(19)
(11)EP 4 027 518 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
13.07.2022 Bulletin 2022/28

(21)Application number: 19944132.0

(22)Date of filing:  05.09.2019
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H03H 9/17(2006.01)
H03H 3/02(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
H03H 9/17; H03H 3/02
(86)International application number:
PCT/CN2019/104599
(87)International publication number:
WO 2021/042342 (11.03.2021 Gazette  2021/10)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(71)Applicant: Changzhou Chemsemi Co., Ltd.
Changzhou, Jiangsu 213166 (CN)

(72)Inventor:
  • LIU, Yuhao
    Shanghai 201803 (CN)

(74)Representative: Detken, Andreas 
Isler & Pedrazzini AG Giesshübelstrasse 45 Postfach 1772
8027 Zürich
8027 Zürich (CH)

  


(54)BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONANCE DEVICE AND BULK ACOUSTIC WAVE FILTER


(57) A bulk acoustic wave resonance device (200), comprising: a first layer, the first layer comprising a first cavity on a first side; a first electrode layer, located on the first side, a first end of the first electrode layer being in contact with the first layer, and a second end of the first electrode layer being located in the first cavity; a second layer, located on the first electrode layer; and a second electrode layer, located on the second layer, a first portion on the first electrode layer that coincides with the second electrode layer being located in the first cavity. Since a resonance region (209) does not coincide with the first layer, and the resonance region (209) is suspended relative to the first cavity, so that a difference between acoustic impedances of the resonance region (209) and a non-resonance region can be increased, thereby increasing a Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the second layer comprises a piezoelectric layer (205), and the piezoelectric layer (205) does not comprise a significantly steered crystal, thereby facilitating increasing an electromechanical coupling coefficient and the Q value of the resonance device.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present disclosure relates to the technical field of semiconductors, and in particular to a bulk acoustic wave resonance device and a bulk acoustic wave filter.

BACKGROUND



[0002] A Radio Frequency (RF) front-end chip of a wireless communication device includes a power amplifier, an antenna switch, a radio frequency filter, a duplexer, a multiplexer and a low noise amplifier, etc., wherein the radio frequency filter includes a Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) filter, a Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) filter, a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) filter, and an Integrated Passive Device (IPD), etc. As both a SAW resonator and a BAW resonator have a high quality value (Q value), a radio frequency filter including a SAW resonator, namely a SAW filter, and that including a BAW resonator, namely a BAW filter, have low insertion loss and high out-of-band rejection, and thus become current mainstream radio frequency filters used by wireless communication devices such as mobile phones and base stations. The Q value is a quality factor value of a resonator, and is defined by a center frequency divided by 3 dB bandwidth of the resonator. An application frequency of the SAW filter is generally from 0.4 GHz to 2.7 GHz and an application frequency of the BAW filter is generally from 0.7 GHz to 7 GHz.

[0003] Compared with a SAW resonator, a BAW resonator has better performance, but the manufacturing cost of the BAW resonator is higher than that of the SAW resonator due to more complicated process. However, as wireless communication technology gradually evolves, more and more frequency bands are used. Moreover, with the application of frequency band superposition technology such as carrier aggregation, mutual interference between wireless frequency bands becomes more and more serious. High performance BAW technology can solve the problem of mutual interference. With the advent of 5G era, wireless mobile networks have adopted higher frequency bands, and currently, only BAW technology can solve the filtering problem at high frequency.

[0004] FIG 1a illustrates a BAW filter including a ladder circuit consisting of a plurality of BAW resonators, wherein f1, f2, f3 and f4 represent four different frequencies, respectively. Within each BAW resonator, alternating voltages with different polarities are supplied to metal electrodes on both sides of a piezoelectric layer of the resonator, an acoustic wave is generated by the piezoelectric layer under the alternating voltages with different polarities, and the acoustic wave within the resonator propagates vertically. In order to form resonance, the acoustic wave requires total reflection on an upper surface of an upper metal electrode and on a lower surface of a lower metal electrode to form a standing acoustic wave. A condition for an acoustic wave reflection is that acoustic impedance of medium in contact with the upper surface of the upper metal electrode and the lower surface of the lower metal electrode is greatly different from that of a metal electrode.

[0005] A Film Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator (FBAR) is a kind of BAW resonator which can restrain acoustic wave energy inside the resonator. There is air above a resonance region of the BAW resonator, and there is a cavity below the resonance region of the BAW resonator. Because the acoustic impedance of air is very different from that of metal electrodes, acoustic waves can be totally reflected on an upper surface of an upper metal electrode and a lower surface of a lower metal electrode to form a standing wave.

[0006] FIG 1b illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of an FBAR 100. The FBAR 100 includes a substrate 101 including a cavity 101a therein and an active layer 103 disposed on the substrate 101. The active layer 103 includes a piezoelectric layer 105, an electrode layer 107 (i.e., a lower electrode layer) and an electrode layer 109 (i.e., an upper electrode layer) respectively disposed on both sides of the piezoelectric layer 105. The electrode layer 107 contacts the substrate 101. A resonance region 111 on the active layer 103 overlaps with the substrate 101 so that the resonance region 111 does not suspend relative to the cavity 101a. If the acoustic impedance of the resonance region 111 closes to acoustic impedance of a non-resonance region, the energy of the resonance region 111 spreads to the non-resonance region, which may cause a decrease of the Q value of the resonator. In addition, since the electrode layer 107 protrudes above the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 directly on the electrode layer 107 may cause some crystals in the piezoelectric layer 105, for example, some crystals at both side edges of the piezoelectric layer 105 in a horizontal direction, to suffer from a significant change to their orientation and to be not parallel to other crystals, which may cause a decrease of electromechanical coupling factor and Q value of the FBAR

