(19)
(11)EP 4 036 069 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
03.08.2022 Bulletin 2022/31

(21)Application number: 22153845.7

(22)Date of filing:  28.01.2022
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C03B 3/00(2006.01)
C03B 5/235(2006.01)
C03B 5/44(2006.01)
B09B 3/29(2022.01)
C03B 5/00(2006.01)
C03B 5/167(2006.01)
C03B 5/425(2006.01)
C03C 1/00(2006.01)
C03B 3/02(2006.01)
C03B 5/04(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
C03C 1/002; C03B 5/005; C03B 5/1672; C03B 5/2353; C03B 5/425; C03B 5/44; C03B 5/04; C03B 3/00; C03B 3/026; B09B 3/29
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 02.02.2021 IT 202100002246

(71)Applicant: Zetadi S.r.l.
21010 Ferno (IT)

(72)Inventors:
  • ZANATTO, Ivano
    28047 Oleggio (NO) (IT)
  • GUALTIERI, Alessandro
    41051 Castelnuovo Rangone (MO) (IT)

(74)Representative: Crugnola, Pietro et al
Luppi Intellectual Property Srl Viale Corassori, 54
41124 Modena
41124 Modena (IT)

  


(54)APPARATUS FOR TREATING WASTE CONTAINING MINERAL WOOL


(57) Apparatus (1; 101) for inertisation through heat treatment of waste consisting of mineral wool-based insulating materials, comprises a loading zone (4), through which said waste is loaded into a melting furnace (2; 102); the melting furnace (2; 102) comprises a preheating zone (9; 109) in which said waste is heated until it reaches a melting temperature, a melting zone (10; 110) in which said waste is melted, and a melting basin (11) in which a melting product from said waste is collected to be discharged into a collecting tank (13) outside the melting furnace (2; 102); the melting basin (11) is made of plates (25) of metal material that resists high temperatures, in particular said melting temperature, is provided with a coating of refractory material (26) and with a cooling circuit (27).




Description


[0001] The invention relates to an apparatus for inertisation through heat treatment of waste consisting of mineral wool-based insulating materials, such as for example glass wool or rock wool.

[0002] In the prior art, apparatuses are known for inertisation through heat treatment and waste consisting of mineral wool-based insulating materials that comprise melting furnaces of conventional type with a basin made of refractory material and melting furnaces with so-called submerged combustion made of steel for high temperatures with water cooling.

[0003] Melting furnaces known from the prior art have different drawbacks that adversely affect the applicability thereof to managing mineral wool waste.

[0004] First of all, the furnaces always have to be maintained at operating temperature regardless of the operating condition, in order to avoid thermal shock to the refractory materials and in particular to basins containing molten glass, made of electromelted material.

[0005] Further, a solid mixture of glass waste, sand and possible metal pigments has to be loaded into the inlet.

[0006] Lastly, these types of furnace, still used for treating glass-based but low-density material like glass/rock wool, do not enable internal production waste to be recovered because of the great volatility of the latter, which would be dragged in the fumes.

[0007] One object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for inertisation through heat treatment of waste consisting of mineral wool-based insulating materials, such as for example glass wool or rock wool that does not have the drawbacks indicated above.

[0008] Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus that can be run flexibly in function of production needs.

[0009] A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus that enables production waste to be recovered.

[0010] A still further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus with optimized energy performance.

[0011] The objects of the invention are achieved by an apparatus according to claim 1.

[0012] The apparatus according to the invention can be used in "intermittent" mode, according to production needs permitting switch-off for a few periods of time, without the risk of the apparatus being able to suffer damage due to thermal sock.

[0013] Further, the apparatus according to the invention enables production waste to be recovered and energy consumption to be optimized, with consequent greater control of NOx and of carbon dioxide emissions.

[0014] Further advantages and features of the invention will be clear from the description that follows of some embodiments of the invention, with reference to the attached drawings, in which:

figure 1 is a schematic raised view of a first embodiment of an apparatus according to the invention;

figure 2 is a schematic raised view of a second embodiment of an apparatus according to the invention;

figure 3 is a schematic raised view of a third embodiment of an apparatus according to the invention;

figure 4 is a cross section of the apparatus of figure 1 along the line A-A or a cross section of the apparatus of figure 2, along the line B-B, or a cross section along the line C-C of the apparatus of figure 3, the three sections being substantially identical;

figure 5 is a perspective view of an access door to the apparatus according to the invention, in closed position;

figure 6 is a perspective view of the access door of figure 5, in open position;

figure 7 is a perspective view of a fixed part of the door of figures 4 and 5;

figure 8 is a perspective view of a movable part of the door of figures 4 and 5;

figure 9 is a schematic frontal view of a further access door to the apparatus, in the embodiment of figure 3;

figure 10 is a view from the left of the further door of figure 9;

figure 11 is a schematic longitudinal section of the unloading zone of the apparatus of figure 3 with the further door in closed position;

figure 12 is a section like that of figure 11, with the further door in open position.



