(19)
(11)EP 4 036 949 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION

(43)Date of publication:
03.08.2022 Bulletin 2022/31

(21)Application number: 22153050.4

(22)Date of filing:  24.01.2022
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
H01H 33/59(2006.01)
H01H 9/54(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
H01H 33/596; H01H 2009/543
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 29.01.2021 CN 202110123898
29.01.2021 CN 202120268285 U

(71)Applicant: Eaton Electrical Ltd.
Suzhou (CN)

(72)Inventor:
  • LEUSENKAMP, Martin Bernardus Johannes
    Suzhou, 215121 (CN)

(74)Representative: Schwan Schorer & Partner mbB 
Patentanwälte Bauerstraße 22
80796 München
80796 München (DE)

  


(54)A HYBRID DC CIRCUIT BREAKER


(57) The present invention provides a hybrid DC circuit breaker, including: a mechanical switch connected on a first current branch; and a semiconductor switch and a forced resonance injection circuit connected on a second current branch. The forced resonance injection circuit includes a first terminal and a second terminal. The first terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit is connected to one end of the semiconductor switch, and the second terminal and the other end of the semiconductor switch are connected to two ends of the mechanical switch. When the mechanical switch is in a process of switching off, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be on, and at the same time the forced resonance injection circuit is controlled to inject to the mechanical switch a gradually increasing injection current in a direction opposite to that of a current in the mechanical switch, so that the current in the mechanical switch gradually decreases to zero within a predetermined diverting time, and the current is diverted from the first current branch to the second current branch. The hybrid DC circuit breaker of the present invention can safely and reliably cut off fault and load currents in any direction.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to the field of circuit breakers, and in particular to a hybrid DC circuit breaker.

BACKGROUND



[0002] A DC power supply system lacks a voltage zero crossing point, so that it is difficult to cut off a fault current in the DC power supply system. In order to quickly cut off a fault current and to enable a mechanical switch to switch off without causing any arc, a hybrid DC circuit breaker is currently provided. The hybrid DC circuit breaker includes a mechanical switch and a semiconductor switch and a surge arrester (also referred to as a lightning protector, a surge protector, or a surge protection device) connected in parallel to the mechanical switch.

[0003] Basic principles of the hybrid DC circuit breaker are as follows: when a fault current (such as a short-circuit current) occurs in a DC circuit, the mechanical switch is triggered to switch off. In a process of switching off of the mechanical switch, in order to prevent the mechanical switch in the process of switching off from producing an arc, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be on first, so that a current is diverted to the semiconductor switch. Then, the mechanical switch is switched off. After the mechanical switch is switched off, the semiconductor switch is then switched off, thereby completing a fast cutting-off process of a short-circuit current. The surge arrester is used to absorb residue electric energy in the DC power supply system.

[0004] However, an existing hybrid DC circuit breaker cannot ensure that switching off of the mechanical switch is completely arc-free, and it cannot be determined when to switch on the semiconductor switch so as to cause the mechanical switch to safely and reliably cut off a fault current.

SUMMARY



[0005] With respect to the aforementioned technical problems in the prior art, the present invention provides a hybrid DC circuit breaker, comprising:

a mechanical switch connected on a first current branch; and

a semiconductor switch and a forced resonance injection circuit connected on a second current branch, the forced resonance injection circuit comprising a first terminal and a second terminal, the first terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit being connected to one end of the semiconductor switch, and the second terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit and the other end of the semiconductor switch being connected to two ends of the mechanical switch;

wherein, when the mechanical switch is in a process of switching off, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be on, and at the same time the forced resonance injection circuit is controlled to inject to the mechanical switch a gradually increasing injection current in a direction opposite to that of a current in the mechanical switch, so that the current in the mechanical switch gradually decreases to zero within a predetermined diverting time, and the current is diverted from the first current branch to the second current branch.



[0006] Preferably, when the current in the mechanical switch decreases to zero within the predetermined diverting time, the forced resonance injection circuit is controlled to stop outputting the injection current.

[0007] Preferably, when a contact pitch of the mechanical switch reaches a predetermined threshold, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be off.

