(19)
(11)EP 4 067 531 A1

(12)EUROPEAN PATENT APPLICATION
published in accordance with Art. 153(4) EPC

(43)Date of publication:
05.10.2022 Bulletin 2022/40

(21)Application number: 20891771.6

(22)Date of filing:  24.06.2020
(51)International Patent Classification (IPC): 
C23C 14/08(2006.01)
C03C 17/34(2006.01)
C03C 17/245(2006.01)
C23C 14/34(2006.01)
(52)Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC):
C03C 17/34; C23C 14/08; C03C 17/245; C23C 14/34
(86)International application number:
PCT/JP2020/024834
(87)International publication number:
WO 2021/106254 (03.06.2021 Gazette  2021/22)
(84)Designated Contracting States:
AL AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC MK MT NL NO PL PT RO RS SE SI SK SM TR
Designated Extension States:
BA ME
Designated Validation States:
KH MA MD TN

(30)Priority: 25.11.2019 JP 2019212244

(71)Applicant: Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd.
Tokyo 105-8716 (JP)

(72)Inventor:
  • OKAMI, Hideharu
    Niihama-shi, Ehime 792-0008 (JP)

(74)Representative: TBK 
Bavariaring 4-6
80336 München
80336 München (DE)

  


(54)OPTICAL FILM, SPUTTERING TARGET AND METHOD FOR FORMING OPTICAL FILM


(57) Provided is an optical film (a composit tungsten oxide film containing cesium, tungsten, and oxygen), a sputtering target, and a method of producing a film by which film formation conditions can be easily obtained. An optical film of the present invention has transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, has absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and has radio wave transparency, and is characterized in that the optical film comprises cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set within a range between "n-max" and "n-min" made by graphing the maximum value and the minimum value of the refractive index in a wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants shown in FIG. 1 and within a range between "k-max" and "k-min" made by graphing the maximum value and the minimum value of the extinction coefficient in the above wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants.




Description

TECHNICAL FIELD



[0001] The present invention relates to an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, and a method of producing the same, and particularly to an optical film formed by a sputtering method, a sputtering target, and a method of producing an optical film.

BACKGROUND ART



[0002] In these years, in order to reduce the amounts of energy consumed by air conditioners inside rooms or travel means such as cars in summer, development of the heat ray shielding technology for windows through which to take in outside light has been underway. As means for this technology, there are a method that attaches a film (light shielding member) in which a colored film or an optical thin film having a heat ray shielding effect is formed to a window, a method that applies a substance having a heat ray shielding effect to a window, a method that employs a window in which an optical thin film having a heat ray shielding effect is formed by evaporation, sputtering, or the like, and the like. The method that employs a window in which an optical thin film having a heat ray shielding effect is formed by evaporation, sputtering, or the like is a method that cannot apply an optical thin film to an existing window, but can form an optical thin film having high durability.

[0003] For example, as the above light shielding member such as a window member, Patent Literature 1 describes a film (light shielding member) having a mirror surface state in which a metal film of aluminum or the like is formed by an evaporation method. However, in a case where such a light shielding member is used, since the exterior appearance is in a half mirror form, reflected light is too bright in outdoor use, leading to a problem in terms of appearance. In addition, since a metal film of aluminum or the like has a high electrical conductivity, the metal film reflects radio waves, leading to a problem that it becomes difficult for devices which utilize radio waves such as cell phones, smartphones, and devices using GPS (Global Positioning System) to catch radio waves.

[0004] In addition, as the above method that applies a substance having a heat ray shielding effect, the present applicant has proposed an infrared ray shielding fine particle dispersed body containing composite tungsten oxide fine particles, which is described in Patent Literature 2. The composite tungsten oxide fine particles efficiently absorb rays of the sun, particularly light in the near-infrared region, and also have a high transparency to visible light. The above infrared ray shielding fine particle dispersed body is formed by dispersing the composite tungsten oxide fine particles into an appropriate solvent to obtain a dispersion liquid, adding a medium resin to the obtained dispersion liquid, and then coating a surface of a base material to form a thin film, and has both heat ray shielding ability and radio wave transparency. However, the method described in Patent Literature 2 has a problem that since the thin film is formed by the application (coating) method, a sophisticated application technique is required in order to secure the control of the film thickness, the uniformity in film thickness across a large area, and the flatness.

[0005] In addition, as the above method using sputtering or the like, Patent Literature 3 discloses a vehicle window glass and a method of producing the same, and proposes a vehicle window glass in which a first metal oxide film (ITO)/a first Ag film/a second metal oxide film (ITO)/a second Ag film/a third metal oxide film (ITO) are successively formed, for example, by using a large-scale in-line sputtering apparatus that is capable of treating a large-area substrate for a vehicle window glass. Patent Literature 4 proposes a composite tungsten oxide film obtained by sputtering film formation.

[0006] Meanwhile, in a case where a multi-layer film such as a first metal oxide film (ITO)/a first Ag film/a second metal oxide film (ITO)/a second Ag film/a third metal oxide film (ITO) or an optical film such as the above composite tungsten oxide film is formed using a sputtering apparatus, since the shape inside the film formation chamber of the sputtering apparatus to be used, the transfer speed of a glass substrate or the like, the positional relation among the gas emission pipe for an oxygen gas or the like to be introduced into the film formation chamber, the sputtering target, and the substrate, and the like complicatedly affect one another, it is difficult to primarily determine film formation conditions for a desired optical film. Hence, conventionally, a plurality of samples of a desired optical film are fabricated while film formation conditions are changed as appropriate based on theoretical calculations for the optical thin film, the transmittance in a visible wavelength band and the transmittance in a near-infrared wavelength band are measured for each one of the fabricated samples, and film formation conditions for the optical film suitable for the purpose are obtained for each sputtering apparatus to be used.

[0007] However, since the transmittance in a visible wavelength band and the transmittance in a near-infrared wavelength band are affected by the film thickness of an optical film, it is also necessary to conduct tests on whether the film thickness of a sample has an appropriate value. Therefore, the development of a method by which the film formation conditions for a desired optical film can be easily obtained has been desired.

CITATION LIST


Patent Literatures



[0008] 

Patent Literature 1: Japanese Patent Application Publication No. Hei 5-113085

Patent Literature 2: Japanese Patent No. 4096205

Patent Literature 3: Japanese Patent Application Publication No. 2002-020142

Patent Literature 4: Japanese Patent No. 6540859


SUMMARY OF INVENTION


TECHNICAL PROBLEM



[0009] The present invention has been made in view of the above-described problems, and an object thereof is to provide an optical film (specifically, a composite tungsten oxide film containing cesium, tungsten, and oxygen) having the above-described properties (having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency) and for which film formation conditions of sputtering can be easily obtained, as well as a sputtering target and a method of producing an optical film.