SUMMARY



[0007] The present disclosure is to provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device and a bulk acoustic wave filter, wherein a resonance region of the bulk acoustic wave resonance device is suspended relative to a cavity in an intermediate layer or a substrate, so as to increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region and that of a non-resonance region, thereby increasing Q value of the resonance device. In addition, a piezoelectric layer of the bulk acoustic wave resonance device does not include crystals which suffer from a significant change to their orientation, thereby increasing an electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0008] To this end, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, including: a first layer including a first cavity disposed at a first side of the first layer; a first electrode layer disposed at the first side, wherein a first end of the first electrode layer is in contact with the first layer, and a second end of the first electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity; a second layer disposed on the first electrode layer; and a second electrode layer disposed on the second layer, wherein a first portion of the first electrode layer overlapping with the second electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity.

[0009] It should be noted that by adjusting positions of the first electrode layer and the second electrode layer so that a resonance region, that is an overlap region by the first electrode and the second electrode, does not overlap with the first layer, and the resonance region is suspended relative to the first cavity, difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region and that of a non-resonance region can be increased, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0010] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes an intermediate layer, and the intermediate layer includes the first cavity. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes at least one selected from a group consisting of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes at least one selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer has a thickness ranging from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. In some embodiments, the intermediate layer has a thickness ranging from 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.

[0011] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes a first substrate, and the first substrate includes the first cavity. In some embodiments, the first substrate is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0012] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes an etch shield layer covering at least a bottom or a side wall of the first cavity. In some embodiments, the etch shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the etch shield layer has a thickness ranging from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers. In some embodiments, the etch shield layer has a thickness ranging from 2 micrometers to 6 micrometers. It should be noted that the etch shield layer may serve to protect the intermediate layer or the first substrate when forming the first cavity by etch. In addition, the etch shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0013] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes a second cavity disposed at the first side. The second cavity is disposed adjacent to the first cavity and communicated with the first cavity, and the first end is disposed in the second cavity. It should be noted that a depth of the second cavity is less than a depth of the first cavity, and the depth of the second cavity at least corresponds to a thickness of the first electrode layer (for example, the depth of the second cavity is equal to the thickness of the first electrode layer or the sum of the thickness of the first electrode layer and a thickness of the etch shield layer).

[0014] In some embodiments, the second layer includes a piezoelectric layer, and the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. A first coordinate axis along a first direction corresponds to a height of the first crystal and a second coordinate axis along a second direction corresponds to a height of the second crystal. The first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0015] In some embodiments, the first crystal corresponds to a first coordinate system including the first coordinate axis and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second crystal corresponds to a second coordinate system including the second coordinate axis and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction.

[0016] In some embodiments, the first coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction, and the second coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0017] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0018] In some embodiments, the second layer includes a piezoelectric layer including a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0019] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0020] In some embodiments, a second portion of the second electrode layer overlapping with the first electrode layer is disposed above the first cavity, and a projection of the second portion along a direction perpendicular to the first layer falls within the first cavity.

[0021] In some embodiments, the material of the first electrode layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the second electrode layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0022] In some embodiments, the first electrode layer includes a first polarity and the second electrode layer includes a second polarity. In some embodiments, the first electrode layer includes the first polarity and the second polarity, and the second electrode layer includes the first polarity and the second polarity. The first polarity is different from the second polarity. It should be noted that electrode polarities include a positive polarity and a negative polarity.

[0023] In some embodiments, the resonance device further includes a second substrate disposed at a second side of the first layer, and the second side is opposite to the first side. In some embodiments, the material of the second substrate includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide and glass. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the first layer may be smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer or the second substrate so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region into the second substrate.

[0024] In some embodiments, the resonance device further includes a film disposed between the first layer and the second substrate. In some embodiments, the film includes, but is not limited to a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the material of the polycrystalline film includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide. It should be noted that the film helps to prevent the formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the second substrate, thereby reducing the electrical loss of the second substrate.

[0025] Embodiments of the present disclosure also provide a bulk acoustic wave filter. The bulk acoustic wave filter includes at least one bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to any one of above embodiments of the present disclosure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0026] 

FIG. la illustrates a schematic structural view of a bulk acoustic wave filter;

FIG. 1b illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of an FBAR 100;

FIG. 2 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 200 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 3 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 300 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG 4 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 400 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 5 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 500 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 6 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 600 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 7 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 700 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 8 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 800 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 9 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 900 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 10 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1000 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 11 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1100 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 12 illustrates a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1200 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 13 illustrates a schematic structural view of a hexagonal crystal;

FIG. 14 (i) illustrates a schematic structural view of an orthorhombic crystal;

FIG. 14 (ii) illustrates a schematic structural view of a tetragonal crystal; and

FIG. 14 (iii) illustrates a schematic structural view of a cubic crystal.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION



[0027] In order to make above-mentioned purpose, feature and advantage of the present disclosure more obvious and understandable, specific embodiments of the present disclosure will be described in detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.

[0028] In following description, specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present disclosure, but the present disclosure may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the specific embodiments disclosed below.