[0008] Preferably, the forced resonance injection circuit comprises: a DC power source, powered by a DC voltage on the first current branch or an external power source, so as to charge a DC bus capacitor; a DC bus, connected to the DC bus capacitor, and used to provide a current to the forced resonance injection circuit; an inverter, provided with switching pulses during current injection so as to produce periodic square-wave voltage pulses having alternating polarities; a resonance circuit, comprising an inductor and a capacitor connected in series to each other, having one end connected to an output end of the inverter, and having the other end used to output an alternating current having gradually increasing amplitude; a rectifying circuit, having an input end connected to the other end of the resonance circuit, and having an output end used to output a pulsating direct current having gradually increasing amplitude, and an output module, having an input end electrically connected to the output end of the rectifying circuit, and having an output end used as the first terminal and the second terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit, the output module being used to filter and amplify the pulsating direct current, and output the injection current; wherein the inverter, the resonance circuit, and an equivalent resistor, an equivalent inductor, and an equivalent capacitor of a circuit connected between the other end of the resonance circuit and the output end of the inverter form an underdamped resonance circuit, and a frequency of the periodic square-wave voltage pulses depends on a resonance frequency of the underdamped resonance circuit.

[0009] Preferably, the semiconductor switch is a bidirectionally controllable semiconductor switch; the hybrid DC circuit breaker further comprises a polarity module connected between the rectifying circuit and the output module, and the polarity module comprises a full-bridge circuit controlled to change polarities of an input current and an output current of the polarity module.

[0010] Preferably, the inverter is a single-level, two-level, or multi-level full-bridge inverter or half-bridge inverter.

[0011] Preferably, the output module is configured to produce a current disconnection between the input end thereof and the first current branch.

[0012] Preferably, the output module is an autotransformer comprising a first winding and a second winding, a first terminal of the first winding being electrically connected to a first output terminal of the rectifying circuit, a second terminal of the first winding being electrically connected to a first terminal of the second winding, and being used as a first output terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit, and a second terminal of the second winding being electrically connected to a second output terminal of the rectifying circuit, and being used as a second output terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit.

[0013] Preferably, the transformer or the autotransformer is coreless.

[0014] Preferably, the polarity module comprises: a first switching transistor and a second switching transistor connected to form a first bridge arm, a first node formed by connecting the first switching transistor and the second switching transistor to each other being used as the first polarity terminal; and a third switching transistor and a fourth switching transistor connected to form a second bridge arm, a second node formed by connecting the third switching transistor and the fourth switching transistor to each other being used as the second polarity terminal; wherein a first electrode of the first switching transistor and a first electrode of the third switching transistor are connected to a positive polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit, and a second electrode of the second switching transistor and a second electrode of the fourth switching transistor are connected to a negative polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit.

[0015] Preferably, the hybrid DC circuit breaker further comprises a surge arrester connected in parallel to the semiconductor switch.

[0016] When a DC power supply system supplies power normally, power consumption of the forced resonance injection circuit of the present invention is zero. When a fault current occurs in the DC power supply system, the forced resonance injection circuit controllably injects to the mechanical switch a gradually increasing injection current having an opposite direction, so that a current diverting time can be controlled, and a recovery voltage between the two ends of the mechanical switch is low, thereby enabling the mechanical switch to safely and reliably cut off the fault current.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0017] Embodiments of the present invention are further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings:

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is an oscillogram of currents in the hybrid DC circuit breaker shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 shows a specific block diagram of a forced resonance injection circuit in the hybrid DC circuit breaker shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is an oscillogram of a resonance current outputted by a resonance circuit in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is an oscillogram of a rectified current outputted by a rectifying circuit in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 is an oscillogram of an injection current outputted by an output module in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 7 is a specific circuit diagram of a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a first embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 8 is a specific circuit diagram of a polarity module in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 9 is a specific circuit diagram of an output module in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a third embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 10 is a specific circuit diagram of a semiconductor switch in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 11 is a specific circuit diagram of an inverter in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention.


DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS



[0018] In order to make the objectives, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, the present invention is further described in detail below through specific embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings.