[0015] In figure 1 a first embodiment is illustrated of an apparatus 1 according to the invention that comprises a loading zone 4 through which the materials to be treated is introduced into a melting furnace 2 (more briefly below as "furnace 2"), the materials to be treated being in the form of balls 3 of compressed materials, wrapped in a film of plastics in order to prevent dispersal of said materials both in the environment outside the furnace and inside the furnace.

[0016] The loading zone 4 is provided with a first door 5, which separates the loading zone 4 from the environment outside the furnace, and a second door 6 that separates the loading zone 4 from the inside of the furnace.

[0017] At the first door 5, a first extractor hood 7 is arranged and at the second door 6 a second extractor hood 8 is arranged. The first extractor hood 7 and the second extractor hood 8 are used to prevent high temperature air and fumes being able to exit into the environment outside the furnace 2 during the operation of introducing a ball 3 of material to be treated inside the furnace.

[0018] Introducing a ball 3 of material to be treated inside the furnace 2 occurs in two steps: in a first step, the first door 5 is opened, maintaining closed the second door 6 and a ball 3 is introduced into the loading zone 4. In a second step, the first door 5 is closed, the second door 6 is open and the ball 3 is pushed by a pushing device (not shown) inside the furnace 2, advancing other balls 3 previously inserted inside the furnace.

[0019] Inside the furnace 2, downstream of the second door 6, a pre-heating zone 9 in which the material to be treated packaged in the balls 3 is progressively heated, until reaching melting temperature, and a melting zone 10, placed downstream of the pre-heating zone 9, in which the material of the balls 3, after reaching melting temperature, starts to melt, are identifiable.

[0020] The pre-heating zone 9 and the melting zone 10 are arranged aligned on one another with a substantially horizontal axis.

[0021] The balls 3 are advanced in the pre-heating zone 9 and in the melting zone 10 through the effect of the thrust exerted on the balls 3 present inside the furnace by further balls 3 that are introduced in sequence inside the furnace.

[0022] The melted material, in liquid state, collects in a melting basin 11, placed downstream of the melting zone 10.

[0023] The melting basin 11 is provided with a discharge opening 12 through which the melted material is directed to a collecting tank 13.

[0024] The bottom 29 of the melting basin 11 is tilted downwards in the direction of the discharge opening 12, to promote discharging of the melted material.

[0025] At an end 14 of the furnace 2, opposite the loading zone 4, at least one burner 15, advantageously a plurality of burners 15 is arranged, that provides/provide thermal energy for heating and melting the balls material introduced into the furnace 2.

[0026] The at least one burner 15 is supplied with fuel, through a first supply conduit 16, and with oxygen as a comburent, through a second supply conduit 17. The use of oxygen as a comburent, instead of the air normally used in the burners, is advantageous for enabling temperatures above 1000 °C to be reached inside the furnace that are able to ensure suitable fluidity of the melted material, to enable the melted material to be discharged through the opening 12 of the melting basin 11, and energy consumption to be optimized.

[0027] It is also possible to supply the at least one burner 15 with a comburent consisting of a mixture of air and oxygen.

[0028] A further burner 18 is arranged below the melting basin 11, outside the furnace 2, and is oriented so as to supply heat to the discharge opening 12, to prevent the melted material possibly starting to cool, closing totally or partially the discharge opening 12.

[0029] The end 14 is further provided with a discharge conduit 19 for discharging fumes produced during heating and melting of the material of the balls 3. The discharge conduit 19 communicates with post-combustion device, operating, for example, at a minimum temperature of 850 °C, in which the combustion of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds present in said fumes takes place: the volatile organic compounds are the result of the combustion of the film that wraps the balls 3 and of spurious materials, such as binders and other both organic and inorganic components in the waste to be treated.