[0029] As described in the background, with reference to FIG. 1b, the resonance region 111 is not suspended relative to the cavity 101a and overlaps with the substrate 101. If the acoustic impedance of the resonance region 111 closes to the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, the energy of the resonance region 111 will spread to the non-resonance region, thereby causing the Q value of the resonator to decrease. In addition, since the electrode layer 107 protrudes above the substrate 101, forming the piezoelectric layer 105 directly on the electrode layer 107 may cause some crystals in the piezoelectric layer 105 (for example, crystals at two side edges of the piezoelectric layer 105 in a horizontal direction) to suffer from a significant change to their orientation and thus to be not parallel to other crystals, thereby reducing the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0030] It has been found that by adjusting positions of two electrode layers so that a resonance region does not overlap with an intermediate layer or a first substrate, and the resonance region is suspended relative to a cavity of the intermediate layer or the first substrate, difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region and that of a non-resonance region can be increased, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0031] It has also been found that by forming a piezoelectric layer on a flat surface, the piezoelectric layer does not include a crystal with significantly changed orientation, thereby improving the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0032] It has also been found that by providing the intermediate layer having a relatively smaller acoustic impedance than the piezoelectric layer, leaky waves propagating from the resonance region into the substrate can be reduced.

[0033] It has also been found that by providing a film between the intermediate layer and the substrate, a formation of a free electron layer on a surface of the substrate can be avoided, thereby reducing electrical loss of the substrate.

[0034] Embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device, including: a first layer including a first cavity disposed at a first side of the first layer; a first electrode layer disposed at the first side, wherein a first end of the first electrode layer is in contact with the first layer, and a second end of the first electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity; a second layer disposed on the first electrode layer; and a second electrode layer disposed on the second layer, wherein a first portion of the first electrode layer overlapping with the second electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity.

[0035] It should be noted that by adjusting positions of the first electrode layer and the second electrode layer so that a resonance region, that is an overlap region by the first electrode and the second electrode, does not overlap with the first layer, and the resonance region is suspended relative to the first cavity, difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region and that of a non-resonance region can be increased, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0036] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes an intermediate layer, and the intermediate layer includes the first cavity. In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide. In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers. In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer includes, but is not limited to 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.

[0037] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes a first substrate, and the first substrate includes the first cavity. In some embodiments, the material of the first substrate includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0038] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes an etch shield layer covering at least a bottom or a side wall of the first cavity. In some embodiments, the material of the etch shield layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium dioxide. In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers. In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer includes, but is not limited to 2 micrometers to 6 micrometers.

[0039] It should be noted that the etch shield layer may serve to protect the intermediate layer or the first substrate when forming the first cavity by etch. In addition, the etch shield layer may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0040] In some embodiments, the first layer further includes a second cavity disposed at the first side. The second cavity is disposed adjacent to the first cavity and communicated with the first cavity, and the first end is disposed in the second cavity. It should be noted that a depth of the second cavity is less than a depth of the first cavity, and the depth of the second cavity at least corresponds to a thickness of the first electrode layer (for example, the depth of the second cavity is equal to the thickness of the first electrode layer or the sum of the thickness of the first electrode layer and a thickness of the etch shield layer).

[0041] In some embodiments, the second layer includes a piezoelectric layer, and the piezoelectric layer includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. A first coordinate axis along a first direction corresponds to a height of the first crystal and a second coordinate axis along a second direction corresponds to a height of the second crystal. The first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0042] In some embodiments, the first crystal corresponds to a first coordinate system including the first coordinate axis and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second crystal corresponds to a second coordinate system including the second coordinate axis and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction.

[0043] In some embodiments, the first coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction, and the second coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0044] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0045] In some embodiments, the second layer includes a piezoelectric layer including a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0046] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0047] In some embodiments, a second portion of the second electrode layer overlapping with the first electrode layer is disposed above the first cavity, and a projection of the second portion along a direction perpendicular to the first layer falls within the first cavity.

[0048] In some embodiments, the material of the first electrode layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the second electrode layer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0049] In some embodiments, the first electrode layer includes a first polarity and the second electrode layer includes a second polarity. In some embodiments, the first electrode layer includes the first polarity and the second polarity, and the second electrode layer includes the first polarity and the second polarity. The first polarity is different from the second polarity. It should be noted that electrode polarities include a positive polarity and a negative polarity.

[0050] In some embodiments, the resonance device further includes a second substrate disposed at a second side of the first layer, and the second side is opposite to the first side. In some embodiments, the material of the second substrate includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide and glass. It should be noted that acoustic impedance of the first layer may be smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer or the second substrate so as to reduce leaky waves propagating from the resonance region into the second substrate.

[0051] In some embodiments, the resonance device further includes a film disposed between the first layer and the second substrate. In some embodiments, the film includes, but is not limited to a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the material of the polycrystalline film includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide.

[0052] It should be noted that the film helps to prevent the formation of a free electron layer on the surface of the second substrate, thereby reducing the electrical loss of the second substrate.

[0053] Embodiments of the present disclosure further provide a bulk acoustic wave filter including at least one bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to any one of above embodiments.

[0054] FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 200 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0055] As shown in FIG. 2, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 200. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 200 includes a substrate 201, an electrode layer 203, a piezoelectric layer 205 and an electrode layer 207. The substrate 201 includes a cavity 201a embedded at an upper surface of the substrate 201. A first end of the electrode layer 203 is in contact with a side wall of the cavity 201a and a second end of the electrode layer 203 is disposed within the cavity 201a. The piezoelectric layer 205 is disposed on the substrate 201 and the electrode layer 203. The electrode layer 207 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 205. As can be seen in FIG. 2, a resonance region 209 (i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 203 and the electrode layer 207) is suspended relative to the cavity 201a, and does not overlap with the substrate 201. Thus, a perpendicular projection of the resonance region 209 perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 201a, which increases the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region 209 and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0056] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 201 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0057] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 205 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0058] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 205 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0059] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0060] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0061] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0062] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0063] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0064] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 205 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0065] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 205 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 205 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0066] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 203 overlapping with the electrode layer 207 is disposed within the cavity 201a, and a portion of the electrode layer 207 overlapping with the electrode layer 203 is disposed above the cavity 201a.