[0019] FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 1, the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 includes a mechanical switch 11 connected on a first current branch and a semiconductor switch 13 and a forced resonance injection circuit 14 connected on a second current branch. The forced resonance injection circuit 14 includes a terminal 1461 and a terminal 1462. The terminal 1461 of the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is connected to one end of the semiconductor switch 13. The other end of the semiconductor switch 13 and the terminal 1462 of the forced resonance injection circuit 14 are connected to two ends of the mechanical switch 11. The hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 further includes a surge arrester 12 connected in parallel to the semiconductor switch 13.

[0020] For ease of following description, directions of a current Isw in the mechanical switch 11, a current IA in the surge arrester 12, a current IB in the semiconductor switch 13, an injection current IC outputted by the forced resonance injection circuit 14, and a current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 are respectively indicated by arrows in FIG. 1.

[0021] The forced resonance injection circuit 14 is controlled to output the gradually increasing injection current IC. The injection current IC flows into the mechanical switch 11, has a direction opposite to a direction of the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11, and is used to cause the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 to gradually decrease to zero within a predetermined diverting time.

[0022] FIG. 2 is an oscillogram of currents in the hybrid DC circuit breaker shown in FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 2, prior to a time point t1, a DC power supply system is in a normal power supply state. No fault current is present in a circuit. The mechanical switch 11 is in an on state, and the semiconductor switch 13 is in an off state. The DC power supply system supplies power to a load (not shown in FIG. 1) normally by means of the mechanical switch 11 that is on. In this case, the current IA in the surge arrester 12, the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13, and the injection current IC outputted by the forced resonance injection circuit 14 are all zero, and the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 is equal to the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1. Because the current in the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is zero, power loss of the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is zero during normal power supply.

[0023] At the time point t1, when the load is shorted, the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 increases sharply, and the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 increases sharply.

[0024] At a time point t2, when the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 increases to be a tripping current, a control device or a trip circuit (not shown in FIG. 1) starts to control the mechanical switch 11 to switch off.

[0025] From the time point t2 to a time point t3, contacts of the mechanical switch 11 are in a separation process. The current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 increases gradually. The current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 increases gradually.

[0026] At the time point t3, the semiconductor switch 13 is controlled to be on, and at the same time the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is controlled to start outputting the injection current IC at the time point t3. The injection current Ic flows from the terminal 1461 to the terminal 1462, and is injected into the mechanical switch 11 in a direction opposite to the direction of the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11.

[0027] From the time point t3 to a time point t4, the injection current Ic outputted by the forced resonance injection circuit 14 increases gradually, and the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13 increases gradually. The direction of the injection current Ic is opposite to the direction of the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11, so that the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 decreases gradually. In this process, the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 is gradually diverted into the semiconductor switch 13, and the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13 and the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 continue increasing.

[0028] At the time point t4, the current ISW in the mechanical switch 11 is zero. In this case, a current diverting process is completed. The injection current IC outputted by the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is equal to zero. Current injection into the mechanical switch 11 is stopped.

[0029] From the time point t4 to a time point t5, a short-circuit current flows through only the semiconductor switch 13 in the on state. In this case, the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13 continues increasing, and the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 increases gradually. In this process, a moving contact of the mechanical switch 11 continues opening at a speed of a few meters per second, and a distance between the moving contact and a static contact reaches a predetermined contact pitch at the time point t5. The injection current IC outputted by the forced resonance injection circuit 14 has caused the current Isw in the mechanical switch 11 to be diverted into the semiconductor switch 13, so that in this process the mechanical switch 11 does not withstand a great current interruption, and that is, does not need to switch off at a large current. Specifically, the mechanical switch 11 can switch off at zero current, and can switch off without causing any arc.

[0030] At the time point t5, the control device (not shown in FIG. 1) controls the semiconductor switch 13 to be in an off state or a switched-off state, and the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13 decreases to zero. In this case, the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 is maximized.

