity is to be formed based on the cavity pretreatment layer which at least covers a first end of the first electrode layer, wherein a first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first substrate, and a second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the cavity pretreatment layer;

forming a second stack, wherein forming the second stack comprises providing a second substrate;

joining the first stack and the second stack, wherein the second stack is disposed at the second side of the first stack;

removing the first substrate, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the piezoelectric layer; and

forming a second electrode layer at the first side of the first stack, wherein the second electrode layer is in contact with the piezoelectric layer.


 
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein forming a cavity pretreatment layer comprises forming a sacrificial layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering the first end of the first electrode layer.
 
3. The method according to claim 2, wherein the sacrificial layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polymer, silicon dioxide, doped silicon dioxide, and polysilicon.
 
4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the polymer comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of benzocyclobutene, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, and polyimide.
 
5. The method according to claim 2, wherein forming the cavity pretreatment layer further comprises:
forming a first intermediate layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering at least the sacrificial layer, wherein the second side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the first intermediate layer.
 
6. The method according to claim 5, wherein the first intermediate layer further covers a second end of the first electrode layer.
 
7. The method according to claim 5, wherein the first intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric.
 
8. The method according to claim 7, wherein the polymer comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of benzocyclobutene, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, and polyimide.
 
9. The method according to claim 7, wherein the insulating dielectric comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.
 
10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the piezoelectric layer comprises a plurality of crystals comprising a first crystal and a second crystal, wherein the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals among the plurality of crystals, a first coordinate axis along a first direction corresponds to a height of the first crystal, a second coordinate axis along a second direction corresponds to a height of the second crystal, and the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction.
 
11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the first crystal corresponds to a first coordinate system comprising the first coordinate axis and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second crystal corresponds to a second coordinate system comprising the second coordinate axis and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction.
 
12. The method according to claim 11, wherein the first coordinate system further comprises a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction, and the second coordinate system further comprises a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction.
 
13. The method according to claim 12, wherein the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction.
 
14. The method according to claim 1, wherein the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.
 
15. The method according to claim 1, wherein the piezoelectric layer comprises a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees.
 
16. The method according to claim 5, wherein forming the second stack further comprises forming a second intermediate layer on the second substrate.
 
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein the second intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric.
 
18. The method according to claim 17, wherein the polymer comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of benzocyclobutene, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, and polyimide.
 
19. The method according to claim 17, wherein the insulating dielectric comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.
 
20. The method according to claim 16, wherein forming the second stack further comprises forming a film between the second substrate and the second intermediate layer.
 
21. The method according to claim 20, wherein the film comprises a polycrystalline film.
 
22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the polycrystalline film is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide.
 
23. The method according to claim 16, wherein joining the first stack and the second stack comprises: bonding the first intermediate layer and the second intermediate layer to form a third intermediate layer.
 
24. The method according to claim 23, wherein a thickness of the third intermediate layer is within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.
 
25. The method according to claim 5, further comprising:
removing the sacrificial layer to form the cavity, wherein the first end of the first electrode layer is disposed in the cavity.
 
26. The method according to claim 5, wherein forming the cavity pretreatment layer further comprises:
prior to forming the first intermediate layer, forming an etching shield layer on the piezoelectric layer and covering at least the sacrificial layer.
 
27. The method according to claim 26, wherein the etching shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide.
 
28. The method according to claim 26, wherein the etching shield layer has a thickness within a range from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.
 
29. The method according to claim 1, wherein forming a piezoelectric layer comprises:
forming a first sub-piezoelectric layer on the first substrate; and forming a second sub-piezoelectric layer on the first sub-piezoelectric layer.
 
30. The method according to claim 29, wherein a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the first sub-piezoelectric layer is greater than 1.7 degrees, and a full width at half maximum of a rocking curve of the second sub-piezoelectric layer is smaller than 1.7 degrees.
 
31. The method according to claim 29, further comprising: following removing the first substrate, removing the first sub-piezoelectric layer, wherein the first side of the first stack corresponds to a side of the second sub-piezoelectric layer.
 
32. The method according to claim 1, wherein forming the first stack further comprises:
forming a photoetching mark prior to forming the piezoelectric layer.
 
33. The method according to claim 32, wherein forming a photoetching mark comprises:

forming an opening at an end of the first substrate; and

forming the photoetching mark in the opening.


 
34. The method according to claim 32, further comprising:
following removing the first substrate, retaining the photoetching mark at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.
 
35. The method according to claim 1, further comprising:
prior to forming the second electrode layer, forming an edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.
 
36. The method according to claim 35, wherein forming the second electrode layer comprises: forming the second electrode layer at an inner side of the edge structure.
 
37. The method according to claim 35, wherein forming an edge structure comprises:
forming a metal edge structure at the first side of the first stack and in contact with the piezoelectric layer.
 
38. The method according to claim 37, wherein forming the edge structure further comprises:
etching an inner side of the metal edge structure to form a slope.
 
39. The method according to claim 38, wherein an etching angle for etching the inner side of the metal edge structure is within a range from 1 degree to 89 degrees.
 




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