[0030] In figure 2, a second embodiment is illustrated of an apparatus 101 according to the invention that comprises a loading zone 4 through which the materials to be treated in the form of balls 3 of compressed materials, wrapped in film of plastics are introduced into a melting furnace 102 (known hereinafter more concisely as "furnace 102"), in order to avoid dispersal of said materials in the environment outside the furnace.

[0031] The parts of the furnace 102 identical to parts of the furnace 2 are marked by the same reference numbers used for the corresponding parts of the furnace 2.

[0032] The loading zone 4 is provided with a first door 5, that separates the loading zone 4 from the environment outside the furnace, and a second door 6 that separates the loading zone 4 from the inside of the furnace.

[0033] At the first door 5, a first extractor hood 7 is arranged and at the second door 6 a second extractor hood 8 is arranged.

[0034] The first extractor hood 7 and the second extractor hood 8 are used to prevent high temperature air and fumes exiting into the environment outside the furnace 102 during the operation of introducing a ball 3 of material to be treated inside the furnace.

[0035] Introducing a ball 3 of material to be treated inside the furnace 102 occurs in two steps: in a first step the first door 5 is opened, maintaining closed the second door 6 and a ball 3 is introduced into the loading zone 4. In a second step, the first door 5 is closed, the second door 6 is open and the ball 3 is pushed by a pushing device (not shown) inside the melting furnace 102, advancing other balls 3 previously inserted inside the furnace.

[0036] Inside the furnace 102, downstream of the second door 6, a pre-heating zone 109, in which the material to be treated packaged in the balls 3 is progressively heated, until reaching melting temperature, and a melting zone 110, downstream of the pre-heating zone 109 in which the material of the balls 3, after reaching melting temperature, starts to melt, are identifiable.

[0037] The furnace 102 comprises a first portion 111 with a substantially horizontal axis in which a first part of the pre-heating zone 109 is comprised. The first portion 111 is followed by a second portion 112 with a substantially vertical axis in which a second part of the pre-heating zone 109 and the melting zone 110 are comprised.

[0038] The second portion 112 is provided with a third door 113 associated with a third extractor hood 114.

[0039] When the furnace 102 is loaded for the first time, balls 3 are introduced into the second portion 112, through the third door 113, until the second portion 112 is filled. The subsequent balls 3 are introduced in sequence into the furnace 102 through the first door 5, the loading zone 4 and the second door 6, as disclosed above.

[0040] The balls 3 are advanced to the first portion 111 through the effect of the thrust exerted on the balls 3 present inside the furnace 102 by further balls 3 that are introduced inside the furnace 102, whereas in the second portion 112 advancement is by gravity.

[0041] The melted material, in liquid state, collects in a melting basin 11, placed downstream of the melting zone 110.

[0042] The melting basin 11 is provided with a discharge opening 12 through which the melted material is directed to a collecting tank 13.

[0043] The bottom of the melting basin 11 is tilted downwards in the direction of the discharge opening 12, to promote discharging of the melted material.

[0044] At an end 14 of the furnace 102, opposite the loading zone 4, at least one burner 15, advantageously a plurality of burners 15, is arranged, that provides/provide thermal energy for heating and melting the balls material introduced into the furnace 102.

[0045] The at least one burner 15 is supplied with fuel through a first supply conduit 16 and with oxygen as a comburent, through a second supply conduit 17. The use of oxygen as a comburent, instead of the air normally used in the burners, is advantageous for enabling temperatures above 1000 °C to be reached inside the furnace 2 that are suitable for ensuring suitable fluidity of the melted material, to enable the melted material to be discharged through the opening 12 of the melting basin 11, and energy consumption to be optimized.

[0046] It is also possible to supply the at least one burner 15 with a comburent consisting of a mixture of air and oxygen.

[0047] A further burner 18 is arranged below the melting basin 11, outside the furnace 102, and is oriented so as to supply heat to the discharge opening 12, to prevent the melted material possibly starting to cool, closing totally or partially the discharge opening 12.

[0048] The fumes produced during the heating and melting of the material of the balls 3 are extracted from the furnace 102 by a fourth extractor hood 115 placed at the top of the second portion 112. The fumes extracted from the fourth extractor hood 115 are sent to a post-combustion device operating, for example, at a minimum temperature of 850 °C in which the combustion of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds present in said fumes takes place: the volatile organic compounds are the result of the combustion of the film that wraps the balls 3 and of spurious materials, such as binders and other both organic and inorganic components in the waste to be treated.