SOLUTION TO PROBLEM



[0010] In view of this, as a result of earnest studies on an optical film containing cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, the present inventor has consequently found that there are optimum optical constants (a refractive index and an extinction coefficient) for an optical film having the above-described properties (having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency), and confirmed that in a case where a fabricated optical film has the above-described optimum optical constants (a refractive index and an extinction coefficient), the optical film satisfies transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and radio wave transparency. Since the optical constants (a refractive index and an extinction coefficient) are not affected by a film thickness, the present inventor has found that it is possible to easily obtain film formation conditions for a desired optical film by measuring the optical constants (a refractive index and an extinction coefficient) with an ellipsometer without checking the film thickness of fabricated samples. The present invention has been completed based on such technical findings.

[0011] Specifically, a first aspect according to the present invention is an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, characterized in that the optical film comprises cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which
a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 1.
[Table 1]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0


[0012] A second aspect is the optical film according to the first aspect, characterized in that the optical film comprises:
a compound of cesium, tungsten, and oxygen.

[0013] Next, a third aspect according to the present invention is a sputtering target used to form the optical film according to the first aspect or the second aspect by a sputtering method, characterized in that the sputtering target comprises:
a mixture of a compound of a cesium source and a compound of a tungsten source.

[0014] A fourth aspect is the sputtering target according to the third aspect, characterized in that
a ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) is 1:2 to 1:4.

[0015] A fifth aspect is the sputtering target according to the third aspect or the fourth aspect, characterized in that the sputtering target comprises:
a thermally sprayed film of the cesium source and the tungsten source.

[0016] A sixth aspect is the sputtering target according to any one of the third aspect to the fifth aspect, characterized in that
the compound of the cesium source is an oxide or a carbonate.

[0017] A seventh aspect is the sputtering target according to any one of the third aspect to the fifth aspect, characterized in that
the compound of the tungsten source is an oxide or a carbide.

[0018] An eighth aspect is the sputtering target according to any one of the third aspect to the seventh aspect, characterized in that
the sputtering target is a cylindrical rotary target.

[0019] Next, a ninth aspect according to the present invention is a method of producing an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, the optical film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 2, characterized in that the method comprises:
forming the optical film by a sputtering method using the sputtering target according to any one of the third aspect to the eighth aspect and feedback-controlling an oxygen partial pressure of a sputtering film formation atmosphere.
[Table 2]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0


[0020] A tenth aspect is the method of producing an optical film according to the ninth aspect, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using an impedance controller which feedback-controls an impedance change during film formation.

[0021] An eleventh aspect is the method of producing an optical film according to the ninth aspect, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using a plasma emission monitor which feedback-controls the oxygen partial pressure by measuring an emission intensity at a specific wavelength during film formation.

[0022] In addition, a twelfth aspect according to the present invention is a method of producing an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, the optical film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 3, characterized in that the method comprises:
forming the optical film by a dual-sputtering method using a sputtering target of a cesium source and a sputtering target of a tungsten source and feedback-controlling an oxygen partial pressure of a dual-sputtering film formation atmosphere.
[Table 3]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0


[0023] A thirteenth aspect is the method of producing an optical film according to the twelfth aspect, characterized in that the method comprises:
adjusting an electric power to be applied to a sputtering cathode or a duty ratio such that a ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) contained in the optical film becomes 1:2 to 1:4.

[0024] A fourteenth aspect is the method of producing an optical film according to the twelfth aspect, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using an impedance controller which feedback-controls an impedance change during film formation.

[0025] A fifteenth aspect is the method of producing an optical film according to the twelfth aspect, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using a plasma emission monitor which feedback-controls the oxygen partial pressure by measuring an emission intensity at a specific wavelength during film formation.

ADVANTAGEOUS EFFECTS OF INVENTION



[0026] The optical film according to the present invention comprises cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within the numerical ranges of Table 1 given above. For this reason, it is possible to determine film formation conditions of a sputtering apparatus based on the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k of the optical film. Since the method of setting film formation conditions is simplified as compared with the conventional methods in which film formation conditions are set for each sputtering apparatus from transmittance in a visible wavelength band or transmittance in a near-infrared wavelength band, it becomes possible to stably produce an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



[0027] 

[FIG. 1] FIG. 1 is a wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of an optical film having desired properties (having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency), and in FIG. 1, "n-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the refractive index, "n-ave" made by graphing the average value of the refractive index, "n-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the refractive index, and in FIG. 1, "k-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the extinction coefficient, "k-ave" made by graphing the average value of the extinction coefficient, and "k-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the extinction coefficient.

[FIG. 2] FIG. 2 is a graph showing spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 300 nm and reflectance R 300 nm) of an optical film made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 300 nm according to Example 1.

[FIG. 3] FIG. 3 is a schematic perspective view of a cylindrical rotary target according to the present invention.

[FIG. 4] FIG. 4 is an explanatory diagram showing an arrangement relation between a substrate on which a film to be formed and rotary targets.

[FIG. 5] FIG. 5 is a configuration explanatory diagram of a sputtering film formation unit A according to the present invention.

[FIG. 6] FIG. 6 is an explanatory diagram showing an arrangement relation between a substrate and rotary targets accoording to a dual-sputtering method.

[FIG. 7] FIG. 7 is a configuration explanatory diagram of a sputtering film formation unit B according to the dual-sputtering method.

[FIG. 8] FIG. 8 is a configuration explanatory diagram of a sputtering film formation unit C according to the dual-sputtering method.

[FIG. 9] FIG. 9 is a configuration explanatory diagram of a sputtering apparatus which can form an optical film made of a multi-layer film.

[FIG. 10] FIG. 10 is a graph showing spectro-optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) of an optical film made of a multi-layer film according to Example 4.

[FIG. 11] FIG. 11 is a graph showing spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 300 nm and reflectance R 300 nm) of an optical film made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 300 nm according to Example 2.

[FIG. 12] FIG. 12 is a graph showing spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 400 nm and reflectance R 400 nm) of an optical film made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 400 nm according to Example 3.


DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS



[0028] Embodiments according to the present invention will be described in detail below.

[0029] The present invention uses a composite tungsten oxide film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen and having a heat ray shielding effect, and makes it possible to significantly reduce the number of film layers as compared with a case of using a dielectric multi-layer film that is transparent in a visible wavelength band to a near-infrared wavelength band.