[0067] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 203 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 207 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0068] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 203 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 207 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 203 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 207 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 203 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 207 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0069] FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 300 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0070] As shown in FIG. 3, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 300. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 300 includes a substrate 301, an electrode layer 303, a piezoelectric layer 305 and an electrode layer 307. The substrate 301 includes a cavity 301a and a cavity 301b embedded at an upper surface of the substrate 301. The cavity 301b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 301a and is communicated with the cavity 301a, and a depth of the cavity 301b is less than a depth of the cavity 301a. A first end of the electrode layer 303 is disposed within the cavity 301b, a second end of the electrode layer 303 is disposed within the cavity 301a, and a depth of the cavity 301b is equal to a thickness of the electrode layer 303. The piezoelectric layer 305 is disposed on the substrate 301 and the electrode layer 303. The electrode layer 307 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 305. As can be seen in FIG. 3, a resonance region 309 (i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 303 and the electrode layer 307) is suspended relative to the cavity 301a, and does not overlap with the substrate 301. Thus, a perpendicular projection of the resonance region 309 perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 301a, which increases the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region 309 and the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0071] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 301 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0072] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 305 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0073] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 305 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0074] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0075] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0076] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0077] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0078] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0079] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 305 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0080] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 305 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 305 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0081] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 303 overlapping with the electrode layer 307 is disposed within the cavity 301a, and a portion of the electrode layer 307 overlapping with the electrode layer 303 is disposed above the cavity 301a.

[0082] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 303 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 307 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0083] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 303 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 307 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 303 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 307 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 303 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 307 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0084] FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 400 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0085] As shown in FIG. 4, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 400. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 400 includes a substrate 401, an etch shield layer 411, an electrode layer 403, a piezoelectric layer 405 and an electrode layer 407. The substrate 401 includes a cavity 401a embedded at an upper surface of the substrate 401. The etch shield layer 411 is disposed within the cavity 401a and covers a bottom and a side wall of the cavity 401a. A first end of the electrode layer 403 is in contact with the etch shield layer 411, and a second end of the electrode layer 403 is disposed in the cavity 401a. The piezoelectric layer 405 is disposed on the substrate 401 and the electrode layer 403. The electrode layer 407 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 405. As can be seen in FIG. 4, a resonance region 409 (i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 403 and the electrode layer 407) is suspended relative to the cavity 401a, and does not overlap with the substrate 401. Thus, a perpendicular projection of the resonance region 409 perpendicular to the upper surface is falls within the cavity 401a, which increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region 409 and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device.

[0086] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 401 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0087] In some embodiments, the material of the etch shield layer 411 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium dioxide.

[0088] It should be noted that the etch shield layer 411 can serve to protect the substrate 401 when forming the cavity 401a by etch. In addition, the etch shield layer 411 may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0089] In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer 411 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers. In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer 411 includes, but is not limited to 2 micrometers to 6 micrometers.

[0090] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 405 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0091] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 405 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0092] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0093] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0094] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0095] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0096] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0097] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 405 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0098] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 405 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 405 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0099] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 403 overlapping with the electrode layer 407 is disposed within the cavity 401a, and a portion of the electrode layer 407 overlapping with the electrode layer 403 is disposed above the cavity 401a.

[0100] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 403 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 407 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0101] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 403 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 407 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 403 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 407 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 403 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 407 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0102] FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 500 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0103] As shown in FIG. 5, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 500. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 500 includes a substrate 501, an intermediate layer 502, an electrode layer 503, a piezoelectric layer 505 and an electrode layer 507. The intermediate layer 502 is disposed on the substrate 501, and includes a cavity 502a embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 502. A first end of the electrode layer 503 is in contact with a side wall of the cavity 502a, and a second end of the electrode layer 503 is disposed within the cavity 502a. The piezoelectric layer 505 is disposed on the intermediate layer 502 and the electrode layer 503. The electrode layer 507 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 505. As can be seen in FIG. 5, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 503 and the electrode layer 507) is suspended relative to the cavity 502a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 502. Thus, a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 502a.

[0104] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 502 may be relatively smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer 505 or the substrate 501, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region (not shown) to the substrate 501.

[0105] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 501 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0106] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 502 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0107] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 502 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0108] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 505 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0109] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 505 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0110] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0111] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0112] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0113] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0114] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0115] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 505 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0116] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 505 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 505 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0117] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 503 overlapping with the electrode layer 507 is disposed within the cavity 502a, and a portion of the electrode layer 507 overlapping with the electrode layer 503 is disposed above the cavity 502a.

[0118] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 503 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 507 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0119] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 503 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 507 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 503 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 507 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 503 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 507 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0120] FIG. 6 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 600 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0121] As shown in FIG. 6, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 600. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 600 includes a substrate 601, an intermediate layer 602, an electrode layer 603, a piezoelectric layer 605 and an electrode layer 607. The intermediate layer 602 is disposed on the substrate 601, and includes a cavity 602a and a cavity 602b embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 602. The cavity 602b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 602a and communicated with the cavity 602a, and a depth of the cavity 602b is less than a depth of the cavity 602a. A first end of the electrode layer 603 is disposed within the cavity 602b, a second end of the electrode layer 603 is disposed within the cavity 602a, and the depth of the cavity 602b is equal to a thickness of the electrode layer 603. The piezoelectric layer 605 is disposed on the intermediate layer 602 and the electrode layer 603. The electrode layer 607 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 605. As can be seen in FIG. 6, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 603 and the electrode layer 607) is suspended relative to the cavity 602a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 602, thus a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 602a.