[0049] In figure 3, a third embodiment is illustrated of an apparatus 201 according to the invention that comprises a loading zone 4 through which the materials to be treated, in the form of balls 3 of compressed materials, wrapped in a film of plastics in order to prevent dispersal of said materials both outside the furnace and inside the furnace, are introduced into a melting furnace 202 (hereinafter more concisely "furnace 202").

[0050] The parts of the furnace 202 that are identical to parts of the furnace 2 are marked by the same reference numbers used for the corresponding parts of the furnace 2.

[0051] The loading zone 4 is provided with a first door 5, that separates the loading zone 4 from the environment outside the furnace, and a second door 6 that separates the loading zone 4 from the inside of the furnace.

[0052] At the first door 5, a first extractor hood 7 is arranged and at the second door 6 a second extractor hood 8 is arranged.

[0053] The first extractor hood 7 and the second extractor hood 8 are used to prevent high temperature air and fumes escaping into the environment outside the furnace 202 during the operation of introducing a ball 3 of material to be treated inside the furnace.

[0054] A ball 3 of material to be treated is introduced inside the furnace 202 in two steps: in a first step the first door 5 is opened, maintaining closed the second door 6 and a ball 3 is introduced into the loading zone 4. In a second step, the first door 5 is closed, the second door 6 is open and the ball 3 is pushed by a pushing device (not shown) inside the furnace 202, advancing other balls 3 previously inserted inside the furnace.

[0055] Inside the furnace 202, downstream of the second door 6, a pre-heating zone 9, in which the material to be treated packaged in the balls 3 is progressively heated, until reaching melting temperature, and a melting zone 10, located downstream of the pre-heating zone 9, in which the material of the balls 3, after reaching melting temperature, starts to melt, are identifiable.

[0056] The pre-heating zone 9 and the melting zone 10 are arranged aligned on one another with a substantially horizontal axis.

[0057] The balls 3 in the pre-heating zone 9 and in the melting zone 10 are advanced through the effect of the thrust exerted on the balls 3 present inside the furnace by further balls 3 that are introduced in sequence inside the furnace.

[0058] The melted material, in liquid state, collects in a melting basin 11, placed downstream of the melting zone 10.

[0059] The melting basin 11 is provided with a discharge opening 212 through which the melted material is directed to a collecting tank 213.

[0060] The discharge opening 212 is placed at an end 214 of the furnace 202, opposite the loading zone 4.

[0061] The bottom 29 of the melting basin 11 is tilted downwards in the direction of the discharge opening 212, to promote discharging of the melted material.

[0062] On an upper part of the melting basin 11, opposite the bottom 29, at least one burner 215 is arranged, advantageously a plurality of burners 215, that provides/provide thermal energy for heating and melting the material in balls introduced into the furnace 202.

[0063] The at least one burner 215 is supplied with fuel, through a first supply conduit 216, and with oxygen as a comburent, through a second supply conduit 217. Using oxygen as a comburent, instead of air, which is normally used in the burners, is advantageous to enable temperatures to be obtained inside the furnace 202 that are above 1000 °C and are suitable for ensuring suitable fluidity of the melted material, to be able to discharge the melted material through the opening 212 of the melting basin 11, and to optimise energy consumption.

[0064] It is also possible to supply the at least one burner 215 with a comburent consisting of a mixture of air and oxygen.

[0065] A further burner 218 is arranged opposite the discharge opening 212, outside the furnace 202, and is oriented so as to supply heat to the discharge opening 212, to prevent the melted material being able to start cooling, totally or partially closing the discharge opening 212.

[0066] The end 214 is further provided with a discharge conduit 219 for discharging the fumes produced during heating and melting of the material of the balls 3. The discharge conduit 219 communicates with post-combustion device, operating, for example, at a minimum temperature of 850 °C, in which the combustion of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds present in said fumes takes place: the volatile organic compounds are the result of the combustion of the film that envelops the balls 3 and of spurious materials, like binders and other both organic and inorganic components that are present in the waste to be treated.

[0067] Figure 4 illustrates a cross section of the furnace 2, along the line A-A in figure 1, or a cross section of the furnace 102 along the line B-B of figure 2, or a cross section of the furnace 202 along the line C-C of figure 3. The three sections are substantially identical.