[0031] From the time point t5 to a time point t6, a potential zero crossing point is not present in the DC power supply system, so that in this case residual electric energy in the DC power supply system is discharged by means of the surge arrester 12 and the terminals 1461 and 1462 of the forced resonance injection circuit 14, and the surge arrester 12 starts consuming the electric energy in the DC power supply system. Therefore, the current IA in the surge arrester 12 gradually decreases to zero, and at the same time the current ICB in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 gradually decreases to zero. Eventually at the time point t6, a fault is cleared.

[0032] In the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 of the present invention, the two terminals 1461 and 1462 of the forced resonance injection circuit 14 and the semiconductor switch 13 are connected in series on the second current branch, and are not connected on the first current branch on which the mechanical switch 11 is located, so that in a normal power supply or DC transmission process, the DC power supply system supplies power to a load by means of only the mechanical switch 11, and power consumption of the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is zero.

[0033] In addition, in a process of switching off of the mechanical switch 11, the forced resonance injection circuit 14 of the present invention can controllably inject to the mechanical switch 11 the gradually increasing injection current IC opposite to the current ISW, and the current ISW in the mechanical switch 11 can be controlled to be diverted to the semiconductor switch 13 from the time point t3 to the time point t4. That is, a current diverting time can be controlled.

[0034] The forced resonance injection circuit 14 can control a current change rate of the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13 at the ending time point t4 of current diverting. A small current change rate enables the mechanical switch 11 to switch off fast and to have small switching-off loss. At the ending time point t4 of current diverting (namely the time point t4), a recovery voltage between the two ends of the mechanical switch 11 depends on resistance of the semiconductor switch 13 and the current IB in the semiconductor switch 13, and the recovery voltage between the two ends of the mechanical switch 11 can be low, such as a few volts to tens of volts. At the ending time point of current diverting, the mechanical switch 11 has a small current change rate, and the recovery voltage between the two ends of the mechanical switch 11 is low, so that the mechanical switch 11 can switch off safely and reliably.

[0035] A time period from the time point t4 to the time point t5 is a turn-off delay time of the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1, and is used to cause the distance between the moving contact and the static contact of the mechanical switch 11 to reach the predetermined contact pitch within the turn-off delay time. The predetermined contact pitch and the turn-off delay time depend on the recovery voltage of the mechanical switch 11 and an opening speed of the moving contact.

[0036] When the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 is used in a bidirectional DC power supply system, for example when the direction of the current in the hybrid DC circuit breaker 1 is opposite to the direction of the current ICB, the forced resonance injection circuit 14 is controlled to output the gradually increasing injection current to the terminal 1461 thereof.

[0037] FIG. 3 shows a specific block diagram of a forced resonance injection circuit in the hybrid DC circuit breaker shown in FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 3, the forced resonance injection circuit 24 includes a DC power source 241, and a DC bus capacitor C1, an inverter 242, a resonance circuit 243, a rectifying circuit 244, a polarity module 245, and an output module 246 connected between DC buses. An input end of the inverter 242 is connected to the DC power source 241. An output end of the inverter 242 is connected to an input end of the rectifying circuit 244 by means of the resonance circuit 243. An output end of the rectifying circuit 244 is connected to an input end of the polarity module 245. An output end of the polarity module 245 is connected to an input end of the output module 246. One terminal 2461 of the output module 246 is connected to an end of the semiconductor switch 23, and the other terminal 2462 is connected to an end of the mechanical switch 21.

[0038] The DC power source 241 is powered by a DC voltage on the first current branch or an external power source, so as to charge the DC bus capacitor C1. The DC bus capacitor C1 provides a current to the forced resonance injection circuit by means of the DC bus.

[0039] An equivalent resistor, an equivalent capacitor, and an equivalent inductor of the inverter 242, the resonance circuit 243, the rectifying circuit 244, the polarity module 245, and the output module 246 form an underdamped resonance circuit.

[0040] The control device (not shown in FIG. 3) provides a high-frequency (such as 10 to 100 kHz) pulse width modulated signal, namely switching pulses, to the inverter 242, so that the inverter 242 inverts a direct current on the DC bus capacitor C1 into an alternating current, namely periodic square-wave voltage pulses having alternating polarities, a frequency of the periodic square-wave voltage pulses depending on a resonance frequency of the underdamped resonance circuit, so that the resonance circuit 243 outputs a resonance current IRES.