[0122] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 602 may be relatively smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer 605 or the substrate 601, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region (not shown) to the substrate 601.

[0123] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 601 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0124] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 602 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0125] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 602 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0126] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 605 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0127] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 605 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0128] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0129] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0130] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0131] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0132] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0133] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 605 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0134] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 605 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 605 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0135] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 603 overlapping with the electrode layer 607 is disposed within the cavity 602a, and a portion of the electrode layer 607 overlapping with the electrode layer 603 is disposed above the cavity 602a.

[0136] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 603 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 607 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0137] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 603 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 607 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 603 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 607 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 603 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 607 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0138] FIG. 7 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 700 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0139] As shown in FIG. 7, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 700. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 700 includes a substrate 701, an intermediate layer 702, an etch shield layer 711, an electrode layer 703, a piezoelectric layer 705, and an electrode layer 707. The intermediate layer 702 is disposed on the substrate 701, and includes a cavity 702a and a cavity 702b embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 702. The cavity 702b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 702a and communicated with the cavity 702a, and a depth of the cavity 702b is less than a depth of the cavity 702a. The etch shield layer 711 covers a bottom and a side wall of the cavity 702a, a bottom and a side wall of the cavity 702b, and the upper surface of the intermediate layer 702. A first end of the electrode layer 703 is disposed within the cavity 702b, a second end of the electrode layer 703 is disposed within the cavity 702a, and the depth of the cavity 702b is equal to the sum of a thickness of the etch shield layer 711 and a thickness of the electrode layer 703. The piezoelectric layer 705 is disposed on the etch shield layer 711 and the electrode layer 703. The electrode layer 707 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 705. As can be seen in FIG. 7, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 703 and the electrode layer 707) is suspended relative to the cavity 702a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 702, thus a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 702a.

[0140] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 702 may be relatively smaller than that of the etch shield layer 711 or the substrate 701, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region (not shown) to the substrate 701.

[0141] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 701 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0142] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 702 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0143] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 702 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0144] In some embodiments, the material of the etch shield layer 711 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium dioxide.

[0145] It should be noted that the etch shield layer 711 may serve to protect the intermediate layer 702 when forming the cavity 702a by etch. In addition, the etch shield layer 711 may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0146] In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer 711 includes, but is not limited to: 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.

[0147] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 705 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0148] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 705 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0149] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0150] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0151] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0152] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0153] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0154] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 705 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0155] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 705 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 705 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0156] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 703 overlapping with the electrode layer 707 is disposed within the cavity 702a, and a portion of the electrode layer 707 overlapping with the electrode layer 703 is disposed above the cavity 702a.

[0157] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 703 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 707 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0158] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 703 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 707 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 703 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 707 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 703 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 707 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0159] FIG. 8 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 800 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0160] As shown in FIG. 8, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonator device 800. The bulk acoustic wave resonator device 800 includes an intermediate layer 802, an electrode layer 803, a piezoelectric layer 805 and an electrode layer 807. The intermediate layer 802 includes a cavity 802a embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 802. A first end of the electrode layer 803 is in contact with a side wall of the cavity 802a, and a second end of the electrode layer 803 is disposed within the cavity 802a. The piezoelectric layer 805 is disposed on the intermediate layer 802 and the electrode layer 803. The electrode layer 807 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 805. As can be seen in FIG. 8, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 803 and the electrode layer 807) is suspended relative to the cavity 802a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 802, so that a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 802a.

[0161] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the resonance device 800 according to the present disclosure does not include a substrate, thereby eliminating electrical losses caused by the substrate.

[0162] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 802 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0163] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 802 includes, but is not limited to 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.

[0164] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 805 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0165] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 805 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0166] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0167] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0168] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0169] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0170] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0171] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 805 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0172] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 805 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 805 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0173] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 803 overlapping with the electrode layer 807 is disposed within the cavity 802a, and a portion of the electrode layer 807 overlapping with the electrode layer 803 is disposed above the cavity 802a.

[0174] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 803 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 807 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0175] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 803 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 807 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 803 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 807 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 803 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 807 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0176] FIG. 9 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 900 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0177] As shown in FIG. 9, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 900. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 900 includes an intermediate layer 902, an electrode layer 903, a piezoelectric layer 905 and an electrode layer 907. The intermediate layer 902 includes a cavity 902a and a cavity 902b embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 902. The cavity 902b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 902a and communicated with the cavity 902a, and a depth of the cavity 902b is less than a depth of the cavity 902a. A first end of the electrode layer 903 is disposed within the cavity 902b, a second end of the electrode layer 903 is disposed within the cavity 902a, and the depth of the cavity 902b is equal to a thickness of the electrode layer 903. The piezoelectric layer 905 is disposed on the intermediate layer 902 and the electrode layer 903. The electrode layer 907 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 905. As can be seen in FIG. 9, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 903 and the electrode layer 907) is suspended relative to the cavity 902a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 902, so that a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 902a.

[0178] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the resonance device 900 according to the present disclosure does not include a substrate, thereby eliminating electrical losses caused by the substrate.