[0068] In figure 4 the melting basin 11 is visible, which is made of plates 25 of metal material that resists high temperatures, in particular at the temperature of the melted material, for example comprised between 1000 °C and 1350 °C, and is coated internally by a layer 26 of refractory material. The melting basin is provided with a water-cooled cooling circuit 27, which is advantageous, in particular if the furnace 2, 102, 202 is intended for intermittent use.

[0069] The water-cooled cooling circuit 27 causes cooling of the inner surface 28 of the melting basin 11, causing the formation of a solidified layer of melted material on said inner surface 28.

[0070] The solidified layer constitutes a further "refractory" coating that protects the plates 25 from thermal shock and acts as a partial barrier to heat exchange. In this manner energy dissipation by cooling water is minimized and it is possible to minimize the quantity of water used to cool the melting basin 11, with consequent reduced energy consumption of the cooling system.

[0071] In figures 5 to 8, the structure of doors 5, 6, 113 is illustrated that are substantially identical to one another.

[0072] Each door comprises a fixed frame 20, that surrounds an opening 21 and a movable panel 22 that is slidable on the fixed frame, between a closed position, visible in figure 4, in which the movable panel 22 closes the opening 21, and an open position, visible in figure 5, in which the movable panel 22 leaves the opening 21 free, enabling the inside of the apparatus 1; 101; 201 to be accessed.

[0073] The fixed frame 20 is provided with a plurality of nozzles 23, distributed on at least two sides of the fixed frame 20 and facing the opening 21.

[0074] The nozzles 23, supplied with a flow of pressurized air, create an air barrier on the opening 21 that counteracts the escape of air and fumes to the environment outside the apparatus 1; 101; 201.

[0075] The movable panel 22 is provided with a cooling circuit 24 in which a cooling fluid, mainly water, is circulated, to maintain the temperature of the movable panel 22 below a set safety value.

[0076] In order to prevent, or at least minimize, the escape of high temperature fumes and air from the furnace 2; 102; 202, an interior of the furnace 2; 102; 202 pressure below the pressure in the environment outside the furnace 2; 102; 202 is maintained.
Figures 9 and 10 illustrate a further door 220 placed at the end 214 of the furnace 202. The further door 220 is provided with a first pair of slide elements 223, 225 that can slide along a first guide rod 221 and with a second pair of slide elements 224, 226 that can slide along a second guide rod 222, parallel to the first guide rod 221. The first guide rod 221 and the second guide rod 222 are arranged on sides opposite the further door 220.
The further door 220, sliding along the guide rods 221 and 222, can move from a first position, illustrated in figure 11, in which it closes the discharge opening 212, to a second position, illustrated in figure 12, in which it leaves the discharge opening 212 open, to discharge the melted products into the collecting tank 213 and to permit access thereto, for example to remove deposits of melted material, which solidifies before being discharged from the discharge opening 212 into the collecting tank 213.
In the open position, the further door 212 is parallel to the guide rods 221 and 222, whereas in the closed position it is tilted with respect to said rods for adapting to the conformation of the surface of the end 214 of the furnace 202.
The slide elements 223, 224, 225 and 226 are associated with hinges and tilting devices (which are not visible in the figures) and to permit tilting of the further door 220 with respect to the guide rods 221 and 222.


Claims

1. Apparatus (1; 101; 201) for inertisation through heat treatment of waste consisting of mineral wool-based insulating materials, comprising a loading zone (4), through which said waste is loaded into a melting furnace (2; 102; 202), wherein said melting furnace (2; 102; 202) comprises a pre-heating zone (9; 109), in which said waste is heated until it reaches a melting temperature, a melting zone (10; 110) in which said waste is melted, and a melting basin (11) in which a melting material from said waste collects to be discharged into a collecting tank (13) outside the melting furnace (2; 102), characterized in that said melting basin (11) is made of plates (25) of metal material that resists high temperatures, in particular said melting temperature, is provided with a coating of refractory material (26) and with a cooling circuit (27).
 
2. Apparatus (1; 101; 201) according to claim 1, wherein said loading zone (4) is provided with a first door (5) suitable for isolating said loading zone (4) from an environment outside the apparatus (1; 101; 201), or to place said loading zone (4) in communication with said outer environment, to enable said waste to be introduced therein and/or wherein said loading zone (4) is provided with a second door (6) suitable for isolating said loading zone (4) from the melting furnace (2; 102; 202), or to place said loading zone (4) in communication with the pre-heating zone (9; 109) of the melting furnace (2; 102; 202).
 