(1) Optical Film



[0030] An optical film according to the present invention comprises cesium, tungsten, and oxygen. The technique relating to infrared shielding using composite tungsten oxide particles according to the present applicant is described in detail in Patent Literature 2, and it is necessary to use a composite tungsten oxide in this composition range as a main component in order to obtain a film that has high transparency in the visible wavelength band and absorbance in the near-infrared wavelength band. The fundamental optical properties that a composite tungsten oxide film has are derived from the atomic arrangement of a theoretically calculated element M (M is at least one element selected from H, He, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, Mg, Zr, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ru, Co, Rh, Ir, Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, Sb, B, F, P, S, Se, Br, Te, Ti, Nb, V, Mo, Ta, Re, Be, Hf, Os, Bi, and I) and tungsten W and oxygen O. Specifically, in a case where composite tungsten oxide fine particles have a hexagonal crystal structure, the transmission in the visible light region of the fine particles is improved and absorption in the near-infrared region of the fine particles is improved. The composite tungsten oxide fine particles may be crystalline or amorphous.

[0031] In a case where composite tungsten oxide fine particles that have a hexagonal crystal structure have a uniform crystal structure, the amount of the additional element M to be added is preferably 0.2 or more and 0.5 or less, and more preferably 0.33, when the amount of tungsten is deemed as 1. It is considered that when the composite tungsten oxide is M0.33WO3, the additional elements M are arranged in all the voids of the hexagon.

[0032] Meanwhile, it suffices that the optical film according to the present invention comprises cesium (alkali metal), tungsten, and oxygen, and a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 4 given below.
[Table 4]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0


[0033] Then, it is also possible to make an optical film (an optical film according to Example 1 which was formed using a sputtering target of which the ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms was set to 1:3) made of a single-layer film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen and having a film thickness of 300 nm in which the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within the numerical ranges of Table 4 given above have transmittance T 300 nm and reflectance R 300 nm shown in a graph of FIG. 2 for spectro-optical properties as well as radio wave transparency [a sheet resistance of 105Ω/□ (ohms per square) or more].

[0034] Note that the gradient (gradient of decrease in transmittance) near a wavelength of 800 nm in the transmittance profile (see the graph of FIG. 2) of the optical film formed using the sputtering method is more gradual than the gradient (gradient of decrease in transmittance) near a wavelength of 800 nm in a transmittance profile (see FIG. 2 according to Patent Literature 2) of the composite tungsten oxide fine particle dispersion film according to Patent Literature 2 which was formed using a coating method.

(2) Sputtering Target



[0035] The above optical film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within the numerical ranges of Table 4 given above needs to have a ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) set within a specific range and can be formed by a sputtering method. Then, the sputtering target used in the film formation includes a target containing cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (that is, a target containing a mixture of a compound of a cesium source and a compound of a tungsten source), or may be targets of a cesium source and a tungsten source made separately (that is, a sputtering target of a cesium source and a sputtering target of a tungsten source).

[0036] Hereinafter, sputtering film formation using a target containing cesium atoms and tungsten atoms is described.

[0037] In order to obtain an optical film wherein a refractive index n and a extinction coefficient k of the optical film are set respectively within the numerical ranges of Table 4 given above, a sputtering target of which the ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) is set within a range of 1:2 to 1:4 may be used. The ratio (Cs:W) is preferably 1:2.5 to 1:4, and most preferably 1:2.8 to 1:4. Then, the ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms of the sputtering target substantially matches the ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms of the optical film.

[0038] In addition, even when the target itself does not contain an appropriate amount of oxygen, it is possible to adjust the amount of oxygen to be taken into a film by means of a reactive sputtering. Moreover, the target may contain a component such as carbon that is discharged during sputtering.

[0039] As the cesium source, a metal, an oxide, or a carbonate may be used. Oxides of cesium include Cs2O, Cs2O2, CsO2, Cs2O3, Cs11O3, Cs4O, and Cs7O.

[0040] As the tungsten source, a metal, an oxide, or a carbide may be used. As an oxide of tungsten, W3O, WO2, W20O58, or WO3 may be used.

[0041] Next, sputtering targets have a planar shape and a cylindrical shape. Although the planar target can be relatively easily produced, there is a case where the entire surface is not sputtered, foreign matters are deposited in a non-erosion portion which has not been sputtered, and these foreign matters cause abnormal discharge. Moreover, these foreign matters attach to the products in some cases. In these years, the cylindrical target (rotary target) shown in FIG. 3 has become mainstream as a large-sized target. While the cylindrical target is difficult to produce, since the entire surface is sputtered, the cylindrical target does not have such a drawback as in the planar target, and further can achieve use efficiency nearly 3 times that of the planar target.

[0042] The cylindrical target (rotary target) 2 shown in FIG. 3 is produced mainly by two methods.

[0043] The first method is a method including: producing a molded body through pressurization and molding by a cold isostatic pressing method, like the planar target, and sintering and grinding the obtained molded body into a cylinder, and inserting the resultant to a backing tube 1 shown in FIG. 3, followed by bonding with indium or the like.

[0044] The second method is a method including: thermally spraying a powder directly onto the backing tube 1.

[0045] The cylindrical target (rotary target) produced by thermal spraying is produced by forming a foundation layer made of an alloy selected from a nickel-aluminum alloy, a nickel-chromium alloy, a copper-aluminum alloy, a copper-zinc alloy, and the like by thermal spraying on the backing tube 1 made of a metal such as copper or a copper alloy and having a surface roughened by blasting, thermally spraying powders (a powder of a cesium source and a powder of a tungsten source) directly to form a thermally sprayed film (target film) having a thickness of 5 mm to 20 mm, and thereafter polishing the thermally sprayed film (target film) and finishing into a rotary target.

[0046] Here, as the thermal spraying, a plasma spraying may be used, and an AC/DC arc plasma torch, an inductive coupling plasma torch, or the like is used, and as the atmosphere during the thermal spraying, an inert gas or the like may be used.

[0047] Here, in a case where a sputtering target is produced by the thermal spraying method, it must be noted that Cs2O of the cesium source is sometimes disproportionally reacted to Cs2O2 depending on the temperature, which affects the sputtering rate of the obtained target (variation in sputtering rate).

(3) Sputtering Apparatus



[0048] By conducting reactive sputtering with oxygen using the above target, an optical film made of CsαWβOγCδ can be obtained. α and β reflect the target composition ratio as it is, and γ can be adjusted by means of the amount of oxygen to be introduced during the reactive sputtering. Carbon C (for example, in a case where the tungsten source is made of carbide) released from the target binds to oxygen O released from the target or oxygen O introduced for the reactive sputtering and is discharged as CO2, and thus hardly remains in the optical film.