[0179] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 902 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0180] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 902 includes, but is not limited to 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.

[0181] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 905 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0182] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 905 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0183] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0184] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0185] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0186] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0187] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0188] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 905 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0189] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 905 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 905 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0190] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 903 overlapping with the electrode layer 907 is disposed within the cavity 902a, and a portion of the electrode layer 907 overlapping with the electrode layer 903 is disposed above the cavity 902a.

[0191] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 903 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 907 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0192] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 903 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 907 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 903 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 907 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 903 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 907 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0193] FIG. 10 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1000 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0194] As shown in FIG. 10, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1000. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1000 includes an intermediate layer 1002, an etch shield layer 1011, an electrode layer 1003, a piezoelectric layer 1005 and an electrode layer 1007. The intermediate layer 1002 includes a cavity 1002a and a cavity 1002b embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 1002. The cavity 1002b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 1002a and communicated with the cavity 1002a, and a depth of the cavity 1002b is less than a depth of the cavity 1002a. The etch shield layer 1011 covers a bottom and a side wall of the cavity 1002a, a bottom and a side wall of the cavity 1002b and the upper surface of the intermediate layer 1002. A first end of the electrode layer 1003 is disposed within the cavity 1002b, a second end of the electrode layer 1003 is disposed within the cavity 1002a, and the depth of the cavity 1002b is equal to the sum of a thickness of the etch shield layer 1011 and a thickness of the electrode layer 1003. The piezoelectric layer 1005 is disposed on the etch shield layer 1011 and the electrode layer 1003. The electrode layer 1007 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 1005. As can be seen in FIG. 10, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 1003 and the electrode layer 1007) is suspended relative to the cavity 1002a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 1002, so that a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 1002a.

[0195] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the resonance device 1000 according to the present disclosure does not include a substrate, thereby eliminating electrical losses caused by the substrate.

[0196] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 1002 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0197] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 1002 includes, but is not limited to 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.

[0198] In some embodiments, the material of the etch shield layer 1011 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and titanium dioxide.

[0199] It should be noted that the etch shield layer 1011 may serve to protect the intermediate layer 1002 when forming the cavity 1002a by etch. In addition, the etch shield layer 1011 may serve to protect the resonance device from being corroded by water or oxygen.

[0200] In some embodiments, the thickness of the etch shield layer 1011 includes, but is not limited to 2 micrometers to 6 micrometers.

[0201] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 1005 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0202] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1005 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0203] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0204] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0205] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0206] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0207] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0208] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1005 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0209] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 1005 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 1005 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0210] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 1003 overlapping with the electrode layer 1007 is disposed within the cavity 1002a, and a portion of the electrode layer 1007 overlapping with the electrode layer 1003 is disposed above the cavity 1002a.

[0211] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 1003 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 1007 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0212] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1003 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1007 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1003 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 1007 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1003 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1007 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0213] FIG. 11 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1100 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0214] As shown in FIG. 11, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1100. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1100 includes a substrate 1101, a film 1104, an intermediate layer 1102, an electrode layer 1103, a piezoelectric layer 1105 and an electrode layer 1107. The film 1104 is disposed on the substrate 1101. The intermediate layer 1102 is disposed on the film 1104, and includes a cavity 1102a embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 1102. A first end of the electrode layer 1103 is in contact with a side wall of the cavity 1102a, and a second end of the electrode layer 1103 is disposed within the cavity 1102a. The piezoelectric layer 1105 is disposed on the intermediate layer 1102 and the electrode layer 1103. The electrode layer 1107 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 1105. As can be seen in FIG. 11, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 1103 and the electrode layer 1107) is suspended relative to the cavity 1102a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 1102, so that a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 1102a.

[0215] Therefore, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby improving the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 1102 may be relatively smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer 1105 or the film 1104, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region (not shown) to the substrate 1101. In addition, the film 1104 helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on a surface of the substrate 1101 to reduce the loss of the substrate 1101.

[0216] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 1101 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.

[0217] In some embodiments, the film 1104 includes, but is not limited to, a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the material of the polycrystalline film includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide.

[0218] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 1102 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0219] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 1102 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0220] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 1105 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0221] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1105 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0222] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0223] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0224] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0225] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0226] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0227] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1105 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0228] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 1105 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 1105 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0229] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 1103 overlapping with the electrode layer 1107 is disposed within the cavity 1102a, and a portion of the electrode layer 1107 overlapping with the electrode layer 1103 is disposed above the cavity 1102a.

[0230] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 1103 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 1107 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0231] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1103 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1107 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1103 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 1107 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1103 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1107 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0232] FIG. 12 is a schematic structural view of a cross-section A of a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1200 according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

[0233] As shown in FIG. 12, embodiments of the present disclosure provide a bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1200. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device 1200 includes a substrate 1201, a film 1204, an intermediate layer 1202, an electrode layer 1203, a piezoelectric layer 1205 and an electrode layer 1207. The film 1204 is disposed on the substrate 1201. The intermediate layer 1202 is disposed on the film 1204, and includes a cavity 1202a and a cavity 1202b embedded at an upper surface of the intermediate layer 1202. The cavity 1202b is disposed adjacent to the cavity 1202a and communicated with the cavity 1202a, and a depth of the cavity 1202b is less than a depth of the cavity 1202a. A first end of the electrode layer 1203 is located within the cavity 1202b, a second end of the electrode layer 1203 is located within the cavity 1202a, and the depth of the cavity 1202b is equal to a thickness of the electrode layer 1203. The piezoelectric layer 1205 is disposed on the intermediate layer 1202 and the electrode layer 1203. The electrode layer 1207 is disposed on the piezoelectric layer 1205. As can be seen in FIG. 12, a resonance region (not shown, i.e., an overlap region of the electrode layer 1203 and the electrode layer 1207) is suspended relative to the cavity 1202a, and does not overlap with the intermediate layer 1202, so that a perpendicular projection of the resonance region (not shown) perpendicular to the upper surface falls within the cavity 1202a.