[0041] The output module 246 is further configured to produce a current disconnection between the input end thereof and the first current branch.

[0042] FIG. 4 is an oscillogram of a resonance current outputted by a resonance circuit in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3. As shown in FIG. 4, the resonance current IRES is an alternating current having gradually increasing amplitude, and a resonance frequency thereof depends on an inherent frequency of an inductor, a capacitor, and an equivalent resistor (such as a bulk resistor of the inductor and the capacitor) of an equivalent load circuit. At the beginning of oscillation, the inverter 242 outputs a voltage to the resonance circuit 243, and therefore the resonance circuit 243 starts producing an oscillating current. Each time the resonance current IRES crosses a zero point, the inverter 242 is controlled to switch an output voltage polarity, and electric energy on the DC bus capacitor C1 is outputted to the resonance circuit 243 by means of the inverter 242, so as to provide electric energy within each switching period, so that the amplitude of the resonance current IRES outputted by the resonance circuit 243 increases gradually.

[0043] The rectifying circuit 244 is used to rectify the resonance current IRES outputted by the resonance circuit 243 into a pulsating direct current.

[0044] FIG. 5 is an oscillogram of a rectified current outputted by a rectifying circuit in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3. As shown in FIG. 5, the rectified current IR is a pulsating direct current having a constant current direction and periodically increasing amplitude.

[0045] The polarity module 245 includes a positive polarity input terminal, a negative polarity input terminal, a polarity terminal 2451, and a polarity terminal 2452. The positive polarity input terminal and the negative polarity input terminal of the polarity module 245 are respectively connected to a positive polarity output terminal and a negative polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit 244. The polarity module 245 controllably causes the polarity terminals 2451 and 2452 thereof to be a positive polarity output terminal and a negative polarity output terminal, or causes the polarity terminals 2451 and 2452 thereof to be a negative polarity output terminal and a positive polarity output terminal. Therefore, the polarity module 245 outputs a pulsating direct current having a phase being the same as or reverse to that of the pulsating direct current outputted by the rectifying circuit 244.

[0046] The output module 246 is used to filter out or reduce an AC component in the pulsating direct current outputted by the polarity module 245, so as to output a smooth direct current having gradually increasing amplitude.

[0047] FIG. 6 is an oscillogram of an injection current outputted by an output module in the forced resonance injection circuit shown in FIG. 3. As shown in FIG. 6, the injection current IC outputted by the output module 246 is a smooth direct current, and amplitude thereof increases gradually over time. The injection current IC is outputted from the terminal 2462 of the output module 246, and flows into the mechanical switch 21, so that the current in the mechanical switch 21 decreases gradually to zero within the current diverting time.

[0048] The high-frequency (such as 10 to 100 kHz) pulse width modulated signal is provided to the inverter 242, so that the output module 246 can output a gradually increasing smooth direct current within a few periods of a switching frequency (for example, within tens to hundreds of microseconds), and therefore a fault current in the mechanical switch 21 can be quickly diverted into the semiconductor switch 23.

[0049] In other embodiments of the present invention, when the hybrid DC circuit breaker 2 is used in a unidirectional DC power supply system, the hybrid DC circuit breaker 2 may not have the polarity module 245, and the semiconductor switch 23 may be a unidirectionally controllable semiconductor switch.

[0050] FIG. 7 is a specific circuit diagram of a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a first embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 7, the semiconductor switch 33 is a bidirectionally controllable switch, and includes an insulated-gate bipolar transistor T31 having an antiparallel diode and an insulated-gate bipolar transistor T32 having an antiparallel diode. An emitter of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T31 is connected to an emitter of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T32. Unidirectional conduction of a direct current is achieved by controlling the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T31 or T32 to be on.

[0051] An inverter 342 is a full-bridge inverter consists of four field effect transistors.