[0049] Note that for a non-conductive target, it is difficult to conduct sputtering utilizing a direct-current power supply. For this reason, a dual magnetron sputtering method is generally employed, which utilizes a medium-frequency power supply (20 kHz to 200 kHz) to alternately apply an electric power to two rotary targets 11, 12, 13, 14 arranged parallel to a substrate 10, which moves in the direction of the arrow as shown in FIG. 4. Moreover, a normal pulsed power supply and a high-voltage pulsed power supply (HiPMS) can also be utilized.

[0050] A sputtering apparatus using the dual magnetron sputtering method will be described below.

(3A) Sputtering Film Formation Unit A and Method of Forming Film Thereof



[0051] The sputtering film formation unit A which forms a film by the dual magnetron sputtering method includes connection chambers 20, 22 and a film formation chamber 21 as shown in FIG. 5. Inside these connection chambers 20, 22 and film formation chamber 21, transfer rollers 24 which transfer the substrate 23 are successively arranged. Inside the film formation chamber 21, dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34 which maintain film formation gas pressure are provided. Note that the substrate 23 is heated to around 300°C in the connection chamber 20 in advance. The substrate 23 on which a film to be formed is heated by heating the connection chamber 20. As the heater for the connection chamber 20, a near-infrared heater, a carbon heater, a sheath heater, or the like can be used. In addition, the supply of the substrate 23 into the connection chamber 20 can be conducted from a substrate storage (not shown). Moreover, it is desirable to arrange a pre-treatment chamber (not shown) between the connection chamber 20 and the substrate storage to treat (clean or etch) the surface of the substrate 23 using plasma, an ion beam, or the like.

[0052] In addition, in the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34, rotary magnetron cathodes (not shown) are arranged to which pairs of rotary targets 25, 26, 27, 28 are respectively attached, and the rotary targets 25, 26 and the rotary targets 27, 28 are each connected to the medium-frequency power supply such that the electric power is alternately applied thereto.

[0053] Specifically, it is possible to conduct dual magnetron sputtering in which the electric power is alternately applied, using a power supply of 20 kHz to 200 kHz as the medium-frequency power supply. Moreover, a normal pulse power supply and a high-voltage pulse power supply (HiPMS) can also be used. In addition, in the rotary magnetron cathodes, which are not shown, magnets (not shown) that cause sputtering regions 29, 30, 31, 32 to be generated only on the substrate 23 side of the rotary targets 25, 26, 27, 28 are arranged, which cause most of the target particles from the rotary targets 25, 26, 27, 28 to fly in the direction toward the substrate 23, so that the attachment efficiency is around 90%.

[0054] The oxygen gas for conducting the reactive sputtering is introduced into each of the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34. To control the amount of oxygen to be introduced into the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34, for example, an "impedance control" which controls the impedance change of the sputtering power supply to a set value, or a plasma emission monitor (PEM) control which controls a plasma emission intensity at a specific wavelength to a set value may be employed.

[0055] Then, the sputtering film formation unit A shown in FIG. 5 in which two pairs of dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34 are arranged in the film formation chamber 21 is capable of forming two types of optical films at maximum. In a case where the same rotary target is incorporated in each of the two pairs of dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34, it becomes possible to form one type of optical film in two-fold film thickness.

[0056] Next, in the film forming method in accordance with the dual-sputtering method, a sputtering target that serves as the cesium source and a sputtering target that serves as the tungsten source are prepared, and the respective sputtering targets are attached to different rotary magnetron cathodes to conduct sputtering.

[0057] A CsxWyOz film can be obtained by conducting the reactive sputtering with oxygen. For x and y, the sputtering rates of the sputtering target that serves as the cesium source and the sputtering target that serves as the tungsten source need to be adjusted.

[0058]  There are several methods for adjusting the sputtering rates by attaching the sputtering target that serves as the cesium source and the sputtering target that serves as the tungsten source to different rotary magnetron cathodes.

[0059] 
  1. (i) An adjustment method including: connecting individual pulsed power supplies to both rotary magnetron cathodes; and simultaneously applying sputtering electric powers having the same pulse time and different peak powers to both rotary magnetron cathodes.
  2. (ii) An adjustment method including: connecting a single dual magnetron power supply to both rotary magnetron cathodes; and alternately applying sputtering electric powers having the same peak power and different duty ratios to both rotary magnetron cathodes.
  3. (iii) It is possible to adjust both target composition ratios by the above method (i) or (ii).


[0060] In addition, z in the CsxWyOz film can be adjusted by means of the amount of oxygen to be introduced during the reactive sputtering.

[0061] Since for a non-conductive target, it is difficult to conduct sputtering utilizing a direct-current power supply as described above, the dual magnetron sputtering method is generally employed, which utilizes a medium-frequency power supply (20 kHz to 200 kHz) to alternately apply electric powers to targets 111, 113 containing a cesium source as a main component and targets 112, 114 containing a tungsten source as a main component, which are arranged parallel to the substrate 10, which moves in the direction of the arrow, as shown in FIG. 6. Moreover, the normal pulsed power supply and the high-voltage pulsed power supply (HiPMS) can be utilized.

[0062] Moreover, the temperature of the substrate 10 (23) also affects the optical properties of the optical film. In order to obtain an optical film having the optical properties shown in Table 4 given above, it is possible to obtain the optical film by appropriately adjusting the sputtering gas, the sputtering electric power, and the temperature of the substrate through the sputtering film formation unit used.

(3B) Sputtering Film Formation Unit B and Method of Forming Film Thereof



[0063] The sputtering film formation unit B which forms a film by the dual magnetron sputtering method includes connection chambers 120, 122 and a film formation chamber 121 as shown in FIG. 7. Inside these connection chambers 120, 122 and film formation chamber 121, transfer rollers 124 which transfer the substrate 23 are successively arranged. Inside the film formation chamber 121, dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134 which maintain film formation gas pressure are provided. Note that the substrate 23 is heated to around 300°C in the connection chamber 120 in advance. In addition, in the two pairs of the dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134, rotary magnetron cathodes (not shown) are arranged to which rotary targets 125, 127 containing a cesium source as a main component and rotary targets 126, 128 containing a tungsten source as a main component are respectively attached, and the rotary targets 125, 126 and the rotary targets 127, 128 are each connected to the medium-frequency power supply such that the electric power is alternately applied thereto. Specifically, it is possible to conduct dual magnetron sputtering in which the electric power is alternately applied, using a power supply of 20 kHz to 200 kHz as the medium-frequency power supply. Moreover, a normal pulse power supply and a high-voltage pulse power supply (HiPMS) can also be used. In addition, in the rotary magnetron cathodes, which are not shown, magnets (not shown) that cause sputtering regions 129, 130, 131, 132 to be generated only on the substrate 23 side of the rotary targets 125, 126, 127, 128 are arranged, which cause most of the target particles from the rotary targets 125, 126, 127, 128 to fly in the direction toward the substrate 23, so that the attachment efficiency is around 90%.