3. Apparatus (1; 101) according to claim 2, wherein at said first door a first extractor hood (7) is arranged and at said second door a second extractor hood (8) is arranged.
 
4. Apparatus (1; 101; 201) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein said melting basin (11) is provided with a discharge opening (12; 212) through which said melting material can be discharged from the melting basin (11) and sent to a collecting tank (13) and wherein a bottom (29) of the melting basin (11) is tilted downwards in the direction of said discharge opening (12).
 
5. Apparatus (1; 101) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein at an end (14) of the melting furnace (2; 102), opposite the loading zone (4), at least one burner (15) is arranged supplied with fuel through a first supply conduit (16) and with oxygen, or with a mixture of air and oxygen, as a comburent, through a second supply conduit (17).
 
6. Apparatus (1; 101) according to claim 4, or 5, wherein a further burner (18) is arranged below the melting basin (11), outside the furnace (2; 102), and is oriented so as to supply heat to the discharge opening (12).
 
7. Apparatus (201), according to claim 4, wherein said discharge opening (212) is placed at an end (214) of the furnace (202), opposite the loading zone (4).
 
8. Apparatus (201) according to claim 4, or 7, wherein on an upper part of the melting basin (11), opposite the bottom (29), at least one burner (215) is arranged that is supplied with fuel through a first supply conduit (216) and with oxygen, or with a mixture of air and oxygen, as a comburent, through a second supply conduit (217) and/or wherein a further burner (218) is arranged opposite the discharge opening (212), outside the furnace (202); and is oriented so as to supply heat to the discharge opening (212).
 
9. Apparatus (1; 201) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the pre-heating zone (9) and the melting zone (10) of the melting furnace (2; 202) are arranged aligned on one another with a substantially horizontal axis.
 
10. Apparatus (1) according to one of the preceding claims, wherein said end (14; 214) is further provided with a discharge conduit (19; 219) for discharging the fumes produced during heating and melting of said waste, wherein said discharge conduit (19; 219) communicates with a post-combustion device in which the combustion of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds present in said fumes occurs.
 
11. Apparatus (101) according to one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the melting furnace (102) comprises a first portion (111) with a substantially horizontal axis in which a first part of the pre-heating zone (109) is comprised, wherein the first portion (111) is followed by a second portion (112) with a substantially vertical axis in which a second part of the pre-heating zone (109) and the melting zone (110) are comprised and wherein said second portion (112) is provided with a third door (113) associated with a third extractor hood (114).
 
12. Apparatus (101) according to claim 11, wherein at the top of the second portion (112) a fourth extractor hood (115) is placed that sucks from the inside of the furnace (102) fumes produced during heating and melting of said waste and sends the fumes to a post-combustion device in which the combustion of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds present in said fumes takes place.
 
13. Apparatus (1; 101; 201) according to claim 11, or 12, wherein each of said first door (5), second door (6) and third door (113) comprises a fixed frame (20), that surrounds an opening (21), and a movable panel (22) that is slidable on the fixed frame (20) between a closed position, in which the movable panel (22) closes the opening (21), and an open position, in which the movable panel (22) leaves the opening (21) free.
 
14. Apparatus (1; 101; 201) according to claim 13, wherein the fixed frame (20) is provided with a plurality of nozzles (23), distributed on at least two sides of the fixed frame (20) and facing the opening (21), wherein the nozzles (23) are supplied with a flow of pressurized air to create an air barrier on the opening (21) and/or wherein the movable panel (22) is provided with a cooling circuit (24) in which a cooling fluid is circulated.
 
15. Apparatus (201) according to one of claims 7 to 9, or 13 to 14, wherein a further door (220) is arranged at the end (214) of the furnace (202), said door being movable between a first position in which it closes the discharge opening (212) and a second position in which the discharge opening (212) is left free.
 
16. Apparatus (201) according to claim 20, wherein the further door (220) is provided with a first pair of slide elements (223, 225) that can slide along a first guide rod (221) and with a second pair of slide elements (224, 226) that can slide along a second guide rod (222), parallel to the first guide rod (221), the first guide rod (221) and the second guide rod (222) being arranged on sides opposite the further door (220) and in which said further door (220) is tiltable with respect to said first guide rod (221) and second guide rod (222).
 




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