[0052] A resonance circuit 343 includes an inductor L3 and a capacitor C3 connected in series to each other. By selecting the inductor L3 and the capacitor C3 having suitable parameters, when

, anunderdampedresonance circuit is formed. R', L', and C' are respectively an equivalent resistance value, an equivalent inductance value, and an equivalent capacitance value of the inverter 342, the resonance circuit 343, a rectifying circuit 344, a polarity module 345, and an output module 346. For example, when the equivalent resistance value, the equivalent inductance value, and the equivalent capacitance value are respectively 3.5 ohm, 150 µH, and 82 nF, an underdamped resonance circuit is formed.

[0053] A switching frequency of the inverter 342 depends on a resonance frequency of the underdamped resonance circuit. For example, when the inductor L3 of 150 µH and the capacitor C3 of 82 nF are selected, the switching frequency of the inverter 342 is

, that is, about 45 kHz.

[0054] When two diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors in the inverter 342 are controlled to be on, a DC power source 341 outputs electric energy by means of the two diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are on, so that the resonance circuit 343 outputs a current of a first polarity. When the other two diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors in the inverter 342 are controlled to be on, the DC power source 341 outputs electric energy by means of the two diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors that are on, so that the resonance circuit 343 outputs a current of a second polarity having increased amplitude. The insulated-gate bipolar transistors in the inverter 342 are controlled to be alternately on in the aforementioned two manners, so that the resonance circuit 343 outputs, within a plurality of switching periods of a pulse width modulated signal, an alternating current having gradually increasing amplitude.

[0055] The rectifying circuit 344 is a full-wave rectifying circuit, and includes four diodes.

[0056] The polarity module 345 includes a full-bridge circuit controlled to change polarities of an input current and an output current of the polarity module. Specifically, the polarity module 345 includes four insulated-gate bipolar transistors T33, T34, T35, and T36 having antiparallel diodes, and diodes D33, D34, D35, and D36 respectively connected in series to the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T33, T34, T35, and T36. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor T33 and the diode D33 connected in series to each other and the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T34 the diode D34 connected in series to each other are connected to each other to form a node N1 used as a polarity terminal 3451 of the polarity module 345, and the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T35 and the diode D35 connected in series to each other and the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T36 the diode D36 connected in series to each other are connected to each other to form a node N2 used as a polarity terminal 3452 of the polarity module 345. When the diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors T33 and T36 are controlled to be on, the polarity terminals 3451 and 3452 are respectively used as a positive polarity output terminal and a negative polarity output terminal of the polarity module 345. When the diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors T34 and T35 are controlled to be on, the polarity terminals 3451 and 3452 are respectively used as a negative polarity output terminal and a positive polarity output terminal of the polarity module 345.

[0057] The output module 346 is an autotransformer, and the autotransformer is coreless to prevent magnetic saturation. The autotransformer includes a winding L31 and a winding L32. A dotted terminal of the winding L31 is connected to the node N1. A dotted terminal of the winding L32 and an opposite-polarity terminal of the winding L31 are connected to each other, and are used as a terminal 3461 of the output module 346. An opposite-polarity terminal of the winding L32 is connected to the node N2, and is used as a terminal 3462 of the output module 346.

[0058] When the polarity terminal 3452 of the polarity module 345 outputs a current 131, and the current 131 flows into the opposite-polarity terminal of the winding L32, the current 131 flows from the opposite-polarity terminal of the winding L31 to the dotted terminal thereof. A current 132 is present from the dotted terminal of the winding L32 to the opposite-polarity terminal thereof. The terminal 3462 outputs an injection current IC. The injection current IC is equal to the sum of the current 131 and the current 132. The injection current IC is injected into a mechanical switch 31, so that a current Isw in the mechanical switch 31 decreases gradually to zero within a predetermined current diverting time.

[0059] FIG. 8 is a specific circuit diagram of a polarity module in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a second embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 8, a polarity module 445 includes four insulated-gate bipolar transistors T43, T44, T45, and T46 having no antiparallel diode. The insulated-gate bipolar transistors T43 and T44 are connected to form a bridge arm, and the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T45 and T46 are connected to form another bridge arm. Specifically, collectors of the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T43 and T45 are connected to each other, and are used to be connected to a positive polarity output terminal of a rectifying circuit. Emitters of the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T44 and T46 are connected to each other, and are used to be connected to a negative polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit. A node N41 formed by connecting an emitter of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T43 and a collector of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T44 to each other is used as one polarity terminal 4451 of the polarity module 445. A node N42 formed by connecting an emitter of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T45 and a collector of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T46 to each other is used as the other polarity terminal 4452 of the polarity module 445.