[0064] The oxygen gas for conducting the reactive sputtering is introduced into each of the dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134. To control the amount of oxygen to be introduced into the dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134, for example, an "impedance control" which controls the impedance change of the sputtering power supply to a set value, or a plasma emission monitor (PEM) control which controls the plasma emission intensity at a specific wavelength to a set value may be employed.

[0065] Then, the sputtering film formation unit B shown in FIG. 7 in which two pairs of dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134 are arranged in the film formation chamber 121 is capable of forming two types of optical films at maximum. In a case where the same rotary target is incorporated in each of the two pairs of dual magnetron cathode units 133, 134, it becomes possible to form one type of optical film in two-fold film thickness. However, in the cathode arrangement as shown in FIG. 7, a film formed of a cesium oxide as a main component and a film formed of a tungsten oxide as a main component are stacked one on another.

[0066] Note that for the rotary target having the cesium source as a main component, a compound of cesium and tungsten such as cesium tungstate can be used, and an optical film in which the ratio between cesium and tungsten is adjusted can be obtained by using together the above rotary target with the rotary target having the tungsten source as a main component in the dual magnetron cathode units and adjusting the respective sputtering rates.

[0067] Meanwhile, in order to obtain an optical film in which the molar ratio between cesium and tungsten contained in the optical film is 1:2 to 1:4 by controlling the atmospheric oxygen partial pressure during film formation in the dual-sputtering method employing a rotary target containing a cesium source as a main component and a rotary target containing a tungsten source as a main component, magnet bars (not shown) inside the rotary magnetron cathodes may be arranged while inclined in a rotation direction as shown in FIG. 8 to overlap the sputtering film formation areas as shown in FIG. 8. Moreover, it is also possible to swing the magnet bars slightly in the rotation direction.

[0068] Moreover, the temperature of the substrate 23 also affects the optical properties of the optical film. In order to obtain an optical film having the optical properties shown in Table 4 given above, it is possible to obtain the optical film by appropriately adjusting the sputtering gas, the sputtering electric power, and the temperature of the substrate through the sputtering film formation unit used.

(3C) Sputtering Film Formation Unit C and Method of Forming Film Thereof



[0069] The sputtering film formation unit C which forms a film such that sputtering film formation areas overlap, includes connection chambers 140, 142 and a film formation chamber 141 as shown in FIG. 8. Inside these connection chambers 140, 142 and film formation chamber 141, transfer rollers 144 which transfer the substrate 143 are successively arranged. Inside the film formation chamber 141, dual magnetron cathode units 153, 154 which maintain film formation gas pressure are provided. Note that the substrate 143 is heated to around 300°C in the connection chamber 140 in advance. In addition, in two pairs of the dual magnetron cathode units 153, 154, rotary magnetron cathodes (not shown) are arranged to which rotary targets 145, 147 containing a cesium oxide powder as a main component and rotary targets 146, 148 containing a tungsten oxide powder as a main component are respectively attached, and the rotary targets 145, 146 and the rotary targets 147, 148 are each connected to the medium-frequency power supply such that the electric power is alternately applied thereto. Specifically, it is possible to conduct dual magnetron sputtering in which the electric power is alternately applied, using a power supply of 20 kHz to 200 kHz as the medium-frequency power supply. Moreover, a normal pulse power supply and a high-voltage pulse power supply (HiPMS) can also be used. In addition, in the rotary magnetron cathodes, which are not shown, magnets (not shown) that cause sputtering regions 149, 150, 151, 152 to be generated only on the substrate 143 side of the rotary targets 145, 146, 147, 148 are arranged, which cause most of the target particles from the rotary targets 145, 146, 147, 148 to fly in the direction toward the substrate 143, so that the attachment efficiency is around 90%.

[0070] The oxygen gas for conducting the reactive sputtering is introduced into each of the dual magnetron cathode units 153, 154. To control the amount of oxygen to be introduced into the dual magnetron cathode units 153, 154, for example, an "impedance control" which controls the impedance change of the sputtering power supply to a set value, or a plasma emission monitor (PEM) control which controls the plasma emission intensity at a specific wavelength to a set value may be employed.

[0071] Moreover, in the case of using the sputtering film formation unit C, regarding the proportion of cesium atoms and the proportion of tungsten atoms in one of the rotary targets arranged in the dual magnetron cathode units 153, 154, it is also possible to employ a blend that is shifted from the proportion of cesium atoms and the proportion of tungsten atoms of a target optical film, thereby making the other rotary target contain cesium or tungsten that runs short in the one rotary target. For example, it is also possible to make the rotary targets 145, 147 contain Cs2WO4 and to make the rotary targets 146, 148 contain a tungsten source.

[0072]  Moreover, the temperature of the substrate 143 also affects the optical properties of the optical film. In order to obtain an optical film having the optical properties shown in Table 4 given above, it is possible to obtain the optical film by appropriately adjusting the sputtering gas, the sputtering electric power, and the temperature of the substrate through the sputtering film formation unit used.

(3D) Sputtering Apparatus for Optical Film Made of Multi-layer Film



[0073] Meanwhile, in order to enhance the transmissivity in a visible wavelength region, the spectro-optical properties of the optical film made of a single-layer film have a slightly large reflection in a visible wavelength region (see the reflectance R 300 nm in FIG. 2). A large reflection in a visible wavelength region is not favorable because a surrounding object is reflected. In order to provide shielding ability in a near-infrared region and reduce reflection while maintaining transparency in a visible wavelength region, a method that makes an optical film of a multi-layer film instead of a single-layer film is effective.

[0074] In order to form a multi-layer film, the sputtering film formation unit A shown in FIG. 5, the sputtering film formation unit B shown in FIG. 7, or the sputtering film formation unit C shown in FIG. 8 may be arranged one after another as shown in FIG. 9. Sputtering film formation units 62, 64, 66 are connected by means of connection chambers 61, 63, 65, 67 between a substrate storage chamber 60 and a substrate storage chamber 68 as shown in FIG. 9. In the configuration shown in FIG. 9, it is possible to form 6 types of optical films at maximum, but the number of layers is not limited when reciprocating film formation (the substrate is transferred in the opposite direction after film formation) is conducted.

[0075] In order to enhance the transmissivity in a visible wavelength region, the spectro-optical properties of the optical film made of a single-layer film have a slightly large reflection in a visible wavelength region as described above. A large reflection in a visible wavelength region is not favorable because a surrounding object is reflected. In order to reduce reflection while maintaining the transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, a method that makes an optical film of a multi-layer film instead of a single-layer film is effective.