[0234] Thus, embodiments of the present disclosure may increase the difference between the acoustic impedance of the resonance region (not shown) and the acoustic impedance of the non-resonance region, thereby increasing the Q value of the resonance device. In addition, the acoustic impedance of the intermediate layer 1202 may be relatively smaller than that of the piezoelectric layer 1205 or the film 1204, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region (not shown) to the substrate 1201. In addition, the film 1204 helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on a surface of the substrate 1201 to reduce the loss of the substrate 1201.

[0235] In some embodiments, the material of the substrate 1201 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of silicon, silicon carbide, and glass.

[0236] In some embodiments, the film 1204 includes, but is not limited to, a polycrystalline film. In some embodiments, the material of the polycrystalline film includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide.

[0237] In some embodiments, the material of the intermediate layer 1202 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of polymer and insulating dielectric. In some embodiments, the polymer includes, but is not limited to, at least one of benzocyclobutene (i.e., BCB), photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist (e.g., SU-8), and polyimide. In some embodiments, the insulating dielectric includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.

[0238] In some embodiments, the thickness of the intermediate layer 1202 includes, but is not limited to 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.

[0239] In some embodiments, the material of the piezoelectric layer 1205 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.

[0240] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1205 includes a plurality of crystals. The plurality of crystals include a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals. It should be understood by those skilled in the art that crystal orientation and crystal plane of a crystal can be represented based on a coordinate system. As shown in FIG. 13, a hexagonal crystal, such as an aluminum nitride crystal, may be represented by an ac stereoscopic coordinate system (including a-axis and c-axis). As shown in FIG. 14, the crystals of (i) orthorhombic system (a ≠ b ≠ c), (ii) tetragonal system (a = b ≠c), (iii) cubic system (a = b = c), etc., may be represented by an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system (including x-axis, y-axis and z-axis). In addition to the two embodiments described above, crystals may also be represented based on other coordinate systems known to those skilled in the art, and therefore the present disclosure is not limited by the two embodiments described above.

[0241] In some embodiments, the first crystal may be represented based on a first stereoscopic coordinate system, and the second crystal may be represented based on a second stereoscopic coordinate system. The first stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a first coordinate axis along a first direction and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second stereoscopic coordinate system includes at least a second coordinate axis along a second direction and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction. The first coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the first crystal, and the second coordinate axis corresponds to a height of the second crystal.

[0242] In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction. It should be noted that the first direction being the same as the second direction means that an included angle between a vector along the first direction and a vector along the second direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the first direction being opposite to the second direction means that the included angle between the vector along the first direction and the vector along the second direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0243] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first c-axis and the third coordinate axis is a first a-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an ac stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second c-axis, and the fourth coordinate axis is a second a-axis. The first c-axis and the second c-axis have the same or opposite orientation.

[0244] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second stereoscopic coordinate system further includes a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction. In some embodiments, the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction, and the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction. It should be noted that the third direction being the same as the fourth direction means that an included angle between a vector along the third direction and a vector along the fourth direction ranges from 0 degree to 5 degrees, and the third direction being opposite to the fourth direction means that the included angle between the vector along the third direction and the vector along the fourth direction ranges from 175 degrees to 180 degrees.

[0245] In some embodiments, the first stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the first coordinate axis is a first z-axis, the third coordinate axis is a first y-axis, and the fifth coordinate axis is a first x-axis. The second stereoscopic coordinate system is an xyz stereoscopic coordinate system, wherein the second coordinate axis is a second z-axis, the fourth coordinate axis is a second y-axis, and the sixth coordinate axis is a second x-axis. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have the same orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have opposite orientation. In some embodiments, the first z-axis and the second z-axis have opposite orientation, and the first y-axis and the second y-axis have the same orientation.

[0246] In some embodiments, the piezoelectric layer 1205 includes a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees. It should be noted that the rocking curve describes a magnitude of angular divergence of a particular crystal plane (a crystal plane determined by a diffraction angle) in a sample, which is represented by a plane coordinate system, wherein an abscissa represents an angle between the crystal plane and a sample plane, and an ordinate represents a diffraction intensity of the crystal plane at a certain angle. The rocking curve is used to represent quality of a lattice, and the smaller the full width at half maximum is, the better the quality of the lattice is. In addition, the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) refers to an interval between two points whose function values are equal to a half of a peak value of the function.

[0247] It should be noted that forming the piezoelectric layer 1205 on a plane may allow the piezoelectric layer 1205 not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device.

[0248] In some embodiments, a portion of the electrode layer 1203 overlapping with the electrode layer 1207 is disposed within the cavity 1202a, and a portion of the electrode layer 1207 overlapping with the electrode layer 1203 is disposed above the cavity 1202a.

[0249] In some embodiments, the material of the electrode layer 1203 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the material of the electrode layer 1207 includes, but is not limited to, at least one of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.

[0250] In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1203 includes a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1207 includes a positive electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1203 includes a positive electrode and the electrode layer 1207 includes a negative electrode. In some embodiments, the electrode layer 1203 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode and the electrode layer 1207 includes a positive electrode and a negative electrode.