[0060] When the diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors T43 and T46 are controlled to be on and the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T44 and T45 are controlled to be off, the polarity terminals 4451 and 4452 are respectively used a positive polarity output terminal and a negative polarity output terminal. A current flows out of the polarity terminal 4451, and flows into the polarity terminal 4452. When the other diagonal insulated-gate bipolar transistors T44 and T45 are controlled to be on and the insulated-gate bipolar transistors T43 and T46 are controlled to be off, the polarity terminals 4451 and 4452 are respectively used a negative polarity output terminal and a positive polarity output terminal. A current flows out of the polarity terminal 4452, and flows into the polarity terminal 4451.

[0061] FIG. 9 is a specific circuit diagram of an output module in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a third embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 9, an output module 446 is a coreless transformer, and includes a primary winding L41 and a secondary winding L42. A dotted terminal and an opposite-polarity terminal of the primary winding L41 are respectively used to be connected to the positive polarity output terminal and the negative polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit 244 or connected to the two polarity terminals 2451 and 2452 of the polarity module 245. A dotted terminal and an opposite-polarity terminal of the secondary winding L42 are respectively used as output terminals 4461 and 4462, and are respectively used to be connected to a semiconductor switch and a mechanical switch. When a current flows from the opposite-polarity terminal of the primary winding L41 to the dotted terminal, a current in the secondary winding L42 flows from the output terminal 4461 to the output terminal 4462. The coreless transformer 446 has a galvanic isolation function, and can also decrease power consumption caused by transmission of a high-frequency resonance current IRES.

[0062] FIG. 10 is a specific circuit diagram of a semiconductor switch in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a fourth embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 10, a semiconductor switch 43 includes a bridge circuit formed by connecting four diodes D41, D42, D43, and D44, and an insulated-gate bipolar transistor T41 having a collector connected to negative electrodes of the diodes D41 and D43 and an emitter connected to positive electrodes of the diodes D42 and D44. When the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T41 is controlled to be on, in one conductive path, a current flows in via a terminal 431, runs through the diode D41, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T41 that is on, and the diode D44, and flows to a terminal 432; in the other conductive path, a current flows in via the terminal 432, runs through the diode D43, the insulated-gate bipolar transistor T41 that is on, and the diode D42, and flows to the terminal 431.

[0063] FIG. 11 is a specific circuit diagram of an inverter in a hybrid DC circuit breaker according to a fifth embodiment of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 11, an inverter 442 is a half-bridge inverter, and includes insulated-gate bipolar transistors T47 and T48 and capacitors C41 and C42. A positive polarity input terminal and a negative polarity input terminal of the half-bridge inverter 442 are respectively electrically connected to a positive electrode and a negative electrode of the DC power source 241, and the half-bridge inverter 442 is used to invert a direct current outputted by the DC power source 241 into an alternating current. The half-bridge inverter 442 has only two switching transistors, thereby reducing device costs.

[0064] In other embodiments of the present invention, the inverter may also be a single-level, two-level, or multi-level full bridge (H-bridge) inverter.

[0065] In another embodiment of the present invention, a switching transistor such as a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) may be used in place of the insulated-gate bipolar transistor in the semiconductor switch 33 and/or the polarity module 345 in the aforementioned embodiments.

[0066] In another embodiment of the present invention, a hybrid DC circuit breaker may include a plurality of semiconductor switches 33 connected in series to each other.

[0067] In another embodiment of the present invention, the rectifying circuit 244 may be a half-wave rectifying circuit, so as to rectify an alternating current into a pulsating direct current.

[0068] Although the present invention has been described through preferred embodiments, the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described herein, but includes various changes and variations made without departing from the scope of the present invention.