[0076]  In order to make an optical film of a multi-layer film, it is possible to form the optical film by alternately stacking a dielectric substance transparent to visible light beams, for example, an oxide film of SiO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Nb2O5, or the like and an oxide film containing Cs and W. In addition, the film thickness of the oxide film of SiO2, TiO2, or the like is 5 nm to 600 nm while the film thickness of the oxide film containing Cs and W is 50 nm to 600 nm. Note that the number of layers and the thickness of each layer of the multi-layer film can be selected as appropriate based on the spectro-optical properties of the optical film to be obtained.

[0077] As of the multi-layer film, the following film configuration is exemplified, and a multi-layer film having this film configuration was formed.

Substrate: a substrate of synthetic quartz

First layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 188 nm

Second layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 146 nm

Third layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 142 nm

Fourth layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 118 nm

Fifth layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 176 nm

Sixth layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 112 nm

Seventh layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 74 nm

Medium: air



[0078] The spectro-optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) of the optical film made of the above multi-layer film are as shown in a graph of FIG. 10. It is observed from the graph of FIG. 10 that the reflectance in a visible wavelength band was reduced. The film configuration of the multi-layer film may be slightly modified by adjusting the number of film layers and the film thickness of each layer in accordance with the spectro-optical properties to be achieved.

[0079] The above SiO2 film was formed by reactive sputtering based on the dual magnetron sputtering using a SiC rotary target.

[0080] Note that there is no limitation to the number of layers or film materials of the multi-layer film, and the multi-layer film may be formed on both surfaces of the substrate. The number of film layers and the film material that allow target spectroscopic properties to be achieved may be designed based on the theoretical calculation for the optical thin film.

[0081] It is possible to form one type of optical film with a pair of the dual magnetron cathode units. In a case where two pairs or more of the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34 are incorporated in one film formation chamber 21 as shown in the sputtering film formation unit A in FIG. 5, there is no problem if there is no large difference in oxygen partial pressure during the formation of two types of optical films. However, if there is large difference in oxygen partial pressure, it is preferable to separate the film formation chambers as shown in FIG. 9. In addition, it is possible to form a multi-layer film that has no limitation in the number of film layers due to the film types of the number of dual magnetron cathode units or the number of film formation chambers by performing not one-way film formation but multiple times of reciprocating film formation. Examples

[0082] Examples of the present invention will be described in detail below.

[Example 1]



[0083] A Cs2O powder and a WO3 powder were employed as raw materials of a sputtering target, and the raw materials were mixed such that the ratio between cesium atoms contained in the Cs2O powder and tungsten atoms contained in the WO3 powder (Cs:W) became 1:3.

[0084] Then, the mixture was deposited in a 1700 mm region at the center portion of a backing tube (see Reference sign 1 in FIG. 3) which was made of titanium and had an outer diameter of 160 mm and a length of 1800 mm by a thermal spraying method while the backing tube was being rotated to obtain a thermally sprayed film (target film) having a thickness of 10 mm, and thereafter the thermally sprayed film (target film) was polished to fabricate a rotary target. The thermally sprayed film (target film) of the rotary target thus obtained may have insufficient oxygen due to the thermal spraying method as compared with the mixture of the raw materials. However, this is not a problem because oxygen is supplied into the film during the sputtering film formation of the optical film by performing reactive sputtering with oxygen.

[0085] Four rotary targets were fabricated by the same thermal spraying method, and two of the rotary targets 25, 26, 27, 28 were incorporated in each of the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34 of the sputtering film formation unit A shown in FIG. 5. Then, a 40 kHz mid-frequency sputtering power supply of 50 kW was connected to rotary magnetron cathodes, which are not shown, to which the rotary targets 25, 26, 27, 28 were attached.

[0086] Inside the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34, oxygen, which was a reactive gas, was introduced in addition to argon, which was a sputtering gas. The amount of oxygen introduced was feedback-controlled with a piezo valve by measuring the impedance of the sputtering power supply such that the impedance became a set impedance.

[0087] Note that since the electric power W is obtained from the electric power W=I×I×R or the electric power W=V×V/R, the voltage or the current may be used as a parameter for control in place of the impedance. In addition, control using a plasma emission monitor (PEM) which measures a specific plasma emission wavelength intensity for feedback control can be applied in place of the impedance control.

[0088] In addition, the reason why the amount of oxygen is not directly control is as follows. Specifically, the reactive sputtering has the "metal mode", the "transition mode", and the "oxide mode", and highspeed film formation is possible in the "transition mode". This is because in this "transition mode", the film formation speed hops and does not stabilize if the above-described feedback control is not performed because the film formation rate is different between when the gas flow rate increases and when the gas flow rate decreases. That is, the "impedance control" is employed for the control on the amount of oxygen to be introduced into the dual magnetron cathode units 33, 34 as described above.

[0089] First, the film formation chamber and the substrate storage chamber were vacuum-exhausted to 5×10-4 Pa or less, and then, an argon gas which was able to be mixed with oxygen was introduced at 800 sccm into the dual magnetron cathode units. The heater was adjusted such that the temperature of the glass substrate became 300°C in the substrate storage chamber and the film formation chamber. As the heater, a near-infrared heater, a carbon heater, a sheath heater, or the like can be used.

[0090] A 1400 mm-square substrate of synthetic quartz was used as the glass substrate.

[0091] 40 kW was applied to the pair of rotary magnetron cathodes in the dual magnetron cathode units, and the transfer speed of the glass substrate was set to 1.0 m/min.

[0092] In addition, a pre-treatment chamber was arranged between the substrate storage chamber and the film formation chamber to treat (clean or etch) the surface of the glass substrate with an ion beam or the like in the pre-treatment chamber.

[0093] In order to fabricate multiple samples of optical films for which oxygen to be mixed with argon was changed (the amount of oxygen introduced was set to 2% to 8% of the flow rate of argon), multiple samples of optical films were repeatedly fabricated with various set impedances, and optical films having desired properties (having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency) were selected from the multiple samples thus fabricated, and optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of the selected multiple optical films (optical films having the above desired properties) at a wavelength from 300 nm to 2400 nm were measured by the ellipsometry. Moreover, a wavelength dispersion graph shown in FIG. 1 was created from the measured multiple optical constants (refractive indices and extinction coefficients).

[0094] Then, an oxide film containing Cs and W (optical film) which satisfied a range between "n-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the refractive index and "n-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the refractive index in the wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of FIG. 1 and also satisfied a range between "k-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the extinction coefficient and "k-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the extinction coefficient in the above wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) (see refractive index n and extinction coefficient k in Table 5 given below) was formed in a thickness of 300 nm on a substrate of synthetic quartz to obtain

Substrate: a substrate of synthetic quartz

First layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 300 nm

Medium: air.