[0251] Embodiments of the present disclosure also provide a bulk acoustic wave filter. The bulk acoustic wave filter includes, but is not limited to, at least one bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to any one of above embodiments.

[0252] In view of the above, the present disclosure can increase difference between an acoustic impedance of a resonance region and that of a non-resonance region by adjusting positions of two electrode layers so that there is no overlap between the resonance region and an intermediate layer or a first substrate, and the resonance region is suspended relative to a cavity of the intermediate layer or the first substrate, thereby increasing a Q value of a resonance device. In addition, a piezoelectric layer is formed on a flat surface, which allows the piezoelectric layer not to include a crystal which suffers from a significant change to its orientation, thereby helping to increase the electromechanical coupling factor of the resonance device and the Q value of the resonance device. Further, the intermediate layer has a relatively smaller acoustic impedance than that of the piezoelectric layer or a second substrate, thereby reducing leaky waves propagating from the resonance region to the second substrate. In addition, a film is disposed between the intermediate layer and the second substrate, which helps to prevent formation of a free electron layer on a surface of the second substrate, thereby reducing electrical loss of the second substrate.

[0253] It should be understood that examples and embodiments herein are only exemplary, and those skilled in the art can make various modifications and corrections without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure.


Claims

1. A bulk acoustic wave resonance device, comprising:

a first layer comprising a first cavity disposed at a first side of the first layer;

a first electrode layer disposed at the first side, wherein a first end of the first electrode layer is in contact with the first layer, and a second end of the first electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity;

a second layer disposed on the first electrode layer; and

a second electrode layer disposed on the second layer,

wherein a first portion of the first electrode layer overlapping with the second electrode layer is disposed within the first cavity.


 
2. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first layer further comprises an intermediate layer, and the intermediate layer comprises the first cavity.
 
3. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 2, wherein the intermediate layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polymer and insulating dielectric.
 
4. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 3, wherein the polymer comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of benzocyclobutene, photosensitive epoxy resin photoresist, and polyimide.
 
5. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 3, wherein the insulating dielectric comprises at least one selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and titanium oxide.
 
6. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 2, wherein the intermediate layer has a thickness ranging from 0.1 micrometer to 10 micrometers.
 
7. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 2, wherein the intermediate layer has a thickness ranging from 20 micrometers to 100 micrometers.
 
8. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first layer further comprises a first substrate, and the first substrate comprises the first cavity.
 
9. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 8, wherein the first substrate is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.
 
10. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first layer further comprises an etch shield layer covering at least a bottom or a side wall of the first cavity.
 
11. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 10, wherein the etch shield layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, silicon carbide, diamond, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and titanium dioxide.
 
12. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 10, wherein the etch shield layer has a thickness ranging from 0.1 micrometer to 3 micrometers.
 
13. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 10, wherein the etch shield layer has a thickness ranging from 2 micrometers to 6 micrometers.
 
14. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first layer further comprises a second cavity disposed at the first side, wherein the second cavity is disposed adjacent to the first cavity and communicated with the first cavity, and the first end is disposed within the second cavity.
 
15. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the second layer comprises a piezoelectric layer comprising a plurality of crystals comprising a first crystal and a second crystal, and the first crystal and the second crystal are any two crystals of the plurality of crystals, wherein a first coordinate axis along a first direction corresponds to a height of the first crystal, a second coordinate axis along a second direction corresponds to a height of the second crystal, and the first direction is the same as or opposite to the second direction.
 
16. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 15, wherein the first crystal corresponds to a first coordinate system comprising the first coordinate axis and a third coordinate axis along a third direction, and the second crystal corresponds to a second coordinate system comprising the second coordinate axis and a fourth coordinate axis along a fourth direction.
 
17. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 16, wherein the first coordinate system further comprises a fifth coordinate axis along a fifth direction and the second coordinate system further comprises a sixth coordinate axis along a sixth direction.
 
18. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 17, wherein the third direction is the same as or opposite to the fourth direction.
 
19. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 15, wherein the piezoelectric layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of aluminum nitride, aluminum oxide alloy, gallium nitride, zinc oxide, lithium tantalate, lithium niobate, lead zirconate titanate, and lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate.
 
20. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the second layer comprises a piezoelectric layer comprising a plurality of crystals having a full width at half maximum of rocking curve less than 2.5 degrees.
 
21. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein a second portion of the second electrode layer overlapping with the first electrode layer is disposed above the first cavity, and a projection of the second portion along a direction perpendicular to the first layer falls within the first cavity.
 
22. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum, and the second electrode layer is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, ruthenium, tungsten, platinum, iridium and aluminum.
 
23. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode layer comprises a first polarity and the second electrode layer comprises a second polarity.
 
24. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, wherein the first electrode layer comprises a first polarity and a second polarity, and the second electrode layer comprises the first polarity and the second polarity.
 
25. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 1, further comprising a second substrate disposed at a second side of the first layer, wherein the second side is opposite to the first side.
 
26. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 25, wherein the second substrate is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of silicon, silicon carbide and glass.
 
27. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 25, further comprising a film disposed between the first layer and the second substrate.
 
28. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 27, wherein the film comprises a polycrystalline film.
 
29. The bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to claim 28, wherein the polycrystalline film is made of one or more materials selected from a group consisting of polysilicon, polycrystalline silicon nitride, and polycrystalline silicon carbide.
 
30. A bulk acoustic wave filter, comprising at least one bulk acoustic wave resonance device according to any one of claims 1 to 29.
 




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