Claims

1. A hybrid DC circuit breaker, characterized by comprising:

a mechanical switch connected on a first current branch; and

a semiconductor switch and a forced resonance injection circuit connected on a second current branch, the forced resonance injection circuit comprising a first terminal and a second terminal, the first terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit being connected to one end of the semiconductor switch, and the second terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit and the other end of the semiconductor switch being connected to two ends of the mechanical switch;

wherein, when the mechanical switch is in a process of switching off, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be on, and at the same time the forced resonance injection circuit is controlled to inject to the mechanical switch a gradually increasing injection current in a direction opposite to that of a current in the mechanical switch, so that the current in the mechanical switch gradually decreases to zero within a predetermined diverting time, and the current is diverted from the first current branch to the second current branch.


 
2. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 1, wherein when the current in the mechanical switch decreases to zero within the predetermined diverting time, the forced resonance injection circuit is controlled to stop outputting the injection current.
 
3. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 2, wherein when a contact pitch of the mechanical switch reaches a predetermined threshold, the semiconductor switch is controlled to be off.
 
4. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the forced resonance injection circuit comprises:

a DC power source, powered by a DC voltage on the first current branch or an external power source, so as to charge a DC bus capacitor;

a DC bus, connected to the DC bus capacitor, and used to provide a current to the forced resonance injection circuit;

an inverter, provided with switching pulses during current injection so as to produce periodic square-wave voltage pulses having alternating polarities;

a resonance circuit, comprising an inductor and a capacitor connected in series to each other, having one end connected to an output end of the inverter, and having the other end used to output an alternating current having gradually increasing amplitude;

a rectifying circuit, having an input end connected to the other end of the resonance circuit, and having an output end used to output a pulsating direct current having gradually increasing amplitude, and

an output module, having an input end electrically connected to the output end of the rectifying circuit, and having an output end used as the first terminal and the second terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit, the output module being used to filter and amplify the pulsating direct current, and output the injection current;

wherein the inverter, the resonance circuit, and an equivalent resistor, an equivalent inductor, and an equivalent capacitor of a circuit connected between the other end of the resonance circuit and the output end of the inverter form an underdamped resonance circuit, and a frequency of the periodic square-wave voltage pulses depends on a resonance frequency of the underdamped resonance circuit.


 
5. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 4, wherein

the semiconductor switch is a bidirectionally controllable semiconductor switch;

the hybrid DC circuit breaker further comprises a polarity module connected between the rectifying circuit and the output module, and the polarity module comprises a full-bridge circuit controlled to change polarities of an input current and an output current of the polarity module.


 
6. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 4, wherein the inverter is a single-level, two-level, or multi-level full-bridge inverter or half-bridge inverter.
 
7. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 4, wherein the output module is configured to be a transformer to produce a current disconnection between the input end thereof and the first current branch.
 
8. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 4, wherein the output module is an autotransformer comprising a first winding and a second winding, a first terminal of the first winding being electrically connected to a first output terminal of the rectifying circuit, a second terminal of the first winding being electrically connected to a first terminal of the second winding, and being used as a first output terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit, and a second terminal of the second winding being electrically connected to a second output terminal of the rectifying circuit, and being used as a second output terminal of the forced resonance injection circuit.
 
9. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 7 or 8, wherein the transformer or the autotransformer is coreless.
 
10. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to claim 5, wherein the polarity module comprises:

a first switching transistor and a second switching transistor connected to form a first bridge arm, a first node formed by connecting the first switching transistor and the second switching transistor to each other being used as the first polarity terminal; and

a third switching transistor and a fourth switching transistor connected to form a second bridge arm, a second node formed by connecting the third switching transistor and the fourth switching transistor to each other being used as the second polarity terminal;

wherein a first electrode of the first switching transistor and a first electrode of the third switching transistor are connected to a positive polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit, and a second electrode of the second switching transistor and a second electrode of the fourth switching transistor are connected to a negative polarity output terminal of the rectifying circuit.


 
11. The hybrid DC circuit breaker according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the hybrid DC circuit breaker further comprises a surge arrester connected in parallel to the semiconductor switch.
 




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