[0095] The optical film thus formed had spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 300 nm and reflectance R 300 nm) as shown in FIG. 2.
[Table 5]
nmExample 1
nk
300 2.9 0.5
400 2.4 0.0
600 2.1 0.0
800 2.0 0.0
1000 1.9 0.1
1200 1.9 0.2
1400 1.9 0.3
1600 2.0 0.5
1800 2.1 0.6
2000 2.2 0.7
2200 2.3 0.7
2400 2.4 0.7


[0096] Note that the refractive index n and the extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm described in Table 6 below were obtained from the wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of FIG. 1 and data group of the refractive indices n and the extinction coefficients k according to the oxide films (optical films) of Examples 1 to 3 described in Table 5, Table 7, and Table 8.
[Table 6]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0


[0097] Then, it was confirmed that the optical film according to Example 1, which was made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 300 nm, had transmissivity in a visible wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm was 60% or more), had absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 1200 nm was 20% or less), and also had radio wave transparency (sheet resistance: 106 Ω/□).

[Example 2]



[0098] An oxide film containing Cs and W (optical film) which satisfied the range between "n-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the refractive index and "n-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the refractive index in the wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of FIG. 1 and also satisfied the range between "k-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the extinction coefficient and "k-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the extinction coefficient in the above wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) (see refractive index n and extinction coefficient k in Table 7) was formed in a thickness of 300 nm on a substrate of synthetic quartz which was heated to 300°C in the same manner as in Example 1 to obtain an optical film according to Example 2.
[Table 7]
nmExample 2
nk
300 3.0 0.6
400 2.4 0.0
600 2.1 0.0
800 2.0 0.1
1000 1.9 0.3
1200 1.8 0.5
1400 1.9 0.7
1600 2.0 0.8
1800 2.1 0.9
2000 2.3 1.0
2200 2.4 1.0
2400 2.5 1.0


[0099] The optical film thus obtained according to Example 2 had spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 300 nm and reflectance R 300 nm) as shown in FIG. 11.

[0100] Then, it was confirmed that the optical film according to Example 2, which was made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 300 nm, had transmissivity in a visible wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm was 60% or more), had absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 1200 nm was 20% or less), and also had radio wave transparency (sheet resistance: 106 Ω/□).

[Example 3]



[0101] An oxide film containing Cs and W (optical film) which satisfy the range between "n-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the refractive index and "n-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the refractive index in the wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) of FIG. 1 and also satisfies the range between "k-max" made by graphing the maximum value of the extinction coefficient and "k-min" made by graphing the minimum value of the extinction coefficient in the above wavelength dispersion graph of optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) (see refractive index n and extinction coefficient k in Table 8) was formed in a thickness of 400 nm on a substrate of synthetic quartz which was heated to 300°C in the same manner as in Example 1 to obtain an optical film according to Example 3.
[Table 8]
nmExample 3
nk
300 3.0 0.6
400 2.4 0.0
600 2.1 0.0
800 2.0 0.1
1000 1.9 0.2
1200 1.9 0.4
1400 1.9 0.6
1600 2.1 0.7
1800 2.2 0.7
2000 2.3 0.7
2200 2.4 0.8
2400 2.5 0.7


[0102] The optical film thus obtained according to Example 3 had spectro-optical properties (transmittance T 400 nm and reflectance R 400 nm) as shown in FIG. 12.

[0103] Then, it was confirmed that the optical film according to Example 3, which was made of a single-layer film having a film thickness of 400 nm, had transmissivity in a visible wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm was 75% or more), had absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 1200 nm was 20% or less), and also had radio wave transparency (sheet resistance: 106 Ω/□).

[Example 4]



[0104] An optical film made of the following multi-layer film was formed.

Substrate: a substrate of synthetic quartz

First layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 188 nm

Second layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 146 nm

Third layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 142 nm

Fourth layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 118 nm

Fifth layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 176 nm

Sixth layer: an oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 112 nm

Seventh layer: SiO2 having a thickness of 74 nm

Medium: air



[0105] The spectro-optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) of the optical film according to Example 4 are shown in FIG. 10. It is observed from the spectro-optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) of FIG. 10 that the reflectance in a visible wavelength band (region centered at a wavelength of 400 nm) decreased. The film configuration of the multi-layer film may be slightly modified by adjusting the number of film layers and the film thickness of each layer in accordance with target spectro-optical properties.

[0106] In addition, SiO2 films were formed by reactive sputtering based on the dual magnetron sputtering using a SiC rotary target.

[0107] The method of forming the seven-layer film according to Example 4 will be described below. This time, one-pass film formation but not reciprocating film formation was conducted (the seven-layer film was formed through one pass). In order to achieve this, it is necessary to arrange a sputtering film formation unit group that is capable of forming a seven-layer film through only one pass.

[0108] A pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two SiC rotary targets for the first layer of SiO2 having a thickness of 188 nm,

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two rotary targets using a Cs2O powder and a WO3 powder and prepared such that the ratio between cesium atoms contained in Cs2O and tungsten atoms contained in WO3 in the mixture was 1:3 for the second layer of the oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 146 nm,

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two SiC rotary targets for the third layer of SiO2 having a thickness of 142 nm,

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two rotary targets using a Cs2O powder and a WO3 powder and prepared such that the ratio between cesium atoms contained in Cs2O and tungsten atoms contained in WO3 in the mixture was 1:3 for the fourth layer of the oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 118 nm,

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two SiC rotary targets for the fifth layer of SiO2 having a thickness of 176 nm,

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two rotary targets using a Cs2O powder and a WO3 powder and prepared such that the ratio between cesium atoms contained in Cs2O and tungsten atoms contained in WO3 in the mixture was 1:3 for the sixth layer of the oxide film containing Cs and W and having a thickness of 112 nm, and

a pair of dual magnetron cathode units each including a pair of two SiC rotary targets for the seventh layer of SiO2 having a thickness of 74 nm,

were arranged.



[0109] A 40 kHz mid-frequency sputtering power supply of 50 kW was connected to the rotary magnetron cathode to which each rotary target was attached.

[0110] Inside the dual magnetron cathode units, oxygen, which was a reactive gas, was introduced in addition to argon, which was a sputtering gas. The amount of oxygen introduced was feedback-controlled with a piezo valve by measuring the impedance of the sputtering power supply such that the impedance became a set impedance. Note that control using a plasma emission monitor (PEM) in which a specific plasma emission wavelength intensity is measured for feedback control can be applied in place of the impedance control.

[0111] First, the film formation chamber and the substrate storage chamber were vacuum-exhausted to 5×10-4 Pa or less, and then, an argon gas which was able to be mixed with oxygen was introduced at 800 sccm into the dual magnetron cathode units. The heater was adjusted such that the temperature of the glass substrate became 300°C in the substrate storage chamber and the film formation chamber. As the heater, a near-infrared heater, a carbon heater, a sheath heater, or the like can be used. In addition, it is desirable to arrange a pre-treatment chamber in the substrate storage chamber and the film formation chamber to treat (clean or etch) the surface of the glass substrate using plasma, an ion beam, or the like in the pre-treatment chamber.

[0112] Then, the sputtering rate of the oxide films containing Cs and W was set to 7.5 nm/[kW·(m/min)], the sputtering rate of the SiO2 films was set to 8.5 nm/[kW·(m/min)], and the transfer speed of the glass substrate was set to 1 m/min, and the optical film made of the above multi-layer film was formed by applying

22.1 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the first layer,

19.5 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the second layer,

16.7 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the third layer,

15.7 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the fourth layer,

20.7 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the fifth layer,

14.9 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the sixth layer, and

8.7 kW to the one pair of rotary magnetron cathodes for the seventh layer. The optical film thus formed had spectro-optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) as shown in FIG. 10.



[0113] Then, it was confirmed that the optical film made of the multi-layer film according to Example 4 had transmissivity in a visible wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm was 70% or more), had absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band (the transmittance at a wavelength of 1200 nm was 15% or less), and also had radio wave transparency (note that since the outermost surface layer of the optical film according to Example 4 was made of the insulating SiO2 film, the sheet resistance value was not obtained).

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY



[0114] Since the optical film according to the present invention has transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, has absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and also has radio wave transparency, the optical film has industrial applicability for use in vehicle window glasses and the like to reduce the amount of energy consumed by air conditioners in summer.

REFERENCE SIGNS LIST



[0115] 

1 backing tube

2 cylindrical target (rotary target)

10 substrate

11, 12, 13, 14 rotary target

20, 22 connection chamber

21 film formation chamber

23 substrate (glass substrate)

24 transfer roller

25, 26, 27, 28 rotary target

29, 30, 31, 32 sputtering regions

33, 34 dual magnetron cathode unit

60, 68 substrate storage chamber

62, 64, 66 sputtering film formation unit

61, 63, 65, 67 connection chamber

111, 112, 113, 114 target

120, 122 connection chamber

121 film formation chamber

124 transfer roller

125, 126, 127, 128 rotary target

129, 130, 131, 132 sputtering regions

133, 134 dual magnetron cathode unit

140, 142 connection chamber

141 film formation chamber

143 substrate

144 transfer roller

145, 146, 147, 148 rotary target

149, 150, 151, 152 sputtering regions

153, 154 dual magnetron cathode unit




Claims

1. An optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, characterized in that the optical film comprises cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which
a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 9.
[Table 9]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0

 
2. The optical film according to claim 1, characterized in that the optical film comprises:
a compound of cesium, tungsten, and oxygen.
 
3. A sputtering target used to form the optical film according to claim 1 or 2 by a sputtering method, characterized in that the sputtering target comprises:
a mixture of a compound of a cesium source and a compound of a tungsten source.
 
4. The sputtering target according to claim 3, characterized in that
a ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) is 1:2 to 1:4.
 
5. The sputtering target according to claim 3 or 4, characterized in that the sputtering target comprises:
a thermally sprayed film of the cesium source and the tungsten source.
 
6. The sputtering target according to any one of claims 3 to 5, characterized in that
the compound of the cesium source is an oxide or a carbonate.
 
7. The sputtering target according to any one of claims 3 to 5, characterized in that
the compound of the tungsten source is an oxide or a carbide.
 
8. The sputtering target according to any one of claims 3 to 7, characterized in that
the sputtering target is a cylindrical rotary target.
 
9. A method of producing an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, the optical film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 10, characterized in that the method comprises:
forming the optical film by a sputtering method using the sputtering target according to any one of claims 3 to 8 and feedback-controlling an oxygen partial pressure of a sputtering film formation atmosphere.
[Table 10]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0

 
10. The method of producing an optical film according to claim 9, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using an impedance controller which feedback-controls an impedance change during film formation.
 
11. The method of producing an optical film according to claim 9, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using a plasma emission monitor which feedback-controls the oxygen partial pressure by measuring an emission intensity at a specific wavelength during film formation.
 
12. A method of producing an optical film having transmissivity in a visible wavelength band, having absorbance in a near-infrared wavelength band, and having radio wave transparency, the optical film comprising cesium, tungsten, and oxygen, in which a refractive index n and an extinction coefficient k of the optical film at each of 300 nm and wavelengths [400 nm, 600 nm, ... , 2400 nm] specified at 200 nm intervals in a wavelength region from 400 nm to 2400 nm are set respectively within numerical ranges of Table 11, characterized in that the method comprises:
forming the optical film by a dual-sputtering method using a sputtering target of a cesium source and a sputtering target of a tungsten source and feedback-controlling an oxygen partial pressure of a dual-sputtering film formation atmosphere.
[Table 11]
nmn-minn-maxnmk-mink-max
300 2.6 3.2 300 0.3 0.7
400 2.1 2.6 400 0.0 0.2
600 1.9 2.3 600 0.0 0.2
800 1.8 2.1 800 0.0 0.3
1000 1.7 2.1 1000 0.0 0.5
1200 1.7 2.1 1200 0.0 0.7
1400 1.7 2.2 1400 0.1 0.8
1600 1.7 2.3 1600 0.1 0.9
1800 1.7 2.4 1800 0.2 1.0
2000 1.8 2.6 2000 0.2 1.0
2200 1.9 2.7 2200 0.3 1.0
2400 1.9 2.8 2400 0.3 1.0

 
13. The method of producing an optical film according to claim 12, characterized in that the method comprises:
adjusting an electric power to be applied to a sputtering cathode or a duty ratio such that a ratio between cesium atoms and tungsten atoms (Cs:W) contained in the optical film becomes 1:2 to 1:4.
 
14. The method of producing an optical film according to claim 12, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using an impedance controller which feedback-controls an impedance change during film formation.
 
15. The method of producing an optical film according to claim 12, characterized in that
the feedback control of the oxygen partial pressure is performed using a plasma emission monitor which feedback-controls the oxygen partial pressure by measuring an emission intensity at a specific wavelength during film formation.
 




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Cited references

REFERENCES CITED IN THE DESCRIPTION



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Patent documents cited in the description